New Drug Approvals

Home » CHINESE HERBS (Page 3)

Category Archives: CHINESE HERBS

Advertisements
DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

Blog Stats

  • 2,569,922 hits

Flag and hits

Flag Counter

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,381 other followers

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Categories

Recent Posts

Flag Counter

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,381 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

Verified Services

View Full Profile →

Categories

Flag Counter
Advertisements

CHINESE HERBS Ginkgo biloba for antidepressant induced sexual dysfunction.


Ginkgo biloba L.

Ginkgo biloba extract

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; in Chinese and Japanese 銀杏, pinyin romanization: yín xìng, Hepburn romanization: ichō or ginnan), also spelled gingko and known as the maidenhair tree, is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The ginkgo is a living fossil, recognisably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China,the tree is widely cultivated and was introduced early to human history. It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a food.

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE, species Ginkgo biloba) has been used for centuries as part of the ancient Chinese pharmacopoeia in the treatment of respiratory ailments, cognitive impairment, and circulatory disorders. In recent years, Ginkgo has gained great worldwide acceptance for treatment of a number of medical conditions including tinnitus, cognitive decline in dementia, intermittent claudication, asthma, macular degeneration and, most recently, antidepressant induced sexual dysfunction.

The oldest tree species in the world, dating from the time of the dinosaurs, Ginkgo biloba (bi-loba, two sided leaf) is the last remaining species of the Ginkgoales order. Fossil records show the species was once widespread in Asia and North America, and it is speculated that it was saved from extinction by monks in the far east who cultivated it secretly as a sacred tree. Each tree can live for more than a thousand years, immune to bugs, disease and pollution. The tree grows to 100 feet tall and has fan-like leaves and yellow-green fetid smelling fruits. If you are lucky enough to have access to a mature tree, take advantage of the fresh leaves, which contain the broadest spectrum of medicinal properties.

Case reports have confirmed GBE’s beneficial effect on ASD. An open clinical trial of Ginkgo biloba extract with 63 patients was found to be effective in 84% of patients with ASD. All phases of the sexual response cycle were improved (desire, excitement, orgasm and resolution). Minimal side effects were reported which included gastrointestinal upset, headache, CNS stimulation and easy bruisability. There were no serious adverse events. A double blind placebo-controlled trial of a GBE compound has just been completed and the results are currently under review.

Possible mechanisms of action may include improved circulation and prostaglandin agonist effects, as well as neurotransmitter and nitric oxide second messenger modulation. Although Ginkgo biloba is relatively safe, it also works as a potent inhibitor of platelet activating factor. Therefore, patients taking aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-coagulants, or patients with a coagulopathy should consult a physician and exercise caution when considering adding GBE to their existing regimen. Dose ranges of GBE 50:1 extract are 60 milligram tablets twice a day; this can be advanced to 120 mg twice a day after two weeks.

The use of the ginkgo leaf is recent, and has been studied for its cardiovascular benefits. Today ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly prescribed herbs and is a great example of a tonic herb – one that balances whatever is going on in your system; if you are tired it can energize you, if you are stressed it will relax you.

The bilobalides, ginkgolides, flavonoids, and other substances unique to the tree restore better blood flow to all parts of the body but particularly to the brain, allowing improved use of oxygen. Ginkgo’s antioxidant actions also stabilize the structure of brain and nerve cells and protect them from oxidative attacks from free radicals. Research indicates ginkgo action of supporting healthier circulation in the eyes, make it an herb of choice for natural treatment eye health and macular degeneration.

There is an significant body of scientific and clinical evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of ginkgo extract for both cognitive function and improved circulation, said Mark Blumenthal, the founder and executive director of ABC

. Ginkgo’s hallmark effect is increased circulation, which is important in maintaining our energy level and one of the factors in stopping early hair loss. Increasing genital blood flow heightens responsiveness, making for higher libido in both men and women. Good circulation means getting the full benefit from the foods we eat and the vitamins and herbal supplements we take.

Allergies and asthma also improve with ginkgo. The herb contains a dozen different anti-inflammatory chemicals and seven natural antihistamines. 1

  • Medicinal Uses: * Allergies * Alopecia * Asthma * Bronchitis * Circulation * Eyes/Vision * Libido * Longevity Tonics * Memory/Focus * Varicose Veins
  • Properties: * Anti-inflammatory * AntiCancer * Antioxidant * Antitussive * Astringent * Cardiac tonic Cordial * Tonic * Vasodilator * Vermifuge
  • Parts Used: Leaves and Nuts
  • Constituents: gibberellin, cytokinin-like substances, ginkgolic acid, bilobol, ginnol, aspartine, calcium

EGb 761 [Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761, Rökan, Tanakan, Tebonin] is a standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves and has antioxidant properties as a free radical scavenger. A standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves is a well defined product and contains approximately 24% flavone glycosides (primarily quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin) and 6% terpene lactones (2.8-3.4% ginkgolides A, B and C, and 2.6-3.2% bilobalide). Ginkgolide B and bilobalide account for about 0.8% and 3% of the total extract, respectively. Other constituents include proanthocyanadins, glucose, rhamnose, organic acids, D-glucaric and ginkgolic acids. EGb 761 promotes vasodilation and improves blood flow through arteries, veins and capillaries. It inhibits platelet aggregation and prolongs bleeding time. EGb 761, which was originated by Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals (Dr Willmar Schwabe Group), has been available in Europe as a herbal extract since the early 1990s. However, products containing EGb 761 are not approved for use by the US FDA. As a dietary supplement, Nature’s Way in the US distributes and markets a standardised extract of Ginkgo biloba leaves (the EGb 761 Formula) under the name Gingold Nature’s Way. The French company Beaufour-Ipsen and its German subsidiary Ipsen Pharma are co-developing EGb 761 with Dr Willmar Schwabe Group. Beaufour-Ipsen (France) is developing EGb 761 as Tanakan, Dr Willmar Schwabe Pharmaceuticals (Germany) as Tebonin and Ipsen Pharma (Germany) as Rökan. Intersan was formerly developing EGb 761 in Germany, but Intersan appears to have been merged into Ipsen Pharma. However, there has been no recent development for these indications. In the UK and other European countries, the cardioprotective effects of EGb 761 in myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion are being investigated in preclinical studies. The psychological and physiological benefits of ginkgo are said to be based on its primary action of regulating neurotransmitters and exerting neuroprotective effects in the brain, protecting against or retarding nerve cell degeneration. Ginkgo also benefits vascular microcirculation by improving blood flow in small vessels and has antioxidant activity. There has been conflicting evidence about the benefits of ginkgo, e.g. the ginkgo clinical trial published in August 2002 in JAMA concluded that a leading ginkgo supplement did not produce measurable benefits for memory in healthy adults over 60, although a month earlier, another study concluded that the same ginkgo extract is effective in helping normal healthy older adults in memory and concentration. However, in December 2002, the Cochrane Collaboration, the world’s most respected scientific reviewer of clinical trials in medicine, concluded that the published literature strongly supports the safety and potential benefits of ginkgo in treating memory loss and cognitive disorders associated with age- related dementia. A phase II study of EGb 761 in combination with fluorouracil is in progress in Germany in patients with pancreatic cancer. German researchers are investigating the potential of EGb 761 for the treatment of sudden deafness and tinnitus in clinical studies. EGb 761 was undergoing preclinical development for the potential treatment of diabetes in France, diabetic neuropathies in Russia, and cancer in Brazil. However, there has been no recent development for these indications. Beaufour-Ipsen has expressed the intention to license out its diabetes projects that may include EGb 761.

The first mentioned  use of Ginkgo biloba appears in China. Ginkgo leaf is first mentioned in Lan Mao’s Dian Nan Ben Cao, published in 1436 during the Ming dynasty. Lan Mao notes external use to treat skin and head sores as well as freckles. Internal use of the leaves is first noted in Liu Wen-Tai’s Ben Cao Pin Hui Jing Yao , an imperial commissioned work recorded in 1505. Liu Wen Tai notes use of the leaves in the treatment of diarrhea. The leaves of ginkgo are known in Chinese medicine as bai-guo-ye. Recent clinical reports in modern China suggest that the leaves lower serum cholesterol levels and have some clinical value in angina pectoris.

In Traditional Chinese pharmacopeia the seeds (with fleshy rind removed) are considered more important than the leaves. The nut, called Pak Ko, is recommended to expel phlegm, stop wheezing and coughing, urinary incontinence and spermatorrhea. The raw seed is said to help bladder ailments, menorrhea, uterine fluxes, and cardiovascular ailments. The powdered leaf is inhaled for ear, nose, and throat disorders like bronchitis and chronic rhinitis. Locally applied boiled leaves are used for chilblains.. The seeds are used as an astringent for the lung, to stop asthma and enuresis.

Ginkgo leaves are a Chinese herb that has been used much more in the West than in its homeland. Over five hundred scientific studies on the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical effects of gingko leaves have been conducted by European researchers over the last 20 to 30 years. The majority of studies on ginkgo leaf extract have involved a product produced by a German/French consortium, referred to in the scientific literature as EGb761.

The extract utilized in medicine is standardized in a multi-step procedure designed to concentrate the desired active principles from the plant. These extracts contain approximately 24% flavone glycosides (primarily composed of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) and 6% terpene lactones (2.8-3.4% ginkgolides A, B, and C, and 2.6-3.2% bilobalide). Other constituents include proanthocyanadins, glucose, rhamnose, organic acids, D-glucaric acid and ginkgolic acid (at most 5 ppm ginkgolic acids). Biochemical studies have concentrated on the flavonoids: much of the curative properties of the ginkgo tree are due to the activities of these flavonoids. The complex extract itself, rather than a single isolated component, is believed to be responsible for Ginkgo’s biological activity.

Ginkgo leaf extracts have been shown to have a wide range of biological activities. The most well-known use is the ability to improve short term memory. Other important effects include a protective effect on the blood-brain barrier and an anti-radical (antioxidant) effect. The leaf extracts has also been shown to increase vasodilation and peripheral blood flow rate in capillary vessels and end-arteries in various circulatory disorders. Ginkgo leaf helps to maintain integrity and permeability of cell walls by inhibiting lipid peroxidation of membranes. Other studies have shown vascular-tone regulating effects, and help in modulating cerebral energy metabolism.

 

Ginkgo biloba extract (Gbe) and two ingredients, bilobalide and ginkgolide B, are presented to the CSWG as part of a review of botanicals being used as dietary supplements in the United States. ( 1 of 3 adults in the United States are now taking dietary supplements ). Sweeping deregulation of botanicals now permits GBE to be sold as a dietary supplement to a willing public eager to “improve brain functioning” or “promote radical scavenging activity.”. In the U.S, there are four primary distribution channels: drug stores, supermarkets, mass merchandisers, and specialty vitamin shops and nutrition centers. The Internet is also becoming an increasingly important distribution channel.

Gbe is a well defined product, and it or its active ingredients, the ginkgolides, especially ginkgolide B, and bilobalide, have clearly demonstrated biological activity. It can be consumed in rather large doses for an extended period of time. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, Gbe can be sold legally if it is not labeled or accompanied by any therapeutic or health claims. Herbal remedies can be labeled with descriptions of their role in affecting physiological structure or function, but must be labeled with a disclaimer that the product has not been evaluated by the FDA for cure, prevention, or treatment of a disease.

 GINKGO Biloba Extract (Gbe)
Trade Names: Egb 761, Ginkgold, Tebonin, LI 1370, rökan, Tanakan

Standardized ingredients of Gbe

    The extract utilized in medicine is standardized in a multi-step procedure designed to concentrate the desired active principles from the plant. These extracts contain approximately 24% flavone glycosides (primarily composed of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin) and 6% terpene lactones (2.8-3.4% ginkgolides A, B, and C, and 2.6-3.2% bilobalide). Ginkgolide B accounts for about 0.8% of the total extract, and bilobalide accounts for about 3% of the extract. Other constituents include proanthocyanadins, glucose, rhamnose, organic acids, D-glucaric acid and ginkgolic acid (at most 5 ppm ginkgolic acids).Much of the curative properties of Gbe are due to the activities of these flavonoids.

 

Quercetin

CAS Registry Number: 117-39-5

Molecular Formula: C15 H10 OMol. wt.: 338.3

Chemical Abstracts Service Name: 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)- 3,5,7-trihydroxy- (9CI)

Kaempferol

CAS Registry Number: 520-18-3

Molecular Formula: C15 H10 OMol. wt.: 286.2

Chemical Abstracts Service Name: 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4- hydroxyphenyl)- (9CI)

Isorhamnetin

CAS Registry Number: 480-19-3

Chemical Abstracts Service Name: 4H-1-Benzopyran-4-one, 3,5,7-trihydroxy-2-(4- hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)- (9CI)

Molecular Formulat: C15 H12 O6 Mol. wt.: ~314

Ginkgolides 

GB R1 R2 R3
Ginkgolide A OH H H
Ginkgolide B OH OH H
Ginkgolide C OH OH OH
GB

Bilobalide

CAS Registry Number: 33570-04-6
Chemical Abstracts Service Name: 4H,5aH,9H- Furo(2,3-b)furo(3′,2′:2,3)cyclopenta (1,2-c)furan-2,4,7 (3H,8H) -trione,9-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-10,10a-dihydro-8,9-dihydroxy-, (5aR-(3aS*,5aa,8b,8aS*,9a,10aa))- (9CI)
Molecular Formula: C15H18O8 Mol. wt.: 326.3

.
Modern pharmacological research into the active constituents of ginkgo leaves began in the late 1950s. Spearheaded by the phytopharmaceutical company Dr. Willmar Schwabe GmbH, twenty years of research resulted in a standardized, concentrated extract of ginkgo leaves. The 27 step extraction process requires fifty pounds of leaves to yield one pound of extract and takes up to two weeks to complete. Most critical to the extraction process and final product is the standardization of ginkgo flavone glycosides and terpene lactones. The 24% ginkgo flavone glycosides content of GBE constitutes a carefully measured balance of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin. The group of constituents unique to GBE, however, are the terpene lactones which constitute 6% of the final extract.

Human Exposure: There is potential for ingestion of Gbe to a widespread consumer population, since this product is readily available without prescription at a cost highly competitive with prescription medications. The recommended dose of Gbe is 120 to 160 mg daily for persons with intermittent claudication and 240 mg daily for cerebrovascular insufficiency, early stage Alzheimer’s disease, resistant depression, and impotence.

Advertisements

CHINESE HERBS Panax ginseng


Panax ginseng

Panax ginseng

The extract of the Chinese root Panax ginseng and the North American Panax quinquefolius contains as its putative active constituents a large group of ginsenosides, four-ring glycosides. Anecdotal reports in the scientific literature suggest that Ginseng can improve sexual dysfunction such as anorgasmia and decreased libido in patients taking antidepressants. Ginsenosides facilitate the release of nitric oxide in endothelial tissue of rabbit corpus cavernosum, a step in the events leading to erection. This property may have promise for women, as the biochemical process of erection is the same in the clitoris. Multiple orgasmic response has also been described with this Chinese herbal.

Ginseng is one the best known and widely prescribed herbs in Chinese medicine as a general adaptogenic and restorative tonic. Adaptogenic herbs such as ginseng are especially useful in debilitated persons suffering from exhaustion, fatigue, liver disease, stress and wasting from chronic disease. Unfortunately, the fame of ginseng has led to misconceptions about its use and to low grade or adulterated products being sold as ginseng in the West.

Panax, the generic name is derived from the Greek Panakos (a panacea), in reference to the miraculous virtue ascribed to it by the Chinese, who consider it a sovereign remedy in almost all diseases. The word Ginseng is said to mean wonder of the world,however, it is not universally applicable in every illness. It should not be taken during acute inflammatory disease or bronchitis since it can drive the disease deeper and make it worse. Moreover, in China, ginseng is rarely used on its own, but is usually combined with other herbs, such as licorice or Chinese dates, which temper its powerful nature.

  • Medicinal Uses: * Alcoholism * Fatigue * Immune * Libido * Longevity Tonics * Memory/Focus * Stress
  • Properties: * Adaptogens * Anodyne * Circulation * Immunostimulant * Stimulant * Tonic
  • Parts Used: root
  • Constituents: hormone-like saponins,(ginsenosides), volatile oil, sterols, starch, sugars, pectin, vitamins bl, b2 and b12, choline, fats, minerals

Ginseng is known to possess phytoestrogen activity. The herb is believed to function as an adaptogen—helping the body adapt to stressful conditions, possibly by augmenting production of the body’s own stress hormones (ACTH, Cortisol).

Adverse effects may include hypertension, insomnia, vomiting, headache and epistaxis. Isolated case reports have noted post-menopausal vaginal bleeding and breast nodularity with prolonged usage, suggesting a modest estrogen-like effect. A two-year study of 133 people using ginseng noted a central nervous system stimulant effect.(17) Nervousness and insomnia were noted in 11% of subjects; therefore, ginseng would not be recommended for use in patients with bipolar disorder (manic syndrome) or psychosis. However, this study used doses (15 g/day) on the high end of those recommended, used no placebo, and did not describe the quality or form of the extract used.

The dosage is dependent on the ginsenoside content. With a saponin content of at least 5 mg of ginsenosides with a ratio of Rb1 to Rg1 of 2:1, a typical dose would be to take this 1 to 3 times a day. It is best to begin with a lower dose and to gradually increase this if needed.

Panax ginseng appears to be effective in the treatment of erectile dysfunction, suggests a 2002 study from the Journal of Urology. In tests on 45 men with erectile dysfunction, those who took Panax ginseng for eight weeks showed greater improvements than those given a placebo for the same time period.

In an earlier study of 90 men with erectile dysfunction, 60 percent of the participants reported improvement in their symptoms compared with 30 percent of those using the placebo. The study was published in the International Journal of Impotence Research.

Unlike prescription drugs for erectile dysfunction (which are usually taken when needed), ginseng only appears to be useful for erectile dysfunction if taken on a continuous basis.

CHINESE HERBS-Ginkgo biloba for libido


Ginkgo biloba Ginkgo biloba L.

Ginkgo biloba L.
Ginkgo leaves
Common Names
Ginkgo biloba
Botanical Name
Ginkgo biloba L.
Family
GINKGOACEAE The Ginkgo family

Traditional Chinese Medicine traditional Chinese medicine The earliest know reference to ginkgo is in the Chinese Materia Medica, in apx 2,800 B.C and the seeds and root have been used in TCM for thousands of years to combat mental decline. (Ginkgo Biloba Leaf)

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba; in Chinese and Japanese 銀杏, pinyin romanization: yín xìng, Hepburn romanization: ichō or ginnan), also spelled gingko and known as the maidenhair tree, is a unique species of tree with no close living relatives. The ginkgo is a living fossil, recognisably similar to fossils dating back 270 million years. Native to China,the tree is widely cultivated and was introduced early to human history. It has various uses in traditional medicine and as a food.

Sexual function and responsiveness are very dependent on the supply of blood to the genital organs. In particular, enhanced blood flow to the penis can do much to improve a man’s ability to attain and maintain an erection. In this respect, the herb ginkgo biloba has much to offer.

Renowned as a circulation enhancer, ginkgo biloba was found in one study to benefit 78 per cent of men with impotence. The dose used in this study was 80mg of ginkgo biloba extract, three times a day. The beneficial effects of ginkgo biloba may take three or more months to become apparent.

Ginkgo biloba may have significant benefits for women too. There is growing awareness that improved blood supply to the female sexual organs can do much to enhance sexual sensation. While this has not been studied specifically, I have seen several patients who have experienced a subjective enhancement in sexual pleasure on taking ginkgo biloba in the long term.

The ginkgo is the oldest living tree species, geological records indicate this plant has been growing on earth for 150 – 200 million years. Chinese monks are credited with keeping the tree in existence, as a sacred herb. It was first brought to Europe in the 1700’s and it is now a commonly prescribed drug in France and Germany. It is one of the most well-researched herbs in the world.
The oldest tree species in the world, dating from the time of the dinosaurs, Ginkgo biloba (bi-loba, two sided leaf) is the last remaining species of the Ginkgoales order. Fossil records show the species was once widespread in Asia and North America, and it is speculated that it was saved from extinction by monks in the far east who cultivated it secretly as a sacred tree.

Ginkgo leaves in summer

Each tree can live for more than a thousand years, immune to bugs, disease and pollution. The tree grows to 100 feet tall and has fan-like leaves and yellow-green fetid smelling fruits. If you are lucky enough to have access to a mature tree, take advantage of the fresh leaves, which contain the broadest spectrum of medicinal properties. In the last 30 years, more that 300 studies have given clinical evidence that ginkgo prevents and benefits many problems throughout the entire body. Ginkgo is gaining recognition as a brain tonic that enhances memory because of its positive effects on the vascular system, especially in the cerebellum. It is also used as a treatment for vertigo, tinnitus (ringing in the ears) and a variety of neurological disorders and circulation problems. Ginkgo may help to counteract the effects of aging, including mental fatigue and lack of energy.

Pollen cones
Ovules

The use of the ginkgo leaf is recent, and has been studied for its cardiovascular benefits. Today ginkgo biloba is one of the most commonly prescribed herbs and is a great example of a tonic herb – one that balances whatever is going on in your system; if you are tired it can energize you, if you are stressed it will relax you.

The bilobalides, ginkgolides, flavonoids, and other substances unique to the tree restore better blood flow to all parts of the body but particularly to the brain, allowing improved use of oxygen. Ginkgo’s antioxidant actions also stabilize the structure of brain and nerve cells and protect them from oxidative attacks from free radicals. Research indicates ginkgo action of supporting healthier circulation in the eyes, make it an herb of choice for natural treatment eye health and macular degeneration.

Ginkgo works by increasing blood flow to the brain and throughout the body’s network of blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the organ systems. It increases metabolism efficiency, regulates neurotransmitters, and boosts oxygen levels in the brain which uses 20% of the body’s oxygen.


Benefits of enhanced circulation in the brain include improved short and long term memory, increased reaction time and improved mental clarity. Ginkgo is often used to treat elderly persons with Alzheimer’s and other symptoms of cerebral insufficiency. Cerebral insufficiency is a general term for a collection of symptoms that include difficulties of concentration and memory, absentmindedness, confusion, lack of energy, depressive mood, anxiety, dizziness, tinnitus, and headache.
Ginkgo constituents are beneficial for a variety of imbalances and deterioration in the brain and body. Standardized ginkgo extract inhibits platelet activity factor (PAF), which is a common allergen in the body. Physical stress, and poor quality food can overstimulate PAF production; in other words, blood clotting. Excessive PAF can help cause cardiovascular disease, brain damage, hearing disorders and other immune and inflammatory diseases.


Ginkgo has been used to relieve tension and anxiety and improve mental alertness, elevate mood and restore energy.
Ginkgo has two groups of active substances, flavonoids and terpene lactones, including ginkgolides A, B, and C, bilobalide, quercetin, and kaempferol. The ginkgolides have been shown to control allergic inflammation, anaphylactic shock and asthma.
Ginkgo also acts as a powerful antioxidant and contributes to the oxidation of free radicals which are believed to contribute to premature aging and dementia. Antioxidants also protect the eyes, cardiovascular system and central nervous system.
Ginkgo may also help control the transformation of cholesterol to plaque associated with the hardening of arteries, and can relax constricted blood vessels.
The herb has been used in treatment of other circulation-related disorders such as diabetic peripheral vascular disease, Raynaud’s syndrome, hemorrhoids and varicose veins. It can also aid in the treatment of insufficient circulation and complications from stroke and skull injuries. Ginkgo’s beneficial effects on the circulatory system also can be of benefit in the treatment of eye and ear disorders.
Studies have confirmed that ginkgo increases blood flow to the retina, and can slow retinal deterioration resulting in an increase of visual acuity. In clinical tests ginkgo has improved hearing loss in the elderly. It also improves circulation in the extremities relieving cold hands and feet, swelling in the limbs and chronic arterial blockage. Among other things, ginkgo is being investigated as a potential treatment to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs, as a treatment for asthma and for toxic shock syndrome.
Parts Used: Dried leaf.
Common Use: Ginkgo has been shown to be nutritional support for mental alertness, enhanced vitality level, circulatory health and blood vessel health. Its high antioxidant activity is valuable for fighting age related conditions. All over the world, people have claimed Ginkgo to be beneficial in the fight against the gradual erosion of energy associated with aging.
Care: The ginkgo tree thrives in full sun and average soil. It is very resistant to infection and pollution and can grow up to 120 feet. The small yellow fruit that falls from the female tree has a strong rancid odor

Shenzhen Neptunus Bioengineering submits first ever application for conducting Phase 2 trials in the US for Traditional Chinese Medicine ( Polydatin Injection) in the class of innovative drugs


 

polydatin

Resveratrol 3-beta-mono-D-glucoside
trans-piceid
3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside

Shenzhen Neptunus Bioengineering submits first ever application for conducting Phase 2 trials in the US for Traditional Chinese Medicine ( Polydatin Injection) in the class of innovative drugs

Shenzhen Neptunus Bioengineering has submitted to the USFDA application for conducting Phase 2 clinical trials on its shock therapy ( Polydatin Injection ).  This is the first ever application for clinical trial research of Chinese medicine inthe United States submitted a class of innovative medicines.
Polydatin is a Class I innovative traditional Chinese that aides microcirculation of the blood and is expected to be tested as a treatment for myocardial ischemia, cerebral ischemia, shock and other cardiovascular diseases

Piceid is a stilbenoid glucoside and is a major resveratrol derivative in grape juices.[1] It can be found in the bark of Picea sitchensis.[2] It can also be isolated from Polygonum cuspidatum,[3] the Japanese knotweed (syn. Fallopia japonica).
Resveratrol can be produced from piceid fermented by Aspergillus oryzae.[3] This latter species produces a piceid-b-D-glucosidase.[4]
Trans-piceid is the glucoside formed with trans-resveratrol, while cis-piceid is formed with cis-resveratrol.
Trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide is one of the two metabolites of trans-piceid in rat.[5]
Resveratrol glucoside from transgenic alfalfa has been used for the prevention of aberrant crypt foci in mice.[6]

  1. Romero-Pérez, A. I.; Ibern-Gómez, M.; Lamuela-Raventós, R. M.; De La Torre-Boronat, M. C. (1999). “Piceid, the Major Resveratrol Derivative in Grape Juices”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (4): 1533–1536. doi:10.1021/jf981024g.PMID 10564012edit
  2. Aritomi, M.; Donnelly, D. M. X. (1976). “Stilbene glucosides in the bark of Picea sitchensis”. Phytochemistry 15 (12): 2006. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)88881-0edit
  3. Wang, H.; Liu, L.; Guo, Y. -X.; Dong, Y. -S.; Zhang, D. -J.; Xiu, Z. -L. (2007). “Biotransformation of piceid in Polygonum cuspidatum to resveratrol by Aspergillus oryzae”. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 75 (4): 763–768. doi:10.1007/s00253-007-0874-3PMID 17333175edit
  4. Purification and characterization of piceid-b-D-glucosidase from Aspergillus oryzae. Chunzhi Zhang, Dai Li, Hongshan Yu, Bo Zhang and Fengxie Jin, Process Biochemistry, 2007, 42, pages 83–88, doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2006.07.019
  5. Zhou, M.; Chen, X.; Zhong, D. (2007). “Simultaneous determination of trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucoside and its two metabolites in rat plasma using liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection”. Journal of Chromatography B 854: 219.doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2007.04.025edit
  6. RKineman, B. D.; Brummer, E. C.; Paiva, N. L.; Birt, D. F. (2010). “Resveratrol from Transgenic Alfalfa for Prevention of Aberrant Crypt Foci in Mice”. Nutrition and Cancer 62(3): 351–361. doi:10.1080/01635580903407213PMID 20358473
%d bloggers like this: