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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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DEUCRAVACITINIB


CID 134821691.png
Deucravacitinib Chemical Structure
2D chemical structure of 1609392-27-9

DEUCRAVACITINIB

BMS-986165

CAS 1609392-27-9, C20H22N8O3, 425.46

6-(cyclopropanecarbonylamino)-4-[2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)anilino]-N-(trideuteriomethyl)pyridazine-3-carboxamide

6-(cyclopropanecarboxamido)-4-((2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)phenyl)amino)-N-(methyl-d3)pyridazine-3-carboxamide

Tyk2-IN-4

UNII-N0A21N6RAU

N0A21N6RAU

GTPL10432

EX-A3154

BDBM50507816

NSC825520

s8879

  • OriginatorBristol-Myers Squibb
  • ClassAmides; Aniline compounds; Anti-inflammatories; Antipsoriatics; Antirheumatics; Cyclopropanes; Ethers; Hepatoprotectants; Organic deuterium compounds; Pyridazines; Skin disorder therapies; Small molecules; Triazoles
  • Mechanism of ActionTYK2 kinase inhibitors
  • Phase IIIPlaque psoriasis
  • Phase IICrohn’s disease; Lupus nephritis; Psoriatic arthritis; Systemic lupus erythematosus; Ulcerative colitis
  • Phase IAutoimmune disorders
  • No development reportedInflammatory bowel diseases; Psoriasis
  • 02 Jul 2021Bristol-Myers Squibb plans a phase I pharmacokinetics trial (In volunteers) in USA (PO, Tablet) in July 2021 (NCT04949269)
  • 14 Jun 2021Bristol-Myers Squibb plans a phase III trial for Psoriatic arthritis (Treatment-naïve) in USA, Brazil, Colombia, Czech republic, Hungary, Italy, Mexico, Romania, Spain and Taiwan in July 2021 (NCT04908202) (EudraCT2020-005097-10)
  • 02 Jun 2021Interim efficacy and adverse events data from the phase III POETYK-PSO-1 trial in Psoriatic psoriasis presented at the 22nd Annual Congress of the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR-2021)

BMS , presumed to be in collaboration with Jinan University and Chinese Academy of Sciences , is developing deucravacitinib, a TYK2 inhibitor, for treating autoimmune diseases, primarily psoriasis. In July 2021, deucravacitinib was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development.

Deucravacitinib (BMS-986165) is a highly selective, orally bioavailable allosteric TYK2 inhibitor for the treatment of autoimmune diseases, which selectively binds to TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain (IC50=1.0 nM) and blocks receptor-mediated Tyk2 activation by stabilizing the regulatory JH2 domain. Deucravacitinib inhibits IL-12/23 and type I IFN pathways.

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.9b00444

Abstract Image

Small molecule JAK inhibitors have emerged as a major therapeutic advancement in treating autoimmune diseases. The discovery of isoform selective JAK inhibitors that traditionally target the catalytically active site of this kinase family has been a formidable challenge. Our strategy to achieve high selectivity for TYK2 relies on targeting the TYK2 pseudokinase (JH2) domain. Herein we report the late stage optimization efforts including a structure-guided design and water displacement strategy that led to the discovery of BMS-986165 (11) as a high affinity JH2 ligand and potent allosteric inhibitor of TYK2. In addition to unprecedented JAK isoform and kinome selectivity, 11 shows excellent pharmacokinetic properties with minimal profiling liabilities and is efficacious in several murine models of autoimmune disease. On the basis of these findings, 11 appears differentiated from all other reported JAK inhibitors and has been advanced as the first pseudokinase-directed therapeutic in clinical development as an oral treatment for autoimmune diseases.

Bristol Myers Squibb Presents Positive Data from Two Pivotal Phase 3 Psoriasis Studies Demonstrating Superiority of Deucravacitinib Compared to Placebo and Otezla® (apremilast)

04/23/2021.. https://news.bms.com/news/details/2021/Bristol-Myers-Squibb-Presents-Positive-Data-from-Two-Pivotal-Phase-3-Psoriasis-Studies-Demonstrating-Superiority-of-Deucravacitinib-Compared-to-Placebo-and-Otezla-apremilast/default.aspx

Significantly more patients treated with deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 compared to patients treated with placebo and Otezla at Week 16, with an increased benefit versus Otezla at Week 24 and maintained through Week 52

Deucravacitinib was well tolerated with a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events

Deucravacitinib is a first-in-class, oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action

Results presented as late-breaking research at the 2021 American Academy of Dermatology Virtual Meeting Experience

PRINCETON, N.J.–(BUSINESS WIRE)– Bristol Myers Squibb (NYSE:BMY) today announced positive results from two pivotal Phase 3 trials evaluating deucravacitinib, an oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor, for the treatment of patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. The POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 trials, which evaluated deucravacitinib 6 mg once daily, met both co-primary endpoints versus placebo, with significantly more patients achieving Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 response and a static Physician’s Global Assessment score of clear or almost clear (sPGA 0/1) after 16 weeks of treatment with deucravacitinib. Deucravacitinib was well tolerated with a low rate of discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs).

This press release features multimedia. View the full release here: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210423005134/en(Graphic: Business Wire)

Deucravacitinib demonstrated superior skin clearance compared with Otezla® (apremilast) for key secondary endpoints in both studies, as measured by PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 responses at Week 16 and Week 24. Findings include:

PASI 75 Response in POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2:

  • At Week 16, 58.7% and 53.6% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 response, respectively, versus 12.7% and 9.4% receiving placebo and 35.1% and 40.2% receiving Otezla.
  • At Week 24, 69.0% and 59.3% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved PASI 75 response, respectively, versus 38.1% and 37.8% receiving Otezla.
  • Among patients who achieved PASI 75 response at Week 24 with deucravacitinib and continued treatment with deucravacitinib, 82.5% and 81.4%, respectively, maintained PASI 75 response at Week 52.

sPGA 0/1 Response in POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2:

  • At Week 16, 53.6% and 50.3% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved sPGA 0/1 response, respectively, versus 7.2% and 8.6% receiving placebo and 32.1% and 34.3% receiving Otezla.
  • At Week 24, 58.4% and 50.4% of patients receiving deucravacitinib achieved sPGA 0/1 response, respectively, versus 31.0% and 29.5% receiving Otezla.

“In both pivotal studies, deucravacitinib was superior to Otezla across multiple endpoints, including measures of durability and maintenance of response, suggesting that deucravacitinib has the potential to become a new oral standard of care for patients who require systemic therapy and need a better oral option for their moderate to severe plaque psoriasis,” said April Armstrong, M.D., M.P.H., Associate Dean and Professor of Dermatology at the University of Southern California. “As many patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis remain undertreated or even untreated, it is also highly encouraging to see that deucravacitinib improved patient symptoms and outcomes to a greater extent than Otezla.”

Superiority of Deucravacitinib Versus Placebo and Otezla

Deucravacitinib demonstrated a robust efficacy profile, including superiority to placebo for the co-primary endpoints and to Otezla for key secondary endpoints. In addition to PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 measures, deucravacitinib was superior to Otezla across both studies in multiple other secondary endpoints, demonstrating significant and clinically meaningful efficacy improvements in symptom burden and quality of life measures.

POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 Results at Week 16 and Week 24
EndpointPOETYK PSO-1 (n=666)POETYK PSO-2 (n=1,020)
Deucravacitinib6 mg(n=332)Otezla30 mg(n=168)Placebo(n=166)Deucravacitinib6 mg(n=511)Otezla30 mg(n=254)Placebo(n=255)
PASI 75*a
Week 1658.7%*35.1%12.7%53.6%*40.2%9.4%
Week 2469.0%38.1%59.3%37.8%
sPGA 0/1*b
Week 1653.6%*32.1%7.2%50.3%*34.3%8.6%
Week 2458.4%31.0%50.4%29.5%
(Scalp) ss-PGA 0/1c
Week 1670.8%*39.1%17.4%60.3%*37.3%17.3%
Week 2471.8%42.7%59.7%41.6%
PSSD-Symptoms CFBd
Week 16-26.7*-17.8-3.6-28.3*-21.1-4.7
Week 24-31.9-20.7-29.1-21.4
DLQI 0/1e
Week 1640.7%*28.6%10.6%38.0%*23.1%9.8%
Week 2447.8%24.2%41.8%21.5%
*Co-primary endpoints for POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 were PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 for deucravacitinib vs placebo at Week 16.
a. PASI 75 is defined as at least a 75% improvement from baseline in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. ‡p=0.0003 vs Otezla.
b. sPGA 0/1 is defined as a static Physician’s Global Assessment (sPGA) score of clear or almost clear. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.
c. ss-PGA 0/1 is defined as a scalp-specific Physician’s Global Assessment (ss-PGA) score of clear or almost clear in those with ss-PGA of at least 3 (moderate) at baseline. POETYK PSO-1: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. POETYK PSO-2: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla. ‡p=0.0002 vs Otezla.
d. Change from baseline (CFB) in Psoriasis Symptoms and Signs Diary (PSSD) captures improvement in symptoms of itch, pain, stinging, burning and skin tightness in patient eDiaries. *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.
e. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) 0/1 scores reflect no effect at all on patient’s life in patients with a baseline DLQI score of ≥2. POETYK PSO-1: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p=0.0106 vs Otezla. ‡p<0.0001 vs Otezla. POETYK PSO-2: *p<0.0001 vs placebo. †p<0.0001 vs Otezla.

Safety and Tolerability

Deucravacitinib was well-tolerated and had a similar safety profile in both trials. At Week 16, 2.9% of 419 patients on placebo, 1.8% of 842 patients on deucravacitinib and 1.2% of 422 patients on Otezla experienced serious adverse events (SAEs) across both studies. The most common AEs (≥5%) with deucravacitinib treatment at Week 16 were nasopharyngitis and upper respiratory tract infection with low rates of headache, diarrhea and nausea. At Week 16, 3.8% of patients on placebo, 2.4% of patients on deucravacitinib and 5.2% of patients on Otezla experienced AEs leading to discontinuation. Across POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 over 52 weeks, SAEs when adjusted for exposure (exposure adjusted incidence per 100 patient-years [EAIR]) were 5.7 with placebo, 5.7 with deucravacitinib and 4.0 with Otezla. In the same timeframe across both studies, EAIRs for AEs leading to discontinuation were 9.4 with placebo, 4.4 with deucravacitinib and 11.6 with Otezla. No new safety signals were observed during Weeks 16‒52.

Across both Phase 3 trials, rates of malignancy, major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), venous thromboembolism (VTE) and serious infections were low and generally consistent across active treatment groups. No clinically meaningful changes were observed in multiple laboratory parameters (including anemia, blood cells, lipids and liver enzymes) over 52 weeks.

“The findings from both studies affirm that deucravacitinib – a first-in-class, oral, selective TYK2 inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action that inhibits the IL-12, IL-23 and Type 1 IFN pathways –may become an oral treatment of choice for people living with psoriasis. We believe deucravacitinib has significant potential across a broad range of immune-mediated diseases, and we are committed to further advancing our expansive clinical program with this agent,” said Mary Beth Harler, M.D., head of Immunology and Fibrosis Development, Bristol Myers Squibb. “We are in discussions with health authorities with the goal of bringing this new therapy to appropriate patients as soon as possible. At Bristol Myers Squibb, we are committed to building an immunology portfolio that addresses pressing unmet needs that exist for those impacted by serious dermatologic conditions and other immune-mediated diseases, to ultimately deliver the promise of living a better life.”

These results are available as a late-breaking research presentation (Session S033 – Late-Breaking Research Abstracts) as part of the 2021 American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) Virtual Meeting Experience (VMX). Full results of both studies will be submitted to a medical journal for peer review. In November 2020 and February 2021, respectively, Bristol Myers Squibb announced positive topline results from POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2.

Visit www.bms.com/media/medical-meetings/bms-at-aad-vmx.html for more information on Bristol Myers Squibb’s scientific approach and resources on psoriasis and immune-mediated diseases.

About Deucravacitinib

Deucravacitinib (pronounced doo-krav-a-sih-ti-nib) is a first-in-class, oral, selective tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) inhibitor with a unique mechanism of action. Deucravacitinib is the first and only TYK2 inhibitor in clinical studies across multiple immune-mediated diseases. Bristol Myers Squibb scientists designed deucravacitinib to selectively target TYK2, thereby inhibiting signaling of interleukin (IL)-12, IL-23 and Type 1 interferon (IFN), key cytokines involved in psoriasis pathogenesis. Deucravacitinib achieves a high degree of selectivity by uniquely binding to the regulatory, rather than the active, domain of TYK2, which is structurally distinct from the regulatory domains of Janus kinase (JAK) 1, 2 and 3. At therapeutic doses, deucravacitinib does not inhibit JAK1, JAK2 or JAK3. Due to the innovative design of deucravacitinib, Bristol Myers Squibb earned recognition with the 2019 Thomas Alva Edison Patent Award for the science underpinning the clinical development of deucravacitinib.

Deucravacitinib is being studied in multiple immune-mediated diseases, including psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus and inflammatory bowel disease. In addition to POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2, Bristol Myers Squibb is evaluating deucravacitinib in three other Phase 3 studies in psoriasis: POETYK PSO-3 (NCT04167462); POETYK PSO-4 (NCT03924427); POETYK PSO-LTE (NCT04036435). Deucravacitinib is not approved for any use in any country.

About the Phase 3 POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 Studies

PrOgram to Evaluate the efficacy and safety of deucravacitinib, a selective TYK2 inhibitor (POETYK) PSO-1 (NCT03624127) and POETYK PSO-2 (NCT03611751) are global Phase 3 studies designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of deucravacitinib compared to placebo and Otezla® (apremilast) in patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Both POETYK PSO-1, which enrolled 666 patients, and POETYK PSO-2, which enrolled 1,020 patients, were multi-center, randomized, double-blind trials that evaluated deucravacitinib (6 mg once daily) compared with placebo and Otezla (30 mg twice daily). POETYK PSO-2 included a randomized withdrawal and retreatment period after Week 24.

The co-primary endpoints of both POETYK PSO-1 and POETYK PSO-2 were the percentage of patients who achieved Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 response and those who achieved static Physician’s Global Assessment (sPGA) score of 0 or 1 at Week 16 versus placebo. Key secondary endpoints of the trials included the percentage of patients who achieved PASI 75 and sPGA 0/1 compared to Otezla at Week 16 and other measures.

About Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a widely prevalent, chronic, systemic immune-mediated disease that substantially impairs patients’ physical health, quality of life and work productivity. Psoriasis is a serious global problem, with at least 100 million people worldwide impacted by some form of the disease, including around 14 million people in Europe and approximately 7.5 million people in the United States. Up to 90 percent of patients with psoriasis have psoriasis vulgaris, or plaque psoriasis, which is characterized by distinct round or oval plaques typically covered by silvery-white scales. Despite the availability of effective systemic therapy, many patients with moderate to severe psoriasis remain undertreated or even untreated and are dissatisfied with current treatments. People with psoriasis report an impact on their emotional well-being, straining both personal and professional relationships and causing a reduced quality of life. Psoriasis is associated with multiple comorbidities that may impact patients’ well-being, including psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and depression.

About Bristol Myers Squibb

Bristol Myers Squibb is a global biopharmaceutical company whose mission is to discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases. For more information about Bristol Myers Squibb, visit us at BMS.com or follow us on LinkedInTwitterYouTubeFacebook and Instagram.

Celgene and Juno Therapeutics are wholly owned subsidiaries of Bristol-Myers Squibb Company. In certain countries outside the U.S., due to local laws, Celgene and Juno Therapeutics are referred to as, Celgene, a Bristol Myers Squibb company and Juno Therapeutics, a Bristol Myers Squibb company.

Otezla® (apremilast) is a registered trademark of Amgen Inc.

PATENT

WO-2021129467

Novel crystalline polymorphic forms (CSI and CSII) of deucravacitinib (also known as BMS-986165), useful a tyrosine kinase 2 pseudokinase domain (TYK2) inhibitor for treating psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Crohn’s disease.Tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) is an intracellular signal transduction kinase that can mediate interleukin-23 (IL-23), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and type I interferon (IFN) These cytokines are involved in inflammation and immune response. 
BMS-986165 is the first and only new oral selective TYK2 inhibitor, clinically used to treat autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases (such as psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, lupus and inflammatory bowel disease, Crowe Graciousness, etc.). The results of a phase III clinical study of the drug announced in November 2020 showed that BMS-986165 has shown positive clinical effects in the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. In addition, BMS-986165 also shows good therapeutic effects in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus and Crohn’s disease. 
The chemical name of BMS-986165 is 6-(cyclopropaneamido)-4-((2-methoxy-3-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)benzene (Yl)amino)-N-(methyl-D3)pyridazine-3-carboxamide, the structural formula is shown below, and is hereinafter referred to as “compound I”: 

The crystal form is a solid in which the compound molecules are arranged in a three-dimensional order in the microstructure to form a crystal lattice. The phenomenon of drug polymorphism refers to the existence of two or more different crystal forms of the drug. Because of different physical and chemical properties, different crystal forms of the drug may have different dissolution and absorption in the body, which in turn affects the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug to a certain extent. Especially for poorly soluble solid drugs, the crystal form will have a greater impact. Therefore, drug crystal form must be an important content of drug research and also an important content of drug quality control. 
WO2018183656A1 discloses compound I crystal form A (hereinafter referred to as “crystal form A”) and a preparation method thereof. The crystalline form A disclosed in WO2018183656A1 is the only known free crystalline form of Compound I. The inventor of the present application repeated the preparation method disclosed in WO2018183656A1 to obtain and characterize the crystal form A. The results show that the crystal form A has poor compressibility and high adhesion. Therefore, there is still a need in the art to develop a compound I crystalline form with good stability, good compressibility, and low adhesion for the development of drugs containing compound I. 
The inventor of the present application has paid a lot of creative work and unexpectedly discovered the crystalline form CSI of compound I and the crystalline form CSII of compound I provided by the present invention, which have advantages in physical and chemical properties, preparation processing performance and bioavailability, for example, There are advantages in at least one aspect of melting point, solubility, hygroscopicity, purification, stability, adhesion, compressibility, fluidity, dissolution in vivo and in vitro, and bioavailability, especially good physical and chemical stability and mechanical stability It has good performance, good compressibility, and low adhesion, which solves the problems existing in the prior art, and is of great significance to the development of drugs containing compound I.

PATENT

US9505748 , a family member of WO2014074661 .

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2014074661

Preparation 1

Step l Int1

Step 2 Int2 Step 3 Int3 Step 4 Int4

Example 52

Step 1

[00219] To a solution of 2-methoxy-3-(l-methyl-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3-yl)aniline (10.26 g, 50.2 mmol) and Int8 (10.5 g, 50.2 mmol) in THF (120 mL) was added lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide (LiHMDS, 1M in THF, 151 mL, 151 mmol) in a dropwise manner using a pressure equalized addition funnel. The reaction was run for 10 minutes after the completion of the addition and then quenched with HCl (1M aq., 126 mL, 126 mmol). The reaction was concentrated on a rotary evaporator until the majority of the THF was removed and a precipitate prevailed throughout the vessel. Water (-500 mL) was then added and the slurry sonicated for 5 minutes and stirred for 15 min. The solid was filtered off, rinsing with water and then air dried for 30 minutes. The powder was collected and dissolved in dichloromethane. The organic layer was washed with water and brine and then dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to provide the product (12.5 g, 66% yield) (carried on as is). 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.11 (s, 1H), 9.36 (s, 1H), 8.56 (s, 1H), 7.72 (dd, J=7.8, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.60 (dd, J=7.9, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.29 (t, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 7.19 (s, 1H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H). LC retention time 1.18 [E]. MS(E+) m/z: 377 (MH+).

Step 2

[00220] Intl3 (2.32 g, 6.16 mmol) and cyclopropanecarboxamide (1.048 g, 12.31 mmol) were dissolved in dioxane (62 mL) and Pd2(dba)3 (564 mg, 0.616 mmol), Xantphos (534 mg, 0.924 mmol) and cesium carbonate (4.01 g, 12.3 mmol) were added. The vessel was evacuated three times (backfilling with nitrogen) and then sealed and heated to 130 °C for 140 minutes. The reaction was filtered through CELITE® (eluting with ethyl acetate) and concentrated (on smaller scale this material could then be purified using preparative HPLC). The crude product was adsorbed onto CELITE® using dichloromethane, dried and purified using automated chromatography (100% EtOAc) to provide example 52 (1.22 g, 46% yield). 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 10.99 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 8.10 (d, J=0.5 Hz, 2H), 7.81 (dd, J=7.9, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (dd, J=7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33 – 7.20 (m, 7H), 4.01 (d, J=0.3 Hz, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 1.73 -1.60 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.06 (m, 2H), 0.97 – 0.84 (m, 2H). LC retention time 6.84 [N]. MS(E+) m/z: 426 (MH+).

Example 53

[00221] To a homogeneous solution of Example 52 (50 mg, 0.12 mmol) in dichloromethane (3 mL) was added HCI (1M aq., 0.13 mL, 0.13 mmol) resulting in the solution turning yellow. The homogenous solution was concentrated down and then re-concentrated from dichloromethane twice to remove residual water, resulting in a white powder. The powder was suspended in dichloromethane and sonicated for 15 minutes, the powder was then collected via filtration, rinsing with dichloromethane to provide the corresponding HCI salt (38 mg, 70% yield). 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 12.02 (s, 1H), 8.35 (s, 1H), 8.16 (s, 1H), 8.01 (dd, J=7.9, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.57 (br. s., 1H), 7.52 -7.46 (m, 1H), 7.36 (t, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 4.03 (s, 3H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 2.05 – 1.95 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.09 (m, 2H), 1.03 (dd, J=7.4, 3.6 Hz, 2H). LC retention time 0.62 [j]. MS(E+) m/z: 426 (MH+).

[00222] Compare to NMR of parent free base: 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 10.99 (s, 1H), 8.63 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 8.10 (d, J=0.5 Hz, 2H), 7.81 (dd, J=7.9, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (dd, J=7.9, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.33 – 7.20 (m, 7H), 4.01 (d, J=0.3 Hz, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 1.73 – 1.60 (m, 1H), 1.16 – 1.06 (m, 2H), 0.97 – 0.84 (m, 2H).

////////////DEUCRAVACITINIB, phase 3, BMS-986165, BMS 986165, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn’s disease,

CNC(=O)C1=NN=C(C=C1NC2=CC=CC(=C2OC)C3=NN(C=N3)C)NC(=O)C4CC4

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

one time

$10.00

CEP 33779


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CEP-33779, CEP33779
CAS 1257704-57-6
Chemical Formula: C24H26N6O2S
Molecular Weight: 462.57
Elemental Analysis: C, 62.32; H, 5.67; N, 18.17; O, 6.92; S, 6.93

N-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)phenyl)-8-(4-(methylsulfonyl)phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-amine

PRECLINICAL Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Agents for Colorectal Cancer Therapy Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,

Jak2 Inhibitors

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Matthew A. Curry, Bruce D. Dorsey, Benjamin J. Dugan, Diane E. Gingrich, Eugen F. Mesaros, Karen L. Milkiewicz,
Applicant Cephalon, Inc.

Worldwide Discovery Research, Cephalon, Inc., 145 Brandywine Parkway, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380, United States

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Matt Curry

 Matthew A. Curry

Bruce Dorsey

Bruce Dorsey

Image result for Cephalon, Inc. Benjamin J. Dugan

Benjamin Dugan

Benjamin J. Dugan received a B.S. degree in Chemistry from the University of Delaware in 1993 under the tutelage of the late Dr. Cynthia McClure. He began his career at FMC Corporation in the agricultural products division. In 2006, he moved to Cephalon, Inc., acquired by Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. in 2011, and engaged in oncology research focused on small molecule, ATP competitive, kinase inhibitors culminating with the discovery of CEP-33779. He is currently a Research Scientist focused on the development of novel, bioactive small molecules for treatment of central nervous system disorders.

Cephalon Inc.
Malvern, United States

Image result for Cephalon, Inc. Diane E. Gingrich

Members of the Cephalon research team that discovered CEP-5214 and CEP-7055 include (from left) Hudkins, Thelma S. Angeles, Bruce A. Ruggeri, and Diane E. Gingrich. CEPHALON PHOTO

Eugen F. Mesaros

Cephalon Inc.
Malvern, United States
Image result for cephalon Karen L. Milkiewicz

Lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of activated T and B cells, autoantibodies and chronic inflammation that attacks various parts of the body including the joints, skin, kidneys, CNS, cardiac tissue and blood vessels. In severe cases, antibodies are deposited in the cells (glomeruli) of the kidneys, leading to inflammation and possibly kidney failure, a condition known as lupus nephritis.

Although the cause of lupus remains unknown, manifestations of the disease have been linked to genetic polymorphisms, environmental toxins and pathogens (Morel;

Fairhurst, Wandstrat et al. 2006). In addition, gender, hormonal influences and cytokine dysregulation have been tightly linked to the development of lupus (Aringer and Smolen 2004; Smith-Bouvier, Divekar et al. 2008). Lupus affects nine times as many women as men. It may occur at any age, but appears most often in people between the ages of 10 and 50 years. African Americans and Asians are affected more often than people from other races.

There is no cure for lupus. Current treatments for lupus are aimed at controlling symptoms and are limited to toxic and immunosuppressive agents with severe side-effects such as high dose glucocorticoids and/or hydroxchloroquine. Severe disease (e.g., patients that have signs of renal involvement) require more aggressive drugs including

mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine (AZA) and/or cyclophosphamide (CTX) (Bertsias and Boumpas 2008). CTX, AZA and MMF are very toxic and

immunosuppressive, and only 50% of treated patients enter complete remission, with relapse rates up to 30% over a 2-year period.

Memory B cells, and more important, long-lived plasma cells (LL-PCs) which differentiate from memory B cells, are key cell types involved in lupus (Neubert, Meister et al. 2008; Sanz and Lee 2010). Long-lived plasma cells synthesize and secrete large quantities of high-affinity isotype switched antibodies (Meister, Schubert et al. 2007;

Muller, Dieker et al. 2008). Circulating antinuclear antibodies (ANAs) increase the chances of antibody depositing onto self tissues, forming immune-complexes and eventually leading to tissue destruction, epitope spreading and involvement of other organ systems. LL-PCs are commonly found to be chemo- and radio-resistant, over expressing various heat shock proteins and drug pumps (Obeng, Carlson et al. 2006; Neubert, Meister et al. 2008). In addition, LL-PCs primarily reside in the bone marrow where they are protected from current lupus therapies such as cyclophosphamide and glucocorticoids.

A need exists for new treatments for lupus, including lupus nephritis. A need particularly exists for lupus treatments that can target and reduce LL-PCs.

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CEP-33779 is a highly selective, orally active, small-molecule inhibitor of JAK2. CEP-33779 induced regression of established colorectal tumors, reduced angiogenesis, and reduced proliferation of tumor cells. Tumor regression correlated with inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB (RelA/p65) activation in a CEP-33779 dose-dependent manner. The ability of CEP-33779 to suppress growth of colorectal tumors by inhibiting the IL-6/JAK2/STAT3 signaling suggests a potential therapeutic utility of JAK2 inhibitors in multiple tumors types, particularly those with a strong inflammatory component.

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{[8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amine} (1)

LC/MS: (M+H+)+ = 463.2;
1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 9.61 (s, 1H), 8.85 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 8.06 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 2H), 7.96 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (s, 1H), 7.17 (t, J = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 7.11 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.6 Hz 1H), 6.49 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 3.13 (m, 4H), 2.48 (m, 4H), 2.24 (s, 3H).
CEP-33779 Diglycolate Salt
1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz) δ 9.61 (s, 1H), 8.85 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 8.06 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 7.97 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 7.59 (s, 1H), 7.18 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 7.11 (m, 1H), 7.05 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 6.50 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (s, 4H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 3.13 (m, 4H), 2.48 (m, 4H), 2.24 (s, 3H).
DSC: Endotherm onset at 153.0 °C; Peak at 155.8 °C.

PATENT

WO 2010141796

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2010141796A3?cl=en

Example 35 [8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[ 1 ,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-

1 -yl)-phenyl]-amine

Figure imgf000156_0001

35 a) l-(3-Bromo-phenyl)-4-methyl-piperazine was prepared from l-(3-bromo-phenyl)- piperazine (1.33 g, 5.52 mmol) in a manner analogous to Step 32a. The reaction product was isolated as a pale yellow oil (1.4 g, 100%). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ, ppm): 7.10 (dd, J=8.2, 8.2 Hz, IH), 7.04 (dd, J=2.1, 2.1 Hz, IH), 6.95 (ddd, J=I. S, 1.7, 0.7 Hz, IH), 6.83 (ddd, J=8.3, 2.4, 0.6 Hz, IH), 3.23-3.18 (m, 4H), 2.58-2.54 (m, 4H), 2.35 (s, 3H). MS = 255, 257 (MH)+. 35b) [8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[ 1 ,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl- piperazin-l-yl)-phenyl]-amine was prepared from 8-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[l,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine (75.0 mg, 0.260 mmol) and l-(3-bromo-phenyl)-4- methyl-piperazine (80.0 mg, 0.314 mmol) with 2,2′-bis-dicyclohexylphosphanyl-biphenyl (30.0 mg, 0.0549 mmol) as the ligand in a manner analogous to Step 2d and was isolated as a yellow solid (0.072 g, 60%).

MP = 232-234 0C.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ, ppm): 8.49 (d, J=I 2 Hz, IH), 8.25 (d, J=I .5 Hz, 2H), 8.08 (d, J=I .9 Hz, 2H), 7.65 (d, J=I .1 Hz, IH), 7.38 (s, IH), 7.27-7.20 (m, IH), 7.04-6.95 (m, 2H), 6.84 (s, IH), 6.60 (d, J=8.0 Hz, IH), 3.30-3.25 (m, 4H), 3.10 (s, 3H), 2.63-2.58 (m, 4H), 2.38 (s, 3H).

MS = 463 (MH)+.

PATENT

WO 2012078504

PATENT

WO 2012078574

https://google.com/patents/WO2012078574A2?cl=da

COMPOUND A is a JAK2 inhibitor with the chemical name [8-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amine. COMPOUND A has the following structure:

COMPOUND A

COMPOUND A was prepared in a manner analogous to the five-step method described below (see Example 35 of International Application No. PCT/US10/37363):

Step 1 : To a solution of 1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-piperazine (about 1 g) and acetic acid (about 0.4 mL) in methanol (about 25 mL) is added 37% formaldehyde in water/methanol (about 56.7:37:6.3, water:formaldehyde:methanol; about 5 mL). The mixture is stirred at room temperature for about 18 hours. The suspension is cooled to about 5°C in an ice/water bath and sodium cyanoborohydride (about 5 g) is added in small portions. The mixture is stirred and warmed to room temperature for about 18 hours. The mixture is slowly poured into saturated aqueous ammonium chloride (about 200 mL) and stirred for about 1 hour. The mixture is extracted with dichloromethane (3 x about 75 mL). The combined organic layers are dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered and evaporated. The material is placed under high vacuum for about 18 hours to yield 1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-4-methyl-piperazine as a pale yellow oil (about 1 g). 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ, ppm): 7.10 (dd, J=8.2, 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.04 (dd, J=2.1, 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (ddd, J=7.8, 1.7, 0.7 Hz, 1H), 6.83 (ddd, J=8.3, 2.4, 0.6 Hz, 1H), 3.23-3.18 (m, 4H), 2.58-2.54 (m, 4H), 2.35 (s, 3H). MS = 255, 257 (MH)+.

Step 2: To a solution of 3-bromo-pyridin-2-ylamine (about 10 g) in 1,4-dioxane (about 100 mL) is added dropwise ethoxycarbonyl isothiocyanate (about 7 mL). The mixture is stirred under an atmosphere of nitrogen for about 18 hours. The volatiles are evaporated to yield a waxy solid. The recovered material is triturated with hexane (about 250 mL). N-(3-bromo-2-pyridinyl)-N’-carboethoxy-thiourea is isolated and used without further purification. 1H NMR (400 MHz, (D3C)2SO, δ, ppm): 11.46 (s, 1H), 11.43 (s, 1H), 8.49 (dd, J=4.6, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.18 (dd, J=8.0, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (dd, J=8.0, 4.7 Hz, 1H), 4.23 (q, J=7.1 Hz, 2H), 1.27 (t, J=7.2 Hz, 3H). MS = 215 (MH)+.

Step 3: To a stirred suspension of hydroxylamine hydrochloride (about 17 g) and Ν,Ν-diisopropylethylamine (about 26 mL) in a mixture of methanol (about 70 mL) and

ethanol (about 70 mL) is added N-(3-bromo-2-pyridinyl)-N’-carboethoxy-thiourea. The mixture is stirred for about 2 hours at room temperature then heated to about 60°C for about 18 hours. The suspension is cooled to room temperature, filtered and rinsed with methanol, water then methanol. 8-Bromo-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine is isolated as an off-white solid (about 8 g). 1H NMR (400 MHz, (D3C)2SO, δ, ppm): 8.58 (d, J=6.4 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (d, J=7.6 Hz, 1H), 6.80 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 1H), 6.25 (s, 2H). MS = 213, 215 (MH)+.

Step 4: An oven dried tube is charged with palladium acetate (about 0.2 g) and triphenylphosphine (about 0.6 g). The tube is evacuated under high vacuum and backflushed under a stream of nitrogen for about 5 minutes. A suitable solvent such as

1,4-dioxane (about 10 mL) is added and the mixture is stirred under nitrogen for a suitable time (e.g., for about 10 minutes). 8-Bromo-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine (about 0.75 g), (4-methylsulfonylphenyl)boronic acid (about 1 g), a suitable solvent, such as N,N-dimethylformamide (about 10 mL) and a suitable base, such as about 1.5 M of sodium carbonate in water (about 10 mL) are added. The mixture is stirred for about 2 minutes at room temperature under nitrogen then the tube is sealed and heated at about 80°C for about 18 hours. The mixture is transferred to a round bottom flask and the volatiles are evaporated under reduced pressure. The product is isolated in a suitable manner. For example, water (about 100 mL) may be added and the mixture stirred. The solid may then be collected by filtration, and optionally rinsed with water, air dried, triturated with ether/dichloromethane (about 4: 1; about 10 mL), filtered and rinsed with ether. 8-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine is isolated as a tan solid (about 0.6 g). MP = 236-239 °C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, (D3C)2SO, δ, ppm): 8.63 (d, J=6.3 Hz, 1H), 8.38 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 2H), 8.03 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.84 (d, J= 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.03 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 1H), 6.21 (br s, 2H), 3.28 (s, 3H). MS = 289 (MH)+.

Step 5: To an oven dried tube is added palladium acetate (about 10 mg) and 2,2′-bis-dicyclohexylphosphanyl-biphenyl (about 30 mg), 8-(4-methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-ylamine (about 75 mg), 1-(3-bromo-phenyl)-4-methyl-piperazine (about 80 mg), a suitable base, such as cesium carbonate (about 270 mg) and a suitable solvent, such as 1,4-dioxane (about 5 mL). The tube is evacuated and backflushed with nitrogen three times. The tube is sealed and heated at about 80°C for about 72 hours. The mixture is cooled to room temperature and the product isolated in a suitable manner.

For example, the cooled mixture may be diluted with dichloromethane (about 10 mL), filtered through a plug of diatomaceous earth, rinsed with dichloromethane and evaporated. The material may then be purified, e.g., via chromatography, e.g., utilizing an ISCO automated purification apparatus (e.g., amine modified silica gel column 5%→100% ethyl acetate in hexanes). [8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amine (i.e., COMPOUND A) is isolated as a yellow solid (about 0.07 g). MP = 232-234 °C. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3, δ, ppm): 8.49 (d, J=7.2 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J=7.5 Hz, 2H), 8.08 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.65 (d, J=7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 7.27-7.20 (m, 1H), 7.04-6.95 (m, 2H), 6.84 (s, 1H), 6.60 (d, J=8.0 Hz, 1H), 3.30-3.25 (m, 4H), 3.10 (s, 3H), 2.63-2.58 (m, 4H), 2.38 (s, 3H). MS = 463 (MH)+.

PATENT

WO 2015089153

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2015089153A1?cl=un

This disclosure relates to a l,2,4 riazolo[l,5a]pyridine derivative, [8-(4 methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[ 1 ,2,4]triazoio[1 ,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin- 1 -yl phenyl] -amine, re g structure:

or a pharmaceutical salt thereof, and its use in the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Compound A is a potent, orally active, small molecule inhibitor of JA 2. See, e.g..International Application No. PCT/USlO/37363, U.S. Patent Nos. 8,501,936 and ,633,173, and U.S. Published Patent Application Nos. 2013/0267535 and 2014/0024655, each of which is incorporated by reference herein. Compound A can be prepared, for example, using methods analogous to Example 35 of International Application No.PCT/US 10/37363.

PAPER

A Selective, Orally Bioavailable 1,2,4-Triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-Based Inhibitor of Janus Kinase 2 for Use in Anticancer Therapy: Discovery of CEP-33779

Worldwide Discovery Research, Cephalon, Inc., 145 Brandywine Parkway, West Chester, Pennsylvania 19380, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55 (11), pp 5243–5254
DOI: 10.1021/jm300248q
Publication Date (Web): May 10, 2012
Copyright © 2012 American Chemical Society
*Phone: 610-738-6733. Fax: 610-738-6643. E-Mail: bdugan@cephalon.com.

Abstract

Abstract Image

Members of the JAK family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases play a critical role in the growth and progression of many cancers and in inflammatory diseases. JAK2 has emerged as a leading therapeutic target for oncology, providing a rationale for the development of a selective JAK2 inhibitor. A program to optimize selective JAK2 inhibitors to combat cancer while reducing the risk of immune suppression associated with JAK3 inhibition was undertaken. The structure–activity relationships and biological evaluation of a novel series of compounds based on a 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine scaffold are reported. Para substitution on the aryl at the C8 position of the core was optimum for JAK2 potency (17). Substitution at the C2 nitrogen position was required for cell potency (21). Interestingly, meta substitution of C2-NH-aryl moiety provided exceptional selectivity for JAK2 over JAK3 (23). These efforts led to the discovery of CEP-33779 (29), a novel, selective, and orally bioavailable inhibitor of JAK2.

[8-(4-Methanesulfonyl-phenyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridin-2-yl]-[3-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-phenyl]-amine (29)

 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ 8.49 (dd, J = 6.6, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 8.08 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.66 (dd, J = 7.5, 0.9 Hz, 1H), 7.39–7.36 (m, 1H), 7.23 (t, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.02 (t, J = 7.1 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (dd, J = 7.8, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (s, 1H), 6.60 (dd, J = 8.3, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 3.30–3.25 (m, 4H), 3.10 (s, 3H), 2.63–2.58 (m, 4H), 2.38 (s, 3H).
13C NMR (CDCl3) δ 162.65, 152.28, 148.87, 141.00, 140.91, 140.05, 129.64, 129.29, 128.18, 127.85, 127.76, 124.77, 112.03, 109.40, 108.59, 104.80, 55.19, 49.02, 46.19, 44.59;
mp 208–211 °C.
High resolution mass spectrum (ESI+) m/z 463.1925 [(M + H)+calcd for C24H26N6O2S: 463.1916]. HPLC: 95 A%.

PAPER

An Improved Synthesis of the Free Base and Diglycolate Salt of CEP-33779; A Janus Kinase 2 Inhibitor

Chemical Process Research and Development, Teva Branded Pharmaceutical Products R&D Inc., 383 Phoenixville Pike, Malvern, Pennsylvania 19355, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00311
Publication Date (Web): November 30, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society

Abstract

Abstract Image

CEP-33779 is a triazole that has been reported to show highly selective inhibition of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2). An efficient process to form CEP-33779 will be presented that uses multiple palladium couplings to provide the drug substance in a convergent manner. The existing medicinal chemistry route was modified to avoid chromatographic purification, improve safety, and utilize palladium ligands which are available in quantities amenable to scale-up. Challenges faced during the development of the new process included optimization of conditions for Buchwald–Hartwig and Suzuki couplings, control of homocoupled impurities and removal of residual palladium. In addition, a screen of conditions to form a diglycolate salt of the parent compound are also presented.

REFERENCES

1: Dugan BJ, Gingrich DE, Mesaros EF, Milkiewicz KL, Curry MA, Zulli AL, Dobrzanski P, Serdikoff C, Jan M, Angeles TS, Albom MS, Mason JL, Aimone LD, Meyer SL, Huang Z, Wells-Knecht KJ, Ator MA, Ruggeri BA, Dorsey BD. A selective, orally bioavailable 1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-based inhibitor of Janus kinase 2 for use in anticancer therapy: discovery of CEP-33779. J Med Chem. 2012 Jun 14;55(11):5243-54. doi: 10.1021/jm300248q. Epub 2012 May 18. PubMed PMID: 22594690.

2: Tagoe C, Putterman C. JAK2 inhibition in murine systemic lupus erythematosus. Immunotherapy. 2012 Apr;4(4):369-72. doi: 10.2217/imt.12.20. PubMed PMID: 22512630.

3: Seavey MM, Lu LD, Stump KL, Wallace NH, Hockeimer W, O’Kane TM, Ruggeri BA, Dobrzanski P. Therapeutic efficacy of CEP-33779, a novel selective JAK2 inhibitor, in a mouse model of colitis-induced colorectal cancer. Mol Cancer Ther. 2012 Apr;11(4):984-93. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-11-0951. Epub 2012 Feb 14. PubMed PMID: 22334590.

4: Lu LD, Stump KL, Wallace NH, Dobrzanski P, Serdikoff C, Gingrich DE, Dugan BJ, Angeles TS, Albom MS, Mason JL, Ator MA, Dorsey BD, Ruggeri BA, Seavey MM. Depletion of autoreactive plasma cells and treatment of lupus nephritis in mice using CEP-33779, a novel, orally active, selective inhibitor of JAK2. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 1;187(7):3840-53. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1101228. Epub 2011 Aug 31. PubMed PMID: 21880982.

5: Stump KL, Lu LD, Dobrzanski P, Serdikoff C, Gingrich DE, Dugan BJ, Angeles TS, Albom MS, Ator MA, Dorsey BD, Ruggeri BA, Seavey MM. A highly selective, orally active inhibitor of Janus kinase 2, CEP-33779, ablates disease in two mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2011 Apr 21;13(2):R68. doi: 10.1186/ar3329. PubMed PMID: 21510883; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3132063.

/////////////CEP-33779, CEP33779, CEP 33779, 1257704-57-6, PRECLINICAL, TEVA,  Rheumatoid Arthritis, Colorectal Cancer Therapy, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,

Jak2 Inhibitors

O=S(C1=CC=C(C2=CC=CN3C2=NC(NC4=CC=CC(N5CCN(C)CC5)=C4)=N3)C=C1)(C)=O

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ACT-334441, Cenerimod an S1P receptor 1 agonist


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ACT-334441

Cenerimod

UNII-Y333RS1786; Y333RS1786

S1P receptor 1 agonist

CAS 1262414-04-9
Chemical Formula: C25H31N3O5
Exact Mass: 453.22637

Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

Martin Bolli, Cyrille Lescop, Boris Mathys,Keith Morrison, Claus Mueller, Oliver Nayler,Beat Steiner,

(S)-3-(4-(5-(2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxypyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl)-2-ethyl-6-methylphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol

(2S)-3-[4-[5-(2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxypyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-ethyl-6-methylphenoxy]propane-1,2-diol

(S)-3-{4-[5-(2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-pyridin-4-yl)-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol

Mechanism Of Action Sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor modulator
Who Atc Codes L03A-X (Other immunostimulants)
Ephmra Codes L3A (Immunostimulating Agents Excluding Interferons)
Indication Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Cenerimod is a potent and orally active immunomodulator, exhibited EC50 value of 2.7 nM. Cenerimod is an agonist for the G protein-coupled receptor S1 P1/EDG1 and has a powerful and long-lasting immunomodulating effect which is achieved by reducing the number of circulating and infiltrating T- and B-lymphocytes, without affecting their maturation, memory, or expansion. Cenerimod may be useful for prevention or treatment of diseases associated with an activated immune system

CENERIMOD

ACT-334441; lysosphingolipid receptor agonist – Actelion; S1P1 receptor modulator – Actelion; Second selective S1P1 receptor agonist – Actelion; Sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor modulators – Actelion; Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 agonists – Actelion

  • Mechanism of Action Lysosphingolipid receptor agonists
  • Highest Development Phases
  • Phase I/II Systemic lupus erythematosus

Most Recent Events

  • 09 Jun 2016 Actelion terminates a phase I drug interaction trial for Systemic lupus erythematosus (In volunteers) in France (NCT02479204)
  • 22 Dec 2015 Phase-I/II clinical trials in Systemic lupus erythematosus in Ukraine, Belarus (PO) (NCT02472795)
  • 24 Sep 2015 Phase-I/II clinical trials in Systemic lupus erythematosus in USA (PO) (NCT02472795)
# Nct Number Title Recruitment Conditions Interventions Phase
1 NCT02472795 Clinical Study to Investigate the Biological Activity, Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of ACT-334441 in Subjects With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Recruiting Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Drug: ACT-334441|Drug: Placebo Phase 2 Actelion
2 NCT02479204 Drug Interaction Study of ACT-334441 With Cardiovascular Medications in Healthy Subjects Suspended Healthy Subjects Drug: ACT-334441 2 mg|Drug: ACT-334441 4 mg|Drug: placebo|Drug: atenolol|Drug: diltiazem ER Phase 1 Actelion

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The human immune system is designed to defend the body against foreign micro-organisms and substances that cause infection or disease. Complex regulatory mechanisms ensure that the immune response is targeted against the intruding substance or organism and not against the host. In some cases, these control mechanisms are unregulated and autoimmune responses can develop. A consequence of the uncontrolled inflammatory response is severe organ, cell, tissue or joint damage. With current treatment, the whole immune system is usually suppressed and the body’s ability to react to infections is also severely compromised. Typical drugs in this class include azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, or methotrexate. Corticosteroids which reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response, may cause side effects when used in long term treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce pain and inflammation, however, they exhibit considerable side effects. Alternative treatments include agents that activate or block cytokine signaling.

Orally active compounds with immunomodulating properties, without compromising immune responses and with reduced side effects would significantly improve current treatments of uncontrolled inflammatory diseases.

In the field of organ transplantation the host immune response must be suppressed to prevent organ rejection. Organ transplant recipients can experience some rejection even when they are taking immunosuppressive drugs. Rejection occurs most frequently in the first few weeks after transplantation, but rejection episodes can also happen months or even years after transplantation. Combinations of up to three or four medications are commonly used to give maximum protection against rejection while minimizing side effects. Current standard drugs used to treat the rejection of transplanted organs interfere with discrete intracellular pathways in the activation of T-type or B-type white blood cells. Examples of such drugs are cyclosporin, daclizumab, basiliximab, everolimus, or FK506, which interfere with cytokine release or signaling; azathioprine or leflunomide, which inhibit nucleotide synthesis; or 15-deoxyspergualin, an inhibitor of leukocyte differentiation.

The beneficial effects of broad immunosuppressive therapies relate to their effects; however, the generalized immunosuppression which these drugs produce diminishes the immune system’s defense against infection and malignancies. Furthermore, standard immunosuppressive drugs are often used at high dosages and can cause or accelerate organ damage.

SYNTHESIS

STR1

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2011007324A1?cl=zh

The human immune system is designed to defend the body against foreign microorganisms and substances that cause infection or disease. Complex regulatory mechanisms ensure that the immune response is targeted against the intruding substance or organism and not against the host. In some cases, these control mechanisms are unregulated and autoimmune responses can develop. A consequence of the uncontrolled inflammatory response is severe organ, cell, tissue or joint damage. With current treatment, the whole immune system is usually suppressed and the body’s ability to react to infections is also severely compromised. Typical drugs in this class include azathioprine, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporin, or methotrexate. Corticosteroids which reduce inflammation and suppress the immune response, may cause side effects when used in long term treatment. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can reduce pain and inflammation, however, they exhibit considerable side effects. Alternative treatments include agents that activate or block cytokine signaling.

Orally active compounds with immunomodulating properties, without compromising immune responses and with reduced side effects would significantly improve current treatments of uncontrolled inflammatory diseases.

In the field of organ transplantation the host immune response must be suppressed to prevent organ rejection. Organ transplant recipients can experience some rejection even when they are taking immunosuppressive drugs. Rejection occurs most frequently in the first few weeks after transplantation, but rejection episodes can also happen months or even years after transplantation. Combinations of up to three or four medications are commonly used to give maximum protection against rejection while minimizing side effects. Current standard drugs used to treat the rejection of transplanted organs interfere with discrete intracellular pathways in the activation of T-type or B-type white blood cells. Examples of such drugs are cyclosporin, daclizumab, basiliximab, everolimus, or FK506, which interfere with cytokine release or signaling; azathioprine or leflunomide, which inhibit nucleotide synthesis; or 15-deoxyspergualin, an inhibitor of leukocyte differentiation.

The beneficial effects of broad immunosuppressive therapies relate to their effects; however, the generalized immunosuppression which these drugs produce diminishes the immune system’s defense against infection and malignancies. Furthermore, standard immunosuppressive drugs are often used at high dosages and can cause or accelerate organ damage.

Description of the invention

The present invention provides novel compounds of Formula (I) that are agonists for the G protein-coupled receptor S1 P1/EDG1 and have a powerful and long-lasting immunomodulating effect which is achieved by reducing the number of circulating and infiltrating T- and B-lymphocytes, without affecting their maturation, memory, or expansion. The reduction of circulating T- / B-lymphocytes as a result of S1 P1/EDG1 agonism, possibly in combination with the observed improvement of endothelial cell layer function associated with S1 P1/EDG1 activation, makes such compounds useful to treat uncontrolled inflammatory diseases and to improve vascular functionality. Prior art document WO 2008/029371 discloses compounds that act as S1 P1/EDG1 receptor agonists and show an immunomodulating effect as described above. Unexpectedly, it has been found that the compounds of the present invention have a reduced potential to constrict airway tissue/vessels when compared to compounds of the prior art document WO 2008/029371. The compounds of the present invention therefore demonstrate superiority with respect to their safety profile, e.g. a lower risk of bronchoconstriction.

Examples of WO 2008/029371 , which are considered closest prior art analogues are shown in Figure 1.

Figure imgf000004_0001

Figure 1 : Structure of Examples of prior art document WO 2008/029371 , which are considered closest analogues to the compounds of the present invention.

The data on the constriction of rat trachea rings compiled in Table 1 illustrate the superiority of the compounds of the present invention as compared to compounds of prior art document WO 2008/029371.

For instance, the compounds of Example 1 and 6 of the present invention show a significantly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 222 and 226 of WO 2008/029371 , respectively. Furthermore, the compounds of Example 1 and 6 of the present invention also show a reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 196 and 204 of WO 2008/029371 , respectively. These data demonstrate that compounds wherein R1 represents 3-pentyl and R2 represents methoxy are superior compared to the closest prior art compounds of WO 2008/029371 , i.e. the compounds wherein R1 represents an isobutyl and R2 represents methoxy or wherein R1represents methyl and R2 represents 3-pentyl. Moreover, also the compound of Example 16 of the present invention, wherein R1 is 3-methyl-but-1-yl and R2 is methoxy, exhibits a markedly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to its closest analogue prior art Example 226 of WO 2008/029371 wherein R1 is isobutyl and R2 is methoxy.

The unexpected superiority of the compounds of the present invention is also evident from the observation that the compounds of Example 2 and 7 of the present invention show a markedly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 229 and 233 of WO 2008/029371 , respectively. This proves that compounds wherein R1represents cyclopentyl and R2 represents methoxy are superior compared to the closest prior art compounds of WO 2008/029371 , i.e. the compounds wherein R1 represents methyl and R2 represents cyclopentyl.

Also, the compound of Example 3 of the present invention exhibits the same low potential to constrict rat trachea rings as its S-enantiomer, i.e. the compound of Example 2 of the present invention, indicating that the configuration at this position has no significant effect on trachea constriction. Furthermore, also Example 21 of the present invention exhibits the same low potential to constrict rat trachea rings as present Example 2, which differs from Example 21 only by the linker A (forming a 5-pyridin-4-yl-[1 ,2,4]oxadiazole instead of a 3- pyridin-4-yl-[1 ,2,4]oxadiazole). This indicates that also the nature of the oxadiazole is not critical regarding trachea constriction.

Table 1 : Rat trachea constriction in % of the constriction induced by 50 mM KCI. n.d. = not determined. For experimental details and further data see Example 33.

Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000006_0002

result obtained at a compound concentration of 300 nM.

The compounds of the present invention can be utilized alone or in combination with standard drugs inhibiting T-cell activation, to provide a new immunomodulating therapy with a reduced propensity for infections when compared to standard immunosuppressive therapy. Furthermore, the compounds of the present invention can be used in combination with reduced dosages of traditional immunosuppressant therapies, to provide on the one hand effective immunomodulating activity, while on the other hand reducing end organ damage associated with higher doses of standard immunosuppressive drugs. The observation of improved endothelial cell layer function associated with S1 P1/EDG1 activation provides additional benefits of compounds to improve vascular function.

The nucleotide sequence and the amino acid sequence for the human S1 P1/EDG1 receptor are known in the art and are published in e.g.: HIa, T., and Maciag, T., J. Biol

Chem. 265 (1990), 9308-9313; WO 91/15583 published 17 October 1991 ; WO 99/46277 published 16 September 1999. The potency and efficacy of the compounds of Formula (I) are assessed using a GTPγS assay to determine EC5O values and by measuring the circulating lymphocytes in the rat after oral administration, respectively (see in experimental part). i) In a first embodiment, the invention relates to pyridine compounds of the Formula (I),

Figure imgf000006_0001

Formula (I)

PATENT

WO 2013175397

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2013175397A1?cl=en

Pyridine-4-yl derivatives of formula (PD),

Figure imgf000002_0001

Formula (PD) A represents

Figure imgf000002_0002

(the asterisks indicate the bond that is linked to the pyridine group of Formula (PD));

Ra represents 3-pentyl, 3-methyl-but-1-yl, cyclopentyl, or cyclohexyl;

Rb represents methoxy;

Rc represents 2,3-dihydroxypropoxy, -OCH2-CH(OH)-CH2-NHCO-CH2OH,

-OCH2-CH(OH)-CH2N(CH3)-CO-CH2OH, -NHS02CH3, or -NHS02CH2CH3; and

Rd represents ethyl or chloro.)

disclosed in WO201 1007324, have immunomodulating activity through their S1 P1/EDG1 receptor agonistic activity. Therefore, those pyridine-4-yl derivatives are useful for prevention and / or treatment of diseases or disorders associated with an activated immune system, including rejection of transplanted organs such as kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, cornea, and skin; graft-versus-host diseases brought about by stem cell transplantation; autoimmune syndromes including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, thyroiditis such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, uveo-retinitis; atopic diseases such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis; asthma; type I diabetes; post-infectious autoimmune diseases including rheumatic fever and post-infectious glomerulonephritis; solid cancers and tumor metastasis. 2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid, which is also disclosed in WO201 1007324, is a useful intermediate for the synthesis of the pyridine-4-yl derivatives of formula (PD), wherein Ra is a cyclopentyl group.

In the process described in WO201 1007324, 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid was prepared according to the following reaction scheme 1 :

Figure imgf000003_0001

Compound D Compound E

Rieke Zinc: cyclopentylzinc bromide;

PdCI2(dppf)dcm: 1 ,1 ‘-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-palladium(ll)dichloride

dichloromethane complex

However, the abovementioned process has drawbacks for larger scale, i.e. industrial scale synthesis of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid, for the following reasons:

a) The commercially available starting material, 2,6-dichloro-isonicotinic acid (Compound A) is expensive.

b) The conversion of Compound C to Compound D is cost-intensive. The reaction has to be performed under protective atmosphere with expensive palladium catalysts and highly reactive and expensive Rieke zinc complex. Such synthesis steps are expensive to scale up and it was therefore highly desired to find alternative synthesis methods.

Even though Goldsworthy, J. Chem. Soc. 1934, 377-378 discloses the preparation of 1 -cyclopentylethanone, which is a key building block in the new process of the present invention, by using ethyl 1 -acetoacetate as a starting material, this synthesis was far from being suitable in an industrial process. The reported yield was low (see also under “Referential Examples” below). Scheme 2

Figure imgf000004_0001

ethyl 1 -acetylcyclo- 1-cyclopentyl- pentanecarboxylate ethanone

Besides the early work by Goldsworthy there are several recent examples for the preparation of 1 -cyclopentylethanone described in the literature. Such examples include:

1 ) Addition of methyl lithium to a N-cyclopentanecarbonyl-N,0-dimethylhydroxylamine at -78°C in a yield of 77%. US2006/199853 A1 , 2006 and US2006/223884 A1 , 2006.

2) Addition of methyl lithium to a cyclopentyl carboxylic acid in diethylether at -78°C in a yield of 81 %. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 1983, 105, 4008-4017.

3) Addition of methylmagnesiumbromide to cyclopentanecarbonitrile.

Bull. Soc. Chim. Fr., 1967, 3722-3729.

4) Oxidation of 1 -cyclopentylethanol with chromtrioxide. US5001 140 A1 , 1991.

WO2009/71707 A1 , 2009.

5) Addition of cyclopentylmagnesium bromide to acetic anhydride at -78 °C with a yield of 54%. WO2004/74270 A2, 2004.

6) Synthesis of 1-cyclopentylethanone in 5 steps from cyclopentanone. Zhang, Pang; Li, Lian-chu, Synth. Commun., 1986, 16, 957-966.

However, the processes described in the above-listed publications are not efficient for scale-up since they require cryogenic temperatures, expensive starting materials, toxic reagents or many steps. The lack of an efficient process to manufacture 1 -cyclopentylethanone is further also mirrored by the difficulty in sourcing this compound on kilogram scale for a reasonable price and delivery time. Therefore, the purpose of the present invention is to provide a new, efficient and cost effective process for the preparation of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid, which is suitable for industrial scale synthesis.

Patent

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US133347630&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Disclosed in WO2011007324, have immunomodulating activity through their S1P1/EDG1 receptor agonistic activity. Therefore, those pyridine-4-yl derivatives are useful for prevention and/or treatment of diseases or disorders associated with an activated immune system, including rejection of transplanted organs such as kidney, liver, heart, lung, pancreas, cornea, and skin; graft-versus-host diseases brought about by stem cell transplantation; autoimmune syndromes including rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, thyroiditis such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, uveo-retinitis; atopic diseases such as rhinitis, conjunctivitis, dermatitis; asthma; type I diabetes; post-infectious autoimmune diseases including rheumatic fever and post-infectious glomerulonephritis; solid cancers and tumor metastasis. 2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid, which is also disclosed in WO2011007324, is a useful intermediate for the synthesis of the pyridine-4-yl derivatives of formula (PD), wherein Ra is a cyclopentyl group.

      In the process described in WO2011007324, 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid was prepared according to the following reaction scheme 1:

Rieke Zinc: cyclopentylzinc bromide;
PdCl2(dppf)dcm: 1,1′-Bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene-palladium(II)dichloride dichloromethane complex

EXAMPLES

Example 1a

1-Cyclopentylethanone


      A mixture of 1,4 dibromobutane (273 g, 1 eq.), tetrabutylammonium bromide (20 g, 0.05 eq.) in 32% NaOH (1 L) was heated to 50° C. Tert.-butyl acetoacetate (200 g, 1 eq.) was added keeping the maximum internal temperature below 55° C. The mixture was stirred for 5 h at 50° C. The stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with 1N HCl (500 mL). The org. layer was added to 32% HCl (300 mL) at an external temperature of 60° C. The mixture was stirred at 60° C. for 3.5 h and cooled to 40° C. The mixture was washed with brine (60 mL). The org. layer was washed with brine (150 mL) and dried with magnesium sulphate (8 g). The mixture was filtered and the product was purified by distillation (distillation conditions: external temperature: 70° C., head temperature: 40-55° C., pressure: 30-7 mbar) to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 107 g (75%). Purity (GC-MS): 99.8% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+1]+=113. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ=2.86 (m, 1H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 1.68 (m, 8H).

Example 1 b

1-Cyclopentylethanone

      Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (723 g, 3.41 mol) was added to 32% HCl (870 mL) at an internal temperature of 80° C. over a period of 2 h. The mixture was stirred at 80° C. for 1 h and cooled to 50° C. The stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with water (250 mL) and dried with magnesium sulphate (24 g). The mixture was filtered and the product was purified by distillation to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 333.6 g (87%). Purity (GC-MS): 97.3% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+1]+=113.

Example 1c

1-Cyclopentylethanone

      Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (300 g, 1.41 mol) was added to 5 M HCl in isopropanol (600 mL) at an internal temperature of 60° C. over a period of 25 min. The mixture was stirred at 60° C. for 18 h and cooled to 20° C. Water (1 L) was added, the stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with water (500 mL). The crude product was purified by distillation to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 115 g (72%). Purity (GC-MS): 87.2% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+1]+=113.

Example 1d

1-Cyclopentylethanone

      Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (514 g, 2.42 mol) was added to TFA (390 mL) at an internal temperature of 60° C. More TFA (200 mL) was added and the temperature was adjusted to 65° C. The mixture was stirred at 65° C. for 1 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated at 45° C. and 20 mbar. The residue was added to TBME (500 mL), ice (200 g) and 32% NaOH (300 mL). The aq. layer was separated and extracted with TBME (500 mL). The combined org. layers were concentrated to dryness to yield the crude 1-cyclopentylethanone. The crude product was purified by distillation to yield a colorless liquid: 221.8 g (82%). Purity (GC-MS): 90.2% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+l]+=113.

Example 1e

1-Cyclopentylethanone

      Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (534 g, 2.52 mol) was added to 50% H2SO4 (300 mL) at an internal temperature of 100° C. over a period of 40 min. The mixture was stirred at 120° C. for 2 h and cooled to 20° C. The stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with saturated NaHCO3 solution (250 mL). The crude product was purified by distillation to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 177 g (63%). Purity (GC-MS): 99.9% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.19 min, [M+1]+=113.

Example 1f

Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate


      To a mixture of potassium carbonate (1 kg, 7.24 mol) and tetrabutylammonium iodide (10 g, 0.027 mol) in DMSO (3 L) was added a mixture of 1,4-dibromobutane (700 g, 3.24 mol) and tert.-butyl acetoacetate (500 g, 3.16 mol). The mixture was stirred at 25° C. for 20 h. To the reaction mixture was added water (4 L) and TBME (3 L). The mixture was stirred until all solids dissolved. The TBME layer was separated and washed with water (3×1 L). The org. layer was concentrated and the crude product was purified by distillation (distillation conditions: external temperature: 135° C., head temperature: 105-115° C., pressure: 25-10 mbar) to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 537.6 g (80%). Purity (GC-MS): 90.5% a/a; GC-MS:
      tR=1.89 min, [M+1]+=213. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ=2.16 (s, 3H), 2.06 (m, 4H), 1.63 (m, 4H), 1.45 (s, 9H).

Example 1 g

Tert-butyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate

      A mixture of 1,4 dibromobutane (281 g, 1 eq.) and tetrabutylammonium bromide (15 g, 0.05 eq.) in 50% NaOH (1 L) was heated to 50° C. Tert.-butyl acetoacetate (206 g, 1 eq.) was added keeping the maximum internal temperature below 55° C. The mixture was stirred for 5 h at 50° C. The stirrer was stopped and the org. layer was separated. The org. layer was washed with 1N HCl (500 mL). The crude product was purified by distillation to obtain a colourless liquid; yield: 199 g (72%). Purity (GC-MS): 97.8% a/a; GC-MS: tR=1.89 min, [M+1]+=213.

Example 2

2-Cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinic acid


      A 10 L reactor was charged with potassium tert.-butylate (220 g, 1.1 eq.) and THF (3 L). The solution was cooled to −20° C. A mixture of diethyloxalate (260 g, 1 eq.) and 1-cyclopentylethanone (200 g, 1.78 mol, 1 eq.) was added at a temperature below −18° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at −10° C. for 30 min and then warmed to 15° C. To the mixture was added cyano acetamide (180 g, 1.2 eq.). The mixture was stirred for 20 h at 22° C. Water (600 mL) was added and the reaction mixture was concentrated at 60° C. under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator. 3.4 L solvent were removed. The reactor was charged with 32% HCl (5 L) and heated to 50° C. The residue was added to the HCl solution at a temperature between 44 and 70° C. The mixture was heated to 100° C. for 22 h. 2.7 L solvent were removed at 135° C. external temperature and a pressure of ca. 400 mbar. The suspension was diluted with water (2.5 L) and cooled to 10° C. The suspension was filtered. The product cake was washed with water (2.5 L) and acetone (3 L). The product was dried to obtain an off white solid; yield: 255 g (69%); purity (LC-MS): 100% a/a; LC-MS: tR=0.964 min, [M+1]+=208; 1H NMR (deutero DMSO): δ=12.67 (br, 2H), 6.63 (s, 1H), 6.38 (s, 1H), 2.89 (m, 1H), 1.98 (m, 2H), 1.63 (m, 6H).

Example 3

Methyl 2-cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinate


      2-Cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinic acid (1520.5 g, 7.3 mol, 1 eq.), methanol (15.2 L), trimethylorthoformiate (1.56 L, 2 eq.) and sulphuric acid (471 mL, 1.2 eq.) were mixed at 20° C. and heated to reflux for 18 h. 10 L solvent were removed at 95° C. external temperature and a pressure of ca. 800 mbar.
      The mixture was cooled to 20° C. and added to water (7.6 L) at 50° C. The suspension was diluted with water (3.8 L), cooled to 10° C. and filtered. The cake was washed with water (3.8 L). The product was dried to obtain a yellowish solid; yield: 1568 g (97%); purity (LC-MS): 100% a/a; LC-MS: tR=1.158 min, [M+1]+=222; 1H NMR (deutero DMSO) δ=11.98 (br, 1H), 6.63 (m, 1H), 6.39 (s, 1H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 2.91 (m, 1H), 1.99 (m, 2H), 1.72 (m, 2H), 1.58 (m, 4H).

Example 4a

Methyl 2-chloro-6-cyclopentylisonicotinate


      Methyl 2-cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinate (50 g, 0.226 mol, 1 eq.) and phenylphosphonic dichloride (70 mL, 2 eq.) were heated to 130° C. for 3 h. The reaction mixture was added to a solution of potassium phosphate (300 g) in water (600 mL) and isopropyl acetate (600 mL) at 0° C. The mixture was filtered over kieselguhr (i.e. diatomite, Celite™) (50 g). The aq. layer was separated and discarded. The org. layer was washed with water (500 mL). The org. layer was concentrated to dryness at 65° C. and reduced pressure to obtain a black oil; yield: 50.4 g (93%); purity (LC-MS): 94% a/a.
      The crude oil was purified by distillation at an external temperature of 130° C., head temperature of 106° C. and oil pump vacuum to yield a colourless oil; yield: 45.6 g (84%); purity (LC-MS): 100% a/a; LC-MS: tR=1.808 min, [M+1]+=240; 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ=7.69 (s, 1H), 7.67 (s, 1H), 3.97 (s, 3H), 3.23 (m, 1H), 2.12 (m, 2H), 1.80 (m, 6H).

Example 4b

Methyl 2-chloro-6-cyclopentylisonicotinate

      2-Cyclopentyl-6-hydroxyisonicotinic acid (147 g, 0.709 mol, 1 eq.) and phosphorous oxychloride (647 mL, 10 eq.) were heated to 115° C. for 4 h. The mixture was concentrated at normal pressure and an external temperature of 130-150° C. At 20° C. DCM (250 mL) was added. The solution was added to MeOH (1000 mL) below 60° C. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure at 50° C. DCM (1 L) was added to the residue and the mixture was washed with water (2×500 mL). The org. layer was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure at 50° C. to obtain a black oil; yield: 181.7 g (107%); purity (LC-MS): 97% a/a. The product was contaminated with trimethyl phosphate.

Example 5

2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxyisonicotinic acid


      Methyl 2-chloro-6-cyclopentylisonicotinate (40 g, 0.168 mol, 1 eq.) and 5.4 M NaOMe in MeOH (320 mL, 10 eq.) were heated to reflux for 16 h. Water (250 mL) was added carefully at 80° C. external temperature. Methanol was distilled off at 60° C. and reduced pressure (300 mbar). The residue was acidified with 32% HCl (150 mL) and the pH was adjusted to 1. The mixture was extracted with isopropyl acetate (300 mL). The aq. layer was discarded. The org. layer was washed with water (200 mL). The org. solution was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure at 60° C. to obtain a white solid; yield: 35.25 g (95%). The crude product was crystallized from acetonitrile (170 mL) to obtain a white solid; 31 g (84%); purity (LC-MS): 97.5% a/a.
      LC-MS: tR=1.516 min, [M+1]+=222; 1H NMR (deutero DMSO) δ=13.50 (br s, 1H), 7.25 (s, 1H), 6.98 (s, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.18 (m, 1H), 2.01 (m, 2H), 1.72 (m, 6H).

Example 6

Ethyl 4-cyclopentyl-2,4-dioxobutanoate


      A solution of 20% potassium tert-butoxide in THF (595 mL, 1.1 eq.) and THF (400 mL) was cooled to −20° C. A mixture of diethyloxalate (130 g, 1 eq.) and 1-cyclopentylethanone (100 g, 0.891 mol, 1 eq.) was added at a temperature below −18° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at −10° C. for 30 min and then warmed to 15° C. To the mixture was added 2 M HCl (1 L) and TBME (1 L). The org. layer was separated and washed with water (1 L). The org. layer was evaporated to dryness on a rotary evaporator to obtain an oil; yield: 171 g (91%); purity (GC-MS): 97% a/a; GC-MS: tR=2.50 min, [M+1]+=213;1H NMR δ: 14.55 (m, 1H), 6.41 (s, 1H), 4.37 (q, J=7.1 Hz, 2H), 2.91 (m, 1H), 1.79 (m, 8H), 1.40 (t, J=7.1 Hz, 3H).

Example 7

Ethyl 3-cyano-6-cyclopentyl-2-hydroxyisonicotinate


      Triethylamine (112 mL, 1 eq.) and cyanoacetamide (67.9 g, 1 eq.) was heated in ethanol to 65° C. Ethyl 4-cyclopentyl-2,4-dioxobutanoate (171 g, 0.807 mol, 1 eq.) was added to the mixture at 65° C. The mixture was stirred for 3 h at 65° C. The mixture was cooled to 20° C. and filtered. The product was washed with TBME (2×200 mL).
      The product was dried to obtain a yellow solid; yield: 85 g (40%); purity (LC-MS): 97% a/a; LC-MS: tR=1.41 min, [M+1]+=261; 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ: 12.94 (m, 1H), 6.70 (s, 1H), 4.50 (q, J=7.1 Hz, 2H), 3.11 (m, 1H), 2.21 (m, 2H), 1.96 (m, 2H), 1.78 (m, 4H), 1.48 (t, 3H).

REFERENTIAL EXAMPLES


      Original process described by Goldsworthy in J. Chem. Soc. 1934, 377-378.
      According to Goldsworthy the ketonic ester (ethyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate) (19.5 g) was refluxed for 24 h with a considerable excess of potash (19 g) in alcohol (150 cc), two-thirds of the alcohol then distilled off, the residue refluxed for 3 h, the bulk of the alcohol finally removed, saturated brine added, and the ketone extracted with ether. The oil obtained from the extract distilled at 150-160°/760 mm and yielded nearly 4 g of a colourless oil, b.p. 153-155°/760 mm, on redistillation. The semicarbazone, prepared from the ketone and a slight excess of equivalent amounts of semicarbazide and sodium acetate in saturated solution, alcohol just sufficient to clear the solution being finally added, rapidly separated; m.p. 145° after recrystallisation from acetone (Found: N, 24.5. C8H15ON3 requires N, 24.8%).
      The process described by Goldsworthy has been reproduced using K2CO3 in the absence (Referential Example 1) and presence (Referential Example 2) of water.

Referential Example 1

      Ethyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (19.5 g, 0.106 mol) was refluxed for 24 h with K2CO3 (19 g, 0.137 mol, Aldrich: 347825) in ethanol (150 mL). GC-MS indicated a conversion to 3% of the desired product. The solvent was removed and the residue was extracted with ether and brine. Evaporation of solvent yielded 28.5 g of a yellow oil. GC-MS indicated ca. 86% a/a starting material, 3% a/a product.

Referential Example 2

      Ethyl 1-acetylcyclopentanecarboxylate (19.5 g, 0.106 mol) was refluxed for 24 h with K2CO3 (19 g, 0.137 mol, Aldrich: 347825) in ethanol (150 mL) in the presence of water (1.91 g, 1 eq.). GC-MS indicated a conversion to 17% of the desired product. The reaction mixture was discarded.

PATENT

US8658675

https://www.google.com/patents/US8658675

Martin Bolli, Cyrille Lescop, Boris Mathys,Keith Morrison, Claus Mueller, Oliver Nayler,Beat Steiner,

novel compounds of Formula (I) that are agonists for the G protein-coupled receptor S1P1/EDG1 and have a powerful and long-lasting immunomodulating effect which is achieved by reducing the number of circulating and infiltrating T- and B-lymphocytes, without affecting their maturation, memory, or expansion. The reduction of circulating T-/B-lymphocytes as a result of S1P1/EDG1 agonism, possibly in combination with the observed improvement of endothelial cell layer function associated with S1P1/EDG1 activation, makes such compounds useful to treat uncontrolled inflammatory diseases and to improve vascular functionality. Prior art document WO 2008/029371 discloses compounds that act as S1P1/EDG1 receptor agonists and show an immunomodulating effect as described above. Unexpectedly, it has been found that the compounds of the present invention have a reduced potential to constrict airway tissue/vessels when compared to compounds of the prior art document WO 2008/029371. The compounds of the present invention therefore demonstrate superiority with respect to their safety profile, e.g. a lower risk of bronchoconstriction.

Examples of WO 2008/029371, which are considered closest prior art analogues are shown in FIG. 1.

Figure US08658675-20140225-C00002
Figure US08658675-20140225-C00003

The data on the constriction of rat trachea rings compiled in Table 1 illustrate the superiority of the compounds of the present invention as compared to compounds of prior art document WO 2008/029371.

For instance, the compounds of Example 1 and 6 of the present invention show a significantly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 222 and 226 of WO 2008/029371, respectively. Furthermore, the compounds of Example 1 and 6 of the present invention also show a reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 196 and 204 of WO 2008/029371, respectively. These data demonstrate that compounds wherein R1 represents 3-pentyl and R2represents methoxy are superior compared to the closest prior art compounds of WO 2008/029371, i.e. the compounds wherein R1 represents an isobutyl and R2represents methoxy or wherein R1 represents methyl and R2 represents 3-pentyl. Moreover, also the compound of Example 16 of the present invention, wherein R1is 3-methyl-but-1-yl and R2 is methoxy, exhibits a markedly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to its closest analogue prior art Example 226 of WO 2008/029371 wherein R1 is isobutyl and R2 is methoxy.

The unexpected superiority of the compounds of the present invention is also evident from the observation that the compounds of Example 2 and 7 of the present invention show a markedly reduced potential to constrict rat trachea rings when compared to the compounds of prior art Examples 229 and 233 of WO 2008/029371, respectively. This proves that compounds wherein R1 represents cyclopentyl and R2 represents methoxy are superior compared to the closest prior art compounds of WO 2008/029371, i.e. the compounds wherein R1represents methyl and R2 represents cyclopentyl.

Preparation of Intermediates2-Chloro-6-methyl-isonicotinic acid

The title compound and its ethyl ester are commercially available.

2-(1-Ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid

a) To a solution of 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (200 g, 1.04 mol) in methanol (3 L), 32% aq. NaOH (770 mL) is added. The stirred mixture becomes warm (34° C.) and is then heated to 70° C. for 4 h before it is cooled to rt. The mixture is neutralised by adding 32% aq. HCl (100 mL) and 25% aq. HCl (700 mL). The mixture is stirred at rt overnight. The white precipitate that forms is collected, washed with methanol and dried. The filtrate is evaporated and the residue is suspended in water (200 mL). The resulting mixture is heated to 60° C. Solid material is collected, washed with water and dried. The combined crops give 2-chloro-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid (183 g) as a white solid; LC-MS: tR=0.80 min, [M+1]+=187.93.

b) To a suspension of 2-chloro-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid (244 g, 1.30 mol) in methanol (2.5 L), H2SO4 (20 mL) is added. The mixture is stirred at reflux for 24 h before it is cooled to 0° C. The solid material is collected, washed with methanol (200 mL) and water (500 mL) and dried under HV to give 2-chloro-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (165 g) as a white solid; LC-MS: tR=0.94 min, [M+1]+=201.89.

c) Under argon, Pd(dppf) (3.04 g, 4 mmol) is added to a solution of 2-chloro-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (50 g, 0.248 mol) in THF (100 mL). A 0.5 M solution of 3-pentylzincbromide in THF (550 mL) is added via dropping funnel. Upon complete addition, the mixture is heated to 85° C. for 18 h before it is cooled to rt. Water (5 mL) is added and the mixture is concentrated. The crude product is purified by filtration over silica gel (350 g) using heptane:EA 7:3 to give 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (53 g) as a pale yellow oil; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ0.79 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 6H), 1.63-1.81 (m, 4H), 2.47-2.56 (m, 1H), 3.94 (s, 3H), 3.96 (s, 3H), 7.12 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H).

d) A solution of 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (50 g, 0.211 mol) in ethanol (250 mL), water (50 mL) and 32% aq. NaOH (50 mL) is stirred at 80° C. for 1 h. The mixture is concentrated and the residue is dissolved in water (200 mL) and extracted with TBME. The org. phase is separated and washed once with water (200 mL). The TBME phase is discarded. The combined aq. phases are acidified by adding 25% aq. HCl and then extracted with EA (400+200 mL). The combined org. extracts are concentrated. Water (550 mL) is added to the remaining residue. The mixture is heated to 70° C., cooled to rt and the precipitate that forms is collected and dried to give the title compound (40.2 g) as a white solid; LC-MS: tR=0.95 min, [M+1]+=224.04; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 0.73 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 6H), 1.59-1.72 (m, 4H), 2.52-2.58 (m, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 7.00 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H).

2-Methoxy-6-(3-methyl-butyl)-isonicotinic acid

The title compound is prepared in analogy to 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid; LC-MS: tR=0.94 min, [M+1]+=224.05; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 0.92 (d, J=5.8 Hz, 6H), 1.54-1.62 (m, 3H), 2.70-2.76 (m, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 6.99 (s, 1H), 7.25 (s, 1H), 13.52 (s).

2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid

The title compound is prepared in analogy to 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid; LC-MS: tR=0.93 min, [M+1]+=222.02; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 1.68-1.77 (m, 2H), 1.81-1.90 (m, 4H), 2.03-2.12 (m, 2H), 3.15-3.25 (m, 1H), 3.99 (s, 3H), 7.18 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (d, J=0.8 Hz, 1H).

2-Cyclohexyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid

The title compound is prepared in analogy to 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid; LC-MS: tR=0.98 min, [M+1]+=236.01; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.17-1.29 (m, 1H), 1.31-1.43 (m, 2H), 1.44-1.55 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.73 (m, 1H), 1.76-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.84-1.92 (m, 2H), 2.66 (tt, J=11.3, 3.3 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 7.00 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.23 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H).

2-Cyclopentyl-N-hydroxy-6-methoxy-isonicotinamidine

a) A solution of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid methyl ester (3.19 g, 13.6 mmol) in 7 N NH3 in methanol (50 mL) is stirred at 60° C. for 18 h. The solvent is removed in vacuo and the residue is dried under HV to give crude 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinamide (3.35 g) as a pale yellow solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.57 min, [M+1]+=221.38.

b) Pyridine (8.86 g, 91.3 mmol) is added to a solution of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinamide (3.35 g, 15.2 mmol) in DCM (100 mL). The mixture is cooled to 0° C. before trifluoroacetic acid anhydride (9.58 g, 45.6 mmol) is added portionwise. The mixture is stirred at 0° C. for 1 h before it is diluted with DCM (100 mL) and washed with sat. aq. NaHCO3 solution (100 mL) and brine (100 mL). The separated org. phase is dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product is purified by CC on silica gel eluting with heptane:EA 9:1 to give 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinonitrile (2.09 g) as pale yellow oil; LC-MS**: tR=0.80 min, [M+1]+=not detectable; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.61-1.82 (m, 6H), 1.94-2.03 (m, 2H), 3.16 (quint, J=7.8 Hz, 1H), 3.89 (s, 3H), 7.15 (s, 1H), 7.28 (s, 1H).

c) To a solution of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinonitrile (2.09 g, 10.3 mmol) in methanol (100 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (2.15 g, 31.0 mmol) and NaHCO3 (3.04 g, 36.2 mmol) are added. The mixture is stirred at 60° C. for 18 h before it is filtered and the filtrate is concentrated. The residue is dissolved in EA (300 mL) and washed with water (30 mL). The washings are extracted back with EA (4×100 mL) and DCM (4×100 mL). The combined org. extracts are dried over MgSO4, filtered, concentrated and dried under HV to give the title compound (2.74 g) as a white solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.47 min, [M+1]+=236.24; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.61-1.82 (m, 6H), 1.92-2.01 (m, 2H), 3.04-3.13 (m, 1H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 5.90 (s, 2H), 6.86 (s, 1H), 7.13 (s, 1H), 9.91 (s, 1H).

2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid hydrazide

a) To a solution of 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid (2.00 g, 9.04 mmol), hydrazinecarboxylic acid benzyl ester (1.50 g, 9.04 mmol) and DIPEA (2.34 g, 18.1 mmol) in DCM (40 mL), TBTU (3.19 g, 9.94 mmol) is added. The mixture is stirred at rt for 2 h before it is diluted with EA (250 mL), washed twice with sat. aq. NaHCO3 solution (150 mL) followed by brine (100 mL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product is purified by CC on silica gel eluting with heptane:EA 4:1 to give N′-(2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-pyridine-4-carbonyl)-hydrazinecarboxylic acid benzyl ester (2.74 g) as pale yellow oil; LC-MS**: tR=0.74 min, [M+1]+=369.69; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.62-1.83 (m, 6H), 1.95-2.05 (m, 2H), 3.10-3.21 (m, 1H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 5.13 (s, 2H), 6.97 (s, 1H), 7.23 (s, 1H), 7.28-7.40 (m, 5H), 9.45 (s, 1H), 10.52 (s, 1H).

b) Pd/C (500 mg, 10% Pd) is added to a solution of N′-(2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-pyridine-4-carbonyl)-hydrazinecarboxylic acid benzyl ester (2.74 g, 7.42 mmol) in THF (50 mL) and methanol (50 mL). The mixture is stirred at rt under 1 bar of H2 for 25 h. The catalyst is removed by filtration and the filtrate is concentrated and dried under HV to give the title compound (1.58 g) as an off-white solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.51 min, [M+1]+=236.20; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.60-1.82 (m, 6H), 1.94-2.03 (m, 2H), 3.08-3.19 (m, 1H), 3.86 (s, 3H), 4.56 (s br, 2H), 6.93 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.20 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 9.94 (s, 1H).

3-Ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile

The title compound is prepared from 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde following literature procedures (A. K. Chakraborti, G. Kaur, Tetrahedron 55 (1999) 13265-13268); LC-MS: tR=0.90 min; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.24 (t, J=7.6 Hz, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.63 (q, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 5.19 (s, 1H), 7.30 (s, 2H).

3-Chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile

The title compound is prepared from commercially available 2-chloro-6-methyl-phenol in analogy to literature procedures (see 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile); LC-MS: tR=0.85 min. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ2.33 (s, 3H), 6.10 (s, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H), 7.53 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H).

3-Ethyl-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

The title compound is prepared from 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile or from commercially available 2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenol following literature procedures (G. Trapani, A. Latrofa, M. Franco, C. Altomare, E. Sanna, M. Usala, G. Biggio, G. Liso, J. Med. Chem. 41 (1998) 1846-1854; A. K. Chakraborti, G. Kaur, Tetrahedron 55 (1999) 13265-13268; E. Meyer, A. C. Joussef, H. Gallardo, Synthesis 2003, 899-905); LC-MS: tR=0.55 min; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 9.25 (s br, 1H), 7.21 (s, 2H), 5.56 (s, 2H), 2.55 (q, J=7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.15 (s, 3H), 1.10 (t, J=7.6 Hz, 3H).

3-Chloro-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

The title compound is prepared from commercially available 2-chloro-6-methyl-phenol in analogy to literature procedures (e.g. B. Roth et al. J. Med. Chem. 31 (1988) 122-129; and literature cited for 3-ethyl-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine); 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde: LC-MS: tR=0.49 min, [M+1]+=201.00; 1H NMR 82.24 (s, 2H), 2.35 (s, 4H), 5.98 (s br, 1H), 7.59 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.73 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.80 (s, 1H); 3-chloro-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine: 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 2.21 (s, 3H), 5.72 (s br, 2H), 7.40 (s, 1H), 7.48 (s, 1H), 9.29 (s br, 1H), 9.48 (s br, 1H).

(R)-4-(2,2-Dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

a) To a solution of 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile (2.89 g, 17.9 mmol) in THF (80 mL), (R)-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-yl)methanol (2.84 g, 21.5 mmol) followed by triphenylphosphine (5.81 g, 21.5 mmol) is added. The mixture is cooled with an ice-bath before DEAD (9.36 g, 21.5 mmol) is added dropwise. The mixture is stirred at rt for 1 h, the solvent is removed in vacuo and the residue is purified by CC on silica gel eluting with heptane:EA 85:15 to give (R)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzonitrile (4.45 g) as a pale yellow oil; LC-MS**: tR=0.75 min, [M+1]+=not detected; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.25 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.44 (s, 3H), 1.49 (s, 3H), 2.34 (s, 3H), 2.65-2.77 (m, 2H), 3.80-3.90 (m, 2H), 3.94-4.00 (m, 1H), 4.21 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 1H), 4.52 (quint, J=5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (s, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H).

b) To a mixture of (R)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzonitrile (4.45 g, 16.2 mmol) and NaHCO3 (4.75 g, 56.6 mmol) in methanol (30 mL), hydroxylamine hydrochloride (3.37 g, 48.5 mmol) is added. The mixture is stirred at 60° C. for 18 h before it is filtered and the solvent of the filtrate is removed in vacuo. The residue is dissolved in EA and washed with a small amount of water and brine. The org. phase is separated, dried over MgSO4, filtered, concentrated and dried to give the title compound (5.38 g) as a white solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.46 min, [M+1]+=309.23; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.17 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.33 (s, 3H), 1.38 (s, 3H), 2.25 (s, 3H), 2.57-2.69 (m, 2H), 3.73-3.84 (m, 3H), 4.12 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 1H), 4.39-4.45 (m, 1H), 5.76 (s br, 2H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 9.47 (s, 1H).

(R)-3-Chloro-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

The title compound is obtained as a colorless oil (1.39 g) in analogy to (R)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine starting from 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile and L-α,β-isopropyliden glycerol; LC-MS: tR=0.66 min, [M+H]+=314.96.

(S)-4-(3-Amino-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methylbenzonitrile

a) To a solution of 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile (5.06 g, 31.4 mmol) in THF (80 mL), PPh3 (9.06 g, 34.5 mmol) and (R)-glycidol (2.29 mL, 34.5 mmol) are added. The mixture is cooled to 0° C. before DEAD in toluene (15.8 mL, 34.5 mmol) is added. The mixture is stirred for 18 h while warming up to rt. The solvent is evaporated and the crude product is purified by CC on silica gel eluting with heptane:EA 7:3 to give 3-ethyl-5-methyl-4-oxiranylmethoxy-benzonitrile (5.85 g) as a yellow oil; LC-MS: tR=0.96 min; [M+42]+=259.08.

b) The above epoxide is dissolved in 7 N NH3 in methanol (250 mL) and the solution is stirred at 65° C. for 18 h. The solvent is evaporated to give crude (S)-4-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methylbenzonitrile (6.23 g) as a yellow oil; LC-MS: tR=0.66 min; [M+1]+=235.11.

N—((S)-3-[2-Ethyl-4-(N-hydroxycarbamimidoyl)-6-methyl-phenoxy]-2-hydroxy-propyl)-2-hydroxy-acetamide

a) To a solution of (S)-4-(3-amino-2-hydroxypropoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methylbenzonitrile (6.23 g, 26.59 mmol) in THF (150 mL), glycolic acid (2.43 g, 31.9 mmol), HOBt (4.31 g, 31.9 mmol), and EDC hydrochloride (6.12 g, 31.9 mmol) are added. The mixture is stirred at rt for 18 h before it is diluted with sat. aq. NaHCO3 and extracted twice with EA. The combined org. extracts are dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product is purified by CC with DCM containing 8% of methanol to give (S)—N-[3-(4-cyano-2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenoxy)-2-hydroxy-propyl]-2-hydroxy-acetamide (7.03 g) as a yellow oil; LC-MS: tR=0.74 min, [M+1]+=293.10; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 1.25 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.32 (s, 3H), 2.69 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 2H), 3.48-3.56 (m, 3H), 3.70-3.90 (m, 3H), 4.19 (s, br, 3H), 7.06 (m, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 7.38 (s, 1H).

b) The above nitrile is converted to the N-hydroxy-benzamidine according to literature procedures (e.g. E. Meyer, A. C. Joussef, H. Gallardo, Synthesis 2003, 899-905); LC-MS: tR=0.51 min, [M+1]+=326.13; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.17 (t, J=7.4 Hz, 3H), 2.24 (s, 3H), 2.62 (q, J=7.4 Hz, 2H), 3.23 (m, 1H), 3.43 (m, 1H), 3.67 (m, 2H), 3.83 (s, 2H), 3.93 (m, 1H), 5.27 (s br, 1H), 5.58 (s br, 1H), 5.70 (s, 2H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.36 (s, 1H), 7.67 (m, 1H), 9.46 (s br, 1H).

(S)—N-(3-[2-Chloro-4-(N-hydroxycarbamimidoyl)-6-methyl-phenoxy]-2-hydroxy-propyl)-2-hydroxy-acetamide

The title compound is obtained as a beige wax (1.1 g) in analogy to N—((S)-3-[2-ethyl-4-(N-hydroxycarbamimidoyl)-6-methyl-phenoxy]-2-hydroxy-propyl)-2-hydroxy-acetamide starting from 3-chloro-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzonitrile; LC-MS: tR=0.48 min, [M+H]+=331.94.

3-Chloro-N-hydroxy-4-methanesulfonylamino-5-methyl-benzamidine

a) A mixture of 4-amino-3-chloro-5-methylbenzonitrile (155 mg, 930 μmol) and methanesulfonylchloride (2.13 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.44 mL) is heated under microwave conditions to 150° C. for 7 h. The mixture is cooled to rt, diluted with water and extracted with EA. The org. extract is dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated. The crude product is purified on prep. TLC using heptane:EA 1:1 to give N-(2-chloro-4-cyano-6-methyl-phenyl)-methanesulfonamide (105 mg) as an orange solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.48 min; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ2.59 (s, 3H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 6.27 (s, 1H), 7.55 (d, J=1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H).

b) Hydroxylamine hydrochloride (60 mg, 858 μmol) and NaHCO3 (72 mg, 858 μmol) is added to a solution of N-(2-chloro-4-cyano-6-methyl-phenyl)-methanesulfonamide (105 mg, 429 μmol) in methanol (10 mL). The mixture is stirred at 65° C. for 18 h. The solvent is removed in vacuo and the residue is dissolved in a small volume of water (2 mL) and extracted three times with EA (15 mL). The combined org. extracts are dried over MgSO4, filtered, concentrated and dried to give the title compound (118 mg) as a white solid; LC-MS**: tR=0.19 min, [M+1]+=277.94; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ2.57 (s, 3H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 6.21 (s, 1H), 7.49 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (d, J=1.5 Hz).

3-Ethyl-N-hydroxy-4-methanesulfonylamino-5-methyl-benzamidine

a) In a 2.5 L three-necked round-bottom flask 2-ethyl-6-methyl aniline (250 g, 1.85 mol) is dissolved in DCM (900 mL) and cooled to 5-10° C. Bromine (310.3 g, 1.94 mol) is added over a period of 105 min such as to keep the temperature at 5-15° C. An aq. 32% NaOH solution (275 mL) is added over a period of 10 min to the greenish-grey suspension while keeping the temperature of the reaction mixture below 25° C. DCM (70 mL) and water (100 mL) are added and the phases are separated. The aq. phase is extracted with DCM (250 mL). The combined org. phases are washed with water (300 mL) and concentrated at 50° C. to afford the 4-bromo-2-ethyl-6-methyl-aniline (389 g) as a brown oil; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 1.27 (t, J=7.3 Hz, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.51 (q, J=7.3 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (s br, 1H), 7.09 (s, 2H).

b) A double-jacketed 4 L-flask is charged with 4-bromo-2-ethyl-6-methyl-aniline (324 g, 1.51 mol), sodium cyanide (100.3 g, 1.97 mol), potassium iodide (50.2 g, 0.302 mol) and copper(I)iodide (28.7 g, 0.151 mol). The flask is evacuated three times and refilled with nitrogen. A solution of N,N′-dimethylethylenediamine (191.5 mL, 1.51 mol) in toluene (750 mL) is added. The mixture is heated to 118° C. and stirred at this temperature for 21 h. The mixture is cooled to 93° C. and water (1250 mL) is added to obtain a solution. Ethyl acetate (1250 mL) is added at 22-45° C. and the layers are separated. The org. phase is washed with 10% aq. citric acid (2×500 mL) and water (500 mL). The separated org. phase is evaporated to dryness to afford 4-amino-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzonitrile (240 g) as a metallic black solid; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.29 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.19 (s, 3H), 2.52 (q, J=7.3 Hz, 2H), 4.10 (s br, 1H), 7.25 (s, 2H).

c) The title compound is then prepared from the above 4-amino-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzonitrile in analogy to 3-chloro-N-hydroxy-4-methanesulfonylamino-5-methyl-benzamidine; LC-MS**: tR=0.26 min, [M+1]+=272.32.

3-Chloro-4-ethanesulfonylamino N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine

The title compound is prepared in analogy to 3-chloro-N-hydroxy-4-methanesulfonylamino-5-methyl-benzamidine using ethanesulfonylchloride; LC-MS**: tR=0.27 min, [M+1]+=292.13; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.36 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 3.22 (q, J=7.5 Hz), 5.88 (s, 2H), 7.57 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 9.18 (s, 1H), 9.78 (s, 1H).

4-Benzyloxy-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzoic acid

a) To a solution of 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzaldehyde (34.9 g, 0.213 mol, prepared from 2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenol according to the literature cited for 3-ethyl-4,N-dihydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine) in MeCN (350 mL), K2CO3 (58.7 g, 0.425 mol) and benzylbromide (36.4 g, 0.213 mol) are added. The mixture is stirred at 60° C. for 2 h before it is cooled to rt, diluted with water and extracted twice with EA. The org. extracts are washed with water and concentrated to give crude 4-benzyloxy-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzaldehyde (45 g) as an orange oil. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.29 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 2.77 (q, J=7.8 Hz, 2H), 4.90 (s, 2H), 7.31-7.52 (m, 5H), 7.62 (d, J=1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.66 (d, J=1.8 Hz, 1H), 9.94 (s, 1H).
b) To a mixture of 4-benzyloxy-3-ethyl-5-methyl-benzaldehyde (132 g, 0.519 mol) and 2-methyl-2-butene (364 g, 5.19 mol) in tert.-butanol (1500 mL), a solution of NaH2PO4 dihydrate (249 g, 2.08 mol) in water (1500 mL) is added. To this mixture, NaClO2 (187.8 g, 2.08 mol) is added in portions. The temperature of the reaction mixture is kept below 30° C., and evolution of gas is observed. Upon completion of the addition, the orange bi-phasic mixture is stirred well for 3 h before it is diluted with TBME (1500 mL). The org. layer is separated and washed with 20% aq. NaHS solution (1500 mL) and water (500 mL). The org. phase is then extracted three times with 0.5 N aq. NaOH (1000 mL), the aq. phase is acidified with 25% aq. HCl (500 mL) and extracted twice with TBME (1000 mL). These org. extracts are combined and evaporated to dryness to give the title compound; 1H NMR (D6-DMSO): δ 1.17 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 2.31 (s, 3H), 2.67 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 2H), 4.86 (s, 2H), 7.34-7.53 (m, 5H), 7.68 (s, 2H), 12.70 (s, 1H).

Example 1 (S)-3-(2-Ethyl-4-{5-[2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-pyridin-4-yl]-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl}-6-methyl-phenoxy)-propane-1,2-diol

a) To a solution of 2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid (190 mg, 732 μmol) in THF (10 mL) and DMF (2 mL), DIPEA (190 mg, 1.46 mmol) followed by TBTU (235 mg, 732 μmol) is added. The mixture is stirred at rt for 10 min before (R)-4-(2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-N-hydroxy-5-methyl-benzamidine 226 mg, 732 μmol) is added. The mixture is stirred at rt for 1 h before it is diluted with EA and washed with water. The org. phase is separated and concentrated. The remaining residue is dissolved in dioxane (10 mL) and heated to 105° C. for 18 h. The mixture is cooled to rt, concentrated and the crude product is purified on prep. TLC plates using DCM containing 10% of methanol to give 4-{3-[4-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methyl-phenyl]-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-yl}-2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-pyridine (256 mg) as a yellow oil; LC-MS: tR=1.28 min, [M+H]+=496.23.

b) A solution of 4-{3-[4-((R)-2,2-dimethyl-[1,3]dioxolan-4-ylmethoxy)-3-ethyl-5-methyl-phenyl]-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-5-yl}-2-(1-ethyl-propyl)-6-methoxy-pyridine (250 mg, 504 μmol) in 4 M HCl in dioxane (10 mL) is stirred at rt for 90 min before it is concentrated. The crude product is purified on prep. TLC plates using DCM containing 10% of methanol to give the title compound (76 mg) as a pale brownish solid; LC-MS: tR=1.12 min, [M+H]+=456.12; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ0.85 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 6H), 1.33 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.70-1.89 (m, 4H), 2.42 (s, 3H), 2.61-2.71 (m, 1H), 2.78 (q, J=7.3 Hz, 2H), 3.82-4.00 (m, 4H), 4.04 (s, 3H), 4.14-4.21 (m, 1H), 7.34 (s, 1H), 7.46 (s, 1H), 7.86-7.91 (m, 2H).

Example 2 (S)-3-{4-[5-(2-Cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-pyridin-4-yl)-[1,2,4]oxadiazol-3-yl]-2-ethyl-6-methyl-phenoxy}-propane-1,2-diol

The title compound is prepared in analogy to Example 1 starting from 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxy-isonicotinic acid; LC-MS: tR=1.14 min, [M+H]+=454.16; 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ1.33 (t, J=7.5 Hz, 3H), 1.72-1.78 (m, 2H), 1.85-1.94 (m, 4H), 2.03-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H), 2.72 (d, J=5.3 Hz, 1H), 2.77 (q, J=7.5 Hz, 2H), 3.19-3.28 (m, 1H), 3.81-3.94 (m, 2 H), 3.95-3.98 (m, 2H), 4.02 (s, 3H), 4.14-4.21 (m, 1H), 7.31 (d, J=1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (d, J=1.0 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (d, J=1.8 Hz), 7.89 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H).

PAPER

Abstract Image

A practical synthesis of S1P receptor 1 agonist ACT-334441 (1) through late-stage convergent coupling of two key intermediates is described. The first intermediate is 2-cyclopentyl-6-methoxyisonicotinic acid whose skeleton was built from 1-cyclopentylethanone, ethyl oxalate, and cyanoacetate in a Guareschi–Thorpe reaction in 42% yield over five steps. The second, chiral intermediate, is a phenol ether derived from enantiomerically pure (R)-isopropylidene glycerol ((R)-solketal) and 3-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzonitrile in 71% yield in a one-pot reaction. The overall sequence entails 18 chemical steps with 10 isolated intermediates. All raw materials are cheap and readily available in bulk quantities, the reaction conditions match with standard pilot plant equipment, and the route reproducibly afforded 3–20 kg of 1 in excellent purity and yield for clinical studies.

Practical Synthesis of a S1P Receptor 1 Agonist via a Guareschi–Thorpe Reaction

Chemistry Process R&D, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Gewerbestrasse 16, CH-4123 Allschwil, Switzerland
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00210
*E-mail: stefan.abele@actelion.com. Telephone: +41 61 565 67 59.
 (1H NMR): 99.40% w/w; er (HPLC method 2): (S):(R) = 99.7:0.3, tR 10.70 min (S-isomer), 14.5 min (R-isomer);
mp 80 °C (DSC);
1H NMR (d6-DMSO): δ 7.78 (s, 2 H), 7.53 (s, 1 H), 7.26 (s, 1 H), 4.98 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.65 (s, 1 H), 3.94 (s, 3 H), 3.86 (m, 2 H), 3.75 (m, 1 H), 3.50 (t, J = 5.4 Hz, 2 H), 3.28 (m, 1 H), 2.75 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, 2 H), 2.35 (s, 3 H), 2.03 (m, 2 H), 1.81 (m, 4 H), 1.69 (m, 2 H), 1.22 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 3 H).
13C NMR (CDCl3): δ 174.3, 168.9, 165.8, 164.4, 157.4, 137.7, 133.6, 131.7, 128.4, 126.7, 122.5, 112.0, 106.0, 73.9, 71.1, 63.8, 53.7, 47.5, 33.3, 25.9, 22.9, 16.4, 14.8.
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015133669 2015-05-14 NEW PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF 2-CYCLOPENTYL-6-METHOXY-ISONICOTINIC ACID
US8658675 2014-02-25 Pyridin-4-yl derivatives
//////////ACT-334441, ACT 334441, ACT334441, CENERIMOD, S1P receptor 1 agonist, Systemic lupus erythematosus, UNII-Y333RS1786  Y333RS1786, phase 2, Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd.Martin Bolli, Cyrille Lescop, Boris Mathys,Keith Morrison, Claus Mueller, Oliver Nayler,Beat Steiner,
OC[C@H](O)COC1=C(C)C=C(C2=NOC(C3=CC(C4CCCC4)=NC(OC)=C3)=N2)C=C1CC
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