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Other common name(s): absinthium, absinth wormwood
Scientific/medical name(s): Artemisia absinthium
Wormwood is a shrubby perennial plant whose upper shoots, flowers, and leaves are used in herbal remedies and as a bitter flavoring for alcoholic drinks. It is native to Europe, northern Africa, and western Asia, and now also grows in North America.
Available scientific evidence does not support claims that wormwood is effective in treating cancer, the side effects of cancer treatment, or any other conditions. The plant contains a volatile oil with a high level of thujone (see Thuja). There are reports that taking large doses of wormwood internally can cause serious problems with the liver and kidneys. It can also cause nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, headache, dizziness, seizures, numbness of the legs and arms, delirium, and paralysis.
Wormwood, or Artemisia absinthium, should not be confused with sweet wormwood, or Artemisia annua. Although wormwood is related to sweet wormwood, they are used in different ways. Extracts of sweet wormwood have been used in traditional herbal medicine, and an active ingredient, artemisinin, is now used in conventional medical treatment of malaria.
How is it promoted for use?
Wormwood is promoted as a sedative and anti-inflammatory. There are also claims that it can treat loss of appetite, stomach disorders, and liver and gallbladder complaints. In folk medicine it is used for a wide range of stomach disorders, fever, and irregular menstruation. It is also used to fight intestinal worms. Externally, it is applied to poorly healing wounds, ulcers, skin blotches, and insect bites. It is used in Moxibustion treatments for cancer (seeMoxibustion). Available scientific evidence does not support these claims.
What does it involve?
Wormwood is taken in small doses for a short period of time, usually a maximum of 4 weeks. It is available as a capsule and as a liquid that can be added to water to make a tincture. The whole herb is sometimes brewed as a tea. Wormwood oil, washes, or poultices can also be used on the skin. Although pure wormwood is not available, “thujone-free” wormwood extract has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in foods and as a flavoring in alcoholic drinks such as vermouth.
What is the history behind it?
Artemisia absinthium was used by Hippocrates, and the earliest references to wormwood in Western civilization can be found in the Bible. Extract of wormwood was also used in ancient Egypt. The herb is mentioned often in first-century Greek and Roman writings and reportedly was placed in the sandals of Roman soldiers to help soothe their sore feet. It was taken as a treatment for tapeworms as far back as the Middle Ages.
In 1797, Henri Pernod developed absinthe, an alcoholic drink containing distilled spirits of wormwood, fennel, anise and sometimes other herbs. Absinthe became very popular in Europe and the United States in the nineteenth century. It was eventually banned in several countries in the early twentieth century due to its purported ill effects and addictive qualities. More recent analysis has suggested that, when properly prepared and distilled, the thujone content in these drinks was very low. It appears more likely that the addictiveness and other ill effects of absinthe were due to its alcohol content, which is around 60% to 85%. Varying additives or impurities from different distillers may have also produced some of these effects. Even though absinthe is illegal in some countries, various types can be found in some European countries. However, their thujone content is strictly limited. Wormwood is also an ingredient in vermouth and other drinks.
What is the evidence?
Available scientific studies do not support the use of wormwood for the treatment of cancer or the side effects of conventional cancer treatment. There is not enough evidence available to support its use for other conditions. Wormwood oil has been tested in laboratory studies and appears to inhibit the growth of some fungi. However, human tests have not been completed.
Some derivatives of Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood, a relative of wormwood, have been shown to be effective in the treatment of malaria. In fact, the World Health Organization approved artemisinin for use against malaria in Africa in 2004. These extracts also show some promise in laboratory studies as cancer treatment drugs. Further studies are required to find out whether the anti-cancer results apply to people. It is important to remember that extracted compounds are not the same as the whole herb, and study results are not likely to show the same effects.
Are there any possible problems or complications?
Wormwood should be avoided, especially by women who are pregnant or breast-feeding, by people who have had seizures, and by those with ulcers or stomach irritation. Thujone, a component of wormwood, is known to cause muscle spasms, seizures, and hallucinations if taken internally. In high doses it is known to damage the liver and the kidneys.
Because of its thujone content, large doses of wormwood taken internally can lead to vomiting, stomach and intestinal cramps, headaches, dizziness, nervous system problems, and seizures. Wormwood can also lead to liver failure. The New England Journal of Medicine reported that a man who ordered essential oil of wormwood over the Internet, thinking he had purchased absinthe, suffered liver failure shortly after drinking the oil. Wormwood may also make seizures more likely and may interfere with the anti-convulsant effects of medicines such as phenobarbital.
The plant is a relative of ragweed and daisies. Those with allergies to these types of plants may also be allergic to wormwood. Contact with wormwood can cause rash in some people.
Relying on this type of treatment alone and avoiding or delaying conventional medical care for cancer may have serious health consequences.
Liquorice or licorice (/ˈlɪk(ə)rɪʃ/ lik-(ə-)rish or /ˈlɪk(ə)rɪs/ lik-(ə-)ris) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra from which a somewhat sweet flavor can be extracted. The liquorice plant is a legume that is native to southern Europe and parts of Asia. It is not botanically related to anise, star anise, or fennel, which are sources of similar flavouring compounds. The word ‘liquorice’/’licorice’ is derived (via the Old French licoresse), from the Greek γλυκύρριζα (glukurrhiza), meaning “sweet root”, from γλυκύς (glukus), “sweet” + ῥίζα (rhiza), “root”, the name provided by Dioscorides.
It is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7–15 cm (3–6 in) long, with 9–17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8–1.2 cm (⅓–½ in) long, purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an oblong pod, 2–3 cm (1 in) long, containing several seeds.The roots are stoloniferous.
The scent of liquorice root comes from a complex and variable combination of compounds, of which anethole is the most minor component (0-3% of total volatiles). Much of the sweetness in liquorice comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, 30–50 times the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant and lasting longer.
A, phase I metabolites of ILG formed during incubation with rat liver microsomes and NADPH. Based on accurate mass measurements, HPLC retention times, MS/MS analyses, and comparison with data reported by Guo et al. (18), the structures of metabolites M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, and M7 were assigned as liquiritigenin, 7,8,4′-trihydroxychalcone, sulfuretin, 7,3′,4′-trihydroxychalcone, davidigenin, trans-6,4′-dihydroxyaurone, and cis-6,4′-dihydroxyaurone, respectively. B, structures of ILG glucuronide conjugates formed by rat liver microsomes in the presence of UDPGA.
Cultivation and uses
Liquorice grows best in deep valleys, well-drained soils, with full sun, and is harvested in the autumn, two to three years after planting. Countries producing liquorice include Iran, Afghanistan, the People’s Republic of China, Pakistan, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan and Turkey.
Most liquorice is used as a flavoring agent for tobacco. For example, M&F Worldwide reported in 2011 that approximately 63% of its liquorice product sales are to the worldwide tobacco industry for use as tobacco flavor enhancing and moistening agents in the manufacture of American blend cigarettes, moist snuff, chewing tobacco and pipe tobacco. American blend cigarettes made up a larger portion of worldwide tobacco consumption in earlier years, and the percentage of liquorice products used by the tobacco industry was higher in the past. M&F Worldwide sold approximately 73% of its liquorice products to the tobacco industry in 2005, and a consultant to M&F Worldwide’s predecessor company stated in 1975 that it was believed that well over 90% of the total production of liquorice extract and its derivatives found its way into tobacco products.
Liquorice provides tobacco products with a natural sweetness and a distinctive flavor that blends readily with the natural and imitation flavoring components employed in the tobacco industry, represses harshness, and is not detectable as liquorice by the consumer. Tobacco flavorings such as liquorice also make it easier to inhale the smoke by creating bronchodilators, which open up the lungs. Chewing tobacco requires substantially higher levels of liquorice extract as emphasis on the sweet flavor appears highly desirable.
Food and candy
Liquorice flavour is found in a wide variety of liquorice candies or sweets. In most of these candies the taste is reinforced by aniseed oil, and the actual content of liquorice is very low. Liquorice confections are primarily purchased by consumers in the European Union.
In the Netherlands, where liquorice candy (“drop”) is one of the most popular forms of sweet, only a few of the many forms that are sold contain aniseed, although mixing it with mint, menthol or with laurel is quite popular. Mixing it with ammonium chloride (‘salmiak’) is also popular. The most popular liquorice, known in the Netherlands as zoute drop (salty liquorice) actually contains very little salt, i.e. sodium; the salty taste is probably due to ammonium chloride, and the blood pressure raising effect is due to glycyrrhizin, see below. Strong, salty candies are popular in Scandinavia.
Pontefract in Yorkshire was the first place where liquorice mixed with sugar began to be used as a sweet in the same way it is in the modern day. Pontefract cakes were originally made there. In County Durham, Yorkshire and Lancashire it is colloquially known as Spanish, supposedly because Spanish monks grew liquorice root at Rievaulx Abbey near Thirsk.
Liquorice is popular in Italy (particularly in the South) and Spain in its natural form. The root of the plant is simply dug up, washed and chewed as a mouth freshener. Throughout Italy unsweetened liquorice is consumed in the form of small black pieces made only from 100% pure liquorice extract; the taste is bitter and intense. In Calabria a popular liqueur is made from pure liquorice extract. Liquorice is also very popular in Syria where it is sold as a drink. Dried liquorice root can be chewed as a sweet. Black liquorice contains approximately 100 calories per ounce (15 kJ/g).
The compound glycyrrhizin (or glycyrrhizic acid), found in liquorice, has been proposed as being useful for liver protection in tuberculosis therapy, however evidence does not support this use which may in fact be harmful. Glycyrrhizin has also demonstrated antiviral, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and blood-pressure increasing effects in vitro and in vivo, as is supported by the finding that intravenous glycyrrhizin (as if it is given orally very little of the original drug makes it into circulation) slows the progression of viral and autoimmune hepatitis. Liquorice has also demonstrated promising activity in one clinical trial, when applied topically, against atopic dermatitis. Additionally liquorice has also proven itself effective in treating hyperlipidaemia (a high amount of fats in the blood). Liquorice has also demonstrated efficacy in treating inflammation-induced skin hyperpigmentation. Liquorice may also be useful in preventing neurodegenerative disorders and cavities. Anti-ulcer, laxative, anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antitumour and expectorant properties of liquorice have also been noted.
In traditional Chinese medicine, liquorice (मुलेठी, 甘草, شیرین بیان) is commonly used in herbal formulae to “harmonize” the other ingredients in the formula and to carry the formula to the twelve “regular meridians”.
Its major dose-limiting toxicities are corticosteroid, in nature, due to the inhibitory effect its chief active constituents, glycyrrhizin and enoxolone have oncortisol degradation and include: oedema, hypokalaemia, weight gain or loss and hypertension.
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CHINESE HERBS……Atractylodes ( Bai Zhu ) can adjust gastrointestinal motility, fight ulcer, protect liver, improve immune system
Bai Zhu (Atractylodes Macrocephala)
Awarded the title as The First Herb of Invigorating Qi and Strengthening Spleen, no doubt Bai Zhu (Atractylodes Macrocephala) lives up to that reputation thanks for its consistent performance. As one of eight well-known medicinal specialties in Zhejiang province, this Chinese herb is produced mainly in Shao Xing.
Given its special effect in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), it is treated as an equal to Ren Shen (Ginseng). Thus an old saying goes: “Ren Shen in the north and Bai Zhu in the south.” Through the famous classic formula of Si Jun Zi Tang, Four Gentleman Decoction, a quick glance will be given to their significance. Just a quick footnote here, it is the fundamental formula for deficiency of spleen and stomach Qi, which is the inspiration source of numerous subsequent formulas aiming to tonify spleen and benefit vital energy.
What is Bai Zhu?
Also known as White Atractylodes Rhizome or Atractylodes Macrocephala Rhizome, it refers to the root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz., which is a perennial herb, 30 to 60 in height. Rhizome is fleshy and clenched like a fist. Stem is erect and branching in upper part. Leaves grow alternatively, 3-parted or undivided in upper stem, elliptic lobes, and margined with spinescents. This perennial flowering plant is with terminal capitulum, bell-shaped involucre, purple-red corolla, and slightly flattened ellipsoid achene. Flowering period is July to September and fruit-bearing stage is August to October.
The medicinal part is the root, which is collected in winter, dirt removed, dried over a fire or in the sun, and fibril removed. It clenches like a fist, 3 to 13cm long, and 1.5 to 7cm in diameter. The surface is grayish yellow or grayish brown in color, with tubercule and intermittent lengthwise wrinkles and fibril scars, and remnant stem base and bud scars on top. The texture is hard and difficult to break. Traverse cross section is uneven, yellowish white to light brown, and scattered with brownish yellow oil spots. It has a delicate fragrance and sweet but pungent taste. But it is sticky when chewing.
What is it used for?
Now modern researches show that it can adjust gastrointestinal motility, fight ulcer, protect liver, improve immune system, relieve stress, enhance hematopoietic function, induce diuresis, fight oxidation, slow down aging, regulate blood sugar level, and fight cancer. Compared with the traditional applications, above-mentioned findings is perfectly in line with them, which to some extent gives more scientific proof to this amazing herb.
Property and indications
From the TCM’s perspective, it is bitter, sweet, and warm in nature and goes to meridians of spleen and stomach. Main functions are to invigorate Qi and strengthen the spleen, eliminate dampness and promote diuresis, stop sweat, and prevent miscarriage. Main clinical usage and indications are lack of appetite due to spleen deficiency, abdominal distension and diarrhea, dizziness and palpitation caused by phlegm and retained fluid, edema, spontaneous sweating, and fetal irritability. Regular dosage is 6 to 12 grams.
Atractylodes ( Bai Zhu )
Atractylodes ( Bai Zhu ) 白朮 Chinese Herbs Articles, also known as dong zhu 冬朮、xia zhu 夏朮，yun zhu 云朮，tai bai zhu 台白朮，wa zhu 蛙朮，ji yabn zhu 雞眼朮. It belong to the “” family.
Atractylodes ( Bai Zhu ) 白朮 has a aromatic, slightly acrid, non toxic and sweet and it is a little sticky when chewed. It is use for treating the spleen and stomach.
Atractylodes ( Bai Zhu ) 白朮 Medical Function:
1. Digestive System
• Protects Liver: Extraction of bai zhu (by boiling with water) was given to lab mice that had liver damage caused by carbon chloride. It lessened the necrosis and mutation of liver cells, and improved the new growth of the liver cells. It lowered the glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) that was increased.
• Improves gall secretion
• Prevents ulcer of stomach
• Improves movements of intestines and bowels
3. Improves immune system
4. Anti Cancer
Laboratory tests showed that neutral oil of the vaporizing oil bai zhu could inhibit esophagus cancer cells. 10mg/ml/hour could detach all the cancer cells. 5mg/ml/hour could detach most of the cancer cells and damaged the remaining cells. The nucleus became hazy and the cells became empty bubbles. 5. Affects heart and blood vessels
6. Lowers blood sugar
7. Anti coagulation of blood
8. Anti bacteria
Atractylodes ( Bai Zhu ) 白朮 Use Cautions:
Atractylodes ( Bai Zhu ) 白朮 should be use cautiously in cases of giddiness[ yinxu ] (yin deficient).
The investigation of the aromatic oils is a key to understanding the atractylodes herbal materials, particularly cangzhu. Atractylodes lancea is rich in a volatile oil, making up 3.5-7% of the dried rhizome, with atractylodin, β-eudesmol, hinesol, elemol, atractylone, and β-selinene; A. chinensis and other substitute species have less essential oil. The main constituents in the essential oils from the rhizome of A. chinensis are β-eudesmol and atractylone; A. lancea also has hinesol as a major constituent. β-eudesmol is a major component of the essential oil of magnolia bark, an herb in the same Materia Medica category as cangzhu. The fraction comprising the combination of hinesol and eudesmol in A. lancea is called atractylol, and this is the reddish substance appearing on the surface of the sliced rhizome, giving the name red atractylodes.
Atractylodes macrocephala (baizhu) has less essential oil than the cangzhu varieties, with only 0.35-1.35% and with atractylone as the main component, along with smaller amounts of other lactones having similar structure. The differences in chemical composition help confirm that the two herbs (cangzhu and baizhu) may have differing properties, further justifying their separation in the Materia Medica.
Since white atractylodes has little essential oil, and even less of it after being fried (the heat drives off or destroys volatile components), other active ingredients may be present to explain its functions. A component called atractylenolide (a group of sesquiterpene lactones; three noted thus far) is found in baizhu; this component increases with frying of the herb (highest in lightly fried herb, which has turned yellowish, not brown). In terms of the atractylodes effects, it is thought that these components may serve as antispasmodic agents, thus reducing intestinal contractions associated with diarrhea. Diuretic action, measured in laboratory animal experiments, has been attributed to both volatile and non-volatile compounds of atractylodes, including ß-eudesmol, sesquiterpene lactones, and polyacetylenes
Atractylodes refers mainly to Atractylodes macrocephala (macro = big; cephala = head; so, big-headed atractylodes) known in Chinese as baizhu. Less frequently used is Atractylodes lancea (lancea = lance-like, so lance-leaved atractylodes) or its less-desirable (somewhat weaker) substitutes, such as A. chinensis, A. japonicum, and A. ovata, known in Chinese as cangzhu (see plant photos below). The basic term zhu was the only one used when atractylodes was first recorded in the ancient Shennong Bencao Jing (ca. 100 A.D.); the division between these two related herb materials first occurred in the Mingyi Bielu (ca. 500 A.D.). At that time, the tuber-like rhizomes of these plants were specified as either baizhu (bai = white) and chizhu (chi = red), referring to the color observed in the sliced rhizomes, the red being due to spots of accumulated oils. Later,chizhu was renamed cangzhu (cang = gray or black), which refers to the appearance of the outer skin of the rhizome, a dark gray-black color.
Rhizomes with rootlets and stems, freshly pulled Atractylodes lancea.
Dried, whole rhizomes of Atractylodes macrocephala with rootlets and stems removed.
Related Chinese herbal formulas
This herb is widely used in TCM practice. Only in Shang Han Lun (Treatise on Febrile Diseases) and Jin Gui Yao Lue (Synopsis of Golden Chamber), it has been enlisted in 35 formulas. The list can be much longer if taking all later formulas into consideration. However, just a few of them are shared here just for your reference.
(1). Li Zhong Tang or Wan, from Shang Han Lun, has four ingredient herbs. The other three are Ren Shen (Ginseng), Gan Cao (Licorice), and Gan Jiang (Dried Ginger). It is mainly used for epigastric distention and pain and difficulty in urination.
(2). Si Jun Zi Tang, from Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang (Formulas of the Bureau of People’s Welfare Pharmacy), exchanges Fu Ling (Poria) for Gan Jiang on the basis of Li Zhong Tang or Wan. Its indications are pale complexion, loss of appetite, shortness of breath, fatigue, light-colored tongue with white coating, and weak pulse. This formula is derived from the famous Li Zhong Wan. It is well known that Gan Jiang rescues devastated yang for its warm nature while Fu Ling is much mild. Thus the whole formula has changed its nature and they turn into four gentleman.
(3). Shen Ling Bai Zhu San, from Tai Ping Hui Min He Ji Ju Fang (Formulas of the Bureau of People’s Welfare Pharmacy), is the formula that add Shan Yao (Chinese Yam), Lian Zi (Lotus Seed), Bai Bian Dou (Hyacinth Bean), Yi Yi Ren (Seeds of Job’s Tears), Sha Ren (Cardamon), and Jie Geng (Balloon Flower Rhizome) on the basis of Si Jun Zi Tang. It is typically used for excessive damp due to spleen deficiency. According to interpromotion of Five Elements, it is a typical application of reinforcing earth to generate metal. By the way, its other forms like Pian (tablet) and Wan (teapills) are popular over-the-counter drugs in China up to this day.
(4). Ban Xia Bai Zhu Tian Ma Tang, from Yi Xue Xin Wu (Medical Revelations), is mainly used for abnormal ascending of phlegm and retained fluid, palpitation caused by excessive phlegm, dizziness and headache. Besides the mentioned three herbs, others are Chen Pi (Tangerine Peel), Fu Ling (Poria), Gan Cao, Sheng Jiang (Fresh Ginger Rhizome), Da Zao (Chinese Date, Jujube), and Man Jing Zi (Vitex Fruit Seed).
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- Hsu HY and Peacher WG (editors), Shang Han Lun: The Great Classic of Chinese Medicine, 1981 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
- Hsu HY and Wang SY (translators), Chin Kuei You Lueh, 1983 Oriental Healing Arts Institute, Long Beach, CA.
- Mitchell C, et al. (translators), Ten Lectures on the Use of Medicinals from their Personal Experience of Jiao Shude, 2003 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, Mass.
- State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Advanced Textbook on Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, (vol. 2) 1995-6 New World Press, Beijing.
- Sionneau P, Pao Zhi: An Introduction to the Use of Processed Chinese Medicinals, 1995 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
- Yang Yifang, Chinese Herbal Medicines Comparisons and Characteristics, 2002 Churchill Livingstone, London.
- Ding HY, Wu, YC, and Liu HC, Phytochemical and pharmacological studies on Chinese cangzhu, Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society 2000; 47: 561-566.
- Huang Bingshan and Wang Yuxia, Thousand Formulas and Thousand Herbs of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 2, 1993 Heilongjiang Education Press, Harbin.
- Sionneau P, Dui Yao: The Art of Combining Chinese Medicinals, 1997 Blue Poppy Press, Boulder, CO.
- He Shanan and Sheng Ning, Utilization and conservation of medicinal plants in China with special reference to Atractylodes lancea, 1995 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
CHINESE HERBS…….ASTRAGALUS HUANG QI, an immune system booster, known to stimulate body´s natural production of interferon
ASTRAGALUS HUANG QI
A Chinese herb; an immune system booster, known to stimulate body´s natural production of interferon. It also helps the immune system identify rogue cells. Work with the herb in both cancer and AIDS cases has been encouraging. The MD Anderson Cancer Centre in Texas conducted research showing that taking Astragalus when having Radiotherapy doubled survival times.
Astragalus is a large genus of about 3,000 species of herbs and small shrubs, belonging to the legume family Fabaceae and the subfamily Faboideae. The genus is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Common names include milkvetch (most species), locoweed (in North America, some species) and goat’s-thorn (A. gummifer, A. tragacanthus). Some pale-flowered vetches are similar in appearance, but vetches are more vine-like.
Astragalus species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including many case-bearing moths of the genus Coleophora: C. cartilaginella, C. colutella, C. euryaula, and C. onobrychiella feed exclusively on Astragalus, C. astragalella and C. gallipennella feed exclusively on the species Astragalus glycyphyllos, and C. hippodromica is limited to Astragalus gombo.
The natural gum tragacanth is made from several species of Astragalus occurring in the Middle East, including A. adscendens, A. gummifer, A. brachycalyx, and A. tragacanthus. Also Astragalus propinquus (syn. A. membranaceus) has a history of use as a herbal medicine used in systems of traditional Chinese medicine. and Persian medicine 
popular qi tonic (especially the wei qi), these large roots of Astragalus are sweet and slightly warm in energy. Our roots are cut from long robust plants with a nice yellow colored pith, that possess a nice sweetness when chewed.
Biotechnology firms are working on deriving a telomerase activator from Astragalus. The chemical constituent cycloastragenol (also called TAT2) is being studied to help combat HIV, as well as infections associated with chronic diseases or aging. However, the National Institutes of Health states: “The evidence for using astragalus for any health condition is limited. High-quality clinical trials (studies in people) are generally lacking. There is some preliminary evidence to suggest that astragalus, either alone or in combination with other herbs, may have potential benefits for the immune system, heart, and liver, and as an adjunctive therapy for cancer”.
Research at the UCLA AIDS Institute focused on the function of cycloastragenol in the aging process of immune cells, and its effects on the cells’ response to viral infections. It appears to increase the production of telomerase, an enzyme that mediates the replacement of short bits of DNA known as telomeres, which play a key role in cell replication, including in cancer processes.
Extracts of Astragalus propinquus ( syn. A. membranaceus) are marketed as life-prolonging extracts for human use. A proprietary extract of the dried root of A. membranaceus, called TA-65, “was associated with a significant age-reversal effect in the immune system, in that it led to declines in the percentage of senescent cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells after six to twelve months of use”. There are mixed data regarding Astragalus, its effects on telomerase, and cancer. For example while 80% of cancer cells utilize telomerase for their proliferation – a factor which might theoretically be exacerbated by Astragalus – the shortening of telomeres (resulting from such factors as stress and aging and possible contributors to malignancy), might also be mitigated by Astragalus. Thus, short telomeres result in chromosome instability, and the potential for telomere lengthening as a protection against cancer is possible. Additionally, scientists recently reported in Molecular and Cellular Biology that cancer cells may proliferate precisely because of the lack of differentiation occurring via damaged or shortened telomere length. They propose that “forced” elongation of telomeres promotes the differentiation of cancer cells, probably reducing malignancy, which is strongly associated with a loss of cell differentiation.
Side effects and toxicology
Astragalus may interact with medications that suppress the immune system, such as cyclophosphamide. It may also affect blood sugar levels andblood pressure. Some Astragalus species can be toxic. For example, several species native to North America contain the neurotoxin swainsonine.The toxicity of Astragalus taxa varies.
Several species, including A. alpinus (bluish-purple flowers), A. hypoglottis (purple flowers), and A. lotoides, are grown as ornamental plants in gardens.
Astragalus ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆 Chinese Herbs Articles
Astragalus ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆 Chinese Herbs Articles also written as 黃芪 also known as: Astragali, Beg Kei, Bei Qi, Buck Qi, Huang Qi, Hwanggi, Membranous Milk Vetch, Milk Vetch, Mongolian Milk, Ogi. Astragalus membranaceus; Astragalus mongholicus. It belong to the Leguminosae or Fabaceae family.
Astragalas ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆 has a sweet taste and a warm properties and it is use for treating the spleen and lung.
Astragalus ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆 Usage:
- tonify spleen & lung Qi – raises Spleen & Stomach Qi (prolapse)
- tonify Wei Qi – stabilize exterior
- tonify Qi and blood due to loss of blood – postpartum fever
- promotes urination – Edema – discharge of pus – generates flesh
Astragalus ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆 Other Use:
1. Orally, Astragalus ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆 is used for treating the common cold and upper respiratory infections; to strengthen and regulate the immune system; and to increase the production of blood cells particularly in individuals with chronic degenerative disease or in individuals with cancer undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy. It is also used orally for chronic nephritis and diabetes. Astragalus is also used orally as an antibacterial and antiviral; a tonic; liver protectant; anti-inflammatory; antioxidant; and as a diuretic, vasodilator, or hypotensive agent.
2. Topically, Astragalus ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆 is used as a vasodilator and to speed healing.
3. In combination with Ligustrum lucidum (glossy privet), astragalus is used orally for treating breast, cervical, and lung cancers.
Astragalus ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆 Use Cautions:
There are many varieties of astragalus ( Huang Qi ) 黃耆. Some are toxic. The varieties used in Chinese herbal medicine is relatively safe but in rare cases it might cause rash.
Huang Qi (Astragalus membranaceus) Root
Our freshly harvested root are completely chemical free and extremely high quality to preserve all of its benefits.
Traditional & Modern Use:
Huang Qi root is harvested white but becomes a pale yellow. The roots are a staple in Chinese medicine praised for its energizing effects. The root pieces can be simmered for long periods of time and served as a tea or soup but the root pieces are too tough to chew so they are not consumed unless powdered. The roots are a very powerful herb for aiding the kidneys as well as a preventative medicine for senility. Chinese holistic healers also believe strongly that the regular use of Astralagus rejuvinates debilitated patients and fights off serious disease. News studies in the West have now begun to show some amazing results in the treatment of cancer and that the root can restore normal immune function in cancer patients. Impressively, patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy recover much quicker and can live longer when using the root simultaneously to their treatments.
- Frodin, D. G. (2004). “History and concepts of big plant genera”. Taxon 53 (3): 753–776. doi:10.2307/4135449.
- “Astragalus (Locoweed) flowers”. Rootcellar.us. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- “Astragalus brachycalyx Fisch.”. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 24 December 2010.
- “Astragalus | University of Maryland Medical Center”. Umm.edu. 2013-05-07. Retrieved 2013-07-05.
- Zargary, A. Medicinal plants. 5th Edition.Tehran: Tehran University Publications 1990; pp. 312-314
- “Herbal chemical helps combat HIV”. United Press International. January 1, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2011.
- Astragalus, NCCAM
- Fauce, S. R., et al. (2008). “Telomerase-Based Pharmacologic Enhancement of Antiviral Function of Human CD8+ T Lymphocytes”. Journal of Immunology 181 (10): 7400–7406. PMC 2682219. PMID 18981163. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- Harley, C. B., et al. (2011). “A natural product telomerase activator as part of a health maintenance program”.Rejuvenation Research 14 (1): 45–56.doi:10.1089/rej.2010.1085. PMC 3045570.PMID 20822369.
- Hiyama, K., et al. (2009). “Role of telomeres and telomerase in cancer”. In K. Hiyama. Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer. Cancer Drug Discovery and Development II. Humana Press. pp. 171–180.doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-879-9_7. ISBN 978-1-60327-879-9.
- Rios, J. L.; P. G. Waterman (1998). “A review of the pharmacology and toxicology of Astragalus“. Phytotherapy Research 11 (6): 411–418. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199709)11:6<411::AID-PTR132>3.0.CO;2-6.
- Large list of species
- Very large list of species (with synonyms).
- Astragalus at a Glance This fact sheet from the U.S. National Institutes of Health provides basic information about Astragalus – common names, uses, potential side effects, and resources for more information.
- Astragalus alpinus This Rare Species Guide profile from the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources provides information about the basis for the species’ listing, habitat, biology and life history, conservation and management, and conservation efforts.
- Chinese Milkvetch, Astragalus membranaceus, Kansas State University
- Astragalus Root
Traditional Chinese medicine
It is one of the 50 fundamental herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine, where it has the name huáng qín (Chinese: 黄芩). As a Chinese traditional medicine, Huang Qin usually refers to the dried root of Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, S. viscidula Bge., S. amoena C.H. Wright, and S. ikoninkovii Ju.
It is important to note the Latin name of the Skullcap being used as there are over 200 varieties, some used for various ailments, each with varying degrees of effectiveness. Sometimes Scutellaria lateriflora (North American Skullcap) is mistaken for Scutellaria baicalensis (Baikal Skullcap). This confusion can result in the intake of the lateriflora variety which is often processed and contaminated with other plants with high enough levels of toxicity to be of concern.
Baikal skullcap (scientific name Scutellaria baicalensis) is a plant. The root is used to make medicine. Common substitutions for Baikal skullcap in Chinese medicine include related plants whose scientific names are Scutellaria viscidula, Scutellaria amonea, and Scutellaria ikoninikovii.
Some people use Baikal skullcap for HIV/AIDS, kidney infections, pelvic inflammation, and sores or swelling. It is also used for scarlet fever, headache, irritability, red eyes, flushed face, seizures, epilepsy, hysteria, nervous tension, and to relieve a bitter taste in the mouth.
The active ingredient in Baikal skullcap, baicalin, is used in combination with shung hua (ephedra) to treat upper respiratory tract infections. In combination with other herbs, Baikal skullcap is used to treat attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),prostate cancer, a lung condition called bronchiolitis, arthritis, and hemorrhoids.
How does it work?
It is thought that the active chemicals in Baikal skullcap might be able to decrease inflammation, stop tumor growth, and prevent tumor cell reproduction.
Scutellaria baicalensis , also called Chinese skullcap, is a member of the mint family and has long been used in traditional Chinese herbal medicine . Chinese skullcap has been incorporated in herbal formulas designed to treat such widely varying conditions as cancer, liver disease, allergies, skin conditions, and epilepsy. The root is the part used medicinally.
Note: Chinese skullcap is substantially different from American skullcap ( Scutellaria lateriflora ).
Skullcap (Scutellaria baicalensis) has been widely used as a dietary ingredient and traditional herbal medicine owing to its anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-allergic effects of skullcap and its active compounds, focusing on T cell-mediated responses ex vivoand in vivo. Splenocytes from mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) were isolated for analyses of cytokine production and cell viability. Mice sensitized with OVA were orally administered skullcap or wogonin for 16 days, and then immunoglobulin (Ig) and cytokine levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Treatment with skullcap significantly inhibited interleukin (IL)-4 production without reduction of cell viability. Moreover, wogonin, but not baicalin and baicalein, suppressed IL-4 and interferon-gamma production. In vivo, skullcap and wogonin downregulated OVA-induced Th2 immune responses, especially IgE and IL-5 prediction. Wogonin as an active component of skullcap may be applied as a therapeutic agent for IgE- and IL-5-mediated allergic disorders…….http://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/19/2/2536
- “Scutellaria baicalensis information from NPGS/GRIN”. USDA. Retrieved 2008-02-19.
- Zhang XW, Li WF, Li WW, Ren KH, Fan CM, Chen YY, Shen YL (2011). “Protective effects of the aqueous extract of Scutellaria baicalensis against acrolein-induced oxidative stress in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells”. Pharm Biol 49 (3): 256–261. doi:10.3109/13880209.2010.501803. PMID 20979538.
- Isolation and purification of baicalein, wogonin and oroxylin A from the medicinal plant Scutellaria baicalensis by high-speed counter-current chromatography. Hua-Bin Li and Feng Chen, Journal of Chromatography A, 13 May 2005, Volume 1074, Issues 1–2, pages 107–110, doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2005.03.088
- Scutellaria baicalensis List of Chemicals (Dr. Duke’s Databases)
- Scutellaria baicalensis (Plants for a Future)
- Sung Mun Jung et al., “Reduction of urate crystal-induced inflammation by root extracts from traditional oriental medicinal plants: elevation of prostaglandin D2 levels”, Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007, 9:R64 doi:10.1186/ar2222. Considers anti-inflammatory properties of dried roots from the species Angelica sinensis (Dong Quai), Acanthopanax senticosus (now known as Eleutherococcus senticosus, or Siberian Ginseng), andScutellaria baicalensis (Baikal Skullcap).
Asparagusic acid is the organosulfur with the formula S2(CH2)2CHCO2H. The molecule contains both carboxylic acid and disulfide functional groups. It is present in the vegetable asparagus and may be the metabolic precursor to other odorous thiol compounds.
Biosynthetic studies revealed that asparagusic acid is derived from isobutyric acid. This colorless solid has a melting point (m.p.) of 75.7–76.5 °C. The corresponding dithiol (m.p. 59.5–60.5 °C) is also known; it is called dihydroasparagusic acid or dimercaptoisobutyric acid.
Over the past forty years several papers have been published on the subject, and several studies undertaken, to try and determine the chemical compounds responsible, and though there is still no definitive verdict as to the manner in which these compounds are formed, it has been suggested that they all form from asparagusic acid.
Asparagusic acid is, unsurprisingly considering the name, a chemical found exclusively in asparagus, and absent in other related vegetables.
The asparagus-pee molecules that you smell come mostly from the breakdown of a molecule known as asparagusic acid, which is present naturally in asparagus. When your body breaks down asparagusic acid it forms a wide variety of chemicals, all of which contain sulfur!
This has made it an obvious candidate for being the origin of the peculiar effect that asparagus has on urine. It has been suggested by recent studies that it could be metabolised in the body to produce the volatile compounds found in the urine after consuming the vegetable.
Steamed asparagus prepared with roasted pine nuts
Many chemicals that contain sulfur atoms smell horrible in similar ways, and I have no idea why this is. This is one chemical/biological mystery that, much to my chagrin, remains unsolved in my head (internet people, if the reason is known, please help!).
Aside from sulfur, the thing that all these smelly asparagus-pee chemicals have in common is that they are “light” enough (a.k.a. they are “volatile”, which means they have a relatively low boiling point) that they can float up into the air and into your nose. That is partly why asparagus doesn’t smell like asparagus-pee, because asparagusic acid is not volatile (remember that word). In fact, asparagusic acid boils above 300 °C (>600 °F), so there is no way any of it gets into your nose!
Asparagus has been used as a vegetable and medicine, owing to its delicate flavour, diuretic properties, and more. It is pictured as an offering on an Egyptian frieze dating to 3000 BC. Still in ancient times, it was known in Syria and in Spain. Greeks and Romans ate it fresh when in season and dried the vegetable for use in winter; Romans would even freeze it high in the Alps, for the Feast of Epicurus. Emperor Augustus tossed off the “Asparagus Fleet” for hauling the vegetable, and coined the expression “faster than cooking asparagus” for quick action. A recipefor cooking asparagus is in the oldest surviving book of recipes, Apicius’s third-century AD De re coquinaria, Book III.
The ancient Greek physician Galen (prominent among the Romans) mentioned asparagus as a beneficial herb during the second century AD, but after the Roman empire ended, asparagus drew little medieval attention. until al-Nafzawi‘s The Perfumed Garden. That piece of writing celebrates its (scientifically unconfirmed) aphrodisiacal power, a supposed virtue that the IndianAnanga Ranga attributes to “special phosphorus elements” that also counteract fatigue. By 1469, asparagus was cultivated in French monasteries. Asparagus appears to have been hardly noticed in England until 1538, and in Germany until 1542.
The finest texture and the strongest and yet most delicate taste is in the tips. The points d’amour (“love tips”) were served as a delicacy to Madame de Pompadour. Asparagus became available to the New World around 1850, in the United States.
Some of the volatile organic compounds responsible for the smell are:
- dimethyl sulfide
- dimethyl disulfide
- dimethyl sulfoxide
- dimethyl sulfone
Subjectively, the first two are the most pungent, while the last two (sulfur-oxidized) give a sweet aroma. A mixture of these compounds form a “reconstituted asparagus urine” odor. This was first investigated in 1891 by Marceli Nencki, who attributed the smell to methanethiol. These compounds originate in the asparagus as asparagusic acid and its derivatives, as these are the only sulfur-containing compounds unique to asparagus. As these are more present in young asparagus, this accords with the observation that the smell is more pronounced after eating young asparagus. The biological mechanism for the production of these compounds is less clear.
Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse the ‘headspace’ of urine produced after consumption of asparagus. The headspace is the gas space immediately above the liquid surface, which is occupied by light, volatile compounds in the liquid, and analysis of this is useful in identifying odour-causing compounds. The analysis of the post-asparagus urine showed the presence of several compounds that were not present, or present in negligible amounts, in normal urine. The primary compounds present, in quantities a thousand times greater than in normal urine, were methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The compounds dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl sulfone were also present and it was suggested that they modify the aroma to give it a ‘sweet’ edge.
|Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)|
|Energy||85 kJ (20 kcal)|
|– Sugars||1.88 g|
|– Dietary fibre||2.1 g|
|Vitamin A equiv.||38 μg (5%)|
|– beta-carotene||449 μg (4%)|
|– lutein and zeaxanthin||710 μg|
|Thiamine (vit. B1)||0.143 mg (12%)|
|Riboflavin (vit. B2)||0.141 mg (12%)|
|Niacin (vit. B3)||0.978 mg (7%)|
|Pantothenic acid (B5)||0.274 mg (5%)|
|Vitamin B6||0.091 mg (7%)|
|Folate (vit. B9)||52 μg (13%)|
|Choline||16 mg (3%)|
|Vitamin C||5.6 mg (7%)|
|Vitamin E||1.1 mg (7%)|
|Vitamin K||41.6 μg (40%)|
|Calcium||24 mg (2%)|
|Iron||2.14 mg (16%)|
|Magnesium||14 mg (4%)|
|Manganese||0.158 mg (8%)|
|Phosphorus||52 mg (7%)|
|Potassium||202 mg (4%)|
|Sodium||2 mg (0%)|
|Zinc||0.54 mg (6%)|
Xuezhikang, the extract of red yeast rice, has been widely used as a Chinese traditional medicine for the therapy of patients with cardiovascular diseases. It contains natural Lovastatin and its homologues, as well as unsaturated fatty acids, flavonoids, plant sterols and other biologically active substances
The product is a world-recognized blood lipid regulator, which is made by extracting from “specially-made red yeast rice”. It combines modern high-tech biotechnology with traditional Chinese medicine, which can safely and effectively regulate blood lipids in a comprehensive way with proven curative effects and reliable safety.
Pharmacological Effects: the product can reduce blood cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, improve high density lipoprotein cholesterol, inhibit atherosclerotic plaque formation, and protect vascular endothelial cells; and inhibit lipid deposition in the liver. The large-scale evidence-based research has proven that long-term use of XUEZHIKANG can greatly reduce the risk of CHD occurrence and decrease the mortality. XUEZHIKANG is the only Chinese medicine with blood lipids regulating function which is listed into the National Basic Medicine List.
Beijing Peking University WBL Biotech (WPU) has developed and launched Xuezhikang, a capsule formulation of Monascus purpureus-fermented rice, for the oral treatment of hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular disease
CLINICAL TRIAL, NCT01327014 PHASE 2
The data had shown that Xuezhikang significantly reduced the level of low density lipoprotein cholesterin (LDL-C) in patients in a similar manner to statins and increased the level of the beneficial high density lipoprotein cholesterin (HDL-C). It had a good safety profile with no significant liver enzyme abnormal events observed. Besides regulation of dyslipidemia, the drug also signifcantly reduced cardiovascular events and general mortality rate of patients
NCT01686451 PHASE 4
Both XueZhiKang and Statins are cholesterol-lowering medications that are often prescribed for individuals with high cholesterol and who are at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several studies, including one randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, have suggested that the use of statins is more frequently associated with fatigue. And XueZhiKang may be not. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of these two medications on fatigue in persons who are at moderate to low CVD risk based on the risk estimation system in ESC(European Society of Cardiology)/ESA(European Atherosclerosis Society) guidelines (2011) for the management of dyslipidemias.
Those of you with high cholesterol will be happy to learn that there are some legitimate options to your statin pills. Many people cannot tolerate the extremely popular statin pills, especially from side effects of muscle aches. But there’s now some very strong evidence that herbal medicines, including red yeast rice, can be at least as effective as a statin, and without the side effects. Too good to be true? Maybe not…
Red yeast rice is a bright reddish purple fermented rice, which acquires its colour from being cultivated with the mold Monascus purpureus. Red yeast rice is known as Zhi Tai when in powdered form but is called Xue Zhi Kang in alcohol extract form. This has been used in China for many centuries for many reasons, but researchers have been very interested in its effectiveness in lowering cholesterol and preventing heart disease (similar benefits from statins). It seems that the main active ingredient is indeed the natural form of a common statin, lovastatin — but researchers feel that other ingredients inside may add more protective effects. There is an official patented Chinese TCM formulation, called Xue Zhi Kang (xue2 zhi1 kang2 jiao nang 血脂康 胶囊), which has the equivalent of 10mg of lovastatin. The ScienceDaily website has a nice 2008 review of a well-designed study, printed in American Journal of Cardiology, which followed 5,000 persons after their first heart attack, and divided them into two groups taking either xuezhikang or placebo. After 5 years:
Frequencies of the primary end point were 10.4% in the placebo group and 5.7% in the XZK-treated group, with absolute and relative decreases of 4.7% and 45%, respectively. Treatment with XZK also significantly decreased CV and total mortality by 30% and 33%, the need for coronary revascularization by 1/3, and lowered total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, but raised high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. In conclusion, long-term therapy with XZK significantly decreased the recurrence of coronary events and the occurrence of new CV events and deaths, improved lipoprotein regulation, and was safe and well tolerated.
This is impressive data, and the study design is very well done, which means the evidence is quite strong. One co-author, Dr Capuzzi, has a nice summary:
“It’s very exciting because this is a natural product and had very few adverse side effects including no abnormal blood changes,” said Capuzzi. “People in the Far East have been taking Chinese red yeast rice as food for thousands of years, but no one has ever studied it clinically in a double-blind manner with a purified product against a placebo group until now and we are pleased with the results. However, people in the United States should know that the commercially available over-the-counter supplement found in your average health food store is not what was studied here. Those over-the-counter supplements are not regulated, so exact amounts of active ingredient are unknown and their efficacy has not been studied yet.”
In another randomized trial study, printed last year in the Annals of Internal Medicine, patients who had previously failed treatment of statins due to side effects were given 1800mg of red yeast rice twice a day versus placebo. The red yeast rice group had a significant improvement in cholesterol numbers — with no major reports of severe muscle aches they previously had on the statins.
There are other studies that also show similar benefits. In fact, the evidence is so strong that it is classified as Grade A evidence: “Strong scientific evidence for use”. This is the highest grade that any therapy can get. There are a number of good reviews of red yeast rice in Western literature, including from Medscape; the Mayo Clinic; WebMD; MedlinePlus; and NCCAM. There’s also more informal information from the TCM blog Qi Spot. You can find more scholarly information in the 2008 review from Chinese Medical Journal.
(U.S. patent #6,046,022), ethanol extract of red yeast rice, with a total monacolins content of approx. 0.8%.
1 Heber D et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of a proprietary Chinese red-yeast-rice dietary supplement. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 1999;69(2): 231-236
2) SoRelle R. Appeals court says Food and Drug Administration can regulate cholestin. Circulation 200;102 (7): E9012?E9013.
3) Li, C et al. Monascus purpureus-fermented rice (red yeast rice): a natural food product that lowers blood cholesterol in animal models of hypercholesterolemia. Nutrition Research 1998;18 (1): 71-81
4) Becker DJ et al. Red yeast rice for dyslipidemia in statin-intolerant patients: a randomized trial.Ann Intern Med. 2009 Jun 16;150(12):830-9, W147-9
5) Lu Z et al.Effect of Xuezhikang, an extract from red yeast Chinese rice, on coronary events in a Chinese population with previous myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol. 2008 Jun 15;101(12):1689-93.
Hypochol is the same product. Xuezhikang is the brand name marketed in China. Hypochol, is manufactured by a Singapore comapany who have a joint venture agreement with Peking University who perfected the processing and quality control of the Red Yeast Rice Extract Product. You can order directly from: http://www.hypocol.com/wbm.html
or thru their New Zealand distributor (very good service) at: http://www.hypocol.co.nz/
Red yeast rice (simplified Chinese: 红曲米; traditional Chinese: 紅麴米); pinyin: hóng qū mǐ; literally “red yeast rice”), red rice koji (べにこうじ, lit. ‘red koji‘) or akakoji (あかこぎ, also meaning ‘red koji‘), red fermented rice, red kojic rice, red koji rice, anka, or ang-kak, is a bright reddish purple fermented rice, which acquires its colour from being cultivated with the mold Monascus purpureus.
Red yeast rice is what is referred to, in Japanese, as a koji, meaning ‘grain or bean overgrown with a mold culture’, a food preparation tradition going back to ca. 300 BC. In both the scientific and popular literature in English that draws principally on Japanese, it is most often known as “red rice koji“. English works favoring Chinese sources may prefer the translation “red yeast rice”.
In addition to its culinary use, red yeast rice is also used in Chinese herbology and traditional Chinese medicine. Its use has been documented as far back as the Tang Dynasty in China in 800 AD. It is taken internally to invigorate the body, aid in digestion, and revitalize the blood. A more complete description is in the traditional Chinese pharmacopoeia, Ben Cao Gang Mu-Dan Shi Bu Yi, from the Ming Dynasty (1378–1644).
What other names is Red Yeast known by?
Arroz de Levadura Roja, Cholestin, Hong Qu, Koji Rouge, Levure de Riz Rouge, Monascus, Monascus purpureus, Monascus Purpureus Went, Red Rice, Red Rice Yeast, Red Yeast Rice, Red Yeast Rice Extract, Riz Rouge, Xue Zhi Kang, XueZhiKang, XZK, Zhibituo, Zhi Tai.
Red yeast is the product of rice fermented with Monascus purpureus yeast. Red yeast supplements are different from red yeast rice sold in Chinese grocery stores. People use red yeast as medicine.
Possibly Effective for…
- High cholesterol.
- High cholesterol and triglyceride levels caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease (AIDS).
Insufficient Evidence to Rate Effectiveness for…
- Indigestion, diarrhea, improving blood circulation, spleen and stomach problems, and other conditions.
In the late 1970s, researchers in the United States and Japan were isolating lovastatin from Aspergillus and monacolins fromMonascus, respectively, the latter being the same fungus used to make red yeast rice but cultured under carefully controlled conditions. Chemical analysis soon showed that lovastatin and monacolin K are identical. The article “The origin of statins” summarizes how the two isolations, documentations and patent applications were just months apart. Lovastatin became the patented, prescription drug Mevacor for Merck & Co. Red yeast rice went on to become a contentious non-prescription dietary supplement in the United States and other countries.
Lovastatin and other prescription “statin” drugs inhibit cholesterol synthesis by blocking action of the enzyme HMG-CoA reductase. As a consequence, circulating total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol are lowered. In a meta-analysis of 91 randomized clinical trial of ≥12 weeks duration, totaling 68,485 participants, LDL-cholesterol was lowered by 24-49% depending on the statin. Different strains ofMonascus fungus will produce different amounts of monacolins. The ‘Went’ strain of Monascus purpureus (purpureus = dark red in Latin), when properly fermented and processed, will yield a dried red yeast rice powder that is approximately 0.4% monacolins, of which roughly half will be monacolin K (identical to lovastatin). Monacolin content of a red yeast rice product is described in a 2008 clinical trial report.
- Website about medicinal use of Monascus purpureus
- Medicinal use of Red yeast rice
- Fermentiertes Rotes Reismehl (in German)
Jiangsu Chengxin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd with total area 60,000m2 and total invested amount of RMB 300 million, is a high-tech joint-stock enterprise established in 2012, located in Binjiang Pharm-Chem Industry Park, Qidong, the outstanding cultural city well known as the Rivers and Seas Pearl in Jiangsu Province, close to Chongming Island with merely one separated river. It takes around 1 hour by car from the manufacturing site to Shanghai, the Yangtze River Delta economic metropoli……More
We are just a manufacturer and very strong in the following intermediates:
Intermediates for Capecitabine:
2′,3′-Di-O-acetyl-5′-deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (CAS: 161599-46-8)
1,2,3-Triacetyl-5-deoxy-D-ribose (CAS: 62211-93-2)
Methyl-5-deoxy-2,3-O-isopropylidene-beta-D-ribofuranoside (CAS: 23202-81-5)
We have the dedicated workshop for Capecitabine intermediate. Our capacity is more than 20MT per month. Our company is complied with the requirement from EU GMP, US FDA and Chinese GMP. Just for your information.
If you are interested in any of above, please let me know.
Looking forward to your early reply.
Runya Wang(Ms) / Sales Department
Add: No.338 Shanghai Road, Binjiang Pharm-Chem
Industry Park, Qidong, Jiangsu, P.R.China 226221
http://www.cxpharma.com/en/home.asp in english
Extracting the Medicine from Traditional Chinese Medicine-Used as sedative and a painkiller in Oriental medicine
Extracting the Medicine from Traditional Chinese Medicine
Nardostachys chinensis or “Gansong” – a medicinal plant in the family Valerianaceae – is used as a sedative and a painkiller in Oriental medicine. Jun Zhou, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, and colleagues have isolated a new type of sesquieterpenoid–chalcone hybrid, containing a 2,3-dihydrofuran ring fused to an aristolane-type sesquiterpenoid and a chalcone, nardokanshone A (pictured).
- Zhang, X; Lan Z, Dong XP, Deng Y, Hu XM, Peng T, Guo P. (January 2007). “Study on the active components of Nardostachys chinensis”. Zhong Yao Cai: 38–41. PMID 17539300. Retrieved 12 June 2013.