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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Dasiglucagon


Dasiglucagon.png
2D chemical structure of 1544300-84-6
str1

Dasiglucagon

Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Patients

FormulaC152H222N38O50
CAS1544300-84-6
Mol weight3381.6137

FDA APPROVED,  2021/3/22, Zegalogue

Zealand Pharma A/S

UNIIAD4J2O47FQ

HypoPal rescue pen

SVG Image
IUPAC CondensedH-His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-Aib-Ala-Arg-Ala-Glu-Glu-Phe-Val-Lys-Trp-Leu-Glu-Ser-Thr-OH
SequenceHSQGTFTSDYSKYLDXARAEEFVKWLEST
HELMPEPTIDE1{H.S.Q.G.T.F.T.S.D.Y.S.K.Y.L.D.[Aib].A.R.A.E.E.F.V.K.W.L.E.S.T}$$$$
IUPACL-histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminyl-glycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-alpha-aspartyl-alpha-methyl-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-lysyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-seryl-L-threonine

(4S)-4-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-6-amino-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S,3R)-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S,3R)-2-[[2-[[(2S)-5-amino-2-[[(2S)-2-[[(2S)-2-amino-3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-5-oxopentanoyl]amino]acetyl]amino]-3-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-3-phenylpropanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxybutanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]-3-carboxypropanoyl]amino]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoyl]amino]-3-hydroxypropanoyl]amino]hexanoyl]amino]-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propanoyl]amino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-3-carboxypropanoyl]amino]-2-methylpropanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]-5-carbamimidamidopentanoyl]amino]propanoyl]amino]-5-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-6-amino-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2S)-4-carboxy-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(1S,2R)-1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl]amino]-3-hydroxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-4-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-3-(1H-indol-3-yl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxohexan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-4-carboxy-1-oxobutan-2-yl]amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid

. [16-(2-methylalanine)(S>X),17-L-alanine(R>A),20-L-α-glutamyl(Q>E),21-L-αglutamyl(D>E),24-L-lysyl(Q>K),27-L-α-glutamyl(M>E),28-L-serine(N>S)]human glucagon

L-Threonine, L-histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycyl-L-threonyl-L- phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L- lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-2-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-L- arginyl-L-alanyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L- valyl-L-lysyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-seryl

ZP-4207

His-Ser-Gln-Gly-Thr-Phe-Thr-Ser-Asp-Tyr-Ser-Lys-Tyr-Leu-Asp-aib-Ala-Arg-Ala-Glu-Glu-Phe-Val-Lys-Trp-Leu-Glu-Ser-Thr

L-Threonine, L-histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-alpha-aspartyl-2-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-alpha-glutamyl-L-alphaC152 H222 N38 O50L-Threonine, L-histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-2-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-lysyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-seryl-Molecular Weight3381.61

Other Names

  • L-Histidyl-L-seryl-L-glutaminylglycyl-L-threonyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-threonyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-tyrosyl-L-seryl-L-lysyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-2-methylalanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-alanyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-lysyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-seryl-L-threonine
  • Developer Beta Bionics; Zealand Pharma
  • ClassAntihyperglycaemics; Antihypoglycaemics; Peptides
  • Mechanism of ActionGlucagon receptor agonists
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Hypoglycaemia; Congenital hyperinsulinism
  • RegisteredHypoglycaemia
  • Phase IIICongenital hyperinsulinism
  • Phase II/IIIType 1 diabetes mellitus
  • 22 Mar 2021Registered for Hypoglycaemia (In children, In adolescents, In adults, In the elderly) in USA (SC) – First global approval
  • 22 Mar 2021Zealand Pharma anticipates the launch of dasiglucagon in USA (SC, Injection) in June 2021
  • 22 Mar 2021Pooled efficacy and safety data from three phase III trials in Hypoglycaemia released by Zealand Pharma

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

one time

$10.00

PATENTS

WO 2014016300

US 20150210744

PAPER

Pharmaceutical Research (2018), 35(12), 1-13

Dasiglucagon, sold under the brand name Zegalogue, is a medication used to treat severe hypoglycemia in people with diabetes.[1]

The most common side effects include nausea, vomiting, headache, diarrhea, and injection site pain.[1]

Dasiglucagon was approved for medical use in the United States in March 2021.[1][2][3] It was designated an orphan drug in August 2017.[4]

Dasiglucagon is under investigation in clinical trial NCT03735225 (Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability and Bioavailability of Dasiglucagon Following Subcutaneous (SC) Compared to IV Administration).

Medical uses

Dasiglucagon is indicated for the treatment of severe hypoglycemia in people aged six years of age and older with diabetes.[1][2]

Contraindications

Dasiglucagon is contraindicated in people with pheochromocytoma or insulinoma.[1]

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e f https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2021/214231s000lbl.pdf
  2. Jump up to:a b “Dasiglucagon: FDA-Approved Drugs”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 22 March 2021.
  3. ^ “Zealand Pharma Announces FDA Approval of Zegalogue (dasiglucagon) injection, for the Treatment of Severe Hypoglycemia in People with Diabetes” (Press release). Zealand Pharma. 22 March 2021. Retrieved 22 March 2021 – via GlobeNewswire.
  4. ^ “Dasiglucagon Orphan Drug Designations and Approvals”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 10 August 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2021.

External links

  • “Dasiglucagon”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical trial number NCT03378635 for “A Trial to Confirm the Efficacy and Safety of Dasiglucagon in the Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Subjects” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03688711 for “Trial to Confirm the Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Dasiglucagon in the Treatment of Hypoglycemia in Subjects With T1DM” at ClinicalTrials.gov
  • Clinical trial number NCT03667053 for “Trial to Confirm the Efficacy and Safety of Dasiglucagon in the Treatment of Hypoglycemia in T1DM Children” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesZegalogue
AHFS/Drugs.comZegalogue
License dataUS DailyMedDasiglucagon
Routes of
administration
Subcutaneous
Drug classGlucagon receptor agonist
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only [1]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number1544300-84-6
PubChem CID126961379
DrugBankDB15226
UNIIAD4J2O47FQ
KEGGD11359
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC152H222N38O50
Molar mass3381.664 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image

///////////Dasiglucagon, FDA 2021,  APPROVALS 2021, Zegalogue, ダシグルカゴン, ZP 4207, ZP-GA-1 Hypoglycemia, Type 1, Type 2 , Diabetes Patients, Zealand Pharma A/S, Orphan Drug Status,  Hypoglycaemia, Congenital hyperinsulinism,  HypoPal rescue pen, DIABETES

#Dasiglucagon, #FDA 2021,  #APPROVALS 2021, #Zegalogue, #ダシグルカゴン, #ZP 4207, ZP-GA-1 #Hypoglycemia, #Type 1, #Type 2 , #Diabetes Patients, #Zealand Pharma A/S, #Orphan Drug Status,  #Hypoglycaemia, #Congenital hyperinsulinism,  #HypoPal rescue pen, #DIABETESSMILES

  • C[C@H]([C@@H](C(=O)N[C@@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC2=CC=C(C=C2)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC3=CC=C(C=C3)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(=O)O)C(=O)NC(C)(C)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCNC(=N)N)C(=O)N[C@@H](C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC4=CC=CC=C4)C(=O)N[C@@H](C(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCCCN)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC5=CNC6=CC=CC=C65)C(=O)N[C@@H](CC(C)C)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(=O)O)C(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)N[C@@H]([C@@H](C)O)C(=O)O)NC(=O)CNC(=O)[C@H](CCC(=O)N)NC(=O)[C@H](CO)NC(=O)[C@H](CC7=CNC=N7)N)O

Pemigatinib


Pemigatinib.svg
img

Pemigatinib

INCB054828

FormulaC24H27F2N5O4
CAS1513857-77-62379919-96-5  HCL
Mol weight487.4991

2020/4/17FDA APPROVED, PEMAZYRE

佩米替尼 [Chinese] [INN]

3-(2,6-Difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholinomethyl)-1,3,4,6-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

2H-Pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one, 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-8-(4-morpholinylmethyl)-

3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one 

  • Originator Incyte Corporation
  • Developer Incyte Corporation; Innovent Biologics
  • ClassAntineoplastics; Ethers; Fluorobenzenes; Morpholines; Pyridines; Pyrimidinones; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Type 1 fibroblast growth factor receptor antagonists; Type 3 fibroblast growth factor receptor antagonists; Type 4 fibroblast growth factor receptor antagonists; Type-2 fibroblast growth factor receptor antagonists
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Myeloproliferative disorders; Lymphoma; Cholangiocarcinoma
  • MarketedCholangiocarcinoma
  • Phase IIBladder cancer; Lymphoma; Myeloproliferative disorders; Solid tumours; Urogenital cancer
  • Phase I/IICancer
  • 05 Nov 2020Preregistration for Cholangiocarcinoma (Late-stage disease, Metastatic disease, First line therapy, Inoperable/Unresectable) in Japan (PO) in November 2020
  • 05 Nov 2020Incyte Corporation stops enrolment in the FIGHT-205 trial for Bladder cancer due to regulatory feedback
  • 26 Oct 2020Preregistration for Cholangiocarcinoma (Second-line therapy or greater, Inoperable/Unresectable, Late-stage disease, Metastatic disease) in Canada (PO)

Pemigatinib, also known as INCB054828, is an orally bioavailable inhibitor of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) types 1, 2, and 3 (FGFR1/2/3), with potential antineoplastic activity. FGFR inhibitor INCB054828 binds to and inhibits FGFR1/2/3, which may result in the inhibition of FGFR1/2/3-related signal transduction pathways. This inhibits proliferation in FGFR1/2/3-overexpressing tumor cells.

Pemigatinib (INN),[2] sold under the brand name Pemazyre, is a medication for the treatment of adults with previously treated, unresectable locally advanced or metastatic bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) with a fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) fusion or other rearrangement as detected by an FDA-approved test.[3][4] Pemigatinib works by blocking FGFR2 in tumor cells to prevent them from growing and spreading.[3]

Pemigatinib belongs to a group of medicines called protein kinase inhibitors.[5] It works by blocking enzymes known as protein kinases, particularly those that are part of receptors (targets) called fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs).[5] FGFRs are found on the surface of cancer cells and are involved in the growth and spread of the cancer cells.[5] By blocking the tyrosine kinases in FGFRs, pemigatinib is expected to reduce the growth and spread of the cancer.[5]

PEMAZYRE®: Prescription Medicine that is Used to Treat Adults with Bile Duct Cancer| Pemazyre.com

The most common adverse reactions are hyperphosphatemia and hypophosphatemia (electrolyte disorders), alopecia (spot baldness), diarrhea, nail toxicity, fatigue, dysgeusia (taste distortion), nausea, constipation, stomatitis (sore or inflammation inside the mouth), dry eye, dry mouth, decreased appetite, vomiting, joint pain, abdominal pain, back pain and dry skin.[3][4] Ocular (eye) toxicity is also a risk of pemigatinib.[3][4]

Medical uses

Cholangiocarcinoma is a rare form of cancer that forms in bile ducts, which are slender tubes that carry the digestive fluid bile from the liver to gallbladder and small intestine.[3] Pemigatinib is indicated for the treatment of adults with bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma) that is locally advanced (when cancer has grown outside the organ it started in, but has not yet spread to distant parts of the body) or metastatic (when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body) and who have tumors that have a fusion or other rearrangement of a gene called fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2).[3] It should be used in patients who have been previously treated with chemotherapy and whose cancer has a certain type of abnormality in the FGFR2 gene.[6]

History

Pemigatinib was approved for use in the United States in April 2020 along with the FoundationOne CDX (Foundation Medicine, Inc.) as a companion diagnostic for patient selection.[3][4][7]

The approval of pemigatinib in the United States was based on the results the FIGHT-202 (NCT02924376) multicenter open-label single-arm trial that enrolled 107 participants with locally advanced or metastatic cholangiocarcinoma with an FGFR2 fusion or rearrangement who had received prior treatment.[3][4][6] The trial was conducted at 67 sites in the United States, Europe, and Asia.[6] During the clinical trial, participants received pemigatinib once a day for 14 consecutive days, followed by 7 days off, in 21-day cycles until the disease progressed or the patient experienced an unreasonable level of side effects.[3][4][6] To assess how well pemigatinib was working during the trial, participants were scanned every eight weeks.[3] The trial used established criteria to measure how many participants experienced a complete or partial shrinkage of their tumors during treatment (overall response rate).[3] The overall response rate was 36% (95% CI: 27%, 45%), with 2.8% of participants having a complete response and 33% having a partial response.[3] Among the 38 participants who had a response, 24 participants (63%) had a response lasting six months or longer and seven participants (18%) had a response lasting 12 months or longer.[3][4]

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted the application for pemigatinib priority reviewbreakthrough therapy and orphan drug designations.[3][4][8][9] The FDA granted approval of Pemazyre to Incyte Corporation.[3]

On 24 August 2018, orphan designation (EU/3/18/2066) was granted by the European Commission to Incyte Biosciences Distribution B.V., the Netherlands, for pemigatinib for the treatment of biliary tract cancer.[5] On 17 October 2019, orphan designation EU/3/19/2216 was granted by the European Commission to Incyte Biosciences Distribution B.V., the Netherlands, for pemigatinib for the treatment of myeloid/lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and rearrangement of PDGFRA, PDGFRB, or FGFR1, or with PCM1-JAK2.[10]

PATENT

US 20200281907

The present disclosure is directed to, inter alia, methods of treating cancer in a patient in need thereof, comprising administering pemigatinib, which is 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′: 5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one, having the structure shown below:

 Pemigatinib is described in U.S. Pat. No. 9,611,267, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference. Pemigatinib is further described in US Publication Nos.: 2019/0337948 and 2020/0002338, the entireties of which are incorporated herein by reference.

      Provided herein is a method of treating cancer comprising administering a therapy to a patient in need thereof, wherein the therapy comprises administering a therapeutically effective amount of pemigatinib to the patient while avoiding the concomitant administration of a CYP3A4 perpetrator.

Example 1. Synthesis of Pemigatinib

Step 1: 4-(ethylamino)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbaldehyde


 
      A mixture of 4-chloro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbaldehyde (CAS #958230-19-8, Lakestar Tech, Lot: 124-132-29: 3.0 g, 17 mmol) and ethylamine (10M in water, 8.3 mL, 83 mmol) in 2-methoxyethanol (20 mL, 200 mmol) was heated to 130° C. and stirred overnight. The mixture was cooled to room temperature then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was treated with 1N HCl (30 mL) and stirred at room temperature for 1 h then neutralized with saturated NaHCO aqueous solution. The precipitate was collected via filtration then washed with water and dried to provide the desired product (2.9 g, 92%). LC-MS calculated for C 10123O [M+H] + m/z: 190.1; found: 190.1.

Step 2: 5-{[(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)amino]methyl}-N-ethyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-amine


 
      A mixture of 4-(ethylamino)-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbaldehyde (7.0 g, 37 mmol), 2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyaniline (9.1 g, 48 mmol) and [(1S)-7,7-dimethyl-2-oxobicyclo[2.2.1]hept-1-yl]methanesulfonic acid (Aldrich, cat #21360: 2 g, 7 mmol) in xylenes (250 mL) was heated to reflux with azeotropic removal of water using Dean-Stark for 2 days at which time LC-MS showed the reaction was complete. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (500 mL) and then 2.0 M lithium tetrahydroaluminate in THF (37 mL, 74 mmol) was added slowly and the resulting mixture was stirred at 50° C. for 3 h then cooled to room temperature. The reaction was quenched by addition of water, 15% aqueous NaOH and water. The mixture was filtered and washed with THF. The filtrate was concentrated and the residue was washed with CH 2Cl and then filtered to get the pure product (11 g, 82%). LC-MS calculated for C 1821242[M+H] + m/z: 363.2; found: 363.1.

Step 3: 3-(2,6-Difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one


 
      A solution of triphosgene (5.5 g, 18 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (30 mL) was added slowly to a mixture of 5-{[(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)amino]methyl}-N-ethyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-4-amine (5.6 g, 15 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (100 mL) at 0° C. and then the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6 h. The mixture was cooled to 0° C. and then 1.0 M sodium hydroxide in water (100 mL, 100 mmol) was added slowly. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and the formed precipitate was collected via filtration, washed with water, and then dried to provide the first batch of the purified desired product. The organic layer in the filtrate was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with methylene chloride. The combined organic layer was concentrated and the residue was triturated with methylene chloride then filtered and dried to provide another batch of the product (total 5.5 g, 92%). LC-MS calculated for C 1919243[M+H] + m/z: 389.1; found: 389.1.

Step 4: 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one


 
      To a solution of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (900 mg, 2.32 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (20 mL) cooled to 0° C. was added sodium hydride (185 mg, 4.63 mmol, 60 wt % in mineral oil). The resulting mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 30 min then benzenesulfonyl chloride (0.444 mL, 3.48 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 1.5 h at which time LC-MS showed the reaction completed to the desired product. The reaction was quenched with saturated NH 4Cl solution and diluted with water. The white precipitate was collected via filtration then washed with water and hexanes, dried to afford the desired product (1.2 g, 98%) as a white solid which was used in the next step without further purification. LC-MS calculated for C 2523245S [M+H] + m/z: 529.1; found: 529.1.

Step 5: 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-2-oxo-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-2,3,4,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine-8-carbaldehyde


 
      To a solution of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′: 5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (1.75 g, 3.31 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (80 mL) at −78° C. was added freshly prepared lithium diisopropylamide (1M in tetrahydrofuran (THF), 3.48 mL, 3.48 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 min then N,N-dimethylformamide (1.4 mL, 18 mmol) was added slowly. The reaction mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 min then quenched with water and extracted with EtOAc. The organic extracts were combined then washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography eluted with 0 to 20% EtOAc in DCM to give the desired product as a white solid (1.68 g, 91%). LC-MS calculated for C 2623246S (M+H) + m/z: 557.1; found: 556.9.

Step 6: 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one


 
      To a solution 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-2-oxo-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-2,3,4,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3′,2′: 5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine-8-carbaldehyde (1.73 g, 3.11 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added morpholine (0.95 mL, 11 mmol), followed by acetic acid (2 mL, 30 mmol). The resulting yellow solution was stirred at room temperature overnight then sodium triacetoxyborohydride (2.3 g, 11 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h at which time LC-MS showed the reaction went to completion to the desired product. The reaction was quenched with saturated NaHCO then extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc). The organic extracts were combined then washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography eluted with 0 to 40% EtOAc in DCM to give the desired product as a yellow solid (1.85 g, 95%). LC-MS calculated for C 3032256S (M+H) + m/z: 628.2; found: 628.0.

Step 7: 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′: 5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (pemigatinib)

      To a solution of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′: 5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (1.5 g, 2.4 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (40 mL) was added tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (1M in THF, 7.2 mL, 7.2 mmol). The resulting solution was stirred at 50° C. for 1.5 h then cooled to room temperature and quenched with water. The mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and the organic extracts were combined then washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na 2SO and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography eluted with 0 to 10% MeOH in DCM to give the desired product as a white solid, which was further purified by prep HPLC (pH=2, acetonitrile/H 2O). LC-MS calculated for C 242825(M+H) + m/z: 488.2; found: 488.0. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ 12.09 (s, 1H), 8.06 (s, 1H), 7.05 (t, J=8.1 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (s, 1H), 4.78 (s, 2H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 4.17 (q, J=6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.97 (br, 2H), 3.89 (s, 6H), 3.65 (br, 2H), 3.37 (br, 2H), 3.15 (br, 2H), 1.37 (t, J=6.8 Hz, 3H).

PATENT

WO 2019213506

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019213506

PATENT

WO 2019213544

The present disclosure is directed to, inter alia, solid forms, including crystalline forms and amorphous forms, of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-l-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)- 1 ,3,4,7 -tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo [3 ‘,2’ : 5 ,6]pyrido [4,3 -d]pyrimidin-2-one

(Compound 1), and processes and intermediates for preparing the compound. The structure of Compound 1 is shown below.

Compound 1

Compound 1 is described in US Patent No. 9,611,267, the entirety of which is incorporated herein by reference.

Example 1

Synthesis of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-l-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-l^, 4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3f,2f:5,6]pyrido[4r3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (Compound 1) Scheme 1.

Step 1: Synthesis of 4-((4-chloro-5-(l, 3-dioxolan-2-yl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)-lH-pyrrolo[2, 3-b ] pyridin-2-yl) methyl) morpholine

To a l-L flask was added 4-chloro-5-(l,3-dioxolan-2-yl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)-lH-pyrrolo [2,3-b] pyridine (50.0 g, 137 mmol) (see, e.g., Example 2) and tetrahydrofuran (THF, 266 g, 300 mL) under N2. To this mixture at -70 °C was added 2.0 M lithium

diisopropylamide in THF/heptane/ethyl benzene (77.4 g, 95 mL, 190 mmol, 1.4 eq.). The mixture was stirred at -70 °C for 1 h. To the mixture was added /V- formyl morpholine (29.7 g, 258 mmol, 1.9 eq.) in THF (22. 2 g, 25 mL) dropwise. The reaction was done in 30 min after addition. LC/MS showed that the desired product, 4-chloro-5-(l, 3-dioxolan-2-yl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 //-pyrrolo [2, 3-61 pyridine-2-carbaldehyde, was formed cleanly. The reaction was quenched with acetic acid (16.4 g, 15.6 mL, 274 mmol, 2.0 eq.) and the dry ice cooling was removed. To the mixture was added morpholine (33.7 g, 33.5 mL, 387 mmol, 2.83 eq.) followed by acetic acid (74.0 g, 70 mL, 1231 mmol, and 9.0 eq.) at 0 °C (internal temperature rose from 0 °C to 18 °C) and stirred overnight. Sodium triacetoxyborohydride (52.50 g, 247.7 mmol, 1.8 eq.) was added and the reaction mixture temperature rose from 20 °C to 32 °C. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 30 min. HPLC & LC/MS indicated the reaction was complete. Water (100 g, 100 mL) was added followed by 2.0 M sodium carbonate (Na2C03) in water (236 g, 200 mL, 400 mmol, 2.9 eq.) slowly (off gas!). The mixture was stirred for about 30 min. The organic layer was separated and water (250 g, 250 mL) and heptane (308 g, 450 mL) were added. The resulting slurry was stirred for 1 h and the solid was collected by filtration. The wet cake was washed with heptane twice (75.00 mL x 2, 51.3 g x 2) before being dried in oven at 50 °C overnight to give the desired product, 4-((4-chloro-5-( 1 3-dioxolan-2-yl)- 1 -(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 //-pyrrolo|2.3-6 |pyridin-2-yl)methyl)morpholine as a light brown solid (52.00 g, 81.8 % yield): LCMS calculated for C21H23CIN2O5S [M+H]+: 464.00; Found: 464.0; ftf NMR ^OO MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.48 (s, 1 H), 8.38 (m, 2H), 7.72 (m, 1H), 7.64 (m, 2H), 6.83 (s, 1H), 6.13 (s, 1H), 4.12 (m, 2H), 4.00 (m, 2H), 3.92 (s, 2H), 3.55 (m, 4H), 2.47 (m, 4H).

Step 2: Synthesis of 4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)-lH-pyrrolo[2, 3-b] pyridine-5 -carbaldehyde

To a 2 L reactor with a thermocouple, an addition funnel, and a mechanical stirrer was charged 4-((4-chloro-5 -(1 ,3 -dioxolan-2-yl)- 1 -(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 //-pyrrolo [2,3 -6]pyridin-2-yl)methyl)morpholine (20.00 g, 43.1 mmol) and dichloromethane (265 g, 200 mL) at room temperature. The resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature (internal temperature

was 19.5 °C) to achieve a solution. To the resulting solution was added an aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (0.5 M, 240 g, 200.0 ml, 100 mmol, 2.32 eq.) at room temperature in 7 min. After over 23 h agitations at room temperature, the bilayer reaction mixture turned into a thick colorless suspension. When HPLC showed the reaction was complete, the slurry was cooled to 0-5 °C and aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (1 N, 104 g, 100 mL, 100 mmol, and 2.32 eq.) was added in about 10 min to adjust the pH of the reaction mixture to 10-11. «-Heptane (164 g, 240 mL) was added and the reaction mixture and the mixture were stirred at room temperature for 1 h. The solid was collected by filtration and the wet cake was washed with water (2 x 40 mL), heptane (2 x 40 ml) before being dried in oven at 50 °C under vacuum to afford the desired product, 4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 //-pyrrolo|2.3-/i |pyridine-5-carbaldehyde as a light brown solid (16.9 g, 93% yield): LCMS calculated for C19H19CIN3O4S [M+H]+: 420.00; Found: 420.0; ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 10.33 (s, 1H), 8.76 (s, 1 H), 8.42 (m, 2H), 7.74 (m, 1H), 7.65 (m, 2H), 6.98 (s, 1H), 3.96 (m, 2H), 3.564 (m, 4H), 2.51 (m, 4H).

Step 3: Synthesis ofN-((4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)-lH-pyrrolo [2, 3-h] pyridin-5-yl) methyl) -2, 6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyaniline

To a 2-L reactor equipped with a thermocouple, a nitrogen inlet and mechanical stirrer were charged AOV-dimethyl formamide (450 mL, 425 g), 4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 //-pyrrolo|2.3-6 |pyridine-5-carbaldehyde (30.0 g, 71.45 mmol) and 2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyanihne (14.2 g, 75.0 mmol). To this suspension (internal temperature 20 °C) was added chlorotrimethylsilane (19.4 g, 22. 7 mL, 179 mmol) dropwise in 10 min at room temperature (internal temperature 20-23 °C). The suspension changed into a solution in 5 min after the chlorotrimethylsilane addition. The solution was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 h before cooled to 0-5 °C with ice-bath. Borane-THF complex in THF (1.0 M, 71.4 mL, 71.4 mmol, 64.2 g, 1.0 eq.) was added dropwise via additional funnel over 30 min while maintaining temperature at 0-5 °C. After addition, the mixture was stirred for 4 h. Water (150 g, 150 mL) was added under ice-bath cooling in 20 min, followed by slow addition of ammonium hydroxide solution (28% N¾, 15.3 g, 17 ml, 252 mmol, 3.53 eq.) to pH 9-10 while maintaining the temperature below 10 °C. More water (250 mL, 250 g) was added through the additional funnel. The slurry was stirred for 30 min and the solids were collected by filtration. The wet cake was washed with water (90 g x 2, 90 ml x 2) and heptane (61.6 g x2, 90 ml x 2). The product w as suction dried overnight to give the desired product LG-((4-chloro-2-(morphohnomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)-li/-pyrrolo[2,3-Z>]pyridin-5-yl)methyl)-2,6- difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyaniline (41.6 g, 96% yield): LCMS calculated for C27H28ClF2N405S[M+H]+: 593.10; Found: 593.1 ; ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) 5 8.36 (m, 2H), 8.28 (s, 1H), 7.72 (m, 1H), 7.63 (m, 2H), 6.78 (s, 1H), 6.29 (m, 1H), 5.82 (m, 1H), 4.58 (m, 2H), 3.91 (s, 2H), 3.76 (s, 6H), 3.56 (m, 4H), 2.47 (m, 4H).

Step 4: Synthesis of l-((4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)-lH-pyrrolo [2, 3-b ] pyridin-5-yl) methyl)-! -(2, 6-difluoro-3, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-ethylurea

To a 2-L, 3-neck round bottom flask fitted with a thermocouple, a nitrogen bubbler inlet, and a magnetic stir were charged /V-((4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)-li/-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-5-yl)methyl)-2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyaniline (67.0 g, 113 mmol) and acetonitrile (670 ml, 527 g). The suspension was cooled to 0-5 °C.

To the mixture was charged ethyl isocyanate (17.7 mL, 15.9 g, 224 mmol, 1.98 eq.) over 30 sec. The temperature stayed unchanged at 0.7 °C after the charge. Methanesulfonic acid (16.1 mL, 23.9 g, 248 mmol, 2.2 eq.) was charged dropwise over 35 min while maintaining the temperature below 2 °C. The mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred overnight. At 24 h after addition showed that the product was 93.7%, unreacted SM was 0.73% and the major impurity (bis-isocyanate adduct) was 1.3%. The mixture was cooled with an ice-bath and quenched with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (1.0M, 235 mL, 244 g, 235 mmol, 2.08 eq.) over 20 min and then saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate

(NaHCCh) solution (1.07 M, 85 mL, 91 g, 0.091 mol, 0.80 eq.) over 10 min. Water (550 mL, 550 g) was added and the liquid became one phase. The mixture was stirred for 2 h and the solids were collected by filtration, washed with water (165 mL, 165 g) to give l-((4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)- 1 -(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 //-pyrrolo| 2.3-6 |p\ ri din-5 -y l (methy l )- 1 -(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-ethylurea ( 70.3 g, 93.7% yield).

The crude l-((4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l -(phenylsulfonyl)- li/-pyrrolo [2, 3-61 pyridin-5-yl) methyl)- 1 -(2, 6-difluoro-3, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-ethylurea (68.5 g, 103 mmol) was added in to acetonitrile (616 mL, 485 g). The mixture was heated 60-65 °C and an amber colored thin suspension was obtained. The solid was filtered off with celite and the celite was washed with acetonitrile (68.5 mL, 53.8 g). To the pale yellow filtrate was added water (685 g, 685 ml) to form a slurry. The slurry was stirred overnight at room temperature and filtered. The solid was added to water (685 mL, 685 g) and stirred at 60 °C for 2 h. The solid was filtered and re-slurred in heptane (685 mL, 469 g) overnight. The product was dried in an oven at 50 °C under vacuum for 48 h to afford l-((4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)- 1 //-pyrrolo|2.3-6 |pyridin-5-yl)methyl)- 1 -(2.6-difluoro-3.5-

dimethoxyphenyl)-3-ethylurea as a colorless solid (62.2 g, 90.8% yield, 99.9% purity by HPLC area%). KF was 0.028%. Acetonitrile (by ‘H NMR) was about 1.56%, DCM (by ‘H NMR) 2.0%: LCMS calculated for C30H33CIF2N5O6S [M+H]+: EM: 664.17; Found: 664.2; ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.33 (m, 2H), 8.31 (s, 1H), 7.72 (m, 1H), 7.64 (m, 1H), 6.96 (m, 2H), 6.73 (s, 1H), 6.43 (m, 1H), 4.87 (s, 2H), 3.90 (s, 2H), 3.77 (s, 6H), 3.54 (m, 4H),

3.03 (m, 2H), 2.46 (m, 4H), 0.95 (m, 3H).

Step 5: Synthesis of 3-(2, 6-difluoro-3, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-l-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-l, 3, 4, 7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[ 3 2’:5, 6 ]pyrido[ 4, 3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

To a 2000 mL flask equipped with a thermal couple, a nitrogen inlet, and a mechanical stirrer were charged dry l-((4-chloro-2-(morpholinomethyl)-l-(phenylsulfonyl)-1 //-pyrrolo| 2.3-6 |pyridin-5-yl)methyl)- 1 -(2.6-dinuoro-3.5-dimetho\yphenyl)-3-ethylurea (30.0 g, 45.2 mmol, KF=0. l l%) and tetrahydrofuran (1200 mL, 1063 g). To this suspension at room temperature was charged 1.0 M lithium hexamethyldisilazide in THF (62.3 mL, 55.5 g, 62.3 mmol, 1.38 eq). The mixture turned into a solution after the base addition. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 h and HPLC shows the starting material was not detectable. To this mixture was added 1.0 M hydrochloric acid (18.1 mL, -18.1 g. 18.1 mmol, 0.4 eq.). The solution was concentrated to 600 mL and water (1200 mL, 1200 g) was added. Slurry was formed after water addition. The slurry was stirred for 30 min at room temperature and the solid was collected by filtration. The wet cake was washed with water twice (60 mLx2,

60 gx2) and dried at 50 °C overnight to give 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-l-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-l,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4, 3-d]pyrimidin-2-one as a light brown solid (26.58 g, as-is yield 93.7%): THF by ‘H NMR 0.32%, KF 5.26%, adjusted yield was 88.5%: LCMS calculated for C30H32F2N5O6S [M+H]+: EM: 628.20; Found: 628.2; ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-de) d 8.41 (m, 2H), 8.07 (s, 1H), 7.70 (m, 1H), 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.05 (m, 1H), 6.89 (s, 1H), 4.76 (s, 2H), 4.09 (m, 2H), 3.93 (s, 2H), 3.89 (s, 6H), 3.60 (m, 4H), 2.50 (m, 4H), 1.28 (m, 3H).

Step 6: Synthesis of 3-( 2, 6-difluoro-3, 5-dimethoxyphenyl)-l-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-1,3, 4, 7 -tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo [ 3 ‘, 2 5, 6 ]pyrido[ 4, 3-dJpyrimidin-2-one

To a stirring suspension of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-l-ethyl-8-(morpholinomethyl)-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-l,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2i/-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (10.0 g, 15.93 mmol) in l,4-dioxane (100 ml, 103 g) in a 500 mL flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a condenser, a thermocouple and a heating mantle was added 1 M aqueous sodium hydroxide (63.7 ml, 66.3 g, 63.7 mmol). The reaction mixture was heated at 75 °C for 18 h. LCMS showed the reaction was complete. Water (100 mL, 100 g) was added to give a thick suspension. This slurry was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and filtered. The cake was washed with water (3 x 10 mL, 3 x 10 g) and heptane (2 x 10 mL, 2 x 6.84 g). The cake was dried overnight by pulling a vacuum through the filter cake and then dried in an oven at 50 °C under vacuum overnight to give 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-l-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-l,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5, 6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (6.8 g, 87.6% yield): LCMS calculated for C24H28F2N5O4 [M+H]+: 488.20; Found: 488.2.

PATENT

US 20130338134

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20130338134A1/en

  • [0831]

Step 1: 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

  • [0832]
  • [0833]
    To a solution of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (Example 49, Step 3: 900 mg, 2.32 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (20 mL) cooled to 0° C. was added sodium hydride (185 mg, 4.63 mmol, 60 wt % in mineral oil). The resulting mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 30 min then benzenesulfonyl chloride (0.444 mL, 3.48 mmol) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 1.5 h at which time LC-MS showed the reaction completed to the desired product. The reaction was quenched with saturated NH4Cl solution and diluted with water. The white precipitate was collected via filtration then washed with water and hexanes, dried to afford the desired product (1.2 g, 98%) as a white solid which was used in the next step without further purification. LC-MS calculated for C25H23F2N4O5S [M+H]+ m/z: 529.1; found: 529.1.

Step 2: 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-2-oxo-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-2,3,4,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine-8-carbaldehyde

  • [0834]
  • [0835]
    To a solution of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (1.75 g, 3.31 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (80 mL) at −78° C. was added freshly prepared lithium diisopropylamide (1M in tetrahydrofuran (THF), 3.48 mL, 3.48 mmol). The resulting mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 min then N,N-dimethylformamide (1.4 mL, 18 mmol) was added slowly. The reaction mixture was stirred at −78° C. for 30 min then quenched with water and extracted with EtOAc. The organic extracts were combined then washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SOand concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography eluted with 0 to 20% EtOAc in DCM to give the desired product as a white solid (1.68 g, 91%). LC-MS calculated for C26H23F2N4O6S (M+H)+ m/z: 557.1; found: 556.9.

Step 3: 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

  • [0836]
  • [0837]
    To a solution 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-2-oxo-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-2,3,4,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidine-8-carbaldehyde (1.73 g, 3.11 mmol) in dichloromethane (50 mL) was added morpholine (0.95 mL, 11 mmol), followed by acetic acid (2 mL, 30 mmol). The resulting yellow solution was stirred at room temperature overnight then sodium triacetoxyborohydride (2.3 g, 11 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 h at which time LC-MS showed the reaction went to completion to the desired product. The reaction was quenched with saturated NaHCOthen extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc). The organic extracts were combined then washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SOand concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography eluted with 0 to 40% EtOAc in DCM to give the desired product as a yellow solid (1.85 g, 95%). LC-MS calculated for C30H32F2N5O6S (M+H)+ m/z: 628.2; found: 628.0.

Step 4: 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one

  • [0838]
    To a solution of 3-(2,6-difluoro-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-ethyl-8-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)-7-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,3,4,7-tetrahydro-2H-pyrrolo[3′,2′:5,6]pyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-2-one (1.5 g, 2.4 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (40 mL) was added tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride (1M in THF, 7.2 mL, 7.2 mmol). The resulting solution was stirred at 50° C. for 1.5 h then cooled to room temperature and quenched with water. The mixture was extracted with dichloromethane (DCM) and the organic extracts were combined then washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dried over Na2SOand concentrated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography eluted with 0 to 10% MeOH in DCM to give the desired product as a white solid, which was further purified by prep HPLC (pH=2, acetonitrile/H2O). LC-MS calculated for C24H28F2N5O(M+H)+ m/z: 488.2; found: 488.0. 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ 12.09 (s, 1H), 8.06 (s, 1H), 7.05 (t, J=8.1 Hz, 1H), 6.87 (s, 1H), 4.78 (s, 2H), 4.50 (s, 2H), 4.17 (q, J=6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.97 (br, 2H), 3.89 (s, 6H), 3.65 (br, 2H), 3.37 (br, 2H), 3.15 (br, 2H), 1.37 (t, J=6.8 Hz, 3H).

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US-2020115378-A1Dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidinone compounds as cdk2 inhibitors2018-10-11 
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References

  1. ^ “Pemigatinib (Pemazyre) Use During Pregnancy”Drugs.com. 11 August 2020. Retrieved 24 September 2020.
  2. ^ World Health Organization (2018). “International nonproprietary names for pharmaceutical substances (INN): recommended INN: list 80”. WHO Drug Information32 (3): 479. hdl:10665/330907.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o “FDA Approves First Targeted Treatment for Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma, a Cancer of Bile Ducts”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 17 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “FDA grants accelerated approval to pemigatinib for cholangiocarcinoma”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 17 April 2020. Retrieved 20 April 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e “EU/3/18/2066”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 19 December 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d “Drug Trials Snapshot: Pemazyre”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 17 April 2020. Retrieved 5 May 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  7. ^ “Pemazyre: FDA-Approved Drugs”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 21 April 2020.
  8. ^ “Pemigatinib Orphan Drug Designation and Approval”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  9. ^ “Pemigatinib Orphan Drug Designation and Approval”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  10. ^ “EU/3/19/2216”European Medicines Agency (EMA). 23 January 2020. Retrieved 19 April 2020.  This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Further reading

External links

  • “Pemigatinib”Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • “Pemigatinib”National Cancer Institute.
  • Clinical trial number NCT02924376 for “Efficacy and Safety of Pemigatinib in Subjects With Advanced/Metastatic or Surgically Unresectable Cholangiocarcinoma Who Failed Previous Therapy – (FIGHT-202)” at ClinicalTrials.gov
Clinical data
Trade namesPemazyre
Other namesINCB054828
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa620028
License dataUS DailyMedPemigatinib
Pregnancy
category
US: N (Not classified yet)[1]
Routes of
administration
By mouth
ATC codeNone
Legal status
Legal statusUS: ℞-only
Identifiers
IUPAC name[show]
CAS Number1513857-77-6
PubChem CID86705695
DrugBankDB15102
ChemSpider68007304
UNIIY6BX7BL23K
KEGGD11417
ChEMBLChEMBL4297522
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC24H27F2N5O4
Molar mass487.508 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
SMILES[hide]CCN1C2=C3C=C(NC3=NC=C2CN(C1=O)C4=C(C(=CC(=C4F)OC)OC)F)CN5CCOCC5
InChI[hide]InChI=1S/C24H27F2N5O4/c1-4-30-21-14(11-27-23-16(21)9-15(28-23)13-29-5-7-35-8-6-29)12-31(24(30)32)22-19(25)17(33-2)10-18(34-3)20(22)26/h9-11H,4-8,12-13H2,1-3H3,(H,27,28)Key:HCDMJFOHIXMBOV-UHFFFAOYSA-N

/////////Pemigatinib, 佩米替尼 , PEMAZYRE, FDA 2020, 2020 APPROVALS, INCB054828, INCB 054828, Orphan Drug Status, Myeloproliferative disorders, Lymphoma,  Cholangiocarcinoma, INCYTE

O=C1N(CC)C2=C3C(NC(CN4CCOCC4)=C3)=NC=C2CN1C5=C(F)C(OC)=CC(OC)=C5F.[H]Cl

Odevixibat


Structure of ODEVIXIBAT

Odevixibat.png

Odevixibat

A-4250, AR-H 064974

CAS 501692-44-0

BUTANOIC ACID, 2-(((2R)-2-((2-((3,3-DIBUTYL-2,3,4,5-TETRAHYDRO-7-(METHYLTHIO)-1,1-DIOXIDO-5-PHENYL-1,2,5-BENZOTHIADIAZEPIN-8-YL)OXY)ACETYL)AMINO)-2-(4-HYDROXYPHENYL)ACETYL)AMINO)-, (2S)-

(2S)-2-[[(2R)-2-[[2-[(3,3-dibutyl-7-methylsulfanyl-1,1-dioxo-5-phenyl-2,4-dihydro-1λ6,2,5-benzothiadiazepin-8-yl)oxy]acetyl]amino]-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]butanoic acid

Molecular Formula C37H48N4O8S2
Molecular Weight 740.929
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Primary biliary cirrhosis; Biliary atresia; Intrahepatic cholestasis; Alagille syndrome
  • New Molecular Entity Yes
  • Phase III Biliary atresia; Intrahepatic cholestasis
  • Phase II Alagille syndrome; Cholestasis; Primary biliary cirrhosis
  • No development reported Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis
  • 22 Jul 2020 Albireo initiates an expanded-access programme for Intrahepatic cholestasis in USA, Canada, Australia and Europe
  • 14 Jul 2020 Phase-III clinical trials in Biliary atresia (In infants, In neonates) in Belgium (PO) after July 2020 (EudraCT2019-003807-37)
  • 14 Jul 2020 Phase-III clinical trials in Biliary atresia (In infants, In neonates) in Germany, France, United Kingdom, Hungary (PO) (EudraCT2019-003807-37)

A-4250 (odevixibat) is a selective inhibitor of the ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) that acts locally in the gut. Ileum absorbs glyco-and taurine-conjugated forms of the bile salts. IBAT is the first step in absorption at the brush-border membrane. A-4250 works by decreasing the re-absorption of bile acids from the small intestine to the liver, whichreduces the toxic levels of bile acids during the progression of the disease. It exhibits therapeutic intervention by checking the transport of bile acids. Studies show that A-4250 has the potential to decrease the damage in the liver cells and the development of fibrosis/cirrhosis of the liver known to occur in progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis. A-4250 is a designated orphan drug in the USA for October 2012. A-4250 is a designated orphan drug in the EU for October 2016. A-4250 was awarded PRIME status for PFIC by EMA in October 2016. A-4250 is in phase II clinical trials by Albireo for the treatment of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and cholestatic pruritus. In an open label Phase 2 study in children with cholestatic liver disease and pruritus, odevixibat showed reductions in serum bile acids and pruritus in most patients and exhibited a favorable overall tolerability profile.

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albireo_logo_nav.svg

Odevixibat is a highly potent, non-systemic ileal bile acid transport inhibitor (IBATi) that has has minimal systemic exposure and acts locally in the small intestine. Albireo is developing odevixibat to treat rare pediatric cholestatic liver diseases, including progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasisbiliary atresia and Alagille syndrome.

With normal function, approximately 95 percent of bile acids released from the liver into the bile ducts to aid in liver function are recirculated to the liver via the IBAT in a process called enterohepatic circulation. In people with cholestatic liver diseases, the bile flow is interrupted, resulting in elevated levels of toxic bile acids accumulating in the liver and serum. Accordingly, a product capable of inhibiting the IBAT could lead to a reduction in bile acids returning to the liver and may represent a promising approach for treating cholestatic liver diseases.

The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, global multicenter PEDFIC 1 Phase 3 clinical trial of odevixibat in 62 patients, ages 6 months to 15.9 years, with PFIC type 1 or type 2 met its two primary endpoints demonstrating that odevixibat reduced serum bile acids (sBAs) (p=0.003) and improved pruritus (p=0.004), and was well tolerated with a low single digit diarrhea rate. These topline data substantiate the potential for odevixibat to be first drug for PFIC patients. The Company intends to complete regulatory filings in the EU and U.S. no later than early 2021, in anticipation of regulatory approval, issuance of a rare pediatric disease priority review voucher and launch in the second half of 2021.

Odevixibat is being evaluated in the ongoing PEDFIC 2 open-label trial (NCT03659916) designed to assess long-term safety and durability of response in a cohort of patients rolled over from PEDFIC 1 and a second cohort of PFIC patients who are not eligible for PEDFIC 1.

Odevixibat is also currently being evaluated in a second Phase 3 clinical trial, BOLD (NCT04336722), in patients with biliary atresia. BOLD, the largest prospective intervention trial ever conducted in biliary atresia, is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial which will enroll approximately 200 patients at up to 75 sites globally to evaluate the efficacy and safety of odevixibat in children with biliary atresia who have undergone a Kasai procedure before age three months. The company also anticipates initiating a pivotal trial of odevixibat for Alagille syndrome by the end of 2020.

For more information about the PEDFIC 2 or BOLD studies, please visit ClinicalTrials.gov or contact medinfo@albireopharma.com.

The odevixibat PFIC program, or elements of it, have received fast track, rare pediatric disease and orphan drug designations in the United States. In addition, the FDA has granted orphan drug designation to odevixibat for the treatment of Alagille syndrome, biliary atresia and primary biliary cholangitis. The EMA has granted odevixibat orphan designation, as well as access to the PRIority MEdicines (PRIME) scheme for the treatment of PFIC. Its Paediatric Committee has agreed to Albireo’s odevixibat Pediatric Investigation Plan for PFIC. EMA has also granted orphan designation to odevixibat for the treatment of biliary atresia, Alagille syndrome and primary biliary cholangitis.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9694018B1/en

Example 5

1,1-Dioxo-3,3-dibutyl-5-phenyl-7-methylthio-8-(N—{(R)-α-[N—((S)-1-carboxypropyl) carbamoyl]-4-hydroxybenzyl}carbamoylmethoxy)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,5-benzothiadiazepine, Mw. 740.94.

This compound is prepared as described in Example 29 of WO3022286.

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2003022286A1/sv

Example 29

1,1-Dioxo-3,3-dibutyl-5-phenyl-7-methylthio-8-(N-((R)-α-[N-((S)- 1-carboxypropyl) carbamoyl]-4-hydroxybenzyl}carbamoylmethoxy)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,5-benzothiadiazepine

A solution of 1,1-dioxo-3,3-dibutyl-5-phenyl-7-methylthio-8-[N-((R)-α-carboxy-4-hydroxybenzyl)carbamoylmethoxy]-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,2,5-benzothiadiazepine (Example 18; 0.075 g, 0.114 mmol), butanoic acid, 2-amino-, 1,1-dimethylethyl ester, hydrochloride, (2S)-(0.031 g, 0.160 mmol) and Ν-methylmorpholine (0.050 ml, 0.457 mmol) in DMF (4 ml) was stirred at RT for 10 min, after which TBTU (0.048 g, 0.149 mmol) was added. After 1h, the conversion to the ester was complete. M/z: 797.4. The solution was diluted with toluene and then concentrated. The residue was dissolved in a mixture of DCM (5 ml) and TFA (2 ml) and the mixture was stirred for 7h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by preparative HPLC using a gradient of 20-60% MeCΝ in 0.1M ammonium acetate buffer as eluent. The title compound was obtained in 0.056 g (66 %) as a white solid. ΝMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): 0.70 (3H, t), 0.70-0.80 (6H, m), 0.85-1.75 (14H, m), 2.10 (3H, s), 3.80 (2H, brs), 4.00-4.15 (1H, m), 4.65 (1H, d(AB)), 4.70 (1H, d(AB)), 5.50 (1H, d), 6.60 (1H, s), 6.65-7.40 (11H, m), 8.35 (1H, d), 8.50 (1H, d) 9.40 (1H, brs).

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US20140323412A1/en

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2013063526A1/e

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2019245448A1/en

The compound l,l-dioxo-3,3-dibutyl-5-phenyl-7-methylthio-8-(A/-{(R)-a-[A/-((S)-l-carboxypropyl) carbamoyl]-4-hydroxybenzyl}carbamoylmethoxy)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-l,2,5-benzothiadiazepine (odevixibat; also known as A4250) is disclosed in WO 03/022286. The structure of odevixibat is shown below.

Figure imgf000002_0001

As an inhibitor of the ileal bile acid transporter (IBAT) mechanism, odevixibat inhibits the natural reabsorption of bile acids from the ileum into the hepatic portal circulation. Bile acids that are not reabsorbed from the ileum are instead excreted into the faeces. The overall removal of bile acids from the enterohepatic circulation leads to a decrease in the level of bile acids in serum and the liver. Odevixibat, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, is therefore useful in the treatment or prevention of diseases such as dyslipidemia, constipation, diabetes and liver diseases, and especially liver diseases that are associated with elevated bile acid levels.

According to the experimental section of WO 03/022286, the last step in the preparation of odevixibat involves the hydrolysis of a tert-butyl ester under acidic conditions. The crude compound was obtained by evaporation of the solvent under reduced pressure followed by purification of the residue by preparative HPLC (Example 29). No crystalline material was identified.

Amorphous materials may contain high levels of residual solvents, which is highly undesirable for materials that should be used as pharmaceuticals. Also, because of their lower chemical and physical stability, as compared with crystalline material, amorphous materials may display faster

decomposition and may spontaneously form crystals with a variable degree of crystallinity. This may result in unreproducible solubility rates and difficulties in storing and handling the material. In pharmaceutical preparations, the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is for that reason preferably used in a highly crystalline state. Thus, there is a need for crystal modifications of odevixibat having improved properties with respect to stability, bulk handling and solubility. In particular, it is an object of the present invention to provide a stable crystal modification of odevixibat that does not contain high levels of residual solvents, that has improved chemical stability and can be obtained in high levels of crystallinity.

Example 1

Preparation of crystal modification 1

Absolute alcohol (100.42 kg) and crude odevixibat (18.16 kg) were charged to a 250-L GLR with stirring under nitrogen atmosphere. Purified water (12.71 kg) was added and the reaction mass was stirred under nitrogen atmosphere at 25 ± 5 °C for 15 minutes. Stirring was continued at 25 ± 5 °C for 3 to 60 minutes, until a clear solution had formed. The solution was filtered through a 5.0 m SS cartridge filter, followed by a 0.2 m PP cartridge filter and then transferred to a clean reactor.

Purified water (63.56 kg) was added slowly over a period of 2 to 3 hours at 25 ± 5 °C, and the solution was seeded with crystal modification 1 of odevixibat. The solution was stirred at 25 ± 5 °C for 12 hours. During this time, the solution turned turbid. The precipitated solids were filtered through centrifuge and the material was spin dried for 30 minutes. The material was thereafter vacuum dried in a Nutsche filter for 12 hours. The material was then dried in a vacuum tray drier at 25 ± 5 °C under vacuum (550 mm Hg) for 10 hours and then at 30 ± 5 °C under vacuum (550 mm Hg) for 16 hours. The material was isolated as an off-white crystalline solid. The isolated crystalline material was milled and stored in LDPE bags.

An overhydrated sample was analyzed with XRPD and the diffractogram is shown in Figure 2.

Another sample was dried at 50 °C in vacuum and thereafter analysed with XRPD. The diffractogram of the dried sample is shown in Figure 1.

The diffractograms for the drying of the sample are shown in Figures 3 and 4 for 2Q ranges 5 – 13 ° and 18 – 25 °, respectively (overhydrated sample at the bottom and dry sample at the top).

ClinicalTrials.gov

CTID Title Phase Status Date
NCT04336722 Efficacy and Safety of Odevixibat in Children With Biliary Atresia Who Have Undergone a Kasai HPE (BOLD) Phase 3 Recruiting 2020-09-02
NCT04483531 Odevixibat for the Treatment of Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Available 2020-08-25
NCT03566238 This Study Will Investigate the Efficacy and Safety of A4250 in Children With PFIC 1 or 2 Phase 3 Active, not recruiting 2020-03-05
NCT03659916 Long Term Safety & Efficacy Study Evaluating The Effect of A4250 in Children With PFIC Phase 3 Recruiting 2020-01-21
NCT03608319 Study of A4250 in Healthy Volunteers Under Fasting, Fed and Sprinkled Conditions Phase 1 Completed 2018-09-19
CTID Title Phase Status Date
NCT02630875 A4250, an IBAT Inhibitor in Pediatric Cholestasis Phase 2 Completed 2018-03-29
NCT02360852 IBAT Inhibitor A4250 for Cholestatic Pruritus Phase 2 Terminated 2017-02-23
NCT02963077 A Safety and Pharmakokinetic Study of A4250 Alone or in Combination With A3384 Phase 1 Completed 2016-11-16

EU Clinical Trials Register

EudraCT Title Phase Status Date
2019-003807-37 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Odevixibat (A4250) in Children with Biliary Atresia Who Have Undergone a Kasai Hepatoportoenterostomy (BOLD) Phase 3 Ongoing 2020-07-29
2015-001157-32 An Exploratory Phase II Study to demonstrate the Safety and Efficacy of A4250 Phase 2 Completed 2015-05-13
2014-004070-42 An Exploratory, Phase IIa Cross-Over Study to Demonstrate the Efficacy Phase 2 Ongoing 2014-12-09
2017-002325-38 An Open-label Extension Study to Evaluate Long-term Efficacy and Safety of A4250 in Children with Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Types 1 and 2 (PEDFIC 2) Phase 3 Ongoing
2017-002338-21 A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Study to Demonstrate Efficacy and Safety of A4250 in Children with Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis Types 1 and 2 (PEDFIC 1) Phase 3 Ongoing, Completed

.////////////odevixibat, Orphan Drug Status, phase 3, Albireo, A-4250, A 4250, AR-H 064974

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TILDACERFONT


Tildacerfont.png

img

TILDACERFONT

Synonyms:

Tildacerfont

1014983-00-6

3-(4-Chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-7-(1-ethyl-propyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine

7-(1-ethyl-propyl)-3-(4-chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine

MW/ MF 420 g/mol/ C20H26ClN5OS
  • Originator Spruce Biosciences
  • Class2 ring heterocyclic compounds; Morpholines; Pyrazoles; Pyrimidines; Small molecules; Thiazoles
  • Mechanism of Action Corticotropin receptor antagonists
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • New Molecular Entity Yes
  • Phase II Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  • 09 Jul 2020 Spruce Biosciences initiates a phase II trial in Congenital adrenal hyperplasia in USA (PO) (NCT04457336)
  • 24 Sep 2019 Spruce Biosciences completes a phase II trial in Congenital adrenal hyperplasia in USA (NCT03687242)
  • 19 Sep 2019 Updated safety and efficacy data from a phase II trial in Congenital adrenal hyperplasia release by Spruce Biosciences

Deuterated pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine derivatives, particularly tildacerfont (SPR-001), useful as CRF antagonists for treating congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  Spruce Bioscience is developing tildacerfont under license from Lilly as an oral capsule formulation for the treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia; in July 2017, a phase II trial for CAH was initiated.

Corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is a 41 amino acid peptide that is the primary physiological regulator of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) derived peptide secretion from the anterior pituitary gland. In addition to its endocrine role at the pituitary gland, immunohistochemical localization of CRF has demonstrated that the hormone has a broad extrahypothalamic distribution in the central nervous system and produces a wide spectrum of autonomic, electrophysiological and behavioral effects consistent with a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator role in the brain. There is also evidence that CRF plays a significant role in integrating the response in the immune system to physiological, psychological, and immunological stressors.

PATENT

Product case, WO2008036579 ,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2008036579

Example 16
3-(4-Chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-2,5-dimethyl- pyrazolo [ 1 ,5 -α]pyrimidine

Under a nitrogen atmosphere dissolve 3-(4-bromo-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-α]pyrimidine (116 mg, 0.25 mmol) in THF (1.5 mL) and chill to -78 0C. Add n-butyl lithium (0.1 mL. 2.5 M in hexane, 0.25 mmol) and stir at -78 0C for 30 min. Add N-chlorosuccinimide (33.4 mg, 0.25 mmol) and stir for another 30 min, slowly warming to room temperature. After stirring overnight, quench the reaction by adding a solution of saturated ammonia chloride and extract with ethyl acetate. Wash the organic layer with brine, dry over sodium sulfate, filter, and concentrate to a residue. Purify the crude material by flash chromatography, eluting with hexanes:dichloromethane: ethyl acetate (5:5:2) to provide the title compound (54 mg). MS (APCI) m/z (35Cl) 420.6 (M+l)+1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 6.44 (s, IH), 3.79 (t, 4H, J=4.8 Hz), 3.63-3.56 (m, IH), 3.47 (t, 4H, J=4.8 Hz), 2.55 (s, 3H), 2.45 (s, 3H), 1.88-1.75 (m, 4H), 0.87 (t, 6H, J=7.5 Hz).
Alternate Preparation from Preparation 6:
Combine 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-α]pyrimidine, (9 g,

26.2 mmol) and 4-chloro-2-morpholino-thiazole (7.5 g, 36.7 mmol) in
dimethylformamide (90 mL) previously degassed with nitrogen. Add cesium carbonate (17.8 g, 55 mmol), copper iodide (250 mg, 1.31 mmol), triphenylphosphine (550 mg, 2.09 mmol) and palladium acetate (117 mg, 0.52 mmol). Heat the mixture to 125 0C for 16 h and then cool to 22 0C. Add water (900 mL) and extract with methyl-?-butyl ether (3 x 200 mL). Combine the organic portions and evaporate the solvent. Purify by silica gel chromatography eluting with hexanes/ethyl acetate (4/1) to afford the title compound (6.4 g, 62%). ES/MS m/z (35Cl) 420 (M+l)+.

Example 16a
3-(4-Chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-2,5-dimethyl- pyrazolo[l,5-α]pyrimidine, hydrochloride
Dissolve 3-(4-chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-α]pyrimidine (1.40 g, 3.33 mmol) in acetone (10 mL) at 50 0C and cool to room temperature. Add hydrogen chloride (2 M in diethyl ether, 2.0 mL, 4.0 mmol) and stir well in a sonicator. Concentrate the solution a little and add a minimal amount of diethyl ether to crystallize the HCl salt. Cool the mixture in a refrigerator overnight. Add additional hydrogen chloride (2 M in diethyl ether, 2.0 mL, 4.0 mmol) and cool in a refrigerator. Filter the crystalline material and dry to obtain the title compound (1.15 g, 75%). ES/MS m/z (35Cl) 420 (M+l)+1H NMR(CDCO): 9.18 (br, IH), 6.86 (s, IH), 3.72 ( m, 4H), 3.49(m, IH), 3.39 (m, 4H), 2.48 (s, 3H), 2.38(s, 3H), 1.79 (m, 4H), 0.79 (m, 6H).

PATENT

US-20200255436

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US301567348&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P22-KE0UZI-30504-1

PATENT

WO2019210266

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019210266

claiming the use of CRF-1 antagonists (eg tildacerfont).

PATENT

WO 2010039678

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2010039678

EXAMPLES

Example 1 : 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(2,4-dichloro-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolori ,5-alpyrimidine nthroline 

Charge 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine (1.03 g, 3.00 mmoles), K3PO4 (1.95 g, 9.00 mmoles), 2,4-dichlorothiazole (0.58 g, 3.75 mmoles), 1,10 phenanthroline (0.05 g, 0.30 mmoles) and anhydrous DMAC (5 mL) to a round bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stir bar, thermal couple and N2 inlet. Degas the yellow heterogeneous reaction mixture with N2 (gas) for 30 min. and then add CuI (0.06 g, 0.30 mmoles) in one portion followed by additional 30 min. degassing with N2 (gas). Stir the reaction mixture at 120 0C for about 6 hr. Cool the reaction mixture to room temperature overnight, add toluene (10 mL) and stir for 1 hr. Purify the mixture through silica gel eluting with toluene (10ml). Extract with 1 M HCl (10 mL), water (10 mL), brine (10 mL) and concentrate under reduced pressure to give a yellow solid. Recrystallize the solid from methanol (5ml) to yield the title compound as a yellow crystalline solid. (0.78 g, 70% yield, >99% pure by LC) MS(ES) = 369 (M+ 1). 1H NMR (CDCl3)= 6.5 (IH, s); 3.6 (IH, m); 2.6 (3H, s); 2.5 (3H, s); 1.9 (4H, m); 0.9 (6H, t).

Example 2: 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(4-chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolol! ,5-aipyrimidine

Charge 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(2,4-dichloro-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine (0.37 g, 1.00 mmoles), K2CO3 (0.28 g, 2.00 mmoles) and anhydrous morpholine (3 mL) to a round bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stir bar and N2 inlet. Stir the yellow mixture at 100 0C for about 4 hr., during which time the reaction becomes homogeneous. Cool the reaction mixture to room temperature, add H2O (10 mL) and stir the heterogeneous reaction mixture overnight at room temperature. Collected the yellow solid by filtration, wash with H2O and allowed to air dry overnight to give the crude title compound (391mg). Recrystallize from isopropyl alcohol (3 mL) to yield the title compound as a light yellow crystalline solid (380 mg, 90.6% yield, >99% by LC). MS(ES) = 420 (M+l). 1H NMR (CDCl3)= 6.45 (IH, s); 3.81 (m, 4H); 3.62 (IH, m); 3.50 (m, 4H); 2.6 (3H, s); 2.45 (3 H, s); 1.85 (4H, m); 0.9 (6H, t).

Example 3 :

The reactions of Example 1 are run with various other catalysts, ligands, bases and solvents, which are found to have the following effects on yield of 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(2,4-dichloro-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine. (See Tables 1 – 4).

Table 1 : Evaluation of different li ands

(Reactions are carried out in parallel reactors with 1.2 mmol 2,4-dichlorothiazole, 1 mmol 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine, 0.5 mmol CuI, 0.5 mmol ligand and 2.1 mmol Cs2CO3 in 4 mL DMAC. The reactions are degassed under N2 for 30 min. and then heated at between 80 and

1000C overnight under N2. Percent product is measured as the percent of total area under the HPLC curve for the product peak. Longer reaction times are shown in parenthesis) Table 2: Evaluation of various solvents


(Reactions are carried out in parallel reactors with 1.2 mmol 2,4-dichlorothiazole 1 mmol 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine, 0.25 mmol CuI, 0.25 mmol 1,10-phenanthroline and 2.1 mmol Cs2CO3 in 3 mL specified solvent. The reactions are degassed under N2 for 30 minutes and then heated at 1000C overnight under N2. Percent product is measured as the percent of total area under the HPLC curve for the product peak.)

Table 3 : Evaluation of different copper sources

(Reactions are carried out in in parallel reactors with 1 mmol 2,4-dichlorothiazole 1 mmol 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine, 0.05 mmol CuX, 0.01 mmol 1,10-phenanthroline and 3 equivalents K3PO4 in 3 mL DMAC. The reactions are degassed under N2 for 30 minutes and then heated at 1000C overnight under N2. Percent product is measured as the percent of total area under the HPLC curve for the product peak.)

Table 4: Evaluation of various inorganic bases

(Reactions are carried out in in parallel reactors with 1 mmol 2,4-dichlorothiazole 1 mmol 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine, 0.1 mmol CuI, 0.1 mmol 1,10-phenanthroline and 2.1 mmol base and degassed for 30 minutes prior to the addition of 3 mL DMAC. The reactions are degassed under N2 for 10 minutes and then heated at 1000C overnight under N2. Percent product is measured as the percent of total area under the HPLC curve for the product peak.)

Example 4. Use of morpholine both as a reactant and base in 2-MeTHF as solvent.

solvent

7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(2,4-dichloro-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-ajpyrimidine (15.2 g, 41.16 mmoles) is charged into a 250 mL 3-necked round bottomed flask, followed by addition of 2-MeTHF (61 mL, 4.0 volumes), the yellowish brown slurry is stirred at about 20 0C for 5 min. Then morpholine (19 g, 218.18 mmoles) is added over 2-5 minutes. Contents are heated to reflux and maintained at reflux for 12 hr. The slurry is cooled to 25 0C, followed by addition of 2-MeTHF (53 mL, 3.5 volumes) and water ( 38 mL 2.5 volumes). The reaction mixture is warmed to 40 0C, where upon a homogenous solution with two distinct layers formed. The layers are separated, the organic layer is filtered and concentrated to ~3 volumes at atmospheric pressure. Four volumes 2-propanol (61 mL) are added. The solution is concentrated to ~3 volumes followed by addition of 4 volumes 2-propanol (61 mL), re-concentrated to ~3 volumes, followed by addition of another 6 volumes 2-propanol (91 mL), and refluxed for 15 min. The clear solution is gradually cooled to 75 0C, seeded with 0.45 g 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(4-chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine slurried in 2 mL 2-propanol, rinsed with an additional 2 mL 2-propanol and transferred to a crystallization flask. The slurry is cooled to between 0-5 0C, maintained for 1 hr, filtered and the product rinsed with 2-propanol (30 mL, 2 volumes). The solid is dried at 60 0C in a vacuum oven to afford 16.92 g 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(4-chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine. Purity of product by HPLC assay is 100.00 %. XRPD and DSC data of product is consistant with reference sample. MS(ES) = 420 (M+ 1).

Example 5. Use of morpholine as both reactant and base in 2-propanol as solvent.

7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(2,4-dichloro-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-ajpyrimidine (11.64 mmoles) is charged into a 100 mL 3 -necked round bottomed flask followed by addition of 2-propanol ( 16 mL, 3.72 volumes). The yellowish brown slurry is stirred at about 20 0C for 5 min. Then morpholine (3.3 g, 37.84 mmoles) is added over 2-5 minutes. Contents are refluxed for 6 hr. The slurry is cooled to 25 0C. 2-Propanol ( 32 mL, 7.44 volumes) and water ( 8.6 mL, 2.0 volumes) are added and the mixture warmed to 70-75 0C, filtered and concentrated to ~ 9 volumes at atmospheric pressure. The clear solution is gradually cooled to 55 0C, seeded with 0.06 g of crystalline 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(4-chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine slurried in 0.5 mL 2-propanol, rinsed with additional 0.5 mL 2-propanol and added to crystallization flask. The slurry is cooled to 0-5 0C, maintained for 1 hr., filtered and the product rinsed with 2-propanol ( 9 mL, 2.1 volumes). Suctioned dried under vacuum at 60 0C to afford 4.6 g of dry 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(4-chloro-2-morpholin-4-yl-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine (88.8 % yield, purity by HPLC assay is 99.88 % ). MS(ES) = 420 (M+ 1).

Example 6: 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(2,4-dichloro-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolori ,5-alpyrimidine

7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine (10 g, 29.17 mmoles), 2, 4-dichlorothiazole (5.2 g , 33.76 mmoles), cesium carbonate(19.9g, 61.07 mmoles) and 1,10-phenanthroline (1 g, 5.5 mmoles) are charged into a 250 mL 3-necked round bottomed flask, followed by 2-MeTHF (36 mL, 3.6 volumes). The reaction mixture is degassed with nitrogen and then evacuated. Cuprous chloride (0.57 g, 5.7 mmoles), DMAC (10 mL, 1 volume) and 2-MeTHF (4 mL, 0.4 volumes) are added in succession. The reaction mixture is degassed with nitrogen and then evacuated. The contents are refluxed for 20 hr. The reaction mixture is cooled to -70 0C and 2-MeTHF (100 mL, 10 volumes) is added. The contents are filtered at ~70 0C and the residual cake is washed with 2-MeTHF (80 mL, 8 volumes) at about 65-72°C. The filtrate is transferred into a separatory funnel and extracted with water. The organic layer is separated and washed with dilute HCl. The resulting organic layer is treated with Darco G60, filtered hot (600C). The filtrate is concentrated at atmospheric pressure to -2.8 volumes. 25 mL 2-propanol is added, followed by re-concentration to -2.8 volumes. An additional 25 mL 2-propanol is added, followed again by re-concentration to -2.8 volumes. Finally, 48 mL 2-propanol is added. The contents are cooled to -7 0C, maintained at -7 0C for 1 hr., filtered and rinsed with 20 mL chilled 2-propanol. Product is suction dried and then vacuum dried at 60 0C to afford 9.41 g 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(2,4-dichloro-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine (purity of product by HPLC assay is 95.88 %). MS(ES) = 369 (M+ 1).

Example 7. Synthesis of 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-(2, 4-dichloro-thiazol-5-yl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolori,5-a1pyrimidine using 1,4-Dioxane solvent and CuCl catalyst

Add dioxane (9.06X), Cs2CO3 (2.00X), 7-(l-ethyl-propyl)-3-iodo-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[l,5-a]pyrimidine (1.0 equivalent), 2,4-dichlorothiazole (0.54 equivalent) to a reactor under N2. Purge the reactor with N2 three times, degas with N2 for 0.5-1 hr., and then add 1,10-phenanthroline (0.3 eq) and CuCl (0.3eq) under N2 , degassing with N2 for 0.5-1 hr. Heat the reactor to 1000C -1100C under N2 . Stir the mixture for 22-24 hr. at 100 0C -1100C. Cool to 10~20°C and add water (10V) and CH3OH (5V), stir the mixture for 1-1.5 hr. at 10~20°C. Filter the suspension, resuspend the wet cake in water, stirr for 1-1.5 hr. at 10~20°C, and filter the suspension again. Charge the wet cake to n-heptane (16V) and EtOAc (2V) under N2. Heat the reactor to 40 °C~500C under N2.

Active carbon (0. IX) is added at 40 °C~500C. The reactor is heated to 55°C~650C under N2 and stirred at 55 °C~650C for 1-1.5 hr. The suspension is filtered at 40~55°C through diatomite (0.4 X). The cake is washed with n-heptane (2.5V). The filtrate is transferred to another reactor. EtOAc (10V) is added and the the organic layer washed with 2 N HCl (10V) three times, followed by washing two times with water (10X, 10V). The organic layer is concentrated to 3-4V below 500C. The mixture is heated to 80-90 0C. The mixture is stirred at this temperature for 40-60 min. The mixture is cooled to 0~5°C, stirred for 1-1.5 hr. at 0~5°C and filtered. The cake is washed with n-heptane (IV) and vacuum dried at 45-500C for 8-10 hr. The crude product is dissolved in 2-propanol (7.5V) under N2, and re-crystallized with 2-propanol. The cake is dried in a vacuum oven at 45°C~50°C for 10-12 hr. (55-80% yield). 1H NMR56.537 (s, IH) 3.591-3.659 (m, IH, J=6.8Hz), 2.593 (s, 3H), 2.512 (s, 3H), 1.793-1.921(m, 4H), 0.885-0.903 (m, 6H).

REFERENCES

1: Zorrilla EP, Logrip ML, Koob GF. Corticotropin releasing factor: a key role in the neurobiology of addiction. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2014 Apr;35(2):234-44. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.01.001. Epub 2014 Jan 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 24456850; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4213066.

/////////////tildacerfont, SPR 001, Orphan Drug Status, Congenital adrenal hyperplasia, SPRUCE BIOSCIENCES, PHASE 2

CCC(CC)C1=CC(=NC2=C(C(=NN12)C)C3=C(N=C(S3)N4CCOCC4)Cl)C

Blarcamesine, ブラルカメシン ,


Thumb

Anavex-2-73.png

Blarcamesine

ブラルカメシン;

[(2,2-diphenyloxolan-3-yl)methyl]dimethylamine

  • Anavex 2-73
  • Tetrahydro-N,N-dimethyl-2,2-diphenyl-3-furanemethanamine
  • THD-DP-FM
  • AE-37 / AE37 / ANAVEX 2-73 FREE BASE
  • UNII 9T210MMZ3F
Formula
C19H23NO
Cas
195615-83-9
195615-84-0 HCL
Mol weight
281.392

Treatment of Rett syndrome, Investigated for use/treatment in breast cancer.

Anti-amnesic, Muscarinic/sigma receptor agonist

  • Originator Anavex Life Sciences
  • Developer ABX-CRO; Anavex Life Sciences; The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinsons Research
  • Class Antidementias; Antidepressants; Antiepileptic drugs; Antiparkinsonians; Anxiolytics; Behavioural disorder therapies; Dimethylamines; Furans; Neuroprotectants; Neuropsychotherapeutics; Nootropics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Muscarinic receptor modulators; Sigma-1 receptor agonists
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Epilepsy; Rett syndrome
  • Phase II/III Alzheimer’s disease
  • Phase II Parkinson’s disease; Rett syndrome
  • Preclinical Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Angelman syndrome; Anxiety disorders; Autistic disorder; Fragile X syndrome; Multiple sclerosis
  • No development reported Cognition disorders; Epilepsy; Stroke
  • 28 Oct 2019 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Cognition-disorders in USA
  • 09 Oct 2019 Anavex Life Sciences initiates enrolment in the long term extension ATTENTION-AD trial for Alzheimer’s disease in (country/ies)
  • 02 Oct 2019 Anavex Life Sciences has patent protection covering compositions of matter and methods of treating Alzheimer’s disease for blarcamesine in USA
  • Anavex Life Sciences is developing ANAVEX-2-73 and its active metabolite ANAVEX-19-144, for treating Alzheimer’s disease, epilepsy, stroke and Rett syndrome.

ANAVEX2-73 is an experimental drug is in Phase II trials for Alzheimer’s diseasephase I trials for epilepsy, and in preclinical trials for amyotrophic lateral sclerosisParkinson’s diseaseRett syndrome, stroke.[1][2] ANAVEX2-73 acts as a muscarinic receptor and a moderate sigma1 receptor agonist.[1] ANAVEX2-73 may function as a pro-drug for ANAVEX19-144 as well as a drug itself. ANAVEX19-144 is the active metabolite of ANAVEX 1-41, which is similar to ANAVEX2-73 but it is not as selective for sigma receptor.[2]

Properties and uses

ANAVEX2-73 has an inhibitory constant (ki) lower than 500 nM for all M1–M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtypes, demonstrating that it acts as a powerful antimuscarinic compound.[2] ANAVEX2-73 was originally tested in mice against the effect of the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, which induces learning impairment.[1] M1 receptor agonists are known to reverse the amnesia caused by scopolamine.[3] Scopolamine is used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and motion sickness by reducing the secretions of the stomach and intestines and can also decreases nerve signals to the stomach.[3] This is via competitive inhibition of muscarinic receptors.[3] Muscarinic receptors are involved in the formation of both short term and long term memories.[1] Experiments in mice have found that M1 and M3 receptor agonists inhibit the formation of amyloid-beta and target GSK-3B.[clarification needed]Furthermore, stimulation of the M1 receptor activates AF267B, which in turn blocks β-secretase, which cleaves the amyloid precursor protein to produce the amyloid-beta peptide. These amyloid-beta peptides aggregate together to form plaques. This enzyme[clarification needed] is involved in the formation of Tau plaques, which are common in Alzheimer’s disease.[clarification needed][4]Therefore. M1 receptor activation appears to decreases tau hyperphosphorylation and amyloid-beta accumulation.[4]

Sigma1 activation appears to be only involved in long-term memory processes. This partly explains why ANAVEX2-73 seems to be more effective in reversing scopolamine-induced long-term memory problems compared to short-term memory deficits.[1] The sigma-1 receptor is located on mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes and modulates the ER stress response and local calcium exchanges with the mitochondria. ANAVEX2-73 prevented Aβ25-35-induced increases in lipid peroxidation levels, Bax/Bcl-2ratio and cytochrome c release into the cytosol, which are indicative of elevated toxicity.[clarification needed] ANAVEX2-73 inhibits mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and therefore prevents against oxidative stress and apoptosis. This drug prevented the appearance of oxidative stress. ANAVEX2-73 also exhibits anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant activity. This is due in part because sigma-1 agonists stimulate the anti-apoptoic factor Bcl-2 due to reactive oxygen species dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear factor kB.[5] Results from Marice (2016) demonstrate that sigma1 compounds offer a protective potential, both alone and possibly with other agents like donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or the memantine, a NMDA receptor antagonist.[6]

PATENT

WO9730983

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019200345&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P10-K2E5QZ-30663-1

Novel crystalline forms of A2-73 (blarcamesine hydrochloride, ANAVEX2-73, AV2-73), a mixed muscarinic receptor ligand and Sig-1 R agonist useful for treating Alzheimer’s disease.

PATENT

WO2017013498

SYN

By Foscolos, George B. et alFrom Farmaco, 51(1), 19-26; 1996

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e “Anti-amnesic and neuroprotective potentials of the mixed muscarinic receptor/sigma” (PDF)Journal of Psychopharmacology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-11-12. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
  2. Jump up to:a b c “ANAVEX 2-73 – AdisInsight”Adisinsight.springer.com. Retrieved 2016-05-25.
  3. Jump up to:a b c Malviya, M; Kumar, YC; Asha, D; Chandra, JN; Subhash, MN; Rangappa, KS (2008). “Muscarinic receptor 1 agonist activity of novel N-arylthioureas substituted 3-morpholino arecoline derivatives in Alzheimer’s presenile dementia models”. Bioorg Med Chem16: 7095–7101. doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2008.06.053.
  4. Jump up to:a b Leal, NS; Schreiner, B; Pinho, CM; Filadi, R; Wiehager, B; Karlström, H; Pizzo, P; Ankarcrona, M (2016). “Mitofusin-2 knockdown increases ER-mitochondria contact and decreases amyloid β-peptide production”J Cell Mol Med20: 1686–1695. doi:10.1111/jcmm.12863PMC 4988279PMID 27203684.
  5. ^ Lahmy, V; Long, R; Morin, D; Villard, V; Maurice, T (2015-09-28). “Mitochondrial protection by the mixed muscarinic/σ1 ligand ANAVEX2-73, a tetrahydrofuran derivative, in Aβ25-35 peptide-injected mice, a nontransgenic Alzheimer’s disease model”Front Cell Neurosci8: 463. doi:10.3389/fncel.2014.00463PMC 4299448PMID 25653589.
  6. ^ Maurice, T (2015-09-28). “Protection by sigma-1 receptor agonists is synergic with donepezil, but not with memantine, in a mouse model of amyloid-induced memory impairments”. Behav. Brain Res296: 270–8. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2015.09.020PMID 26386305.

//////////Blarcamesine, ブラルカメシン , Orphan Drug Status, PHASE 2

CN(C)CC1CCOC1(C1=CC=CC=C1)C1=CC=CC=C1

Reldesemtiv


Reldesemtiv.png

Image result for Reldesemtiv

Reldesemtiv

CK-2127107

CAS 1345410-31-2

UNII-4S0HBYW6QE, 4S0HBYW6QE

MW 384.4 g/mol, MF C19H18F2N6O

1-[2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methyl}amino)pyrimidin-5-yl]-1H-pyrrole-3- carboxamide

1-[2-[[3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methylamino]pyrimidin-5-yl]pyrrole-3-carboxamide

Reldesemtiv, also known as CK-2127107, is a skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) and is a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue such as SMA, COPD, and ALS.

Cytokinetics , in collaboration with  Astellas , is developing reldesemtiv, the lead from a program of selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activators, in an oral suspension formulation, for the treatment of indications associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, including spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  • Originator Cytokinetics
  • Developer Astellas Pharma; Cytokinetics
  • Class Pyridines; Pyrimidines; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Troponin stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Phase II Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Suspended Muscle fatigue
  • No development reported Muscular atrophy
  • 05 May 2019 Safety and efficacy data from the phase II FORTITUDE-ALS trial in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presented at the American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting (AAN-2019)
  • 07 Mar 2019 Cytokinetics completes the phase III FORTITUDE-ALS trial for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in USA, Australia, Canada, Spain, Ireland and Netherlands (PO) (NCT03160898)
  • 22 Jan 2019 Cytokinetics plans a phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in the first quarter of 2019

Reldesemtiv, a next-generation, orally-available, highly specific small-molecule is being developed by Cytokinetics, in collaboration with Astellas Pharma, for the improvement of skeletal muscle function associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigue in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The drug candidate is a fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) or troponin stimulant intended to slow the rate of calcium release from the regulatory troponin complex of fast skeletal muscle fibers. Clinical development for ALS, COPD and SMA is underway in the US, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Netherlands and Spain. No recent reports of development had been identified for phase I development for muscular atrophy in the US. Due to lack of of efficacy determined at interim analysis Cytokinetics suspended phase I trial in muscle fatigue in the elderly.

The cytoskeleton of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells is unique compared to that of all other cells. It consists of a nearly crystalline array of closely packed cytoskeletal proteins called the sarcomere. The sarcomere is elegantly organized as an interdigitating array of thin and thick filaments. The thick filaments are composed of myosin, the motor protein responsible for transducing the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into force and directed movement. The thin filaments are composed of actin monomers arranged in a helical array. There are four regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments, which allows the contraction to be modulated by calcium ions. An influx of intracellular calcium initiates muscle contraction; thick and thin filaments slide past each other driven by repetitive interactions of the myosin motor domains with the thin actin filaments.

[0003] Of the thirteen distinct classes of myosin in human cells, the myosin-II class is responsible for contraction of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. This class of myosin is significantly different in amino acid composition and in overall structure from myosin in the other twelve distinct classes. Myosin-II forms homo-dimers resulting in two globular head domains linked together by a long alpha-helical coiled-coiled tail to form the core of the sarcomere’s thick filament. The globular heads have a catalytic domain where the actin binding and ATPase functions of myosin take place. Once bound to an actin filament, the release of phosphate (cf. ADP-Pi to ADP) signals a change in structural conformation of the catalytic domain that in turn alters the orientation of the light-chain binding lever arm domain that extends from the globular head; this movement is termed the powerstroke. This change in orientation of the myosin head in relationship to actin causes the thick filament of which it is a part to move with respect to the thin actin filament to which it is bound. Un-binding of the globular head from the actin filament (Ca2+ regulated) coupled with return of the catalytic domain and light chain to their starting conformation/orientation completes the catalytic cycle, responsible for intracellular movement and muscle contraction.

Tropomyosin and troponin mediate the calcium effect on the interaction on actin and myosin. The troponin complex is comprised of three polypeptide chains: troponin C, which binds calcium ions; troponin I, which binds to actin; and troponin T, which binds to tropomyosin. The skeletal troponin-tropomyosin complex regulates the myosin binding sites extending over several actin units at once.

Troponin, a complex of the three polypeptides described above, is an accessory protein that is closely associated with actin filaments in vertebrate muscle. The troponin complex acts in conjunction with the muscle form of tropomyosin to mediate the

Ca2+ dependency of myosin ATPase activity and thereby regulate muscle contraction. The troponin polypeptides T, I, and C, are named for their tropomyosin binding, inhibitory, and calcium binding activities, respectively. Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and is believed to be responsible for positioning the troponin complex on the muscle thin filament. Troponin I binds to actin, and the complex formed by troponins I and T, and tropomyosin inhibits the interaction of actin and myosin. Skeletal troponin C is capable of binding up to four calcium molecules. Studies suggest that when the level of calcium in the muscle is raised, troponin C exposes a binding site for troponin I, recruiting it away from actin. This causes the tropomyosin molecule to shift its position as well, thereby exposing the myosin binding sites on actin and stimulating myosin ATPase activity.

U.S. Patent No. 8962632 discloses l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide, a next-generation fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) as a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue.

PATENT

WO 2011133888

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2011133888&recNum=202&docAn=US2011033614&queryString=&maxRec=57668

PATENT

WO2016039367 ,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016039367&tab=FULLTEXT

claiming the use of a similar compound for treating stress urinary incontinence.

Compound A is 1- [2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1- (3-fluoropyridin-2-yl) cyclobutyl] methyl} amino) pyrimidin-5-yl] -1H Pyrrole-3-carboxamide, which is the compound described in Example 14 of the aforementioned US Pat. The chemical structure is as shown below.
[Chemical formula 1]

PATENT

WO-2019133605

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019133605&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P11-JXY4C3-99085-1

Process for preparing reldesemtiv , a myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin C, troponin I, troponin T modulator, useful for treating neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication and metabolic syndrome.

Scheme 1

[0091] Scheme 1 illustrates a scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

Scheme 2

[0092] Scheme 2 illustrates an alternative scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

M

TFAA DS, toluene

Et

to


HCI, H20

50°C

Scheme 3

[0093] Scheme 3 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (1C) to the compound of Formula (II).

H2

Ni Raney

NH3

Scheme 4

[0094] Scheme 4 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (II) to the compound of Formula (1).

Examples

[0095] To a flask was added N-methylpyrrolidone (30 mL), tert-butyl cyanoacetate (8.08 g) at room temperature. To a resulting solution was added potassium tert-butoxide (7.71 g), l,3-dibromo-2,2-dimethoxy propane (5.00 g) at 0 °C. To another flask, potassium iodide (158 mg), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (42 mg), N-methylpyrrolidone (25 mL) were added at room temperature and then resulting solution was heated to 165 °C. To this solution, previously prepared mixture was added dropwise at 140-165 °C, then stirred for 2 hours at 165 °C. To the reaction mixture, water (65 mL) was added. A resulting solution was extracted with toluene (40 mL, three times) and then combined organic layer was washed with water (20 mL, three times) and 1N NaOH aq. (20 mL). A resulting organic layer was concentrated below 50 °C under reduced pressure to give 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile (66% yield,

GC assay) as toluene solution. 1H MR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.93-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.52-2.45 (m, 2H).

Example 2 Synthesis of methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate

[0096] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. MeOH (339.00 kg), 3-oxocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (85.19 kg, 746.6 mol, 1.0 eq.), Amberlyst-l5 ion exchange resin (8.90 kg, 10% w/w), and

trimethoxymethane (196.00 kg, 1847.3 mol, 2.5 eq.) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 55±5°C and reacted for 6 hours to give methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate solution in MeOH. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.94-2.85 (m, 1H), 2.47-2.36 (m, 4H).

Example 3 Synthesis of 3, 3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l -carboxamide

[0097] The methyl 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carboxylate solution in MeOH prepared as described in Example 2 was cooled to below 25°C and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with MeOH(7.00 kg) and the filtrate was pumped to the reactor. The solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH

(139.40 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH (130.00 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Half of the resulting solution was diluted with MeOH (435.00 kg) and cooled to below 30°C. NH3 gas (133.80 kg) was injected into the reactor below 35°C for

24 hours. The mixture was stirred at 40±5°C for 72 hours. The resulting solution was

concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes.

MTBE(l8l.OO kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting solution was concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. PE (318.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting mixture was cooled to 5±5°C, stirred for 4 hours at 5±5°C, and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with PE (42.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was put into a vacuum oven. The filter cake was dried at 30±5°C for at least 8 hours to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide as off-white solid (112.63 kg, 94.7% yield). 1H NMR (CDCf, 400 MHz) d 5.76 (bs, 1H), 5.64 (bs, 1H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 2.84-2.76 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.38 (m, 4H).

[0098] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Toluene (500.00 kg), 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide (112.54kg, 706.9 mol, 1.0 eq.), and TEA (158.00 kg, 1561.3 mol, 2.20 eq) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was cooled to 0+ 5°C. TFAA (164.00 kg, 781 mol, 1.10 eq.) was added dropwise at 0±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 hours at 20±5°C and cooled below 5±5°C. H20 (110.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 15 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 30 minutes and the water phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (190.00 kg) twice. The organic phases were combined and washed with H20 (111.00 kg). H20 was removed by azeotrope until the water content was no more than 0.03%. The resulting solution was cooled to below 20°C to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene (492.00 kg with 17.83% assay content, 87.9% yield).

Example 5 Synthesis of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0099] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene prepared as described in Example 4 (246.00 kg of a 17.8% solution of 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile in toluene, 1.05 eq.) and 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine (39.17 kg, 297.9 mol, 1.00 eq.) were charged into the reactor. The reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The mixture was slowly cooled to -20±5°C. NaHDMS (2M in THF) (165.71 kg, 1.20 eq) was added

dropwise at -20±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred at -l5±5°C for 1 hour. The mixture was stirred until the content of 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine is no more than 2% as measured by HPLC. Soft water (16.00 kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. The resulting solution was transferred to another reactor. Aq. NH4Cl (10% w/w, 88.60 Kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. Soft water (112.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the aqueous phase was separated and collected. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (70.00 kg) and an organic phase was collected. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaCl (106.00 kg) and collected. The above steps were repeated to obtain another batch of organic phase. The two batches of organic phase were concentrated under vacuum below 70°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. The resulting solution was cooled to below 30°C to give a l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution. 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) d 8.42-8.38 (m, 1H), 7.50-7.45 (m, 1H), 7.38-7.33 (m, 1H), 3.28 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 3.09-3.05 (m, 4H).

Example 6 Synthesis of I-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclohutanecarhonitrile

[0100] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Water (603.00 kg) was added to the reactor and was stirred.

Concentrated HC1 (157.30 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 35°C. The l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution prepared as described in Example 5 (206.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 50±5°C and reacted for 3 hours at 50±5°C. The mixture was reacted until the content of 1-(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxycyclobutane- l-carbonitrile was no more than 2.0% as measured by HPLC. The reaction mixture was cooled to below 30°C and extracted with ethyl acetate (771.00 kg). An aqueous phase was collected and extracted with ethyl acetate (770.00 kg). The organic phases were combined and the combined organic phase was washed with soft water (290.00 kg) and brine (385.30 kg). The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below 60°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Propan-2-ol (218.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below

60°C until the system had no more than 1 volume. PE (191.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at 40±5 °C and the resulting mixture was heated to 60±5 °C and stirred for 1 hour at 60±5 °C. The mixture was then slowly cooled to 5±5 °C and stirred for 5 hours at 5±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with PE (48.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was collected. Water (80.00 kg), concentrated HC1 (2.20 kg), propan-2-ol (65.00 kg), and the wet filter cake were charged in this order into a drum. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 minutes at 20±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with a mixture solution containing 18.00 kg of propan-2-ol, 22.50 kg of soft water, and 0.60 kg of concentrated HC1. The filter cake was put into a vacuum oven and dried at 30±5°C for at least 10 hours. The filter cake was dried until the weight did not change to give l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile as off-white solid (77.15 kg, 68.0% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 8.45-8.42 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.47-7.41 (m, 1H), 4.18-4.09 (m, 2H), 4.02-3.94 (m, 2H).

Example 7 Synthesis of I-(3-fhtoropyridin-2-yl)-3-hydroxycyclobulanecarbonilrile

[0101] To a solution of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile (231 g,

1.22 mol) in a mixture ofDCM (2 L) and MeOH (200 mL) was added NaBH4 portionwise at -78° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78°C. for 1 hour and quenched with a mixture of methanol and water (1 : 1). The organic layer was washed with water (500 mL><3), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (50% EtO Ac/hexanes) to provide the title compound as an amber oil (185.8 g, 77.5%). Low Resolution Mass

Spectrometry (LRMS) (M+H) m/z 193.2.

Example 8 Synthesis of (ls,3s)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0102] To a solution of 1 -(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3 -hydroxy cyclobutanecarbonitrile (185 g, 0.96 mol) in DCM (1 L) was added DAST portionwise at 0-10 °C. Upon the completion of addition, the reaction was refluxed for 6 hours. The reaction was cooled to rt and poured onto sat. NaHCCf solution. The mixture was separated and the organic layer was washed with water, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (100% DCM) to provide the title compound as a brown oil (116g) in a 8: 1 transxis mixture. The above brown oil (107 g) was dissolved in toluene (110 mL) and hexanes (330mL) at 70 °C. The solution was cooled to 0 °C and stirred at 0 °C overnight. The precipitate was filtered and washed with hexanes to provide the trans isomer as a white solid (87.3 g). LRMS (M+H) m/z 195.1.

Example 9 Synthesis of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine

[0103] A mixture of ( 1.v,3.v)-3-fluoro- 1 -(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane- 1 -carbonitrile (71 g, 0.37 mol) and Raney nickel (~7 g) in 7N ammonia in methanol (700 mL) was charged with hydrogen (60 psi) for 2 days. The reaction was filtered through a celite pad and washed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated under high vacuum to provide the title compound as a light green oil (70 g, 97.6%). LRMS (M+H) m/z 199.2.

Example 10 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate

[0104] A mixture of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine (37.6 g, 190 mmol), 5-bromo-2-fluoropyrimidine (32.0 g, 181 mmol), DIPEA (71 mL, 407 mmol), and NMP (200 mL) was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was then diluted with EtOAc (1500 mL) and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (500 mL). The

organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The resultant solid was dissolved in THF (600 mL), followed by the slow addition of DMAP (14 g, 90 mmol) and Boc20 (117.3 g, 542 mmol). The reaction was heated to 60° C. and stirred for 3 h. The reaction mixture was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography

(EtO Ac/hex) to give 59.7 g oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a white solid.

Example 11 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano- 1 H -pyrrol- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((lrans)-3-fhtoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclohutyl)methyl)carhamate

[0105] To a solution oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate (1.0 g, 2.8 mmol) in 15 mL of toluene (degassed with nitrogen) was added copper iodide (100 mg, 0.6 mmol), potassium phosphate (1.31 g, 6.2 mmol), trans-N,N’-dimethylcyclohexane-l, 2-diamine (320 mg, 2.2 mmol), and 3-cyanopyrrole (310 mg, 3.6 mmol). The reaction was heated to 100 °C and stirred for 2 h. The reaction was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (EtOAc/hexanes) to afford 1.1 g of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a clear oil.

Example 12 Synthesis of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide

[0106] To a solution oft-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate (1.1 g, 3.1 mmol) in DMSO (10 mL) was added potassium carbonate (1.3 g, 9.3 mmol). The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and hydrogen peroxide (3 mL) was slowly added. The reaction was warmed to rt and stirred for 90 min. The reaction was diluted with EtO Ac (75 mL) and washed three times with brine (50 mL). The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was purified by silica gel chromatography (10% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to afford 1.07 g of a white solid compound. This compound was dissolved in 25% TFA/CH2CI2 and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction was then concentrated, dissolved in ethyl acetate (75 mL), and washed three times with saturated potassium carbonate solution. The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was triturated with 75% ethyl acetate/hexanes. The resultant slurry was sonicated and filtered to give 500 mg of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3 -carboxamide as a white solid. LRMS (M+H=385).

REFERENCES

1: Andrews JA, Miller TM, Vijayakumar V, Stoltz R, James JK, Meng L, Wolff AA, Malik FI. CK-2127107 amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans. Muscle Nerve. 2018 May;57(5):729-734. doi: 10.1002/mus.26017. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 29150952.

2: Gross N. The COPD Pipeline XXXII. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2016 Jul 14;3(3):688-692. doi: 10.15326/jcopdf.3.3.2016.0150. PubMed PMID: 28848893; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5556764.

//////////////CK-2127107, CK 2127107, CK2127107, Reldesemtiv, Cytokinetics,   Astellas, neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication, metabolic syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Orphan Drug Status, Spinal muscular atrophy, Phase II

C1C(CC1(CNC2=NC=C(C=N2)N3C=CC(=C3)C(=O)N)C4=C(C=CC=N4)F)F

MITAPIVAT


Structure of MITAPIVAT

Mitapivat

MITAPIVAT

CAS 1260075-17-9

MF C24H26N4O3S
MW 450.55

8-Quinolinesulfonamide, N-[4-[[4-(cyclopropylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]carbonyl]phenyl]-

N-[4-[[4-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-1-piperazinyl]carbonyl]phenyl]-8-quinolinesulfonamide

  • Originator Agios Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Antianaemics; Piperazines; Quinolines; Small molecules; Sulfonamides
  • Mechanism of Action Pyruvate kinase stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Inborn error metabolic disorders
  • New Molecular Entity Yes
  • Phase III Inborn error metabolic disorders
  • Phase II  Thalassaemia
  • 27 Feb 2019 Agios Pharmaceuticals plans a phase III trial for Inborn error metabolic disorders (Pyruvate kinase deficiency) (Treatment-experienced) in the US, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey and United Kingdom in March 2019 (NCT03853798) (EudraCT2018-003459-39)
  • 11 Dec 2018 Phase-II clinical trials in Thalassaemia in Canada (PO) (NCT03692052)
  • 29 Aug 2018 Chemical structure information added

Activator of pyruvate kinase isoenzyme M2 (PKM2), an enzyme involved in glycolysis. Since all tumor cells exclusively express the embryonic M2 isoform of PK, it is hypothesized that PKM2 is a potential target for cancer therapy. Modulation of PKM2 might also be effective in the treatment of obesity, diabetes, autoimmune conditions, and antiproliferation-dependent diseases.

Agios Pharmaceuticals is developing AG-348 (in phase 3 , in June 2019), an oral small-molecule allosteric activator of the red blood cell-specific form of pyruvate kinase (PK-R), for treating PK deficiency and non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia.

SYN

WO 20100331307

str1

CAS 59878-57-8 TO CAS 57184-25-5

Eisai Co., Ltd., EP1508570,  Lithium aluminium hydride (770 mg, 20.3 mmol) was suspended in tetrahydrofuran (150 mL), 1-(cyclopropylcarbonyl)piperazine (1.56 g, 10.1 mmol) was gradually added thereto, and the reaction mixture was heated under reflux for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and 0.8 mL of water, 0.8 mL of a 15percent aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and 2.3 mL of water were seque ntially gradually added thereto. The precipitated insoluble matter was removed by filtration through Celite, and the filtrate was evaporated to give the title compound (1.40g) as a colorless oil. The product was used for the synthesis of (8E,12E,14E)-7-((4-cyclopropylmethylpiperazin-1-yl)carbonyl)oxy-3,6,16,21-tetrahydroxy-6,10,12,16,20-pentamethyl-18,19-epoxytricosa-8,12,14-trien-11-olide (the co mpound of Example 27) without further purification.1H-NMR Spectrum (CDCl3,400MHz) delta(ppm): 0.09-0.15(2H,m), 0.48-0.56(2H,m),0.82-0.93(1H,m),2.25(2H,d,J=7.2Hz) 2.48-2.65(4H,m),2.90-2.99(4H,m).

str1

CAS 91-22-5 TO CAD 18704-37-5

chlorosulfonic acid;

Russian Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 36, 6, (2000), p. 851 – 853

Yield : 52%1-Step Reaction

NMR

US2010/331307

dimethylsulfoxide-d6, 1H

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 1.2 (t, 2H), 1.3 (t, 2H), 1.31-1.35 (m, 1H), 2.40 (s, 2H), 3.68 (br s, 4H), 3.4-3.6 (m, 4H), 7.06 (m, 6H), 7.25-7.42 (m, 3H), 9.18 (s, 1H) 10.4 (s, 1H)

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ: 0.04-0.45 (m, 2H), 0.61-0.66 (m, 2H), 1.4-1.6 (m, 1H), 2.21-2.38 (m, 4H), 2.61 (d, 2H), 3.31-3.61 (br s, 4H), 6.94-7.06 (m, 4H), 7.40 (d, 2H), 7.56-7.63 (m, 2H), 8.28 (d, 1H), 9.18 (s, 1H), 10.4 (s, 1H)

Development Overview

Introduction

Mitapivat (designated AG 348), an orally available, first-in-class, small molecule stimulator of pyruvate kinase (PK), is being developed by Agios Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of pyruvate kinase deficiency (Inborn error metabolic disorders in development table) and thalassemia. Mitapivat is designed to activate the wild-type (normal) and mutated PK-R (the isoform of pyruvate kinase that is present in erythrocytes), in order to correct the defects in red cell glycolysis found within mutant cells. Clinical development is underway for inborn error metabolic disorders in the US, Spain and Denmark and for Thalassaemia in Canada.

Mitapivat emerged from Agios’ research programme focussed on the discovery of small molecule therapeutics for inborn metabolic disorders [see Adis Insight Drug Profile 800036791].

Key Development Milestones

In April 2017, the US FDA granted fast track designation to mitapivat for the treatment of pyruvate kinase deficiency 

In June 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals initiated the phase III ACTIVATE trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally administered mitapivat as compared with placebo in participants with pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD), who are not regularly receiving blood transfusions (NCT03548220; AG348-C-006). The randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled global trial intends to enrol 80 patients in the US, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, Thailand and United Kingdom. The study design has two parts. Part 1 is a dose optimisation period where patients start at 5mg of mitapivat or placebo twice daily, with the flexibility to titrate up to 20mg or 50mg twice daily over a three month period to establish their individual optimal dose, as measured by maximum increase in hemoglobin levels. After the dose optimisation period, patients will receive their optimal dose for an additional three months in part 2. The primary endpoint of the study is the proportion of patients who achieve at least a 1.5 g/dL increase in haemoglobin sustained over multiple visits in part 2 of the trial 

In February 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals initiated the phase III ACTIVATE-T trial to assess the efficacy and safety of mitapivat in regularly transfused adult subjects with pyruvate kinase deficiency (Inborn error metabolism disorders in development table) (EudraCT2017-003803-22; AG348-C-007). The open label trial will enrol approximately 20 patients in Denmark and Spain and will expand to Canada, France, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, the UK and the US 

In December 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals initiated a phase II study to assess the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mitapivat (50mg and 100mg) for the treatment of patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (AG348-C-010; EudraCT2018-002217-35; NCT03692052). This study will include a 24-week core period followed by a 2-year extension period for eligible participants. The open-label trial intends to enrol approximately 17 patients. Enrolment has been initiated in Canada and may expand to the US and the UK 

Agios Pharmaceuticals, in June 2015 initiated the phase II DRIVE PK trial to evaluate the safety, efficacy, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of mitapivat in adult transfusion-independent patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency (Inborn error metabolism disorders in development table) (AG348-C-003; NCT02476916). The trial will include two arms with 25 patients each. The patients in the first arm will receive 50mg twice daily, and the patients in the second arm will receive 300mg twice daily. The study will include a six-month dosing period with the opportunity for continued treatment beyond six months based on safety and clinical activity. The open-label, randomised trial completed enrolment of targeted 52 patients in the US, in November 2016. Preliminary data from the trial was presented at the 21st Congress of the European Haematology Association (EHA-2016). Updated results were presented by Agios at the 58th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Haematology in December 2016. Based on results of the DRIVE PK trial, Agios plans to develop a registration path for mitapivat. Updated data from the trial was presented at the 22nd Congress of the European Haematology Association (EHA-2017) 

In December 2017, Agios pharmaceuticals presented updated safety and efficacy data from this trial at the 59th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Hematology (ASH- Hem 2017). Results showed that chronic daily dosing with mitapivat has been well tolerated and has resulted in clinically relevant, durable increases in Hb and reductions in markers of haemolysis across a range of doses 

In June 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals completed a phase I trial in healthy male volunteers to assess the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and absolute bioavailability of AG 348 (AG348-C-009; NCT03703505). Radiolabelled analytes of AG 348 ([14C]AG 348 and [13C6]AG 348) were administered in a single oral and intravenous dose on day 1. The open label trial was initiated in May 2018 and enrolled 8 volunteers in the US 

In November 2017, Agios Pharmaceuticals completed a phase I trial that evaluated the relative bioavailability and safety of the mitapivat tablet and capsule formulations after single-dose administration in healthy adults (AG348-C-005; NCT03397329). The open-label trial enrolled 26 subjects in the US and was initiated in October 2017 

In October 2017, Agios Pharmaceuticals completed a phase I trial that evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety and effect on QTc interval of mitapivat in healthy volunteers (AG348-C-004; NCT03250598). This single-dose, open-label trial was initiated in August 2017 and enrolled 60 volunteers in the US

In November 2014, Agios completed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial that assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of multiple escalating doses of mitapivat in healthy volunteers (MAD; AG-348MAD; AG348-C-002; NCT02149966). Mitapivat was dosed daily for 14 days. The trial recruited 48 subjects in the US. In June 2015, positive results from the trial were presented at the 20th congress of the European Haematology Association (EHA-2015). Mitapivat showed a favourable pharmacokinetic profile with rapid absorption, low to moderate variability and a dose-proportional increase in exposure following multiple doses and serum hormone changes consistent with reversible aromatase inhibition were also observed 

Agios Pharmaceuticals completed a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I clinical trial of mitapivat in August 2014 (AG-348 SAD; AG348-C-001; NCT02108106). The study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single escalating doses of the agent in healthy volunteers. Potential metabolic biomarkers were also explored. The trial enrolled 48 participants in the US 

IND-enabling studies were conducted in 2013 In December 2013, Agios presented data from in vitro studies at the 55th Annual Meeting and Exposition of the American Society of Hematology (ASH-Hem-2013), showing that mitapivat activates a range of pyruvate kinase mutant proteins in blood samples taken from patients with pyruvate kinase deficiency. The company hypothesised that mitapivat may restore the glycolytic pathway activity and normalise erythrocyte metabolism in vivo The US FDA granted orphan designation for mitapivat for the treatment of pyruvate kinase deficiency. The designation was granted to Agios Pharmaceuticals, in March 2015.

Patent Information

As of January 2018, Agios Pharmaceuticals owned approximately six issued US patents, 65 issued foreign patents, five pending US patent applications and 55 pending foreign patent applications in a number of jurisdictions directed to PK deficiency programme, including mitapivat (AG 348). The patents are valid till at least 2030 

Patents

US 20100331307 A1
WO 2011002817 A1
WO 2012151451 A1
WO 2013056153 A1
WO 2014018851 A1
WO 2016201227 A1

WO2011002817

Mitapivat, also known as PKM2 activator 1020, is an activator of a pyruvate kinase PKM2, an enzyme involved in glycolysis. It was disclosed in a patent publication WO 2011002817 A1 as compound 78.

WO2019099651 ,

PATENT

WO-2019104134

Novel crystalline and amorphous forms of N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-1-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8-sulfonamide (also known as mitapivat ) and their hemi-sulfate, solvates, hydrates, sesquihydrate, anhydrous and ethanol solvate (designated as Form A-J), processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claims are their use for treating pyruvate kinase deficiency, such as sickle cell disease, thalassemia and hemolytic anemia.

Pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) is a disease of the red blood cells caused by a deficiency of the pyruvate kinase R (PKR) enzyme due to recessive mutations of PKLR gene (Wijk et al. Human Mutation, 2008, 30 (3) 446-453). PKR activators can be beneficial to treat PKD, thalassemia (e.g., beta-thalessemia), abetalipoproteinemia or Bassen-Kornzweig syndrome, sickle cell disease, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, anemia (e.g., congenital anemias (e.g., enzymopathies), hemolytic anemia (e.g. hereditary and/or congenital hemolytic anemia, acquired hemolytic anemia, chronic hemolytic anemia caused by phosphoglycerate kinase deficiency, anemia of chronic diseases, non- spherocytic hemolytic anemia or hereditary spherocytosis). Treatment of PKD is supportive, including blood transfusions, splenectomy, chelation therapy to address iron overload, and/or interventions for other disease-related morbidity. Currently, however, there is no approved medicine that treats the underlying cause of PKD, and thus the etiology of life-long hemolytic anemia.

[0003] N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8-sulfonamide, herein referred to as Compound 1, is an allosteric activator of red cell isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKR). See e.g., WO 2011/002817 and WO 2016/201227, the contents of which are incorporated herein by reference.


(Compound 1)

[0004] Compound 1 was developed to treat PKD and is currently being investigated in phase 2 clinical trials. See e.g., U.S. clinical trials identifier NCT02476916. Given its therapeutic benefits, there is a need to develo

Compound 1, i.e., the non-crystalline free base, can be prepared following the procedures described below.

Preparation of ethyl -4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido) benzoate

EtO TV 

[00170] A solution containing ethyl-4-aminobenzoate (16. Og, 97mmol) and pyridine (l4.0g, l77mmol) in acetonitrile (55mL) was added over 1.2 hours to a stirred suspension of quinoline- 8 -sulfonyl chloride (20.0g, 88mmol) in anhydrous acetonitrile (100 mL) at 65°C. The mixture was stirred for 3.5 hours at 65 °C, cooled to 20°C over 1.5 hours and held until water (140 mL) was added over 1 hour. Solids were recovered by filtration, washed 2 times (lOOmL each) with acetonitrile/water (40/60 wt./wt.) and dried to constant weight in a vacuum oven at 85°C. Analyses of the white solid (30.8g, 87mmol) found (A) HPLC purity = 99.4% ethyl -4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido) benzoate, (B) LC-MS consistent with structure, (M+l)= 357 (C18 column eluting 95-5, CH3CN/water, modified with formic acid, over 2 minutes), and (C) 1H NMR consistent with structure (400 MHz, DMSO-i 6) = d 10.71 (s, 1H), 9.09 (dd, 7 = 4.3, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.46 (ddt, 7 = 15.1, 7.3, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 8.26 (dd, 7 = 8.3, 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.84 – 7.54 (m, 4H), 7.18 (dd, 7 = 8.6, 1.3 Hz, 2H), 4.26 – 4.07 (m, 2H), 1.19 (td, 7 = 7.1, 1.2 Hz, 3H).

Preparation of 4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamide) benzoic acid

Step 2

[00171] A NaOH solution (16.2g, l22mmol) was added over 30 minutes to a stirred suspension of ethyl -4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido) benzoate (20. Og, 56.2mmol) in water (125 mL) at 75°C. The mixture was stirred at 75°-80°C for 3 hours, cooled 20°C and held until THF (150 mL) was added. Hydrochloric acid (11% HCL, 8lmL, l32mmol) was added over >1 hour to the pH of 3.0. The solids were recovered by filtration at 5°C, washed with water (2X lOOmL) and dried to constant weight in a vacuum oven at 85°C. Analysis of the white solid (16.7g, 51 mmol) found (A) HPLC puurity = >99.9% 4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamide)benzoic acid, LC-MS consistent with structure (M+l) = 329 (Cl 8 column eluting 95-5 CH3CN/water, modified with formic acid, over 2 minutes.) and 1H NMR consistent with structure (400 MHz, DMSO-76) = d 12.60 (s, 1H), 10.67 (s, 1H), 9.09 (dd, 7 = 4.2, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.46 (ddt, 7 = 13.1, 7.3, 1.5 Hz, 2H), 8.26 (dd, 7 = 8.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.77 -7.62 (m, 3H), 7.64 (d, 7 = 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.16 (dd, 7 = 8.7, 1.4 Hz, 2H).

Preparation of l-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (4)

1 ) NaBH(OAc)3

2 3 acetone 4

[00172] To a 1 L reactor under N2 was charged tert-butyl piperazine- l-carboxylate (2) (100.0 g, 536.9 mmol), cyclopropanecarbaldehyde (3) (41.4 g, 590.7 mmol ), toluene (500.0 mL) and 2-propanol (50.0 mL). To the obtained solution was added NaBH(OAc)3 (136.6 g, 644.5 mmol) in portions at 25-35 °C and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h. Water (300.0 mL) was added followed by NaOH solution (30%, 225.0 mL) to the pH of 12. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with water (100.0 mLx2). To the organic layer was added hydrochloric acid (37%, 135.0 mL, 1.62 mol) and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 6 h. The layers were separated and the aqueous layer was added to acetone (2.0 L) at 25 °C in lh. The resulted suspension was cooled to 0 °C. The solid was filtered at 0 °C, washed with acetone (100.0 mLx2) and dried to afford 4 (105.0 g) in 92% isolated yield. LC-MS (C18 column eluting 90-10 CH3CN/water over 2 minutes) found (M+l) =141. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-76) d 11.93 (br.s, 1H), 10.08 (br., 2H), 3.65 (br.s, 2H), 3.46 (br.s, 6H), 3.04 (d, / = 7.3 Hz, 2H), 1.14 – 1.04 (m, 1H), 0.65 – 0.54 (m, 2H), 0.45 – 0.34 (m, 2H) ppm.

Preparation of N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8- sulfonamide (1)

[00173] To a 2 L reactor under N2 was charged 4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido) benzoic acid (5) (100.0 g, 304.5 mmol) and DMA (500.0 mL). To the resulted suspension was added CDI (74.0 g, 456.4 mmol) in portions at 25 °C and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 2 h. To the resulted suspension was added l-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine dihydrochloride (4) (97.4 g, 457.0 mmol) in one portion at 25 °C and the mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 4 h. Water (1.0 L) was added in 2 h. The solid was filtered at 25 °C, washed with water and dried under vacuum at 65 °C to afford 1 (124.0 g) in 90 % isolated yield. LC-MS (C18 column eluting 90-10 CH3CN/water over 2 minutes) found (M+l) =451. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-76) d

10.40 (br.s, 1H), 9.11 (dd, 7 = 4.3, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 8.48 (dd, / = 8.4, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.40 (dt, /

7.4, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (dd, 7 = 8.3, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 7.76 – 7.63 (m, 2H), 7.17 – 7.05 (m, 4H), 3.57 – 3.06 (m, 4H), 2.44 – 2.23 (m, 4H), 2.13 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 0.79 – 0.72 (m, 1H), 0.45 – 0.34 (m, 2H), 0.07 – 0.01 (m, 2H) ppm.

[00174] Two impurities are also identified from this step of synthesis. The first impurity is Compound IM- 1 (about 0.11% area percent based on representative HPLC) with the following structure:


Compound IM-l)

Compound IM-l was generated due to the presence of N-methyl piperazine, an impurity in compound 2, and was carried along to react with compound 5. LC-MS found (M+l) =411.2;

(M-l)= 409.2. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-76) d 10.43 (brs, 1H) 9.13-9.12 (m, 1H), 8.52-8.50 (m, 1H), 8.43-8.41 (m, 1H), 8.26 (d, 7=4.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.73-7.70 (m, 2H), 7.15-7.097.69 (m, 4H), 3.60-3.25 (brs, 4H), 2.21 (brs, 4H), 2.13 (s, 3H).

[00175] The second impurity is Compound IM-2 (about 0.07% area percent based on the representative HPLC) with the following structure:


(Compound IM-2)

Compound IM-2 was due to the presence of piperazine, an impurity generated by

deprotection of compound 2. The piperazine residue was carried along to react with two molecules of compound 5 to give Compound IM-2. LC-MS found (M+l) =707. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CF3COOD) d 9.30-9.23 (m, 4H), 8.51 (s, 4H), 8.20-8.00 (m, 4H), 7.38-7.28 (m, 8H), 4.02-3.54 (m, 8H).

Solubility Experiments

[00176] Solubility measurements were done by gravimetric method in 20 different solvents at two temperatures (23 °C and 50 °C). About 20-30 mg of Form A, the synthesis of which is described below, was weighed and 0.75 mL solvent was added to form a slurry. The slurry was then stirred for two days at the specified temperature. The vial was centrifuged and the supernatant was collected for solubility measurement through gravimetric method. The saturated supernatant was transferred into pre- weighed 2 mL HPLC vials and weighed again (vial + liquid). The uncapped vial was then left on a 50 °C hot plate to slowly evaporate the solvent overnight. The vials were then left in the oven at 50 °C and under vacuum to remove the residual solvent so that only the dissolved solid remained. The vial was then weighed (vial + solid). From these three weights; vial, vial+liquid and vial+solid; the weight of dissolved solid and the solvent were calculated. Then using solvent density the solubility was calculated as mg solid/mL of solvent. Solubility data are summarized in Table 1.

Table 1

Optimized Crystalline Form A Hemisulfate Salt Scale-up Procedure

[00202] An optimized preparation of Form A as a hemisulfate sesquihydrate salt with and without seeding is provided below.

Preparation of l-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-(4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido)benzoyl)piperazin- 1-ium sulfate trihydrate (Form A) with seeding

[00203] To a 2 L reactor under N2 was charged N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8-sulfonamide (5) (111.0 g, 246.4 mmol), and a pre-mixed process solvent of ethanol (638.6 g), toluene (266.1 g) and water (159.6 g). The suspension was stirred and heated above 60°C to dissolve the solids, and then the resulting solution was cooled to 50°C. To the solution was added an aqueous solution of H2S04 (2.4 M, 14.1 mL, 33.8 mmol), followed by l-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-(4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido)benzoyl)piperazin-l-ium sulfate trihydrate (6) (1.1 g, 2.1 mmol). After 1 h stirring, to the suspension was added an aqueous solution of H2S04 (2.4 M, 42.3 mL, 101.5 mmol) over 5 h. The suspension was cooled to 22°C and stirred for 8 h. The solids were filtered at 22°C, washed with fresh process solvent (2 x 175 g) and dried to give the product (121.6 g) in 94% isolated yield. LC-MS (C18 column eluting 90-10 CH3CN/water over 2 minutes) found (M+l) = 451. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-76) d 10.45 (s, 1H), 9.11 (dd, J =

4.2, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (dd, 7 = 8.4, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (dd, 7 = 7.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 8.27 (dd, 7 8.2, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.79 – 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.17 (d, / = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 7.11 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 2H), 3.44 (d, J = 8.9 Hz, 5H), 3.03 – 2.50 (m, 6H), 0.88 (p, J = 6.3 Hz, 1H), 0.50 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 0.17 (d, 7 = 4.9 Hz, 2H).

Preparation of l-(cyclopropylmethyl)-4-(4-(quinoline-8-sulfonamido)benzoyl)piperazin- 1-ium sulfate trihydrate (Form A) without seeding

[00204] To a 50 L reactor was charged N-(4-(4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-l-carbonyl)phenyl)quinoline-8-sulfonamide (5) (1.20 kg, 2.66 mol) and water (23.23 L) at 28°C. While stirring the suspension, an aqueous solution of H2S04 (1.0 M, 261 g) was added dropwise over 2 h. The reaction was stirred at 25 – 30°C for 24 h. The solids were filtered and dried under vacuum below 30°C for 96 h to give the product (1.26 kg) in 90% isolated yield.

11. Reproduction and Preparation of Various Patterns

[00205] The patterns observed during the previous experiments were reproduced for characterization. Patterns B, D, E, F were reproducible. Pattern G was reproduced at lower crystallinity. Pattern I was reproduced, although, it was missing a few peaks. Refer to Table 20.

Table 20

Crystalline Free Base Form of Compound 1

[00215] The crystalline free-base form of Compound 1 can be prepared via the following method.

[00216] 14.8 kg S-l and 120 kg DMAc are charged into a round bottom under N2 protection and the reaction is stirred at 30 °C under N2 protection for 40min, to obtain a clear yellow solution. 7.5 kg CDI (1.02 eq.) is added and the reaction is stirred at 30 °C for 2.5h under N2 protection. 0.6 kg of CDI (0.08 eq.) at 30 °C was added and the mixture was stirred at 30 °C for 2h under N2 protection. The reaction was tested again for material consumption. 11.0 kg (1.14 eq.) l-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine chloride was charged in the round bottom at 30 °C and the reaction was stirred under N2 protection for 6h (clear solution). 7.5 X H20 was added dropwise over 2h, some solid formed and the reaction was stirred for lh at 30 °C. 16.8 X H20 was added over 2.5h and the reaction was stirred stir for 2.5h. 3.8 kg (0.25 X) NaOH (30%, w / w, 0.6 eq.) was added and the reaction was stirred for 3h at 30 °C. The reaction was filtered and the wet cake was rinsed with H20 / DMAc=44 kg / 15 kg. 23.35 kg wet cake was obtained (KF: 4%). The sample was re-crystallized by adding 10.0 X DMAc and stirred for lh at 70 °C, clear solution; 4.7 X H20 was added over 2h at 70 °C and the reaction was stirred 2h at 70 °C; 12.8 X H20 was added dropwise over 3h and stirred for 2h at 70 °C; the reaction was adjusted to 30 °C over 5h and stirred for 2h at 30 °C; the reaction was filtered and the wet cake was rinsed with DMAc / H20=l5 kg / 29 kg and 150 kg H20. 19.2 kg wet cake was obtained. The material was recrystallized again as follows. To the wet cake was added 10.0 X DMAc and the reaction was stirred for lh at 70 °C, clear solution.

16.4 X H20 was added dropwise at 70 °C and the reaction was stirred for 2h at 70 °C. The reaction was adjusted to 30 °C over 5.5h and stirred for 2h at 30 °C. The reaction was centrifuged and 21.75 kg wet cake was obtained. The material was dried under vacuum at 70°C for 25h. 16.55 kg of the crystalline free base form of compound 1 was obtained. Purity of 99.6%.

C Kung. Activators of pyruvate kinase M2 and methods of treating disease. PCT Int. Appl. WO 2013056153 A1. 
FG Salituro et al. Preparation of aroylpiperazines and related compounds as pyruvate kinase M2 modulators useful in treatment of cancer. U.S. Pat. Appl. US 20100331307 A1. 

Drug Properties & Chemical Synopsis

  • Route of administrationPO
  • FormulationTablet, unspecified
  • ClassAntianaemics, Piperazines, Quinolines, Small molecules, Sulfonamides
  • Mechanism of ActionPyruvate kinase stimulants
  • WHO ATC codeA16A-X (Various alimentary tract and metabolism products)B03 (Antianemic Preparations)B06A (Other Hematological Agents)
  • EPhMRA codeA16A (Other Alimentary Tract and Metabolism Products)B3 (Anti-Anaemic Preparations)B6 (All Other Haematological Agents)
  • Chemical nameN-[4-[4-(cyclopropylmethyl)piperazine-1-carbonyl]phenyl]quinoline-8-sulfonamide
  • Molecular formulaC24 H26 N4 O3 S

References

  1. Agios Reports First Quarter 2017 Financial Results.

    Media Release 

  2. Agios Announces Initiation of Global Phase 3 Trial (ACTIVATE) of AG-348 in Adults with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Who Are Not Regularly Transfused.

    Media Release 

  3. A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of AG-348 in Not Regularly Transfused Adult Subjects With Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    ctiprofile 

  4. Agios Provides Business Update on Discovery Research Strategy and Pipeline, Progress on Clinical Programs, Commercial Launch Preparations and Reports First Quarter 2018 Financial Results at Investor Day.

    Media Release 

  5. An Open-Label Study To Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of AG-348 in Regularly Transfused Adult Subjects With Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency

    ctiprofile 

  6. A Phase 2, Open-label, Multicenter Study to Determine the Efficacy, Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of AG-348 in Adult Subjects With Non-transfusion-dependent Thalassemia

    ctiprofile 

  7. Agios Announces Key Upcoming Milestones to Support Evolution to a Commercial Stage Biopharmaceutical Company in 2017.

    Media Release 

  8. Agios to Present Clinical and Preclinical Data at the 20th Congress of the European Hematology Association.

    Media Release 

  9. Agios Announces Updated Data from Fully Enrolled DRIVE PK Study Demonstrating AG-348s Potential as the First Disease-modifying Treatment for Patients with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  10. Agios Announces New Data from AG-348 and AG-519 Demonstrating Potential for First Disease-modifying Treatment for Patients with PK Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  11. Agios Provides Update on PKR Program.

    Media Release 

  12. AG-348 Achieves Proof-of-Concept in Ongoing Phase 2 DRIVE-PK Study and Demonstrates Rapid and Sustained Hemoglobin Increases in Adults with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  13. Agios Reports New, Final Data from Phase 1 Multiple Ascending Dose (MAD) Study in Healthy Volunteers for AG-348, an Investigational Medicine for Pyruvate Kinase (PK) Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  14. Grace RF, Layton DM, Galacteros F, Rose C, Barcellini W, Morton DH, et al. Results Update from the DRIVE PK Study: Effects of AG-348, a Pyruvate Kinase Activator, in Patients with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency. ASH-Hem-2017 2017; abstr. 2194.

    Available from: URL: https://ash.confex.com/ash/2017/webprogram/Paper102236.html

  15. A Phase 2, Open Label, Randomized, Dose Ranging, Safety, Efficacy, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of AG-348 in Adult Patients With Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency

    ctiprofile 

  16. A Phase I, Open-label Study to Evaluate the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion and to Assess the Absolute Bioavailability of AG-348 in Healthy Male Subjects Following Administration of a Single Oral Dose of [14C]AG-348 and Concomitant Single Intravenous Microdose of [13C6]AG-348

    ctiprofile 

  17. A Phase 1, Randomized, Open-Label, Two-Period Crossover Study Evaluating the Relative Bioavailability and Safety of the AG-348 Tablet and Capsule Formulations After Single-Dose Administration in Healthy Adults

    ctiprofile 

  18. A Phase 1, Single-Dose, Open-Label Study to Characterize and Compare the Pharmacokinetics, Safety, and Effect on QTc Interval of AG-348 in Healthy Subjects of Japanese Origin and Healthy Subjects of Non-Asian Origin

    ctiprofile 

  19. Agios Pharmaceuticals Initiates Multiple Ascending Dose Trial in Healthy Volunteers of AG-348 for the Potential Treatment of PK Deficiency, a Rare, Hemolytic Anemia.

    Media Release 

  20. A Phase 1, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multiple Ascending Dose, Safety, Pharmacokinetic, and Pharmacodynamic Study of Orally Administered AG-348 in Healthy Volunteers

    ctiprofile 

  21. Agios Initiates Phase 1 Study of AG-348, a First-in-class PKR Activator, for Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Media Release 

  22. A Phase I, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Single Ascending Dose, Safety, Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Study of Orally Administered AG-348 in Healthy Volunteers

    ctiprofile 

  23. Agios Pharmaceuticals Reports First Quarter 2014 Financial Results.

    Media Release 

  24. Agios Pharmaceuticals Reports Third Quarter 2013 Financial Results.

    Media Release 

  25. Agios Pharmaceuticals to Present Preclinical Research at the 2013 American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting.

    Media Release 

  26. Agios Presents Preclinical Data from Lead Programs at American Society of Hematology Annual Meeting.

    Media Release 

  27. Agios Pharmaceuticals Form 10-K, February 2018. Internet-Doc 2018;.

    Available from: URL: https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1439222/000143922218000004/agio-123117x10k.htm

  28. Agios Outlines Key 2018 Priorities Expanding Clinical and Research Programs to Drive Long Term Value.

    Media Release 

  29. Grace RF, Layton DM, Galacteros F, Rose C, Barcellini W, Morton DH, et al. Effects of Ag-348, a Pyruvate Kinase Activator, in Patients with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency: Updated Results from the Drive Pk Study. EHA-2017 2017; abstr. S451.

    Available from: URL: https://learningcenter.ehaweb.org/eha/2017/22nd/181738/rachael.f.grace.effects.of.ag-348.a.pyruvate.kinase.activator.in.patients.with.html?f=m3e1181l15534

  30. Agios Presents Updated Data from DRIVE PK Study Demonstrating AG-348 is Well-Tolerated and Results in Clinically Relevant, Rapid and Sustained Hemoglobin Increases in Patients with Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency.

    Media Release 

////////////MITAPIVAT, PHASE 3, Orphan Drug Status, Inborn error metabolic disorders, AGIOS

Cavosonstat (N-91115)


Cavosonstat.png

Cavosonstat (N-91115)

CAS 1371587-51-7

C16H10ClNO3, 299.71 g/mol

UNII-O2Z8Q22ZE4, O2Z8Q22ZE4, NCT02589236; N91115-2CF-05; SNO-6

3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid

Treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD), AND Cystic fibrosis,  Nivalis Therapeutics, phase 2

The product was originated at Nivalis Therapeutics, which was acquired by Alpine Immune Sciences in 2017. In 2018, Alpine announced the sale and transfer of global rights to Laurel Venture Capital for further product development.

In 2016, orphan drug and fast track designations were granted to the compound in the U.S. for the treatment of cystic fibrosis.

  • Originator N30 Pharma
  • Developer Nivalis Therapeutics
  • Class Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator modulators; Glutathione-independent formaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors; Nitric oxide stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Cystic fibrosis
  • 20 Jul 2018 Laurel Venture Capital acquires global rights for cavosonstat from Alpine Immune Sciences
  • 20 Jul 2018 Laurel Venture Capital plans a phase II trial for Asthma
  • 24 Jun 2018 Biomarkers information updated

 Cavosonstat, alos known as N91115) an orally bioavailable inhibitor of S-nitrosoglutathione reductase, promotes cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) maturation and plasma membrane stability, with a mechanism of action complementary to CFTR correctors and potentiators.

cavosonstat-n91115Cavosonstat (N91115) was an experimental therapy being developed by Nivalis Therapeutics. Its primary mechanism of action was to inhibit the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) enzyme and to stabilize cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein activity. A press release published in February announced the end of research for this therapy in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with F508del mutations. The drug, which did not meet primary endpoints in a Phase 2 trial, had been referred to as the first of a new class of compounds that stabilizes the CFTR activity.

History of cavosonstat

During preclinical studies, N91115 (later named cavosonstat) demonstrated an improvement in cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) stability.

Phase 1 study was initiated in 2014 to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (how a drug is processed in the body) of the drug in healthy volunteers. Later that year, the pharmacokinetics of the drug were assessed in another Phase 1 trial involving CF patients with F508del mutation suffering from pancreatic insufficiency. Results were presented a year later by Nivalis, revealing good tolerance and safety in study participants.

A second, much smaller Phase 2 study (NCT02724527) assessed cavosonstat as an add-on therapy to ivacaftor (Kalydeco). This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study included 19 participants who received treatment with cavosonstat (400 mg) added to Kalydeco or with placebo added to Kalydeco. The primary objective was change in lung function from the study’s start to week 8. However, the treatment did not demonstrate a benefit in lung function measures or in sweat chloride reduction at eight weeks (primary objective). As a result, Nivalis decided not to continue development of cavosonstat for CF treatment.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had granted cavosonstat both fast track and orphan drug designations in 2016.

How cavosonstat works

The S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) is a signaling molecule that is present in high concentrations in the fluids of the lungs or muscle tissues, playing an important role in the dilatation of the airways. GSNO levels are regulated by the GSNO reductase (GSNOR) enzyme, altering CFTR activity in the membrane. In CF patients, GSNO levels are low, causing a loss of the airway function.

Cavosonstat’s mechanism of action is achieved through GSNOR inhibition, which was presumed to control the deficient CFTR protein. Preclinical studies showed that cavosonstat restored GSNO levels.

PATENT
WO 2012083165

The chemical compound nitric oxide is a gas with chemical formula NO. NO is one of the few gaseous signaling molecules known in biological systems, and plays an important role in controlling various biological events. For example, the endothelium uses NO to signal surrounding smooth muscle in the walls of arterioles to relax, resulting in vasodilation and increased blood flow to hypoxic tissues. NO is also involved in regulating smooth muscle proliferation, platelet function, and neurotransmission, and plays a role in host defense. Although NO is highly reactive and has a lifetime of a few seconds, it can both diffuse freely across membranes and bind to many molecular targets. These attributes make NO an ideal signaling molecule capable of controlling biological events between adjacent cells and within cells.

[0003] NO is a free radical gas, which makes it reactive and unstable, thus NO is short lived in vivo, having a half life of 3-5 seconds under physiologic conditions. In the presence of oxygen, NO can combine with thiols to generate a biologically important class of stable NO adducts called S-nitrosothiols (SNO’s). This stable pool of NO has been postulated to act as a source of bioactive NO and as such appears to be critically important in health and disease, given the centrality of NO in cellular homeostasis (Stamler et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 89:7674-7677 (1992)). Protein SNO’s play broad roles in the function of cardiovascular, respiratory, metabolic, gastrointestinal, immune, and central nervous system (Foster et al., Trends in Molecular Medicine, 9 (4): 160-168, (2003)). One of the most studied SNO’s in biological systems is S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) (Gaston et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90: 10957-10961 (1993)), an emerging key regulator in NO signaling since it is an efficient trans-nitrosating agent and appears to maintain an equilibrium with other S-nitrosated proteins (Liu et al., Nature, 410:490-494 (2001)) within cells. Given this pivotal position in the NO-SNO continuum, GSNO provides a therapeutically promising target to consider when NO modulation is pharmacologically warranted.

[0004] In light of this understanding of GSNO as a key regulator of NO homeostasis and cellular SNO levels, studies have focused on examining endogenous production of GSNO and SNO proteins, which occurs downstream from the production of the NO radical by the nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) enzymes. More recently there has been an increasing understanding of enzymatic catabolism of GSNO which has an important role in governing available concentrations of GSNO and consequently available NO and SNO’s.

[0005] Central to this understanding of GSNO catabolism, researchers have recently identified a highly conserved S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) (Jensen et al., Biochem J., 331 :659-668 (1998); Liu et al., (2001)). GSNOR is also known as glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GSH-FDH), alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (ADH-3) (Uotila and Koivusalo, Coenzymes and Coƒactors., D. Dolphin, ed. pp. 517-551 (New York, John Wiley & Sons, (1989)), and alcohol dehydrogenase 5 (ADH-5). Importantly GSNOR shows greater activity toward GSNO than other substrates (Jensen et al., (1998); Liu et al., (2001)) and appears to mediate important protein and peptide denitrosating activity in bacteria, plants, and animals. GSNOR appears to be the major GSNO-metabolizing enzyme in eukaryotes (Liu et al., (2001)). Thus, GSNO can accumulate in biological compartments where GSNOR activity is low or absent (e.g. , airway lining fluid) (Gaston et al., (1993)).

[0006] Yeast deficient in GSNOR accumulate S-nitrosylated proteins which are not substrates of the enzyme, which is strongly suggestive that GSNO exists in equilibrium with SNO-proteins (Liu et al., (2001)). Precise enzymatic control over ambient levels of GSNO and thus SNO-proteins raises the possibility that GSNO/GSNOR may play roles across a host of physiological and pathological functions including protection against nitrosative stress wherein NO is produced in excess of physiologic needs. Indeed, GSNO specifically has been implicated in physiologic processes ranging from the drive to breathe (Lipton et al., Nature, 413: 171-174 (2001)) to regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (Zaman et al., Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 284:65-70 (2001)), to regulation of vascular tone, thrombosis, and platelet function (de Belder et al., Cardiovasc Res.; 28(5):691-4 (1994)), Z. Kaposzta, et al., Circulation; 106(24): 3057 – 3062, (2002)) as well as host defense (de Jesus-Berrios et al., Curr. Biol., 13: 1963-1968 (2003)). Other studies have found that GSNOR protects yeast cells against nitrosative stress both in vitro (Liu et al., (2001)) and in vivo (de Jesus-Berrios et al., (2003)).

[0007] Collectively, data suggest GSNO as a primary physiological ligand for the enzyme S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), which catabolizes GSNO and

consequently reduces available SNO’s and NO in biological systems (Liu et al., (2001)), (Liu et al., Cell, 116(4), 617-628 (2004)), and (Que et al., Science, 308, (5728): 1618-1621 (2005)). As such, this enzyme plays a central role in regulating local and systemic bioactive NO. Since perturbations in NO bioavailability has been linked to the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, inflammation, and cancer, agents that regulate GSNOR activity are candidate therapeutic agents for treating diseases associated with NO imbalance.

[0008] Nitric oxide (NO), S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), and S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) regulate normal lung physiology and contribute to lung pathophysiology. Under normal conditions, NO and GSNO maintain normal lung physiology and function via their anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory actions. Lowered levels of these mediators in pulmonary diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may occur via up-regulation of GSNOR enzyme activity. These lowered levels of NO and GSNO, and thus lowered anti-inflammatory capabilities, are key events that contribute to pulmonary diseases and which can potentially be reversed via GSNOR inhibition.

[0009] S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) has been shown to promote repair and/or regeneration of mammalian organs, such as the heart (Lima et al., 2010), blood vessels (Lima et al., 2010) skin (Georgii et al., 2010), eye or ocular structures (Haq et al., 2007) and liver (Prince et al., 2010). S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) is the major catabolic enzyme of GSNO. Inhibition of GSNOR is thought to increase endogenous GSNO.

[0010] Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD’s), including Crohn’s and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, in which NO, GSNO, and GSNOR can exert influences. Under normal conditions, NO and GSNO function to maintain normal intestinal physiology via anti-inflammatory actions and maintenance of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier. In IBD, reduced levels of GSNO and NO are evident and likely occur via up-regulation of GSNOR activity. The lowered levels of these mediators contribute to the pathophysiology of IBD via disruption of the epithelial barrier via dysregulation of proteins involved in maintaining epithelial tight junctions. This epithelial barrier dysfunction, with the ensuing entry of micro-organisms from the lumen, and the overall lowered anti-inflammatory capabilities in the presence of lowered NO and GSNO, are key events in IBD progression that can be potentially influenced by targeting GSNOR.

[0011] Cell death is the crucial event leading to clinical manifestation of

hepatotoxicity from drugs, viruses and alcohol. Glutathione (GSH) is the most abundant redox molecule in cells and thus the most important determinant of cellular redox status. Thiols in proteins undergo a wide range of reversible redox modifications during times of exposure to reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, which can affect protein activity. The maintenance of hepatic GSH is a dynamic process achieved by a balance between rates of GSH synthesis, GSH and GSSG efflux, GSH reactions with reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species and utilization by GSH peroxidase. Both GSNO and GSNOR play roles in the regulation of protein redox status by GSH.

[0012] Acetaminophen overdoses are the leading cause of acute liver failure (ALF) in the United States, Great Britain and most of Europe. More than 100,000 calls to the U.S. Poison Control Centers, 56,000 emergency room visits, 2600 hospitalizations, nearly 500 deaths are attributed to acetaminophen in this country annually. Approximately, 60% recover without needing a liver transplant, 9% are transplanted and 30% of patients succumb to the illness. The acetaminophen-related death rate exceeds by at least three-fold the number of deaths due to all other idiosyncratic drug reactions combined (Lee, Hepatol Res 2008; 38 (Suppl. 1):S3-S8).

[0013] Liver transplantation has become the primary treatment for patients with fulminant hepatic failure and end-stage chronic liver disease, as well as certain metabolic liver diseases. Thus, the demand for transplantation now greatly exceeds the availability of donor organs, it has been estimated that more than 18 000 patients are currently registered with the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) and that an additional 9000 patients are added to the liver transplant waiting list each year, yet less than 5000 cadaveric donors are available for transplantation.

[0014] Currently, there is a great need in the art for diagnostics, prophylaxis, ameliorations, and treatments for medical conditions relating to increased NO synthesis and/or increased NO bioactivity. In addition, there is a significant need for novel compounds, compositions, and methods for preventing, ameliorating, or reversing other NO-associated disorders. The present invention satisfies these needs.

Schemes 1-6 below illustrate general methods for preparing analogs.

[00174] For a detailed example of General Scheme 1 see Compound IV-1 in Example 1.

[00175] For a detailed example of Scheme 2, A conditions, see Compound IV-2 in Example 2.

[00176] For a detailed example of Scheme 2, B conditions, see Compound IV-8 in Example 8.

[00177] For a detailed example of Scheme 3, see Compound IV-9 in Example 9.

[00178] For a detailed example of Scheme 4, Route A, see Compound IV-11 in Example 11.

[00179] For a detailed example of Scheme 4, Route B, see Compound IV-12 in Example 12.

[00180] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound A, see Compound IV-33 in Example 33.

[00181] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound B, see Compound IV-24 in Example 24.

[00182] For a detailed example of Scheme 5, Compound C, see Compound IV-23 in Example 23.

Example 8: Compound IV-8: 3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid

[00209] Followed Scheme 2, B conditions:

[00210] Step 1: Synthesis of 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid:

[00211] A mixture of 2-chloro-6-methoxyquinoline (Intermediate 1) (200 mg, 1.04 mmol), 4-carboxy-2-chlorophenylboronic acid (247 mg, 1.24 mmol) and K2CO3(369 mg, 2.70 mmol) in DEGME / H2O (7.0 mL / 2.0 mL) was degassed three times under N2 atmosphere. Then PdCl2(dppf) (75 mg, 0.104 mmol) was added and the mixture was heated to 110 °C for 3 hours under N2 atmosphere. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (100 mL) and filtered. The filtrate was washed with brine (20 mL), dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to give 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (150 mg, yield 46%) as a yellow solid, which was used for the next step without further purification.

[00212] Step 2: Synthesis of Compound IV-8: To a suspension of 3-chloro-4-(6-methoxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (150 mg, 0.479 mmol) in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (5 mL) was added AlCl3 (320 mg, 2.40 mmol). The reaction mixture was refluxed overnight. The mixture was quenched with saturated NH4Cl (10 mL) and the aqueous layer was extracted with CH2Cl2 / MeOH (v/v=10: l, 30 mL x3). The combined organic layer was washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated to give the crude product, which was purified by prep-HPLC (0.1% TFA as additive) to give 3-chloro-4-(6-hydroxyquinolin-2-yl)benzoic acid (25 mg, yield 18%). 1H NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): δ 10.20 (brs, 1H), 8.30 (d, J = 8.4 Hz, 1H), 8.10-8.00 (m, 2H), 7.95 (d, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 7.80 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (d, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.38 (dd, J = 6.4, 2.8 Hz, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 1H), MS (ESI): m/z 299.9 [M+H]+.

PATENT
WO 2012048181
PATENT
WO 2012170371

REFERENCES

1: Donaldson SH, Solomon GM, Zeitlin PL, Flume PA, Casey A, McCoy K, Zemanick ET,
Mandagere A, Troha JM, Shoemaker SA, Chmiel JF, Taylor-Cousar JL.
Pharmacokinetics and safety of cavosonstat (N91115) in healthy and cystic
fibrosis adults homozygous for F508DEL-CFTR. J Cyst Fibros. 2017 Feb 13. pii:
S1569-1993(17)30016-4. doi: 10.1016/j.jcf.2017.01.009. [Epub ahead of print]
PubMed PMID: 28209466.

//////////Cavosonstat, N-91115, Orphan Drug Status, NCT02589236, N91115-2CF-05,  SNO-6, PHASE 2, N30 Pharma, Nivalis Therapeutics, CYSTIC FIBROSIS, FAST TRACK

O=C(O)C1=CC=C(C2=NC3=CC=C(O)C=C3C=C2)C(Cl)=C1

Deutivacaftor


2D chemical structure of 1413431-07-8

Ivacaftor D9.png

Structure of DEUTIVACAFTOR

Deutivacaftor

RN: 1413431-07-8
UNII: SHA6U5FJZL

N-[2-tert-butyl-4-[1,1,1,3,3,3-hexadeuterio-2-(trideuteriomethyl)propan-2-yl]-5-hydroxyphenyl]-4-oxo-1H-quinoline-3-carboxamide

Molecular Formula, C24-H28-N2-O3, Molecular Weight, 401.552

Synonyms

  • CTP-656
  • D9-ivacaftor
  • Deutivacaftor
  • Ivacaftor D9
  • UNII-SHA6U5FJZL
  • VX-561
  • WHO 10704

Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis

  • Originator Concert Pharmaceuticals
  • Class Amides; Aminophenols; Antifibrotics; Organic deuterium compounds; Quinolones; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Cystic fibrosis
  • Phase II Cystic fibrosis
  • 15 Apr 2019 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic fibrosis in April 2019 , (EudraCT2018-003970-28), (NCT03911713)
  • 11 Apr 2019 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic Fibrosis (Combination therapy) in May 2019 (NCT03912233)
  • 24 Oct 2018 Vertex Pharmaceuticals plans a phase II trial for Cystic fibrosis (with gating mutation) in the US in the first half of 2019

Patent

WO 2012158885

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=A7EFB561D919F34531D65DF294F8D74C.wapp1nB?docId=WO2012158885&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&queryString=%28+&recNum=99&maxRec=1000

Many current medicines suffer from poor absorption, distribution, metabolism and/or excretion (ADME) properties that prevent their wider use or limit their use in certain indications. Poor ADME properties are also a major reason for the failure of drug candidates in clinical trials. While formulation technologies and prodrug strategies can be employed in some cases to improve certain ADME properties, these approaches often fail to address the underlying ADME problems that exist for many drugs and drug candidates. One such problem is rapid metabolism that causes a number of drugs, which otherwise would be highly effective in treating a disease, to be cleared too rapidly from the body. A possible solution to rapid drug clearance is frequent or high dosing to attain a sufficiently high plasma level of drug. This, however, introduces a number of potential treatment problems such as poor patient compliance with the dosing regimen, side effects that become more acute with higher doses, and increased cost of treatment. A rapidly metabolized drug may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.

[3] Another ADME limitation that affects many medicines is the formation of toxic or biologically reactive metabolites. As a result, some patients receiving the drug may experience toxicities, or the safe dosing of such drugs may be limited such that patients receive a suboptimal amount of the active agent. In certain cases, modifying dosing intervals or formulation approaches can help to reduce clinical adverse effects, but often the formation of such undesirable metabolites is intrinsic to the metabolism of the compound.

[4] In some select cases, a metabolic inhibitor will be co-administered with a drug that is cleared too rapidly. Such is the case with the protease inhibitor class of drugs that are used to treat HIV infection. The FDA recommends that these drugs be co-dosed with ritonavir, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4), the enzyme typically responsible for their metabolism (see Kempf, D.J. et al., Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 1997, 41(3): 654-60). Ritonavir, however, causes adverse effects and adds to the pill burden for HIV patients who must already take a combination of different drugs. Similarly, the CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine has been added to dextromethorphan for the purpose of reducing rapid CYP2D6 metabolism of dextromethorphan in a treatment of pseudobulbar affect. Quinidine, however, has unwanted side effects that greatly limit its use in potential combination therapy (see Wang, L et al., Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 1994, 56(6 Pt 1): 659-67; and FDA label for quinidine at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov).

[5] In general, combining drugs with cytochrome P450 inhibitors is not a satisfactory strategy for decreasing drug clearance. The inhibition of a CYP enzyme’s activity can affect the metabolism and clearance of other drugs metabolized by that same enzyme. CYP inhibition can cause other drugs to accumulate in the body to toxic levels.

[6] A potentially attractive strategy for improving a drug’s metabolic properties is deuterium modification. In this approach, one attempts to slow the CYP-mediated metabolism of a drug or to reduce the formation of undesirable metabolites by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms with deuterium atoms. Deuterium is a safe, stable, nonradioactive isotope of hydrogen. Compared to hydrogen, deuterium forms stronger bonds with carbon. In select cases, the increased bond strength imparted by deuterium can positively impact the ADME properties of a drug, creating the potential for improved drug efficacy, safety, and/or tolerability. At the same time, because the size and shape of deuterium are essentially identical to those of hydrogen, replacement of hydrogen by deuterium would not be expected to affect the biochemical potency and selectivity of the drug as compared to the original chemical entity that contains only hydrogen.

[7] Over the past 35 years, the effects of deuterium substitution on the rate of metabolism have been reported for a very small percentage of approved drugs (see, e.g., Blake, MI et al, J Pharm Sci, 1975, 64:367-91; Foster, AB, Adv Drug Res, 1985, 14: 1-40 (“Foster”); Kushner, DJ et al, Can J Physiol Pharmacol, 1999, 79-88; Fisher, MB et al, Curr Opin Drug Discov Devel, 2006, 9: 101-09 (“Fisher”)). The results have been variable and unpredictable. For some compounds deuteration caused decreased metabolic clearance in vivo. For others, there was no change in metabolism. Still others demonstrated increased metabolic clearance. The variability in deuterium effects has also led experts to question or dismiss deuterium modification as a viable drug design strategy for inhibiting adverse metabolism (see Foster at p. 35 and Fisher at p. 101).

[8] The effects of deuterium modification on a drug’s metabolic properties are not predictable even when deuterium atoms are incorporated at known sites of metabolism. Only by actually preparing and testing a deuterated drug can one determine if and how the rate of metabolism will differ from that of its non-deuterated counterpart. See, for example, Fukuto et al. (J. Med. Chem., 1991, 34, 2871-76). Many drugs have multiple sites where metabolism is possible. The site(s) where deuterium substitution is required and the extent of deuteration necessary to see an effect on metabolism, if any, will be different for each drug.

[9] This invention relates to novel derivatives of ivacaftor, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof. This invention also provides compositions comprising a compound of this invention and the use of such compositions in methods of treating diseases and conditions that are beneficially treated by administering a CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) potentiator.

[10] Ivacaftor, also known as VX-770 and by the chemical name, N-(2,4-di-tert-butyl-5-hydroxyphenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide, acts as a CFTR potentiator. Results from phase III trials of VX-770 in patients with cystic fibrosis carrying at least one copy of the G551D-CFTR mutation demonstrated marked levels of improvement in lung function and other key indicators of the disease including sweat chloride levels, likelihood of pulmonary exacerbations and body weight. VX-770 is also currently in phase II clinical trials in combination with VX-809 (a CFTR corrector) for the oral treatment of cystic fibrosis patients who carry the more common AF508-CFTR mutation. VX-770 was granted fast track designation and orphan drug designation by the FDA in 2006 and 2007, respectively.

[11] Despite the beneficial activities of VX-770, there is a continuing need for new compounds to treat the aforementioned diseases and conditions.

Patent

US 20140073667

Patent

JP 2014097964

PATENT

WO 2018183367

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/zh/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018183367&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&office=&prevFilter=%26fq%3DOF%3AWO%26fq%3DICF_M%3A%22A61K%22&sortOption=%E5%85%AC%E5%B8%83%E6%97%A5%E9%99%8D%E5%BA%8F&queryString=&recNum=555&maxRec=186391

The use according to embodiment 1, comprising administering to the patient an effect amount of (N-(2-(tert-butyl)-5-hydroxy-4-(2-(methyl-d3)propan-2-yl-l, 1, 1,3, 3,3-d6)phenyl)-4-oxo-l,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxamide (Compound Il-d):

Il-d

PATENT

WO 2019018395,

CONTD…………………………..

//////////////////deutivacaftor, Orphan Drug Status, Cystic fibrosis, CTP-656, D9-ivacaftor, Deutivacaftor, Ivacaftor D9, UNII-SHA6U5FJZL, VX-561, WHO 10704, PHASE 2

[2H]C([2H])([2H])C(c1cc(c(NC(=O)C2=CNc3ccccc3C2=O)cc1O)C(C)(C)C)(C([2H])([2H])[2H])C([2H])([2H])[2H]

Glasdegib, PF-04449913


Glasdegib.svgChemSpider 2D Image | Glasdegib | C21H22N6OGlasdegib.png

str1

Glasdegib (PF-04449913)

1-[(2R,4R)-2-(1H-Benzimidazol-2-yl)-1-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea [ACD/IUPAC Name]
1-[(2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl]-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea
CAS 1095173-27-5 [RN]Orphan Drug Status

Glasdegib

  • Molecular FormulaC21H22N6O
  • Average mass374.439 Da
  • Urea, N-[(2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-1-methyl-4-piperidinyl]-N’-(4-cyanophenyl)- [ACD/Index Name]
    гласдегиб [Russian] [INN]
    غلاسديغيب [Arabic] [INN]
    格拉德吉 [Chinese] [INN]

FACT SHEET   https://www.pfizer.com/files/news/asco/Glasdegib-Fact-Sheet-6JUNE2018.pdf

Glasdegib (PF-04449913) is an experimental cancer drug developed by Pfizer. It is a small molecule inhibitor of the Sonic hedgehog pathway, which is overexpressed in many types of cancer. It inhibits smoothened receptor, as do most drug in its class.[1]

Four phase II clinical trials are in progress. One is evaluating the efficacy of glasdegib in treating myelofibrosis in patients who were unable to control the disease with ruxolitinib.[2] Another is a combination trial of glasdenib with ARA-Cdecitabinedaunorubicin, or cytarabine for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia.[3] The third is for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia.[4] The fourth administers glasdegib to patients at high risk for relapse after stem cell transplants in acute lymphoblastic or myelogenous leukemia.[5]

  • OriginatorPfizer
  • DeveloperGrupo Espanol de Trasplante Hematopoyetico y Terapia Celular; H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute; Netherlands Cancer Institute; Pfizer
  • ClassAntineoplastics; Benzimidazoles; Phenylurea compounds; Piperidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionHedgehog cell-signalling pathway inhibitors; SMO protein inhibitors
  • Orphan Drug StatusYes – Acute myeloid leukaemia; Myelodysplastic syndromes
  • New Molecular EntityYes

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase IIIAcute myeloid leukaemia
  • Phase IIChronic myeloid leukaemia; Colorectal cancer; Myelodysplastic syndromes; Myelofibrosis; Non-small cell lung cancer
  • Phase I/IIChronic myelomonocytic leukaemia; Glioblastoma; Graft-versus-host disease
  • Phase ICancer; Haematological malignancies
  • No development reportedSolid tumours

Most Recent Events

  • 20 Apr 2018Phase-III clinical trials in Acute myeloid leukaemia (Combination therapy, First-line therapy) in Japan (PO) (NCT03416179)
  • 02 Apr 2018Pfizer terminates a phase II trial in Myelofibrosis (Second-line therapy or greater) in USA, Japan, Austria, France, Spain and United Kingdom (PO) (NCT02226172) (EudraCT2014-001048-40)
  • 06 Feb 2018Phase-I/II clinical trials in Glioblastoma (Newly diagnosed) in Spain (PO) (EudraCT2017-002410-31)

Glasdegib is an orally bioavailable small-molecule inhibitor of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway with potential antineoplastic activity. Glasdegib appears to inhibit Hh pathway signaling. The Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in cellular growth, differentiation and repair. Constitutive activation of Hh pathway signaling has been observed in various types of malignancies.

Glasdegib is under investigation for the treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

SYNTHESIS

Discovery of PF-04449913, a Potent and Orally Bioavailable Inhibitor of Smoothened

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ml2002423

 Michael J. Munchhof LLC, 266 West Road, Salem, Connecticut 06420, United States
 Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States
§ 24 Queen Eleanor Drive, Gales Ferry, Connecticut 06335, United States
 INC Research, Old Lyme, Connecticut 06371, United States
 Reiter.MedChem, 32 West Mystic Avenue, Mystic, Connecticut 06355, United States
# Bristol-Meyers Squibb, Princeton, New Jersey 08540, United States
ACS Med. Chem. Lett.20123 (2), pp 106–111
DOI: 10.1021/ml2002423
Publication Date (Web): December 21, 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society
*Tel: 860-287-5924. E-mail: mikemunchhof@yahoo.com.
Abstract Image

Inhibitors of the Hedgehog signaling pathway have generated a great deal of interest in the oncology area due to the mounting evidence of their potential to provide promising therapeutic options for patients. Herein, we describe the discovery strategy to overcome the issues inherent in lead structure 1 that resulted in the identification of Smoothened inhibitor 1-((2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea (PF-04449913, 26), which has been advanced to human clinical studies

1-((2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea (26)

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ml2002423/suppl_file/ml2002423_si_001.pdf

str1

Product was purified by Companion (ReadySep 40g, silica gel packed) with CH3OH/CH2Cl2 from 1-5% to give the title compound as an off-white solid 915mg (73%). LC-MS 375.3.

1H NMR(acetone-D6): δ 1.81 (m, 2H), 1.9- 2.05 (m, 2H), 2.10 (m, 1H), 2.17 (s, 3H), 2.52 (m, 1H), 2.94 (m, 1H), 3.86 (m, 1H), 4.2 (m, 1H), 6.4 (d, 1H), 7.16 (m, 2H), 7.52 (m, 2H), 7.60 (m, 2H), 7.62 (m, 2H), 8.46 (s, 1H).

The dihydrochloride salt was prepared by adding 4M HCl in dioxane (1.22mL, 4.86 mmol) to a solution of 1-((2R,4R)-2-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4- cyanophenyl)urea (910 mg’s, 2.43mmol) in methanol (10mL). The mixture was stirred at at 230C for 10 minutes. The solution was concentrated to give a white solid, 1082 mg’s as the 2 .HCl monohydrate salt. M.P. > 125 0C with dehydration above 130 0C. Analytical calculated for free base C21H22N6O: C 67.38%, H 5.88%, N 22.46%; Found: C 67.16%, H 5.54%, N 22.18%. Purity of the dihydrochloride monohydrate salt was determined to be > 99.9% by analytical HPLC using a Xbridge C18; 3.5µm column and eluting with 95:5 0.1% Perchloric Acid (HClO4) solution in water and acetonitrile, over a gradient of 25 minutes, with and ending solvent ratio of 5:95. Enantiomeric purity of the dihydrochloride monohydrate salt was > 99.9% by chiral HPLC using a Chiralcel OJ column and eluting with 96:4 Heptane:Ethanol(with 0.1% diethylamine).

Syn 2

Development of a Concise, Asymmetric Synthesis of a Smoothened Receptor (SMO) Inhibitor: Enzymatic Transamination of a 4-Piperidinone with Dynamic Kinetic Resolution

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/ol403630g

Chemical Research & Development, Analytical Research & Development, Pfizer Worldwide Research & Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States
Org. Lett.201416 (3), pp 860–863
DOI: 10.1021/ol403630g
Publication Date (Web): January 22, 2014
Copyright © 2014 American Chemical Society
Abstract Image

A concise, asymmetric synthesis of a smoothened receptor inhibitor (1) is described. The synthesis features an enzymatic transamination with concurrent dynamic kinetic resolution (DKR) of a 4-piperidone (4) to establish the two stereogenic centers required in a single step. This efficient reaction affords the desired anti amine (3) in >10:1 dr and >99% ee. The title compound is prepared in only five steps with 40% overall yield.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ol403630g/suppl_file/ol403630g_si_001.pdf

1-((2R,4R)-2-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1-methylpiperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-cyanophenyl)urea (1)

1 as white solids3 (27.1 g, 99.5 wt%, 90.0% corrected yield, > 99.0 UPLC area% purity): m.p. 223–224 °C; UPLC tR 2.11 min; 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 12.39 (s, 1H), 8.94 (s, 1H), 7.69 (m, 2 H), 7.57 (m, 3 H), 7.43 (m, 1 H), 7.13 (m, 2H), 6.75 (d, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 4.08 (m, 1H), 3.63 (dd, J = 10.3, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 2.89 (dt, J = 12.0, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 2.40 (td, J = 11.9, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 2.06 (s, 3H), 1.98–2.10 (m, 1H), 1.83–1.95 (m, 2H), 1.72 (m, 1H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 155.7, 153.9, 144.8, 142.7, 134.3, 133.2, 121.8, 120.9, 119.4, 118.5, 117.3, 111.2, 102.4, 58.6, 49.9, 43.7, 42.4, 36.0, 29.8. HRMS (EI) calcd. for C21H23N6O [M+H]+ : 375.1928; Found 375.1932.

To the crude solution of 3 in DMSO-H2O (UPLC assay ~55.0 mg/mL, 104 mL, ~5.74 g of 3, 24.9 mmol) from the enzymatic transamination reaction (vide supra) was added THF (57.0 mL) followed by 17 (mixture with imidazole, 9.31 gm, 74.0 wt%, 31.2 mmol). The mixture was then stirred at rt for three hours. Once the reaction was complete (<1 % of 3 remaining by UPLC), methanol (10.1 mL, 249 mmol) was added followed by 2-MeTHF (57.0 mL). The layers were separated and the aqueous was extracted with 2-MeTHF (57.0 mL). The combined organic layers were then washed with 2 × 50.0 mL water and 2 × 50.0 mL of 10% aqueous NaCl solution. The organic solution was then concentrated under vacuum and the solvent was switched to acetonitrile to give a slurry with a final volume of ~90.0 mL. The slurry was stirred at rt for three hours and filtered, and the solids were washed with 2 × 10.0 mL of acetonitrile and dried in oven at 60 °C for two hours. The solids (~7.90 gm) were then slurried in 70.0 mL of acetonitrile. The slurry was heated to 60 °C for two hours, cooled to rt, filtered, and the solids were dried in oven under vacuum at 60 °C for 12 hours to give 1 as white solids (7.64 g, 98.0 wt%, 80.0% corrected yield, > 98 UPLC area% purity). The analytical data were identical to that obtained with method A.

References

1. Lin TL, Matsui W. Hedgehog pathway as a drug target: smoothened inhibitors in development. Onco Targets Ther. 2012;5:47-58.

2. Munchhof MJ, Li Q, Shavnya A, et al. Discovery of PF-04449913, a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of smoothened. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2012;3(2):106-111.

3. Clement V, Sanchez P, de Tribolet N, et al. Hedgehog-GLI1 signaling regulates human glioma growth, cancer stem cell self-renewal, and tumorigenicity. Curr Biol. 2007;17(2):165-172.

4. Deschler, B. and Lübbert, M. (2006), Acute myeloid leukemia: Epidemiology and etiology. Cancer, 107: 2099–2107. doi: 10.1002/cncr.22233.

5. American Cancer Society. Key statistics for acute myeloid leukemia. Available at https://www.cancer.org/cancer/acute-myeloid-leukemia/about/key-statistics.html. Accessed January 25, 2018.

6. SEER Cancer Stat Facts: Acute Myeloid Leukemia. National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD, April 2017. Available at: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/amyl.html. Accessed January 25, 2018.

7. Appelbaum FR, Gundacker H, Head DR, et al. Age and acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 2006; 107(9): 3481-5.

8. Estey E. Acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in older patients. Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007; 25(14): 1908-15.

9. Kantarjian HM, Thomas XG, Dmoszynska A, et al. Multicenter, randomized, open-label, phase III trial of decitabine versus patient choice, with physician advice, of either supportive care or low-dose cytarabine for the treatment of older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2012; 30(21): 2670-7.

10. Ornstein MC, Mukherjee S, Sekeres MA. More is better: combination therapies for myelodysplastic syndromes. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol. 2015;28(1):22-31.

11. American Cancer Society. What are the key statistics about myelodysplastic syndromes? Available at: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/myelodysplasticsyndrome/detailedguide/myelo-dysplastic-syndromes-key-statistics. Accessed January 25, 2018. 12. Ma X, Does M, Raza A, et al. Myelodysplastic syndromes: incidence and survival in the United States. Cancer. 2007;109(8):1536-1542

Glasdegib
Glasdegib.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms PF-04449913
Identifiers
CAS Number
ChemSpider
KEGG
Chemical and physical data
Formula C21H22N6O
Molar mass 374.45 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
 to 3 of 3
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US8431597 Benzimidazole derivatives
2012-02-24
2013-04-30
US8148401 BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES
2009-01-01
2012-04-03
US9611330 COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS FOR CANCER AND CANCER STEM CELL DETECTION AND ELIMINATION
2012-09-07
2014-10-09

////////////Glasdegib, PF-04449913, гласдегиб غلاسديغيب 格拉德吉 , PF04449913, PF 04449913, phase 3, aml, Orphan Drug Status

CN1CCC(CC1C2=NC3=CC=CC=C3N2)NC(=O)NC4=CC=C(C=C4)C#N

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