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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Generic Licensing News –NAPHAZOLINE NITRATE, featured product


NAPHOZALINE

PRODUCT USED AS

NAPHAZOLINE NITRATE

Naphazoline Nitrate is a rapid acting sympathomimetic vasoconstrictor of occular artierioles. It acts to decrease congestion of the conjunctiva and is found in many over-the-counter eye drops.

Naphazoline is primarily indicated in conditions like Corneal vascularity, Hyperaemia, Itching, Nasal congestion, and can also be given in adjunctive therapy as an alternative drug of choice in Sinusitis.

http://www.leadformix.com/ef1/preview_campaign.php?lf1=933470130c201312625317b456273

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more info

 It is a sympathomimetic agent with marked alpha adrenergicactivity. It is a vasoconstrictor with a rapid action in reducing swelling when applied tomucous membrane. It acts on alpha-receptors in the arterioles of the conjunctiva to produce constriction, resulting in decreased congestion. It is an active ingredient in several over-the-counter formulations including Clear Eyes and Naphcon eye drops.

Naphazoline, 2-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-imidazoline, is synthesized from (1-naphthyl)acetonitrile, which upon reaction with ethanol transforms into iminoester, and undergoes further heterocyclization into the desired imidazoline derivative upon reaction with ethylene diamine Naphazoline synthesis.png

FDA Approves Mekinist (trametinib) for Advanced Melanoma


Mekinist (trametinib)

JTP-74057, GSK212, GSK1120212

N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4 , 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro-2H- pyrido [4, 3-d] pyrimidin-1-yl] phenyl}acetamide

Molecular Weight 615.39
Formula C26H23FIN5O4
CAS Number 871700-17-3

Trametinib (GSK1120212) is experimental cancer drug. It is a MEK inhibitor drug with anti-cancer activity.[1]

It inhibits MEK1 and MEK2.[1]

Trametinib had good results for V600E mutated metastatic melanoma in a phase III clinical trial.[2]

  1. Trametinib, NCI Drug Dictionary
  2. METRIC phase III study: Efficacy of trametinib (T), a potent and selective MEK inhibitor (MEKi), in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS), compared with chemotherapy (C) in patients (pts) with BRAFV600E/K mutant advanced or metastatic melanoma (MM).

GSK1120212 (JTP-74057) is a potent and selective allosteric inhibitor of the MEK1 and MEK2 (MEK1/2) enzymes with promising antitumor activity in a phase I clinical trial (ASCO 2010). GSK1120212 (JTP-74057) inhibits MEK1/2 kinase activity and prevents Raf-dependent MEK phosphorylation (S217 for MEK1), producing prolonged p-ERK1/2 inhibition. Potent cell growth inhibition was evident in most tumor lines with mutant BRAF or Ras. In xenografted tumor models, GSK1120212 orally dosed once daily had a long circulating half-life and sustained suppression of p-ERK1/2 for more than 24 hours; GSK1120212 also reduced tumor Ki67, increased p27 (Kip1/CDKN1B), and caused tumor growth inhibition in multiple tumor models.

May 29, 2013 —

GlaxoSmithKline plc announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Mekinist (trametinib) as a single-agent oral treatment for unresectable or metastatic melanoma in adult patients with BRAF V600E or V600K mutations. Mekinist is not indicated for the treatment of patients who have received a prior BRAF inhibitor therapy. The mutation must be detected by an FDA-approved test, such as the companion diagnostic assay from bioMérieux S.A., THxID™-BRAF.

 Among those with metastatic melanoma, approximately half have a BRAF mutation, which is an abnormal change in a gene that can enable some melanoma tumours to grow and spread.

Mekinist is approved for patients with the BRAF V600E mutation, which accounts for approximately 85 percent of all BRAF V600 mutations in metastatic melanoma. It is also approved for patients with the V600K mutation, which makes up approximately 10 percent of all BRAF V600 mutations in metastatic melanoma.

Melanoma is the most serious and deadly form of skin cancer.[iii] According to statistics from the National Cancer Institute, in 2013 there will be an estimated 9,480 deaths resulting from melanoma in the United States.[iv] When melanoma spreads in the body, the disease is called metastatic melanoma.[v] Approximately half of all people with metastatic melanoma have a BRAF mutation, which is an abnormal change in a gene that can enable some melanoma tumours to grow and spread.2 One in two patients worldwide with metastatic melanoma is expected to survive for a year after diagnosis,while in the U.S., the five-year survival rate was 16 percent (2003-2009). The median age of a newly diagnosed metastatic melanoma patient is almost a decade younger than other cancers.

Mekinist (trametinib) is now approved for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E and V600K mutations as detected by an FDA-approved test. Limitation of use: Mekinist is not indicated for the treatment of patients who have received a prior BRAF inhibitor therapy.

(WO2005121142A1). Aniline a reaction with CDI was added cyclopropylamine get two , two and malonic acid cyclization get 3 . 3 chlorination with phosphorus oxychloride reaction with methylamine 4 , as well as byproducts 5 (ratio of 2:1). Mixture 4 + 5 and acid 6 crystals obtained after cyclization compound 7 (pure substance). 7 with activated trifluoromethanesulfonyl chloride to the amide 8 SNAr reaction occurs 9 , 9 in alkaline conditions rearrangement trimetazidine imatinib.

https://newdrugapprovals.files.wordpress.com/2013/05/nmr5.png

nmr4

…………………

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014039375A1?cl=en

The term “trametinib” as used herein means the MEK inhibitor represented by the structure of formula (I):

Figure imgf000005_0002

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or solvate thereof. Trametinib is preferably administered as a solvate in the form of N-{3-[3- cyclopropyl-5-(2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino)6,8-dimethyl-2,4,7-trioxo-3,4,6,7-tetrahydro- 2H-pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-1 -yl]phenyl}acetamide dimethyl sulfoxide (solvate).

Depending on naming convention, the compound of formula (I) may also properly be referred to as N-{3-[3-cyclopropyl-5-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]-6,8-dimethyl-2,4,7- trioxo-3,4,6,7-tetrahydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-1(2H)-yl]phenyl}acetamide.

Trametinib is disclosed and claimed, along with pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and also as solvates thereof, as being useful as an inhibitor of MEK activity, particularly in treatment of cancer, in WO 2005/121 142. Trametinib can be prepared as described in WO 2005/121 142.

Suitably, trametinib is in the form of a dimethyl sulfoxide solvate. Suitably, trametinib is in the form of a sodium salt. Suitably, trametinib is in the form of a solvate selected from: hydrate, acetic acid, ethanol, nitromethane, chlorobenzene, 1 -pentancol, isopropyl alcohol, ethylene glycol and 3-methyl-1 -butanol. These solvates and salt forms can be prepared by one of skill in the art from the description in WO2005/121 142.

…………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2005121142A1?cl=en

Example 3-10 By treating N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , , 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro-2H- pyrido [4 , 3-d]pyrimidin-1-yl] phenyl Jmethanesulfonamide 46 according to conventional methods, sodium salt and potassium salt thereof were obtained.

N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl- 2,4, 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrido [4 , 3-d]pyrimidin-1- yl]phenylJmethanesulfonamide sodium salt:

^-NMR (DMSO-de, 300 MHz) δ 0.47 (brs, 2H) , 0.70-0.90 (m, 2H) , 1.23(s, 3H) , 2.35(brs, IH) , 2.82(s, 3H) , 3.22(s, 3H) , 6.69(t, J=8.8Hz, IH) , 6.81 (d, J=8.1Hz , IH) , 6.98 (s, IH) , 7.02 (d, J=8.8Hz , IH) , 7.10-7.30 (m, 2H) , 7.38(d, J=9.2Hz , IH) , 10.22(brs, IH) . MS (ESI) m/z 652 [MH]+.

N-{3-[3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl- 2,4, 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrido [4 , 3-d]pyrimidin-1- yl]phenylJmethanesulfonamide potassium salt: Example 4-1

N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino) -6 ,8-dimethyl- 2,4, 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrido [4 , 3-d]pyrimidin-1-yl] – phenyl}-acetamide Step 1 Synthesis of l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) rea

Figure imgf000146_0001

47 48 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (39.9 g) were added N,N-dimethylformamide (200 ml) and triethylamine (34.3 ml) and a solution of 2-fluoro-4-iodoaniline 47 (48.5 g) in N,N-dimethylformamide (50 ml) was added dropwise with stirring under ice-cooling. After the completion of the dropwise addition, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 18 hrs. The reaction mixture was ice-cooled, and cyclopropylamine (21.3 ml) was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr and added dropwise to water-toluene [2:1 (volume ratio), 750 ml] with stirring. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) urea 48 (61.3 g, yield 93.4%) as colorless crystals. Step 2 Synthesis of l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl) pyrimidine-2 , 4 , 6-trione

Figure imgf000147_0001

To l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) urea 48 (61.0 g) obtained in Step 1 and malonic acid 4 (19.9 g) were added acetic anhydride (300 ml) and acetyl chloride (27.2 ml), and the mixture was stirred under a nitrogen atmosphere at 60°C for 3 hrs. After allowing to cool to room temperature, the reaction mixture was added dropwise to water-toluene [2:1 (volume ratio), 900 ml] with stirring. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl)pyrimidine-2,4, 6-trione 49 (60.9 g, yield 82%) as pale-yellow crystals.

Step 3 Synthesis of 6-chloro-3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl) -lH-pyrimidine-2 , -dione

Figure imgf000147_0002

49 50 51 To l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -pyrimidine-

2, 4, 6-trione 49 (59.0 g) obtained in Step 2 were added phosphorus oxychloride (85.0 ml) and dimethylaniline (29.0 ml), and water (8.3 ml) was added dropwise to the mixture at room temperature with stirring. After the completion of the dropwise addition, the mixture was stirred with heating at 110°C for 1 hr. After allowing to cool to room temperature, the reaction mixture was added dropwise to ice water-toluene [2:1 (volume ratio), 900 ml] with stirring. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr. The organic layer was separated, and washed successively with water (300 ml) and brine (300 ml) . Anhydrous magnesium sulfate and activated carbon were added and the mixture was stirred. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate and activated carbon were filtered off, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a 1:2 mixture (62.9 g) of 6-chloro-3-cyclopropyl-l- (2- fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -lH-pyrimidine-2 , 4-dione 50 and 6-chloro-l- cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -lH-pyrimidine-2 , 4-dione 51 as a yellow foamy oil, which was used for the next step without purification.

Step 4 Synthesis of 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -6- methylamino-lH-pyrimidine-2 , 4-dione

Figure imgf000148_0001

To a 1:2 mixture (62.9 g) of 6-chloro-3-cyclopropyl-l- (2- fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -lH-pyrimidine-2 ,4-dione 50 and 6-chloro-l- cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -lH-pyrimidine-2 , -dione 51 obtained in Step 3 were added methanol (189 ml) and a solution (126 ml) of 40% methylamine in methanol, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs . The precipitated crystals were filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was extracted with chloroform (200 ml) and water (200 ml) , and the organic layer was washed with brine (200 ml) and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give a 2:1 mixture (34.55 g) of 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -6-methylamino-lH- pyrimidine-2 ,4-dione 52 and l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl) -6-methylamino-lH-pyrimidine-2,4 ,-dione 53 as yellow crystals, which were used for the next step without purification. Step 5 Synthesis of 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -5- hydroxy-6 , 8-dimethyl-lH, 8H-pyrido [2 , 3-d] pyrimidine-2 , 4 , 7-trione

Figure imgf000149_0001

To a 2:1 mixture (34.6 g) of 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl) -6-methylamino-lH-pyrimidine-2, 4-dione 52 and 1- cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) 6-methylamino-lH- pyrimidine-2,4,-dione 53 obtained in Step 4, and 2-methylmalonic acid 54 (10.2 g) was added acetic anhydride (173 ml) , and the mixture was stirred at 100°C for 2 hrs. After allowing to cool to room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. Acetone (104 ml) was added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred with heating under reflux for 30 min. After allowing to cool to room temperature, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give 3- cyclopropyl-1- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -5-hydroxy-6 , 8-dimethyl- lH,8H-pyrido [2, 3-d] pyrimidine-2, 4, 7-trione 55 (15.1 g, yield from 48, 21%) as colorless crystals.

Step 6 Synthesis of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 3-cyclopropyl- 1- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4 , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7,8- hexahydro-pyrido [2 , 3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl ester

Figure imgf000149_0002

55 56 43 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-

4-iodophenyl) -5-hydroxy-6 , 8-dimethyl-lH, 8H-pyrido [2,3- d] pyrimidine-2 ,4 ,7-trione 55 (33.0 g) obtained in Step 5 were added chloroform (165 ml) and 2 , 6-lutidine (10.4 ml), and trifluoromethanesulfonic anhydride 56 (14.4 ml) was added dropwise under ice-cooling with stirring. After the completion of the dropwise addition, the mixture was stirred at same temperature for 30 min and at room temperature for 2 hrs. The reaction mixture was washed successively with aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (165 ml) , IN hydrochloric acid (165 ml) and brine (165 ml) and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. Anhydrous magnesium sulfate was filtered off and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. 2-Propanol (198 ml) was added to the residue, and the mixture was stirred with heating under reflux, and allowed to return to room temperature. The crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4 , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7, 8-hexahydro- pyrido [2 , 3-d] pyrimidin-5-yl ester 43 (31.9 g, yield 93%) as colorless crystals.

Step 7 Synthesis of N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 ,4 , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7 , 8-hexahydro- pyrido [2 , 3-d] pyrimidin-5-ylamino] phenyl } acetamide

Figure imgf000150_0001

To trifluoromethanesulfonic acid 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-

4-iodophenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4 , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7, 8-hexahydro- pyrido [2 , 3-d] pyrimidin-5-yl ester 43 (25.0 g) obtained in Step 6 and 3 ‘-aminoacetanilide 57 (7.33 g) were added N,N- dimethylacetamide (50.0 ml) and 2,6-lutidine (5.68 ml), and the mixture was stirred at 130°C for 5 hrs. After allowing to cool to room temperature, methanol-water [1:2 (volume ratio), 150 ml] was added with stirring. The crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give N- {3- [3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) – 6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4 , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7, 8-hexahydro-pyrido [2,3- d]pyrimidin-5-ylamino] phenyl}acetamide 58 (24.8 g, yield 99%) as colorless crystals. Step 8 Synthesis of N- { 3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4″, 7-trioxo-3 , 4 , 6 , 7-tetrahydro-2H- pyrido [4 , 3 -d]pyrimidin-l-yl] phenyl} acetamide

Figure imgf000151_0001

Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to a solution (1.57 g) of 28% sodium methoxide in methanol was added tetrahydrofuran (40 ml) , N- {3- [3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 ,4,7- trioxo-1 ,2,3,4,7, 8-hexahydro-pyrido [2 , 3-d] pyrimidin-5- ylamino]phenyl}acetamide 58 (5.00 g) obtained in Step 7 was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hrs. Acetic acid (0.56 ml) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. Water (40 ml) was added and the mixture was further stirred for 1 hr. The crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4- iodophenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4 , 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro-2H- pyrido [4, 3-d] pyrimidin-1-yl] phenyl}acetamide 59 (4.75 g, yield 95%) as colorless crystals. MS ESI m/e: 616 (M+H) , 614 (M-H) .

1H-NMR(DMSO-d6, 400MHz) δ 0.63-0.70 (m, 2H) , 0.91-1.00 (m, 2H) , 1.25(s, 3H) , 2.04(s, 3H) , 2.58-2.66(m, IH) , 3.07(s, 3H) , 6.92(t,

J=8.8Hz, IH) , 7.00-7.05 (m, IH) , 7.36 (t, J=8.2Hz , IH) , 7.52-7.63 (m,

3H) , 7.79(dd, J=2.0 , 10.4Hz, IH) , 10.10(s, IH) , 11.08(s, IH) .

Example 4-1 (alternative method)

N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl- 2,4, 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrido [4 , 3-d] pyrimidin-1-yl] – phenyl } -acetamide

Step 1 Synthesis of l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -urea

Figure imgf000152_0001

48 47 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (82.1 g) were added N, N-dimethylformamide (400 ml) and triethylamine (70.5 ml) , and a solution of 2-fluoro-4-iodoaniline 47 (100 g) in N, N-dimethylformamide (100 ml) was added dropwise under ice-cooling. After the completion of the dropwise addition, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 hrs . The reaction mixture was ice-cooled, and cyclopropylamine (44.0 ml) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr, and the reaction mixture was added dropwise to water- toluene [2:1 (volume ratio) , 1500 ml] with stirring. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -urea 48 (129 g, yield 95.5%) as colorless crystals. Step 2 Synthesis of 1- (2-cyano-acetyl) -l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro- 4-iodo-phenyl) -urea

Figure imgf000152_0002

48 73 74 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro- 4-iodo-phenyl) -urea 48 (167 g) and cyanoacetic acid 73 (80.0 g) , was added N, N-dimethylformamide (836 ml) , and methanesulfonyl chloride (72.8 ml) was added dropwise with stirring at room temperature. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hrs. The reaction mixture was cooled with water, and water- isopropanol [2:1 (volume ratio) , 1670 ml] was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred under water-cooling for 1 hr, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give 1- (2-cyano-acetyl) -l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) – urea 74 (192 g) .

Step 3 Synthesis of 6-amino-3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo- phenyl) -lH-pyrimidine-2 , 4-dione

Figure imgf000153_0001

74 75 To 1- (2-cyano-acetyl) -l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo- phenyl)-urea 74 (192 g) were added water (962 ml) and 2N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (24.9 ml) , and the mixture was stirred with heating at 80°C for 1 hr. After allowing to cool to room temperature, the crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give 6-amino-3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -1H- pyrimidine-2, 4-dione 75 (178g, yield from 48, 88%) as pale-yellow crystals . Step 4 Synthesis of N’- [l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) – 2 , 6-dioxo-l ,2,3, 6-tetrahydro-pyrimidin-4-yl] -N ,N-dimethyl- formamidine

Figure imgf000153_0002

75 76 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to 6-amino-3-cyclopropyl-l- (2- fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -lH-pyrimidine-2 , 4-dione 75 (178 g) were added N,N-dimethylformamide (356 ml) and N,N-dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (178 ml) , and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs. Isopropanol (178 ml) was added with stirring at room temperature, and water (1068 ml) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hrs, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give N’- [l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -2,6- dioxo-1 ,2,3, 6-tetrahydro-pyrimidin-4-yl] -N,N-dimethyl-formamidine 76 (188 g, yield 92%) as yellow crystals.

Step 5 Synthesis of 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -6- methylamino- lH-pyrimidine-2 ,4-dione

Figure imgf000154_0001

76 52 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to t-butanol-ethanol [2:1 (volume ratio) , 250 ml] was added sodium borohydride (6.41 g) , and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr. Under water-cooling, N’- [l-cyclopropyl-3- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -2 ,6- dioxo-1 ,2,3, 6-tetrahydro-pyrimidin-4-yl] -N,N-dimethy1-formamidine 76 (50.0 g) was added, and the mixture was stirred for 2.5 hrs. Under water-cooling, water (225 ml) and 10% aqueous citric acid solution (175 ml) were successively added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred for 3 hrs . The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give crude crystals (34.5 g, LC purity 91%) of 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -6- methylamino- lH-pyrimidine-2 ,4-dione 52, which were used for the next reaction without purification. Step 6 Synthesis of 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -5- hydroxy-6 , 8-dimethyl-lH, 8H-pyrido [2 , 3-d] pyrimidine-2 ,4 ,7-trione

Figure imgf000154_0002

Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro- 4-iodo-phenyl) -6-methylamino-lH-pyrimidine-2, -dione 52 (34.4 g) and 2-methyl-malonic acid 54 (15.2 g) was added acetic anhydride (34.4 ml) , and the mixture was stirred with heating at 100°C for 3 hrs. After allowing to cool to 50°C, acetone (68.8 ml) was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred as it was for 30 min. Water (172 ml) was further added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hr. After allowing to cool to room temperature with stirring, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give crude crystals (37.7 g, LC purity 91%) of 3- cyclopropyl-1- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -5-hydroxy-6 , 8-dimethyl- lH,8H-pyrido [2 ,3-d] pyrimidine-2 ,4 ,7-trione 55. Isopropanol (92.0 ml) was added to the obtained crude crystals (30.7 g) , and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hrs . The crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -5-hydroxy-6 , 8-dimethyl-lH, 8H-pyrido [2 ,3- d] pyrimidine-2 ,4 ,7-trione 55 (25.9 g, yield from 76, 58%) as pale-yellow crystals.

Step 7 Synthesis of p-toluenesulfonic acid 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2- fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7,8- hexahydro-pyrido [2 , 3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl ester

Figure imgf000155_0001

55 11 77 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro- 4-iodo-phenyl) -5-hydroxy-6 ,8-dimethyl-lH,8H-pyrido [2,3- d] pyrimidine-2 ,4,7-trione 55 (23.9 g) was added acetonitrile (167 ml) , and the mixture was stirred under ice-cooling. Triethylamine (11.0 ml) and trimethylamine hydrochloride (2.37 g) were added, and a solution of p-toluenesulfonyl chloride 11 (12.3 g) in acetonitrile (72.0 ml) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred under ice-cooling for 1 hr, and stirred at room temperature for 3 hrs. Methanol (239 ml) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hr. The crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give p-toluenesulfonic acid 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 ,4,7- trioxo-1 ,2,3,4,7, 8-hexahydro-pyrido [2 ,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl ester 77 (28.7 g, yield 91%) as colorless crystals.

Step 8 Synthesis of N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo- phenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4 , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7, 8-hexahydro- pyrido [2 ,3-d]pyrimidin-5-ylamino] -phenyl}-acetamide

Figure imgf000156_0001

To p-toluenesulfonic acid 3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo- phenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 ,4,7- trioxo-1 ,2,3,4,7, 8-hexahydro- pyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-yl ester 77 (28.0 g) and 3′- aminoacetanilide 57 (13.2 g) were added N,N-dimethylacetamide (84.0 ml) and 2,6-lutidine (15.3 ml), and the mixture was stirred at 130°C for 4 hrs. After allowing to cool with stirring, methanol (196 ml) was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature. The crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-l- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) – 6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7, 8-hexahydro-pyrido [2,3- d]pyrimidin-5-ylamino] -phenyl}-acetamide 58 (25.2 g, yield 93%) as colorless crystals. Step 9 Synthesis of N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4-iodo- phenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 ,4 , 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro-2H- pyrido [4 ,3-d] pyrimidin-1-yl] -phenyl}-acetamide

Figure imgf000156_0002

58 59 Under a nitrogen atmosphere, to N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-l- (2- fluoro-4-iodo-phenyl) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 ,4 , 7-trioxo-l ,2,3,4,7,8- hexahydro-pyrido [2 ,3-d]pyrimidin-5-ylamino] -phenyl }-acetamide 58 (45.7 g) was added tetrahydrofuran (366 ml), and a solution (15.7 g) of 28% sodium methoxide in methanol was added dropwise with stirring at room temperature and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hrs. Acetic acid (5.61 ml) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. With stirring at 70°C in an oil bath, water (366 ml) was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hr. After allowing to cool with stirring, the crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give crystal 1 (46.0 g) of N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4- iodo-phenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 ,4 , 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6, 7-tetrahydro- 2H-pyrido [4 , 3-d]pyrimidin-1-yl] -phenyl}-acetamide 59. N,N-Dimethylacetamide (184 ml) was added to crystal 1 (46.0 g) , and the mixture was stirred with heating at 130°C. After complete dissolution, the solution was filtered by suction using with paper (5B) , and washed with N,N-dimethylacetamide (92.0 ml).

The filtrate was stirred under heating at 130°C, 1-butanol (138 ml) and water (96.0 ml) were successively added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred for 30 min. Water (46.0 ml) was further added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred for 30 min allowed to cool with stirring. The crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give crystal 2 (41.7 g) of N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2- fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , , 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6,7- tetrahydro-2H-pyrido [ ,3-d]pyrimidin-l-yl] -phenyl}-acetamide 59 as colorless crystals. To crystal 2 (41.5 g) was added 1-butanol-water [19:1 (volume ratio) , 415 ml] , and the mixture was stirred at 130°C for 18 hrs. After allowing to cool with stirring, the crystals were collected by filtration and dried to give N-{3- [3-cyclopropyl-5- (2-fluoro-4-iodo-phenylamino) -6 , 8-dimethyl-2 , 4 , 7-trioxo-3 ,4,6,7- tetrahydro-2H-pyrido [4 ,3-d]pyrimidin-1-yl] -phenyl}-acetamide 59 (40.7 g, yield 89%) as colorless crystals

References

Combination Small Molecule MEK and PI3K Inhibition Enhances Uveal Melanoma Cell Death in a Mutant GNAQ- and GNA11-Dependent Manner.
Khalili JS et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Aug 15;18(16):4345-55. PMID: 22733540.

Comprehensive predictive biomarker analysis for MEK inhibitor GSK1120212.
Jing J et al. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Mar;11(3):720-9. PMID: 22169769.

Antitumor activities of JTP-74057 (GSK1120212), a novel MEK1/2 inhibitor, on colorectal cancer cell lines in vitro and in vivo.
Yamaguchi T et al. Int J Oncol. 2011 Jul;39(1):23-31. PMID: 21523318.

GSK1120212 (JTP-74057) is an inhibitor of MEK activity and activation with favorable pharmacokinetic properties for sustained in vivo pathway inhibition.
Gilmartin AG et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Mar 1;17(5):989-1000. PMID: 21245089.

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nmr5

FDA Approves Tafinlar (dabrafenib mesylate, GSK 2118436) for Advanced Melanoma


DABRAFENIB

1195765-45-7

Benzenesulfonamide, N-​[3-​[5-​(2-​amino-​4-​pyrimidinyl)​-​2-​(1,​1-​dimethylethyl)​-​4-​thiazolyl]​-​2-​fluorophenyl]​-​2,​6-​difluoro-

N-{3-[5-(2-Amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

MW 519.56

MF C23 H20 F3 N5 O2 S2

  • Dabarefenib
  • Dabrafenib
  • GSK 2118436
  • Tafinlar

Dabrafenib (trade name Tafinlar) is a drug for the treatment of cancers associated with a mutated version of the gene BRAF. Dabrafenib acts as an inhibitor of the associated enzyme B-Raf, which plays a role in the regulation of cell growth. Dabrafenib has clinical activity with a manageable safety profile in clinical trials of phase 1 and 2 in patients with BRAF(V600)-mutated metastatic melanoma.[1][2]

The Food and Drug Administration approved dabrafenib as a single agent treatment for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive advanced melanoma on May 30, 2013.[3] Clinical trial data demonstrated that resistance to dabrafinib and other BRAF inhibitors occurs within 6 to 7 months.[4] To overcome this resistance, the BRAF inhibitor dabrafenib was combined with the MEK inhibitor trametinib.[4] As a result of this research, on January 8, 2014, the FDA approved the combination of dabrafenib and trametinib for the treatment of patients with BRAF V600E/K-mutant metastatic melanoma.[5]

Inhibitor of BRAF(V600) mutants

May 29, 2013 — GlaxoSmithKline plc announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Tafinlar (dabrafenib). Tafinlar is indicated as a single-agent oral treatment for unresectable melanoma (melanoma that cannot be removed by surgery) or metastatic melanoma (melanoma which has spread to other parts of the body) in adult patients with BRAF V600E mutation. Tafinlar is not indicated for the treatment of patients with wild-type BRAF melanoma. The mutation must be detected by an FDA-approved test, such as the companion diagnostic assay from bioMérieux S.A., THxID™-BRAF.

Among those with metastatic melanoma, approximately half have a BRAF mutation, which is an abnormal change in a gene that can enable some melanoma tumours to grow and spread

Tafinlar is approved for patients with the BRAF V600E mutation, which accounts for approximately 85 percent of all BRAF V600 mutations in metastatic melanoma.

GSK will be making Tafinlar available for prescription no later than in the early third quarter of 2013.

In 2010, GSK entered a collaboration with bioMérieux to develop a companion diagnostic test to detect BRAF V600 (V600E and V600K) gene mutations found in several cancers, including melanoma. bioMérieux has received FDA pre-market approval of THxID™-BRAF. Currently, it is the only FDA-approved test that detects the V600K mutation.

The primary outcome measure was the estimation of the overall intracranial response rate (OIRR) in each cohort. The OIRR for Cohort A was 18 percent (95% CI: 9.7, 28.2). For Cohort B, the OIRR was also 18 percent (95% CI: 9.9, 30.0). The median duration of response was 4.6 months (95% CI: 2.8, Not Reached) and 4.6 months (95% CI: 1.9, 4.6) in Cohort A and Cohort B, respectively.

Melanoma is the most serious and deadly form of skin cancer. According to statistics from the National Cancer Institute, in 2013 there will be an estimated 9,480 deaths resulting from melanoma in the United States. When melanoma spreads in the body, the disease is called metastatic melanoma.Approximately half of all people with metastatic melanoma have a BRAF mutation, which is an abnormal change in a gene that can enable some melanoma tumours to grow and spread. One in two patients worldwide with metastatic melanoma is expected to survive for a year after diagnosis, while in the U.S., the five-year survival rate was 16 percent (2003-2009).The median age of a newly diagnosed metastatic melanoma patient is almost a decade younger than other cancers.

Tafinlar (dabrafenib) is now approved for the treatment of adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation as detected by an FDA-approved test. Limitation of use: Tafinlar is not recommended for use in patients with wild-type BRAF melanoma.

Tafinlar is not approved or licensed in Europe and may not be approved in other parts of the world for the treatment of patients with BRAF V600 mutation-positive unresectable melanoma or metastatic melanoma.

Dabrafenib mesylate is a kinase inhibitor. The chemical name for dabrafenib mesylate is N-{3-[5-(2-Amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzene sulfonamide, methanesulfonate salt. It has the molecular formula C23H20F3N5O2S2•CH4O3S and a molecular weight of 615.68. Dabrafenib mesylate has the following chemical structure:

TAFINLAR (dabrafenib) Structural Formula Illustration

Dabrafenib mesylate is a white to slightly colored solid with three pKas: 6.6, 2.2, and -1.5. It is very slightly soluble at pH 1 and practically insoluble above pH 4 in aqueous media.

TAFINLAR (dabrafenib) capsules are supplied as 50-mg and 75-mg capsules for oral administration. Each 50-mg capsule contains 59.25 mg dabrafenib mesylate equivalent to 50 mg of dabrafenib free base. Each 75-mg capsule contains 88.88 mg dabrafenib mesylate equivalent to 75 mg of dabrafenib free base.

The inactive ingredients of TAFINLAR are colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose. Capsule shells contain hypromellose, red iron oxide (E172), and titanium dioxide (E171).

Dabrafenib mesylate

1195768-06-9 cas of mesylate

N-[3-[5-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)-2-tert-butyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl]-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide;methanesulfonic acid

Chemical structure

Dabrafenib Mesylate (GSK-2118436)

………………….

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2009137391A2?cl=en

WO 2009137391

Example 58a: Λ/-{3-r5-(2-Amino-4-pyrimidinylV2-(1.1-dimethylethylV1.3-thiazol-4-yll-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

Following a procedure analogous to the procedure described in Example 51, Step B using Λ/-{3-[5-(2-chloro-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (196 mg, 0.364 mmol) and ammonia in methanol 7M (8 ml, 56.0 mmol) and heating to 90 0C for 24 h, the title compound, Λ/-{3- [5-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6- difluorobenzenesulfonamide was obtained (94 mg, 47% yield). 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.83 (s, 1 H), 7.93 (d, J=5.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.55 – 7.70 (m, 1 H), 7.35 –

7.43 (m, 1 H), 7.31 (t, J=6.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.14 – 7.27 (m, 3 H), 6.70 (s, 2 H), 5.79 (d, J=5.13 Hz, 1 H), 1.35 (s, 9 H). MS (ESI): 519.9 [M+H]+.

Example 58b: Λ/-{3-r5-(2-Amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yll-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

19.6 mg of Λ/-{3-[5-(2-Amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (may be prepared in accordance with example 58a) was combined with 500 μl_ of ethyl acetate in a 2-mL vial at room temperature. The slurry was temperature-cycled between 0-400C for 48 hrs. The resulting slurry was allowed to cool to room temperature and the solids were collected by vacuum filtration. The solids were analyzed by Raman, PXRD, DSC/TGA analyses, which indicated a crystal form different from the crystal form resulting from Example 58a, above. Example 58c: Λ/-{3-r5-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinylV2-(1.1-dimethylethylV1.3-thiazol-4-yll-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

Step A: methyl 3-{[(2,6-difluorophenyl)sulfonyl]amino}-2-fluorobenzoate

Methyl 3-amino-2-fluorobenzoate (50 g, 1 eq) was charged to reactor followed by dichloromethane (250 ml_, 5 vol). The contents were stirred and cooled to ~15°C and pyridine (26.2 ml_, 1.1 eq) was added. After addition of the pyridine, the reactor contents were adjusted to ~15°C and the addition of 2,6-diflurorobenzenesulfonyl chloride (39.7 ml_, 1.0 eq) was started via addition funnel. The temperature during addition was kept <25°C. After complete addition, the reactor contents were warmed to 20-250C and held overnight. Ethyl acetate (150 ml.) was added and dichloromethane was removed by distillation. Once distillation was complete, the reaction mixture was then diluted once more with ethyl acetate (5 vol) and concentrated. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (10 vol) and water (4 vol) and the contents heated to 50- 55°C with stirring until all solids dissolve. The layers were settled and separated. The organic layer was diluted with water (4 vol) and the contents heated to 50-55° for 20-30 min. The layers were settled and then separated and the ethyl acetate layer was evaporated under reduced pressure to ~3 volumes. Ethyl Acetate (5 vol.) was added and again evaporated under reduced pressure to ~3 volumes. Cyclohexane (9 vol) was then added to the reactor and the contents were heated to reflux for 30 min then cooled to 0 0C. The solids were filtered and rinsed with cyclohexane (2 x 100 ml_). The solids were air dried overnight to obtain methyl 3-{[(2,6-difluorophenyl)sulfonyl]amino}-2- fluorobenzoate (94.1 g, 91 %).

Step B: Λ/-{3-[(2-chloro-4-pyrimidinyl)acetyl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6- difluorobenzenesulfonamide

Methyl 3-{[(2,6-difluorophenyl)sulfonyl]amino}-2-fluorobenzoate (490 g, 1 equiv.), prepared generally in accordance with Step A, above, was dissolved in THF (2.45 L, 5 vols) and stirred and cooled to 0-3 0C. 1 M lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in THF (5.25 L, 3.7 equiv.) solution was charged to the reaction mixture followed addition of 2-chloro-4- methylpyrimidine (238 g, 1.3 equiv.) in THF (2.45 L, 5 vols). The reaction was then stirred for 1 hr. The reaction was quenched with 4.5M HCI (3.92 L, 8 vols). The aqueous layer (bootom layer) was removed and discarded. The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure to ~2L. IPAC (isopropyl acetate) (2.45L) was added to the reaction mixture which was then concentrated to ~2L. IPAC (0.5L) and MTBE (2.45 L) was added and stirred overnight under N2. The solids were filtered. The solids and mother filtrate added back together and stirred for several hours. The solids were filtered and washed with MTBE (~5 vol). The solids were placed in vacuum oven at 50 0C overnight. The solids were dried in vacuum oven at 30 0C over weekend to obtain Λ/-{3-[(2-chloro-4-pyrimidinyl)acetyl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6- difluorobenzenesulfonamide (479 g, 72%).

Step C: Λ/-{3-[5-(2-chloro-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

To a reactor vessel was charged Λ/-{3-[(2-chloro-4-pyrimidinyl)acetyl]-2-fluorophenyl}- 2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (30 g, 1 eq) followed by dichloromethane (300 ml_). The reaction slurry was cooled to ~10°C and N-bromosuccinimide (“NBS”) (12.09 g, 1 eq) was added in 3 approximately equal portions, stirring for 10-15 minutes between each addition. After the final addition of NBS, the reaction mixture was warmed to ~20°C and stirred for 45 min . Water (5 vol) was then added to the reaction vessel and the mixture was stirred and then the layers separated. Water (5 vol) was again added to the dichloromethane layer and the mixture was stirred and the layers separated. The dichloromethane layers were concentrated to -120 ml_. Ethyl acetate (7 vol) was added to the reaction mixture and concentrated to -120 ml_. Dimethylacetamide (270 ml.) was then added to the reaction mixture and cooled to -1O0C. 2,2-Dimethylpropanethioamide (1.3 g, 0.5 eq) in 2 equal portions was added to the reactor contents with stirring for -5 minutes between additions. The reaction was warmed to 20-25 0C. After 45 min, the vessel contents were heated to 75°C and held for 1.75 hours . The reaction mixture was then cooled to 5°C and water (270 ml) was slowly charged keeping the temperature below 300C. Ethyl acetate (4 vol) was then charged and the mixture was stirred and layers separated. Ethyl acetate (7 vol) was again charged to the aqueous layer and the contents were stirred and separated. Ethyl acetate (7 vol) was charged again to the aqueous layer and the contents were stirred and separated. The organic layers were combined and washed with water (4 vol) 4 times and stirred overnight at 20-250C. The organic layers were then concentrated under heat and vacuum to 120 ml_. The vessel contents were then heated to 500C and heptanes (120 ml.) were added slowly. After addition of heptanes, the vessel contents were heated to reflux then cooled to 0°C and held for -2 hrs. The solids were filtered and rinsed with heptanes (2 x 2 vol). The solid product was then dried under vacuum at 300C to obtain Λ/-{3-[5-(2-chloro-4-pyrimidinyl)- 2-(1 , 1 -dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (28.8 g, 80%).

Step D: Λ/-{3-[5-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide

In 1 gal pressure reactor, a mixture of Λ/-{3-[5-(2-chloro-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 ,1- dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (120 g) prepared in accordance with Step C, above, and ammonium hydroxide (28-30%, 2.4 L, 20 vol) was heated in the sealed pressure reactor to 98-103 0C and stirred at this temperature for 2 hours. The reaction was cooled slowly to room temperature (20 0C) and stirred overnight. The solids were filtered and washed with minimum amount of the mother liquor and dried under vacuum. The solids were added to a mixture of EtOAc (15 vol)/ water (2 vol) and heated to complete dissolution at 60-70 0C and the aqueous layer was removed and discarded. The EtOAC layer was charged with water (1 vol) and neutralized with aq. HCI to ~pH 5.4-5.5. and added water (1vol). The aqueous layer was removed and discarded at 60-70 0C. The organic layer was washed with water (1 vol) at 60-70 0C and the aqueous layer was removed and discarded. The organic layer was filtered at 60 0C and concentrated to 3 volumes. EtOAc (6 vol) was charged into the mixture and heated and stirred at 72 0C for 10 min , then cooled to 2O0C and stirred overnight. EtOAc was removed via vacuum distillation to concentrate the reaction mixture to ~3 volumes. The reaction mixture was maintained at -65-7O0C for ~30mins. Product crystals having the same crystal form as those prepared in Example 58b (and preparable by the procedure of Example 58b), above, in heptanes slurry were charged. Heptane (9 vol) was slowly added at 65-70 0C. The slurry was stirred at 65-70 0C for 2-3 hours and then cooled slowly to 0-50C. The product was filtered, washed with EtOAc/heptane (3/1 v/v, 4 vol) and dried at 45°C under vacuum to obtain Λ/-{3-[5-(2- amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 , 1 -dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6- difluorobenzenesulfonamide (102.3 g, 88%).

Example 58d: Λ/-{3-r5-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinvn-2-(1.1-dimethylethylV1.3-thiazol-4-yll-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide methanesulfonate

Figure imgf000208_0001 MESYLATE

To a solution of Λ/-{3-[5-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1 ,1-dimethylethyl)-1 ,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2- fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide (204 mg, 0.393 mmol) in isopropanol (2 ml_), methanesulfonic acid (0.131 ml_, 0.393 mmol) was added and the solution was allowed to stir at room temperature for 3 hours. A white precipitate formed and the slurry was filtered and rinsed with diethyl ether to give the title product as a white crystalline solid (210 mg, 83% yield).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.85 (s, 1 H) 7.92 – 8.05 (m, 1 H) 7.56 – 7.72 (m, 1 H) 6.91 – 7.50 (m, 7 H) 5.83 – 5.98 (m, 1 H) 2.18 – 2.32 (m, 3 H) 1.36 (s, 9 H). MS (ESI): 520.0 [M+H]+.

…………………………………………………………………

PAPER

ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2013), 4(3), 358-362.

ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2013, 4 (3), pp 358–362
DOI: 10.1021/ml4000063

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ml4000063

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ml4000063/suppl_file/ml4000063_si_001.pdf

Figure
The title compound,N-{3-[5-(2-amino-4-pyrimidinyl)-2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenze
nesulfonamide was obtained (94 mg, 47% yield).
1H NMR
(400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.83 (s, 1 H), 7.93 (d,J=5.2 Hz, 1 H), 7.55 – 7.70 (m, 1 H), 7.35 – 7.43 (m, 1 H), 7.31(t,J=6.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.14 – 7.27 (m, 3 H), 6.70 (s, 2 H),5.79 (d,J=5.13 Hz, 1 H), 1.35 (s, 9 H).
MS (ESI): 519.9 [M+H]+.
13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 182.1, 164.0, 160.6, 159.4, 158.0, 154.9,
152.4, 145.8, 136.6, 135.1, 130.0,
128.4, 125.6, 124.7, 114.1, 113.9, 105.7, 38.3, 31.0.

…………………………………………………………….

Patent

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014158467A1?cl=en

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WO 2014066606
……………………………………….
WO 2014195852
………………………………………….
WO 2014169770
…………………………………………….
CN 104109159
…………………………………………….
CN 103588767

Dara Phoenix (Dabrafenib) by the British GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has developed Sisu threonine protein kinase (BRAF) inhibitor, as monotherapy ro ー kinds of clothes capsules for carrying BRAF V600E mutation surgical unresectable melanoma or metastatic melanoma treatment of adult patients, Dara Phoenix mesylate in May 2013 was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and is listed on the United States, the trade name Tafinlar (Da Feina). Since the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Committee for Medicinal Products for human use (CHMP) positive evaluation of Tafinlar, making the drug is expected to become after Roche’s Weiluofeini (Vemurafinib) to enter the European market, following a second BRAF inhibitors.

The chemical name Phoenix Dallas: N- [3- [5- (2- amino-4-pyrimidinyl) -2_ (tert-butyl) ~ ~ thiazol-4-yl] _2_ fluorophenyl] – 2,6_-difluorobenzenesulfonamide.

Figure CN103588767AD00031

World Patent No. W02009137391, No. W02011047238 and W02012148588 number reported Dallas and Phoenix and its medicinal value synthesis method of the composition. According to the structural characteristics of Dara Phoenix and its analogues, the synthesis of such substances currently have A, B and C are three routes.

Figure CN103588767AD00032

  A more common route is the synthetic route, by reaction of 3-amino-2-fluorobenzoate (IX) first and 2,6_-difluorobenzene sulfonyl chloride (III) to amidation reaction occurs sulfonamide intermediate ( X); intermediate (X) with 2-chloro-4-methyl pyrimidine (XI) The condensation reaction occurs under the action of a strong base to give the intermediate (XII); intermediate (XII) to give the intermediate bromo

(XIII); intermediate (XIII) with 2,2_ dimethyl thiopropionamide (VI) to give the cyclized intermediate (XIV); and finally, the intermediate (XIV) by ammonolysis to afford the title compound Dallas Phoenix (I).

Figure CN103588767AD00041

Different [0009] B is the first route by reaction of 3-amino-2-fluorobenzoate (IX) amino group protection, and thus condensation, cyclization, and bromo; then be obtained by deprotection of the amino group and the sulfonamide Intermediate (XIV); similarly, the intermediate

(XIV) obtained by ammonolysis target compound Dara Phoenix (I).

Figure CN103588767AD00042

  c route design features that first aminolysis reaction, and then give the desired product by deprotection and amino sulfonamide reaction. Clearly, this design is suitable for the route of these substituted amino ー aminolysis reaction, and for compounds such as Dallas Phoenix having pyrimidinylamino structure is not applicable. The reason is that if there are two aromatic amino groups will make the final sulfonamide ー reaction step to lose selectivity.

Example IV: the reaction flask was added N- [3- (5- formyl-2-t-butyl-ko -4_ thiazolyl) -2_ fluorophenyl] -2,6_ difluoro benzenesulfonamide (VIII) (5.4g, 11.5mmol), N, N- dimethylformamide dimethyl acetal (DMF-DMA) (2.74g, 23mmol) and xylene 50mL, heated to 140 ° C. About every four hours methanol was distilled out of the resulting reaction system, the reaction takes about 24 hours in total, the end of the reaction was detected by TLC. Cool, add hexane 40mL, have produced a yellow solid, filtered, and dried solids obtained after January nitrate melon (1.36,11.5mmol), sodium hydroxide (0.46g, 11.5mmol) and n-Ding enjoy 5OmL, warmed to 120 ° C, The reaction for 12 inches, TLC the reaction was complete. Cooling, with a crystal precipitated crystallized slowly for 3 inches, and filtered. The filter cake starched water, filtered and dried to yield an off-white solid Dara Phoenix (I) 3.58g, yield 60%.

………………………………………………….
WO 2014193898

References

“Dabrafenib/Trametinib Combination Approved for Advanced Melanoma”. OncLive. January 9, 2013.

Dabrafenib
Dabrafenib.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-{3-[5-(2-aminopyrimidin-4-yl)-2-tert-butyl-1,3-thiazol-4-yl]-2-fluorophenyl}-2,6-difluorobenzenesulfonamide
Clinical data
Trade names Tafinlar
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS number 1195765-45-7
ATC code L01XE23
PubChem CID 44462760
ChemSpider 25948204
ChEBI CHEBI:75045
ChEMBL CHEMBL2028663
Chemical data
Formula C23H20F3N5O2S2 
Molecular mass 519.56 g/mol

AYURVEDA-Yograj and Mahayograj Guggul are very famous Ayurvedic medicines used mainly in the treatment of arthritis. Though the names are quite similar, there are many differences between the two.


 

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Commiphora wightii resin (guggul)

Guggul has been a key component in ancient Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine. But has become so scarce because of its overuse in its two habitats in India where it is found — Gujarat and Rajasthan that the World Conservation Union (IUCN) has enlisted it in its Red Data List of endangered species.

Guggul produces a resinous sap known as gum guggul. The extract of this gum, called gugulipid, guggulipid or guglipid, has been used in UNANI & Ayurvedic medicine, a traditional UNANI medicine, for nearly 3,000 years in India.The active ingredient in the extract is the steroid guggulsterone, which acts as an antagonist of the farnesoid X receptor, once believed to result in decreased cholesterol synthesis in the liver. However, several studies have been published that indicate no overall reduction in total cholesterol occurs using various dosages of guggulsterone, and levels of low-density lipoprotein (“bad cholesterol”) increased in many people.

Cultivation and other uses

Guggul is sought for its gummy resin, which is harvested from the plant’s bark through the process of tapping. In India and Pakistan, guggul is cultivated commercially. The resin of the guggul plant, known as gum guggulu, has a fragrance similar to that of myrrh and is commonly used in incense and perfumes. It is the same product that was known in Hebrew, ancient Greek and Latin sources as bdellium.

Guggul can be purchased in a loosely packed form called dhoop, an incense from India, which is burned over hot coals. This produces a fragrant, dense smoke. The burning coals which let out the smoke are then carried around to different rooms and held in all corners for a few seconds. This is said to drive away evil spirits as well as remove the evil eye from the home and its family members.

Endangerment and rescue

‘Save Guggul Movement’ in Rajasthan, India

Because of its medicinal properties, guggul has been overharvested in much of its habitat, and has been listed on the IUCN Red List of threatened species.[4] Several efforts are in place to address this situation. India’s National Medicinal Plants Board launched a project in Kutch District to cultivate 500 to 800 hectares (1,200 to 2,000 acres) of guggal,while a grass-roots conservation movement, led by IUCN associate Vineet Soni, has been started to educate guggal growers and harvesters in safe, sustainable harvesting methods.

Commiphora wightii (Guggal, Guggul or Mukul myrrh tree) is a flowering plant in the family Burseraceae. The guggul plant may be found from northern Africa to central Asia, but is most common in northern India. It prefers arid and semi-arid climates and is tolerant of poor soil.

It is a shrub or small tree, reaching a maximum height of 4 m, with thin papery bark. The branches are thorny. The leaves are simple or trifoliate, the leaflets ovate, 1–5 cm long, 0.5–2.5 cm broad, irregularly toothed. It is gynodioecious, with some plants bearing bisexual and male flowers, and others with female flowers. The individual flowers are red to pink, with four small petals.

Top Japanese Pharmaceutical Companies and Their Pipelines 2011


http://www.pharmalive.com/special-report/top-japanese-pharmaceutical-companies-and-their-pipelines-2011

AstraZeneca to Acquire Omthera Pharmaceuticals in $443M Deal


http://www.pharmalive.com/astrazeneca-to-acquire-omthera-pharmaceuticals-in-443m-deal

European Commission Approves Stribild, a New Single Tablet Regimen for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection


May. 28, 2013– Gilead Sciences, Inc.  today announced that the European Commission has granted marketing authorization for Stribild® (elvitegravir 150 mg/cobicistat 150 mg/emtricitabine 200 mg/tenofovir disoproxil (as fumarate) 245 mg),

a single tablet regimen for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults who are antiretroviral treatment-naïve or are infected with HIV-1 without known mutations associated with resistance to any of the three antiretroviral agents in Stribild.

This approval allows for the marketing of Stribild in all 27 countries of the European Union.

 


India: new strategy to boost pharma exports


India: new strategy to boost pharma exports

READ ALL AT

http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-05-28/India_new_strategy_to_boost_pharma_exports.aspx

  

TSRI develops new technique for finding therapeutic antibodies


TSRI develops new technique for finding therapeutic antibodies

Scientists at Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) in California, US have come up with a new technique for identifying antibodies with therapeutic effects.

READ MORE AT

http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newstsri-develops-new-technique-for-finding-therapeutic-antibodies?WT.mc_id=DN_News

Astellas Pharma and Medivation have announced the submission of application for marketing approval of enzalutamide in Japan for the treatment of prostate cancer


enzalutamide

read all at

http://regulatoryaffairs.pharmaceutical-business-review.com/news/astellas-submits-marketing-application-of-enzalutamide-in-japan-270513

Enzalutamide, 20128.31FDA-approved treatment for advanced prostate cancer drugs. Enzalutamide the androgen receptor antagonist for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (castration-ressitant prostate cancer). Enzalutamide Medivation developed by the trade name Xtandi.
Enzalutamide synthesis of amino acids by the compounds 1 and 2 obtained by the Ullmann coupling with methyl esterification of 3,3 isothiocyanate 4 (can be retrieved by the corresponding aniline and phosgene prepared sulfur) cyclization Enzalutamide

Prostate cancer is a threat to men’s health killer, according to incomplete statistics, their deaths after lung cancer. Metastatic prostate cancer refers to cancer cells by the prostate and surrounding tissue spread to other tissues or organs. Metastatic prostate cancer is usually divided into two phases: hormone sensitive period (the hormone-sensitive state) and castration tolerant phase (the castration-resistant state). Testosterone (testosterone) and other male hormones can provide nourishment prostate cancer cell growth.

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