New Drug Approvals

Home » Posts tagged 'organic chemistry' (Page 2)

Tag Archives: organic chemistry

DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

Blog Stats

  • 3,905,698 hits

Flag and hits

Flag Counter

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,721 other followers

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Archives

Categories

Recent Posts

Flag Counter

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,721 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

Verified Services

View Full Profile →

Archives

Categories

Flag Counter

MIDAZOLAM


MIDAZOLAM

8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine

59467-70-8 CAS NO OF FREE BASE

59467-94-6 MALEATE, Launched – 1982, Roche (Originator)

59467-96-8 (HCl)

Midazolam
CAS Registry Number: 59467-70-8
 
CAS Name: 8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine
Molecular Formula: C18H13ClFN3
Molecular Weight: 325.77
Percent Composition: C 66.36%, H 4.02%, Cl 10.88%, F 5.83%, N 12.90%
 
Literature References: Short-acting deriv of diazepam, q.v. Prepn: R. I. Fryer, A. Walser, DE 2540522eidem, US 4280957 (1976, 1981 both to Hoffmann-La Roche); A. Walser et al., J. Org. Chem. 43, 936 (1978). HPLC determn in plasma: S. L. Eeckhoudt et al., J. Chromatogr. B 710, 165 (1998). Toxicity data: L. Pieri et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 31, 2180 (1981). Series of articles on pharmacology, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, clinical experience: ibid. 2177-2288; Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 16, Suppl. 1, 1S-199S (1983). Review of pharmacology and therapeutic use: J. W. Dundee et al., Drugs 28, 519-543 (1984); in treatment of status epilepticus: D. F. Hanley, J. F. Kross, Clin. Ther. 20, 1093-1105 (1998). Clinical evaluation for intranasal treatment of febrile seizures in children: E. Lahat et al., Br. Med. J. 321, 83 (2000).
Properties: Colorless crystals from ether/methylene chloride/hexane, mp 158-160°. uv max (2-propanol): 220 nm (e 30000).
Melting point: mp 158-160°
Absorption maximum: uv max (2-propanol): 220 nm (e 30000)
 
Derivative Type: Maleate
CAS Registry Number: 59467-94-6
Manufacturers’ Codes: Ro-21-3981/001
Trademarks: Dormicum (Roche)
Molecular Formula: C18H13ClFN3.C4H4O4
Molecular Weight: 441.84
Percent Composition: C 59.80%, H 3.88%, Cl 8.02%, F 4.30%, N 9.51%, O 14.48%
Properties: Crystals from ethanol/ether, mp 114-117° (solvated). LD50 in male mice (mg/kg): 760 orally; 86 i.v. (Pieri).
Melting point: mp 114-117° (solvated)
Toxicity data: LD50 in male mice (mg/kg): 760 orally; 86 i.v. (Pieri)
 
Derivative Type: Hydrochloride
CAS Registry Number: 59467-96-8
Manufacturers’ Codes: Ro-21-3981/003
Trademarks: Hypnovel (Roche); Versed (Roche)
Molecular Formula: C18H13ClFN3.HCl
Molecular Weight: 362.23
Percent Composition: C 59.68%, H 3.90%, Cl 19.57%, F 5.24%, N 11.60%
Properties: Sol in aqueous solns.
 
NOTE: This is a controlled substance (depressant): 21 CFR, 1308.14.
Therap-Cat: Anesthetic (intravenous); anticonvulsant; sedative, hypnotic.
Keywords: Anesthetic (Intravenous); Anticonvulsant; Sedative/Hypnotic; Benzodiazepine Derivatives.

A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.

Midazolam (/mɪˈdæzəlæm/, marketed in English-speaking countries and Mexico under the trade names DormicumHypnovel, andVersed,) is a short-acting drug in the benzodiazepine class developed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the 1970s. The drug is used for treatment of acute seizures, moderate to severe insomnia, and for inducing sedation and amnesia before medical procedures. It possesses profoundly potentanxiolyticamnestichypnoticanticonvulsantskeletal muscle relaxant, and sedative properties.[6][7][8] Midazolam has a fast recovery time and is the most commonly used benzodiazepine as a premedication for sedation; less commonly it is used for induction and maintenance of anesthesia.Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine antagonist drug, can be used to treat an overdose of midazolam, as well as to reverse sedation.[7] However, flumazenil can trigger seizures in mixed overdoses and in benzodiazepine-dependent individuals, so is not used in most cases.[9][10]

midazolam

Administration of midazolam by the intranasal or the buccal route (absorption via the gums and cheek) as an alternative to rectally administereddiazepam is becoming increasingly popular for the emergency treatment of seizures in children. Midazolam is also used for endoscopyprocedural sedation and sedation in intensive care. The anterograde amnesia property of midazolam is useful for premedication before surgery to inhibit unpleasant memories. Midazolam, like many other benzodiazepines, has a rapid onset of action, high effectiveness and low toxicity level. Drawbacks of midazolam include drug interactions, tolerance, and withdrawal syndrome, as well as adverse events including cognitive impairment and sedation. Paradoxical effects occasionally occur, most commonly in children and the elderly, particularly after intravenous administration. The drug has also recently been hastily introduced for use in executions in the USA in combination with other drugs.

Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine in adults with an elimination half-life of one to four hours; however, in the elderly, as well as young children and adolescents, the elimination half-life is longer. Midazolam is metabolised into an active metabolite alpha1-hydroxymidazolam. Age related deficits, renal and liver status affect the pharmacokinetic factors of midazolam as well as its active metabolite. However, the active metabolite of midazolam is minor and contributes to only 10 percent of biological activity of midazolam. Midazolam is poorly absorbed orally with only 50 percent of the drug reaching the bloodstream. Midazolam is metabolised by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and by glucuronide conjugation. The therapeutic as well as adverse effects of midazolam are due to its effects on the GABAA receptors; midazolam does not activate GABAA receptors directly but, as with other benzodiazepines, it enhances the effect of the neurotransmitter GABA on the GABAA receptors (↑ frequency of Cl− channel opening) resulting in neural inhibition. Almost all of the properties can be explained by the actions of benzodiazepines on GABAA receptors. This results in the following pharmacological properties being produced: sedation, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anterograde amnesia, muscle relaxation and anti-convulsant.Midazolam maleate is a benzodiazepine that is commercialized by Astellas Pharma and Roche as an intravenous or intramuscular injection for the long-term sedation of mechanically ventilated patients under intensive care. The drug is also available in a tablet formulation, and is currently distributed in various markets, including Germany, Japan, Switzerland and the U.K. In March 2002, two lots of a syrup formulation were recalled in the U.S. due to the potential presence of a crystalline precipitate of an insoluble complex of midazolam and saccharin. Subsequently, the injection and syrup formulations of the product were both withdrawn from the U.S. market. In 2010, a Pediatric Use Marketing Authorization (PUMA) was filed for approval in the E.U. by ViroPharma for the treatment of prolonged, acute, convulsive seizures in infants, toddlers, children and adolescents, from 3 months to less than 18 years. In 2011, a positive opinion was assigned to the PUMA and final approval was assigned in June 2011. The product was launched in the U.S. in November 2011. This product was filed for approval in Japan in 2013 by Astellas Pharma for the conscious sedation in dentistry and dental surgery. In the same year the product was approved for this indication.

In terms of clinical development, a nasal formulation of the drug is in phase III clinical trials at Upsher-Smith for rescue treatment of seizures in patients on stable anti-epileptic drug regimens who require control of intermittent bouts of increased seizure activity (seizure clusters). The Hopitaux de Paris had been developing a sublingual tablet formulation of midazolam to be used in combination with morphine for the treatment of pain in children following bone fractures; however, no recent development has been reported for this indication. NovaDel Pharma had been developing the compound preclinically for the treatment of generalized anxiety, however no recent developments have been reported.

Midazolam achieves its therapeutic effect through interaction with the gamma-aminobutyric acid benzodiazepine (GABA-BZ) receptor complex. Subunit modulation of the GABA-BZ receptor chloride channel macromolecular complex is hypothesized to be responsible for some of the pharmacological properties of benzodiazepines, which include sedative, anxiolytic, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsive effects in animal models. GABA acts at inhibitory synapses in the brain by binding to specific transmembrane receptors in the plasma membrane of both pre- and post-synaptic neurons, opening ion channels and bringing about a hyperpolarization via either chloride or potassium ion flow.

In 2008, fast track designation was assigned to midazolam maleate in the U.S. for the treatment of seizure disorders.

In 2009, Orphan Drug Designation was received in the U.S. by for the treatment of seizure disorders in patients who require control of intermittent bouts of increased seizure activity (e.g. acute repetitive seizures, seizure clusters). This designation was assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of nerve agent-induced seizures.

In 2010, midazolam maleate was licensed to Upsher-Smith by Ikano Therapeutics for the treatment of acute repetitive seizure in patients with epilepsy. However, in 2010, Ikano closed and dissolved its business. Previously, Ikano had transferred to Upsher-Smith ownership of it nasal midazolam maleate program.

 

Midazolam is among about 35 benzodiazepines which are currently used medically, and was synthesised in 1975 by Walser and Fryer at Hoffmann-LaRoche, Inc in the United States.Owing to its water solubility, it was found to be less likely to cause thrombophlebitis than similar drugs.The anticonvulsant properties of midazolam were studied in the late 1970s, but not until the 1990s did it emerge as an effective treatment for convulsive status epilepticus. As of 2010, it is the most commonly used benzodiazepine in anesthetic medicine. In acute medicine, midazolam has become more popular than other benzodiazepines, such as lorazepam and diazepam, because it is shorter lasting, is more potent, and causes less pain at the injection site.Midazolam is also becoming increasingly popular in veterinary medicine due to its water solubility.

Midazolam is a water-soluble benzodiazepine available as a sterile, nonpyrogenic parenteral dosage form for intravenous or intramuscular injection. Each mL contains midazolam hydrochloride equivalent to 1 mg or 5 mg midazolam compounded with 0.8% sodium chloride and 0.01% edetate disodium with 1% benzyl alcohol as preservative, and sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment. pH 2.9-3.7.

Midazolam is a white to light yellow crystalline compound, insoluble in water. The hydrochloride salt of midazolam, which is formed in situ, is soluble in aqueous solutions. Chemically, midazolam HCl is 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H– imidazo[1,5-a] [1,4] benzodiazepine hydrochloride. Midazolam hydrochloride has the molecular formula C18H13ClFN3•HCl, a calculated molecular weight of 362.25 and the following structural formula:

Midazolam HCl structural formula illustration

In the Netherlands, midazolam is a List II drug of the Opium Law. Midazolam is a Schedule IV drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. In the United Kingdom, midazolam is a Class C controlled drug. In the United States, midazolam (DEA number 2884) is on the Schedule IV list of the Controlled Substances Act as a non-narcotic agent with low potential for abuse.

midaolam hydrochloride NDA 018654, 075154

REF

U.S. Pat. No. 4,280,957

U.S. Pat. No. 5,693,795

U.S. Pat. No. 6,512,114

Midazolam Maleate
Drugs Fut 1978, 3(11): 822

Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry, 2012 ,  vol. 20,  18  pg. 5658 – 5667

Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 1983 ,  vol. 20,  3  pg. 551 – 558.. 32 maleate

WO 2001070744

WO 2001002402

WO 2012075286

US2011/275799 A1… no 5

Journal of Organic Chemistry, 1978 ,  vol. 43, p. 936,942, mp free base, nmr

US4280957 May 15, 1978 Jul 28, 1981 Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. Imidazodiazepines and processes therefor
US6262260 * Mar 23, 2000 Jul 17, 2001 Abbott Laboratories Process for the preparation of midazolam
US6512114 Jun 30, 1999 Jan 28, 2003 Abbott Laboratories Process for the preparation of Midazolam

……………………….

introduction

4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepines or, more simply, imidazobenzodiazepines, are a class of benzodiazepines having the general formula (I),

wherein the 1,4-diazepine ring is fused with a 1,3-imidazole ring. The main compounds part of the 4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepines are Midazolam of formula (IV):

an active ingredient currently commercially available as a hydrochloride salt under the name of Versed or Hypnovel for anaesthetic and sedative use and the maleate salt currently commercially available under the name Dormicum or Flormidal.
Other important compounds are Climazolam of formula (VII):

Imidazenil of formula (VIII):

1-Hydroxymidazolam of formula (IX):

and Desmethyl midazolam of formula (X):

all these being biologically active substances and having psychotropic and sedative action.
The synthesis of the Midazolam as described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,280,957 of Hoffmann-La Roche provides for the decarboxylation reaction of the 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid of formula (VI) according to the following scheme:

The process for preparing the intermediate (VI) via basic hydrolysis of the corresponding ester is described in such patent publication and it is well known in the art.
The thermal decarboxylation reaction in high boiling solvent such as mineral oil at 230° C. for 5 min results in a mixture of products of Midazolam of formula (IV) and of Isomidazolam of formula (IV-bis), a non-pharmacologically active isomer, at a 80:20 ratio. The two products are separated by chromatography.
At industrial level, the formation of the Isomidazolam isomer impurity requires a further isomerisation reaction performed on the mixture of the two compounds to convert the isomer into the active product. The reaction mixture obtained from the thermal decarboxylation is thus subjected to basic treatment under the action of KOH in EtOH followed by an acid treatment which thus provides a mixture of Midazolam-Isomidazolam at a 95:5 ratio. The final removal of the Isomidazolam impurity from the product occurs through crystallisation of the product from AcOEt and EtOH. In order to limit this isomerisation treatment, in the subsequent U.S. Pat. No. 5,693,795 of Hoffmann-La Roche dated 1999, there is described a process for performing the decarboxylation of the compound of formula (VI) in n-butanol in a continuous tubular reactor with a 4 minutes permanence period with a yield between 47-77%. However, the reaction, performed at high temperature and pressure (280° C., 100 bars) results in the formation of a considerable percentage of Isomidazolam (85:15 Midazolam/Isomidazolam ratio) which still requires the basic isomerisation step.
Lastly, in U.S. Pat. No. 6,512,114 of Abbott Laboratories there is described the decarboxylation of the compound of formula (VI) in mineral oil or in N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMA) at 160-230° C. for at least 3 hours obtaining a 3/1 to 6/1 Midazolam/Isomidazolam ratio with a yield of isolated product equal to just 54%.
Though performed using dedicated apparatus and in extreme conditions, the prior art processes do not allow selectively performing the decarboxylation reaction of the intermediate (VI) to Midazolam thus requiring a further synthetic passage followed by crystallisation with ensuing reduction of the overall yield.

Midazolam (8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine) is represented by the following structural formula (I):

Figure US07776852-20100817-C00001

Midazolam is a central nervous system (CNS) depressant, used for short term treatment of insomnia. Like other benzodiazepines, midazolam binds to benzodiazepine receptors in the brain and spinal cord and is thus used as a short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is currently used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as a preanesthetic medication, as an adjunct to local anesthesia and as a skeletal muscle relaxant. Depending on the pH value, midazolam can exist in solution as a closed ring form (I) as well as an open ring form (IA), which are in equilibrium, as shown in Scheme 1:

Figure US07776852-20100817-C00002

The amount of the open ring form (IA) is dependent upon the pH value of the solution. At a pH value of about 3, the content of the open ring form (IA) can be 40%, while at pH value of 7.5, the closed ring form (I) can be more than 90%.

Clinical studies have demonstrated that there are no significant differences in the clinical activity between midazolam hydrochloride and midazolam maleate, however the use of intravenous midazolam hydrochloride has been associated, in some cases, with respiratory depression and arrest.

U.S Pat. No. 4,280,957 (hereinafter the ‘957 patent) describes a synthetic process for preparing midazolam, which is depicted in Scheme 2 below. This process includes reacting 2-aminomethyl-7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,4-bezodiazepine (II) with acetic anhydride in dichloromethane to produce 2-acetamido-methyl-7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,4-bezodiazepine (III). The latter is heated with polyphosphoric acid at 150° C. to produce 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-3a,4-dihydro-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine of formula (IV), which is purified by column chromatography. Compound IV is then mixed with toluene and manganese dioxide and heated to reflux to afford midazolam base, which is crystallized from ether to yield a product with mp of 152-154° C.

Figure US07776852-20100817-C00003

The ‘957 patent further describes an alternative process which includes reacting 2-aminomethyl-7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,4-bezodiazepine (II) (optionally as a dimaleate salt) with triethylorthoacetate in ethanol and in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid to afford 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-3a,4-dihydro-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine (IV). This product is dissolved in xylene and treated with activated manganese dioxide to afford the crude base, which is reacted in situ with maleic acid in ethanol and crystallized by addition of ether to produce the midazolam maleate having melting point of 148-151° C. The process is depicted in Scheme 3 below.

Figure US07776852-20100817-C00004

The preparation of midazolam maleate from the isolated midazolam base is also described in a further example of the ‘957 Patent, wherein a warm solution of midazolam base in ethanol is combined with a warm solution of maleic acid in ethanol. The mixture is diluted with ether and at least part of the solvents is evaporated using a steam bath to obtain crystalline midazolam maleate having melting point of 148-151° C. The yield and the purity of the obtained midazolam maleate are not disclosed.

U.S. Pat. No. 6,512,114 (hereinafter the ‘114 patent) describes another synthetic process for preparing midazolam, which is depicted in Scheme 4 below. According to this Process, the starting material 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid (V) is heated in mineral oil for 3 hours at 230° C. until it is decarboxylated, followed by treatment with potassium tert-butoxide, to afford midazolm (I), isomidazolam (VI) and a midazolam dimmer (VII). Midazolam base is obtained in 54.5% yield after two re-crystallizations from ethyl acetate and heptane; however, the purity of the product is not disclosed.

Figure US07776852-20100817-C00005

The preparation of midazolam by conventional routes is liable to produce impurities such as isomidazolam (VI) and a midazolam dimmer (VII), and possibly other impurities. There is, therefore, a need in the art for a midazolam purification process that will provide highly pure midazolam containing minimal amounts of impurities produced. The present invention provides such a process.

This example describes the preparation of midazolam base as taught in the ‘957 patent.

16 g (0.03 mol) of 2-aminomethyl-7-chloro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-bezodiazepine dimaleate was dissolved in 200 ml of toluene and 10 ml of 25% ammonium hydroxide solution was added and mixing was maintained for an hour. Then, the phases were separated and the toluene phase was dried by azeotropic distillation using a Dean Stark apparatus. 7 ml (0.038 mol) of triethylorthoacetate was added and the solution was heated to reflux for 4 hours, after which time the solution was left to cool to ambient temperature. 25 ml of methyl tert-butyl ether was added and the mixture was cooled overnight to produce 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-3a,4-dihydro-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine, which was isolated by filtration. The product was mixed with 200 ml of toluene and dried by azeotropic distillation using a Dean Stark apparatus. Then, 30 g of manganese dioxide was added and the mixture was heated to reflux for two hours. The excess manganese dioxide was filtered off to afford a solution of midazolam base in toluene, which was evaporated to obtain a product having 97.9% purity and containing 0.44% of impurity VIII and 1.14% of impurity IX (according to HPLC).

…………………………

US4280957

EXAMPLE 28

2-Aminomethyl-7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine dimaleate

A suspension of 17 g (0.05 m) of 7-chloro-1,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-2-nitromethylene-2H-1,4-benzodiazepine-4-oxide in 200 ml of tetrahydrofuran and 100 ml of methanol was hydrogenated in presence of 17 g of Raney nickel at an initial pressure of 155 psi for 24 hrs. The catalyst was removed by filtration and the filtrate was evaporated. The residue was dissolved in 50 ml of 2-propanol and warmed on the steambath. A warm solution of 17 g of maleic acid in 60 ml of ethanol was added and the salt was allowed to crystallize by cooling in the ice bath. The final product consisted of yellow crystals with mp 196

EXAMPLE 14

8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine

Acetic anhydride, 7 ml., was added to a solution of 6.16 g. of crude 2-aminomethyl-7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine in 200 ml. of methylene chloride. The solution was layered with 200 ml. of saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and the mixture was stirred for 20 minutes. The organic layer was separated, washed with sodium bicarbonate, dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated to leave 6.2 g. resinous 2-acetaminomethyl-7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1H-1,4-benzodiazepine. This material was heated with 40 g. of polyphosphoric acid at 150 water, made alkaline with ammonia and ice and extracted with methylene chloride. The extracts were dried and evaporated and the residue (5.7 g.) was chromatographed over 120 g. of silica gel using 20% methanol in methylene chloride. The clean fractions were combined and evaporated to yield resinous 8-chloro-3a,4-dihydro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[ 1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine. A mixture of this material with 500 ml. of toluene and 30 g. of manganese dioxide was heated to reflux for 11/2 hours. The manganese dioxide was separated by filtration over celite. The filtrate was evaporated and the residue was crystallized from ether to yield a product with m.p. 152 was recrystallized from methylene chloride/hexane

EXAMPLE 49

8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-6H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine

Potassium t-butoxide, 0.625 g. (5.5 mmol), was added to a solution of 1.625 g. (5 mmol) of 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine in 20 ml. of dimethylformamide cooled to -30 nitrogen for 10 min. at -30 ml. of glacial acetic acid and was then partitioned between aqueous bicarbonate and toluene/methylene chloride (3:1 v/v). The organic layer was separated, dried and evaporated. The residue was chromatographed over 60 g. of silica gel using 25% (v/v) methylene chloride in ethyl acetate. The less polar product was eluted first and was crystallized from ethylacetate/hexane to yield product with m.p. 180

EXAMPLE 50

8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorphenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine

Potassium t-butoxide, 0.125 g. (1.1 mmol) was added to a solution of 0.325 g. (1 mmol) of 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-6H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine in 20 ml. of dimethylformamide cooled to -30 -30 by addition of 0.2 ml. of glacial acetic acid and was partitioned between aqueous sodium bicarbonate and methylene chloridetoluene (1:3). The organic phase was washed with water, dried and evaporated. The residue was chromatographed over 20 g. of silica gel using ethyl acetate for elution. After elution of starting material, product was collected and crystallized from ether/hexane, m.p. 156

hyd and dihydrochloride

EXAMPLE 24

8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine dihydrochloride

A solution of 0.32 g (1 mmol) of 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine in 5 ml of ethanol was treated with excess ethanolic hydrogen chloride. The salt was crystallized by addition of 2-propanol and ether. The colorless crystals were collected, washed with ether and dried to leave a final product with mp 290

EXAMPLE 258-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine hydrochloride

A solution of 0.325 g (1 mmol) of 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine in 3 ml of ethanol was combined with a suspension of 0.4 g (1 mmol) of the dihydrochloride of this compound in 5 ml of ethanol. After filtration, the solution was treated with ether and heated on the steambath for 5 min to crystallize. The crystals were collected, washed with ether and dried to leave the monohydrochloride with mp 295

maleate

EXAMPLE 22

8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine maleate

A warm solution of 6.5 g (0.02 m) of 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine in 30 ml of ethanol was combined with a warm solution of 2.6 g (0.022 m) of maleic acid in 20 ml of ethanol. The mixture was diluted with 150 ml of ether and heated on the steam bath for 3 min. After cooling, the crystals were collected, washed with ether and dried in vacuo to yield a final product with mp 148

Synthesis

US20110275799

Midazolam, can be described according to scheme 4 indicated below:

 
EXPERIMENTAL PART
Materials and Methods
8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepin-3-carboxylic acid of formula (VI)Figure US20110275799A1-20111110-C00029was prepared according to processes known in the art (e.g. U.S. Pat. No. 4,280,957) which comprise the basic hydrolysis of the corresponding ester.
For the reactions performed in the microreactor, the solutions containing the substrates to be decarboxylated were loaded into 5 and 10 mL gastight glass syringes (Hamilton, item n. 81527, 81627) mounted on syringe pumps (KD Scientifics, model KDS100). A pipe made of PTFE® (OD=1.58 mm, ID=0.8 mm, Supelco, item n. 58696-U) was used for making the reaction channel.A counterpressure valve sold by Swagelok (item n. SS-SS1-VH) was used for regulating the flow within the channel.Example 1Synthesis of the Compound of Formula (V)—Example of the Invention

 

50 g (0.135 mol) of 8-chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepin-3-carboxylic acid of formula (VI) and 250 mL of ethanol were loaded into a two-neck 500 mL flask, equipped with a magnetic stirrer. 40 mL of an aqueous solution of 1 M HCl are dripped in about 10 minutes. The open di-hydrochloride intermediate of formula (V) starts precipitating into the reaction environment already after 3 minutes from the beginning of the addition of the acid solution. The mixture is maintained stirred at RT for 3 hrs and then it is filtered on buckner washing the solid with ethanol. The moist product is dried in an oven under vacuum at 60° C. up to reaching a constant weight. A light yellow crystalline product is obtained (51.5 g, 83% yield). The crude product was used for the decarboxylation without further purifications.

ESI-MS [MeCN+0.1% HCOOH]: m/z 388 (V); 370 (VI).

1H-NMR (250 MHz, CD3OD): 2.52 (s, 3H); 4.27-4.41 (m, 2H); 7.22-8.1 (m, 7H). M.p.: 217° C.

Example 2

Synthesis of Midazolam of Formula (IV)—Performed in Batch—Example of the Invention

30 g (0.065 mol) of 5-(aminomethyl)-1-{(4-chloro-2-[(2-fluorophenyl)carbonyl]phenyl}-2-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid dihydrochloride of formula (V) and 90 mL of NMP are loaded into a three-neck 250 mL flask, equipped with a magnetic stirrer and coolant. The mass is heated using an oil bath at T=195-203° C. for one hour. Thus, 1 mL of solution is collected for performing HPLC analysis. The reaction product is Midazolam having 82% titre (w/w) (determined via HPLC titre correcting it using the solvent) and it contains 1% of Isomidazolam. The product is extracted using Isopropyl acetate after raising the pH to 10 by adding aqueous Na2CO3.

Example 3

Synthesis of Midazolam of Formula (IV)—Performed in a Micro-Reactor—Example of the Invention

3.22 g (7 mmol) of 5-(aminomethyl)-1-{4-chloro-2-[(2-fluorophenyl)carbonyl]phenyl}-2-methyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid dihydrochloride of formula (V) and 10 mL of NMP are loaded into a 10 mL flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer. In order to facilitate the complete solubilisation of the substrate, it is necessary to slightly heat the reaction mixture (about 40° C.) for a few minutes. The solution thus obtained is transferred into a 10 mL gastight glass syringe mounted on a KDS100 syringe pump (FIG. 1) and the flow is regulated at 1.0 mL/h so as to set a residence period of 30 minutes at 200° C. The reaction product is Midazolam having an 89% titre (w/w) (determined via HPLC titre correcting it using the solvent) and containing 3% (w/w) of Isomidazolam.

Example 4Synthesis of Midazolam of formula (IV)—Comparison of the InventionA table is reported which summarises the results of the decarboxylation of the compound of formula (V) and (V-bis) (for the latter see Examples 6 and 7) obtained according to some embodiments of the invention and those obtained by way of experiment through the decarboxylation of the intermediate of formula (VI) (process of the prior art) both performed in 3 volumes of NMP at 200° C., both in batch method (Example 4) and in continuous method with the microreactor (MR) made of PTFE of FIG. 1. (Examples 4-1, 4-2, 4-3).

 
Example substrate Mode Solv. T° C. t min. Midazolam (p/p) Isomidaz. (P/P)
 
 
2 (V) Batch NMP 200 60 82 1
3 (V) MR NMP 200 30 89 3
7 (V-bis) Batch NMP 200 60 68 3
4 (VI) Batch NMP 200 60 78 18
4-1 (VI) MR NMP 200 38 81 17
4-2 (VI) MR NMP 200 20 77 18
4-3 (VI) MR NMP 200 15 58 22
U.S. Pat. No. (VI) Tubular n-BuOH 290 4 85 * 15 *
5,693,795   reactor          
U.S. Pat. No. (VI) Batch Olio 230 180 75 * 25 *
6,512,114     min.     87.5 * 12.5 *
      or DMA        
 
* = Midazolam/Isomidazolam ratio only (other impurities not considered).

The product of the comparative experiments 4, 4-1, 4-2, 4-3 and of the two USA patents should be subjected to a further isomerisation process to reduce the high amount of Isomidazolam so as to be able to obtain Midazolam free of Isomidazolam after further crystallization, which would not be required for the product obtained according to the invention (examples 2 and 3).

 
Midazolam maleate, dihydrochloride  and monohydrochloride
 
MIDAZOLAM MALEATE
Example 8
Preparation of 8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine maleate (Midazolam Maleate)

 

A 4-neck RBF was charged under nitrogen flow with: 10 g of Midazolam (IV) (prepared according to example 2) and 40 mL of Ethanol. The slurry was stirred until complete dissolution at 25/30° C. In an other flask was prepared the following solution: 3.72 g of maleic acid are dissolved in 15 mL of Ethanol. The slurry was stirred until complete dissolution at 25/30° C. The maleic acid solution is dropped in 30/40 minutes and keeping T=25/30° C. into the solution containing Midazolam. The slurry was cooled down at −15° C. in one hour and kept at that temperature for at least 2 hours. The slurry was then filtered and the cake was washed with 40 mL of cool Ethanol. The filter was discharged and the product was dried at 40° C. under vacuum for 2 hours and then at 60° C. for 8 hours. 12.8 g of Midazolam Maleate as white solid were collected (Molar yield=94.5%). m.p.=149-152° C. (by DSC).

MIDAZOLAM DIHYDROCHLORIDE
 
Example 9
Preparation of 8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine dihydrochloride (Midazolam dihydrochloride)

 

A 4-neck RBF was charged under nitrogen flow with: 1 g of Midazolam (IV) (prepared according to example 2) and 15 mL of Ethanol. The slurry was stirred until complete dissolution at 25/30° C. 5 mL of a ethanolic solution of Hydrochloric acid 2N were slowly added. 20 mL of Isopropanol were added over 30 minutes at RT. The slurry was cooled down at −15° C. in one hour and kept at that temperature for at least 2 hours. The slurry was then filtered and the cake was washed with 10 mL of cool isopropanol. The filter was discharged and the product was dried at 40° C. under vacuum for 2 hours and then at 60° C. for 8 hours. Midazolam dihydrochloride as white solid was collected.

MIDAZOLAM HYDROCHLORIDE

Example 10

Preparation of 8-Chloro-6-(2-fluorophenyl)-1-methyl-4H-imidazo[1,5-a][1,4]benzodiazepine hydrochloride (Midazolam hydrochloride)

A 4-neck RBF was charged under nitrogen flow with: 1 g of Midazolam (IV) (prepared according to example 2) and 10 mL of Ethanol. The slurry was stirred until complete dissolution at 25/30° C. In an other flask was prepared the following suspension: 1.22 g of Midazolam dihydrochloride (prepared according to example 9) and 15 mL of Ethanol. The Midazolam ethanolic solution was added to the Midazolam dihydrochloride suspension. After filtration, the solution was treated with MTBE and heated at 60° C. until crystallization. After cooling to RT, the slurry was filtered, the cake washed with MTBE and the product was dried to provide Midazolam (mono)hydrochloride as a white solid.

…..

 
Midazolam is prepared from 2-amino-5-chloro-2’-fluoro benzophenone, which undergoes cyclization with ethyl ester of glycine in presence of pyridine to form benzodiazepinone. Amide is converted to thioamide (which is much reactive) by treatment with phosphorouspentasulphide. Reaction of the thioamide with methylamine proceeds to give the amidine; this compound is transformed into a good leaving group by conversion to the N-nitroso derivative by treatment with nitrous acid. Condensation of this intermediate with the carbanion from nitro methane leads to displacement of N-nitroso group by methyl nitro derivative; the double bond shifts into conjugation with the nitro group to afford nitro vinyl derivative. Reduction with Raney nickel followed by reaction with methyl orthoacetate leads to fused imidazoline ring. Dehydrogenation with manganese dioxide converts it into an imidazole to give midazolam.
Uses: Midazolam has been used adjunctively with gaseous anaesthetics. The onset of its CNS effects is slower than that of thiopental, and it has a longer duration of action. Cases of severe post-operative respiratory depression have occurred.

 

 

NEW DRUG APPROVALS

ONE TIME

$10.00

AVOSENTAN


AVOSENTAN

N-[6-Methoxy-5-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-2-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidin-4-yl]-5-methylpyridine-2-sulfonamide

5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-methoxy-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide,

5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-methoxy-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide,

Endothelin ETA Receptor Antagonists

M.Wt: 479.51
Formula: C23H21N5O5S

Roche (Originator)

CAS No.: 290815-26-8

  • RO 67-0565
  • SPP 301
  • UNII-L94KSX715K

PHASE 3

CLINICAL TRIALS

http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=spp301+OR+Avosentan

SPP-301 is an oral, once-daily, second-generation endothelin ETA receptor antagonist which had been in phase III clinical development at Speedel for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. In December 2006, the company reported that the phase III trial had been stopped based on the recommendation from the trial’s Data Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB) to stop the trial following incidence of a significant imbalance in fluid retention in patients in the study arms. Speedel reported that the compound will be evaluated for potential new clinical development for the treatment of diabetic kidney disease and other indications.

Originally developed by Roche and specifically optimized for improved liver safety, SPP-301 was licensed to Speedel in October 2000. In 2003, Speedel exercised its option to license from Roche all rights to SPP-301, including exclusive worldwide rights for the full development and commercialization of the ETA antagonist. SPP-301 has fast track designation and has undergone a special protocol assessment (SPA) by the FDA. Speedel had been studying the drug for the treatment of hypertension.

AVOSENTAN

290815-26-8 CAS

PATENTS

1. WO2000052007A1

2. WO 2004078104

3. WO 2005113543

4. WO 2007031501

5. WO 2008077916

6. Channels and transporters. Mini-symposium of the Division of Medicinal Chemistry (DMC) of the Swiss Chemical Society (SCS) at the Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, May 27, 2010.

Dutzler R, Ernstb B, Hediger MA, Keppler D, Mohr P, Neidhart W, Märki HP.Chimia (Aarau). 2010;64(9):662-6.

………………………

INTRODUCTION

  • 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-methoxy-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide corresponding to the formula

    Figure 00010001

    is an inhibitor of endothelin receptors. WO00/52007 describes the preparation of said compound which is crystallized from Me2Cl2.

  • Own investigations have shown that there exist two distinct crystalline forms, hereinafter referred to as form A and form B, as well as a number of further solvates, in particular the methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, dichloromethane, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone and tetrahydrofuran solvates.
  • It was further surprisingly found that the thermodynamically stable crystalline form – form B – can be prepared under controlled conditions and that said form B can be prepared with a reliable method in an industrial scale, which is easy to handle and to process in the manufacture and preparation of formulations.

………………..

US20020137933

Figure US20020137933A1-20020926-C00003

4,6-Dichloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidine (described in EP 0 799 209) can be transformed to the intermediate of formula (III)—according to scheme 1—on reaction with an appropriate sulfonamide of formula (II), wherein Ris as defined in claim 1, in a suited solvent such as DMSO or DMF at room temperature or at elevated temperature and in the presence of a suited base such as potassium carbonate.

Figure US20020137933A1-20020926-C00004

Figure US20020137933A1-20020926-C00005

EXAMPLE 1

[0064] a) To a solution of 6.9 g sodium in MeOH (300 ml) were added 14.52 g of 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-chloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide at RT and the mixture was refluxed for 5 days until completion of the reaction according to TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to half its volume upon which the crude reaction product precipitated as a sodium salt. It was filtered off by suction and dried in a high vacuum. The solid was dissolved in water, which was then made acidic by addition of acetic acid. The precipitating free sulfonamide was extracted into Me2Cl2. The organic layer was dried over Mg2SO4, concentrated on a rotary evaporator, and the crystalline solid that had formed was filtered off. It was then dried in a high vacuum for 12 h at 120° C. to give the desired 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-methoxy-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide as white crystals. Melting point 225-226° C. ISN mass spectrum, m/e 478.2 (M-1 calculated for C23H21N5O5S1: 478).

[0065] C23H21N5O5S1: Calc: C 57.61; H 4.41; N 14.61; S 6.69. Found: C 57.56; H 4.38; N 14.61; S 6.83

[0066] Preparation of the starting material:

[0067] b) 11.3 g of 4,6-dichloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidine and 19.66 g of 5-methylpyridyl-2-sulfonamide potassium salt (preparations described in EP 0 799 209) were dissolved in DMF (255 ml) under argon. The solution was stirred for 2 h at 40° C. until completion of the reaction according to TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT and the solvent removed in a high vacuum. The residue was suspended in water (850 ml), acetic acid (85 ml) was added and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at RT. The solid that precipitated was collected by filtration and dried in a high vacuum at 60° C. for 16 h to give 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-chloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide ( CHLORO STARTING MATERIAL) as yellow crystals. Melting point 177-179° C. ISN mass spectrum, m/e 482.2 (M-1 calculated for C22H18ClN5O5S1: 482).

……………………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/US6417360

EXAMPLE 1

a) To a solution of 6.9 g sodium in MeOH (300 ml) were added 14.52 g of 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-chloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide at RT and the mixture was refluxed for 5 days until completion of the reaction according to TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to half its volume upon which the crude reaction product precipitated as a sodium salt. It was filtered off by suction and dried in a high vacuum. The solid was dissolved in water, which was then made acidic by addition of acetic acid. The precipitating free sulfonamide was extracted into Me2Cl2. The organic layer was dried over Mg2SO4, concentrated on a rotary evaporator, and the crystalline solid that had formed was filtered off. It was then dried in a high vacuum for 12 h at 120° C. to give the desired 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-methoxy-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide as white crystals. Melting point 225-226° C. ISN mass spectrum, m/e 478.2 (M-1 calculated for C23H21N5O5S1: 478).

C23H21N5O5S1: Calc: C 57.61; H 4.41; N 14.61; S 6.69. Found: C 57.56; H 4.38; N 14.61; S 6.83

Preparation of the starting material:

b) 11.3 g of 4,6-dichloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidine and 19.66 g of 5-methylpyridyl-2-sulfonamide potassium salt (preparations described in EP 0 799 209) were dissolved in DMF (255 ml) under argon. The solution was stirred for 2 h at 40° C. until completion of the reaction according to TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT and the solvent removed in a high vacuum. The residue was suspended in water (850 ml), acetic acid (85 ml) was added and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at RT. The solid that precipitated was collected by filtration and dried in a high vacuum at 60° C. for 16 h to give 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-chloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl]-amide as yellow crystals. Melting point 177-179° C. ISN mass spectrum, m/e 482.2 (M-1 calculated for C22H18ClN5O5S1: 482).

…………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/EP0799209B1

SYNTHESIS OF

4,6-dichloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidine

A  BASIC STARTING MATERIAL FOR AVOSENTAN

    Preparation of the starting material

    • b) 53.1 g of 4-cyano-pyridine (98%) are added all at once to a solution of 1.15 g of sodium in 200 ml of abs. MeOH. After 6 hours 29.5 g of NH4Cl are added while stirring vigorously. The mixture is stirred at room temperature overnight. 600 ml of ether are added thereto, whereupon the precipitate is filtered off under suction and thereafter dried at 50°C under reduced pressure. There is thus obtained 4-amidino-pyridine hydrochloride (decomposition point 245-247°C).
    • c) 112.9 g of diethyl (2-methoxyphenoxy)malonate are added dropwise within 30 minutes to a solution of 27.60 g of sodium in 400 ml of MeOH. Thereafter, 74.86 g of the amidine hydrochloride obtained in b) are added all at once. The mixture is stirred at room temperature overnight and evaporated at 50°C under reduced pressure. The residue is treated with 500 ml of ether and filtered off under suction. The filter cake is dissolved in 1000 ml of H2O and treated little by little with 50 ml of CH3COOH. The precipitate is filtered off under suction, washed with 400 ml of H2O and dried at 80°C under reduced pressure. There is thus obtained 5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidine-4,6-diol (or tautomer), melting point above 250°C.
    • d) A suspension of 154.6 g of 5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-(pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidine-4,6-diol (or tautomer) in 280 ml of POCl3 is heated at 120°C in an oil bath for 24 hours while stirring vigorously. The reaction mixture changes gradually into a dark brown liquid which is evaporated under reduced pressure and thereafter taken up three times with 500 ml of toluene and evaporated. The residue is dissolved in 1000 ml of CH2Cl2, treated with ice and H2O and thereafter adjusted with 3N NaOH until the aqueous phase has pH 8. The organic phase is separated and the aqueous phase is extracted twice with CH2Cl2. The combined CH2Cl2 extracts are dried with MgSO4, evaporated to half of the volume, treated with 1000 ml of acetone and the CH2Cl2remaining is distilled off at normal pressure. After standing in a refrigerator for 2 hours the crystals are filtered off under suction and dried at 50°C overnight. There is thus obtained 4,6-dichloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidine, melting point 178-180°C.

…………………………

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2000052007A1

Preparation of the starting material:

5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-chloro-5-(2- methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl] -amide  IE THE 6 CHLORO COMPD

b) 11.3 g of 4,6-dichloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl)-pyrimidine and 1 .66 g of 5-methylpyridyl-2-sulfonamide potassium salt (preparations described in EP 0 799 209) were dissolved in DMF (255 ml) under argon. The solution was stirred for 2 h at 40°C until completion of the reaction according to TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was cooled to RT and the solvent removed in a high vacuum. The residue was suspended in water (850 ml), acetic acid (85 ml) was added and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at RT. The solid that precipitated was collected by filtration and dried in a high vacuum at 60 °C for 16 h to give 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-chloro-5-(2- methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl] -amide as yellow crystals. Melting point 177-179 °C. ISN mass spectrum, m/e 482.2 (M-l calculated for C22Hi8ClN5O5Sι: 482).

Figure US06417360-20020709-C00004

………………………………………………………………………………………….

NEXT

Figure imgf000007_0001

Example 1AVOSENTAN

a) To a solution of 6.9 g sodium in MeOH (300 ml) were added 14.52 g of

5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6-chloro-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl- pyrimidin-4-yl] -amide at RT and the mixture was refluxed for 5 days until completion of the reaction according to TLC analysis. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to half its volume upon which the crude reaction product precipitated as a sodium salt. It was filtered off by suction and dried in a high vacuum. The solid was dissolved in water, which was then made acidic by addition of acetic acid. The precipitating free sulfonamide was extracted into Me2Cl2. The organic layer was dried over Mg SO , concentrated on a rotary evaporator, and the crystalline solid that had formed was filtered off. It was then dried in a high vacuum for 12 h at 120 °C to give the desired 5-methyl-pyridine-2-sulfonic acid [6- methoxy-5-(2-methoxy-phenoxy)-2-pyridin-4-yl-pyrimidin-4-yl] -amide as white crystals. Melting point 225-226 °C. ISN mass spectrum, m/e 478.2 (M-l calculated for

Figure imgf000013_0001

C23H21N5O5S1: Calc: C 57.61; H 4.41; N 14.61; S 6.69. Found: C 57.56; H 4.38; N 14.61; S 6.83

…………………………………………….

IS DESCRIBED IN

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2331513A1?cl=en

ALSO

 

  • Diabetic nephropathy is the principle cause of end stage renal disease in the western world. It is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Type-I Diabetes, but is an increasing problem in Type-II Diabetes and because the incidence of this is five times that of Type-I Diabetes, it contributes at least 50% of diabetics with end stage renal disease.
  • The initial stage of subtle morphologic changes in the renal glomeruli is followed by microalbuminuria. This is associated with a modestly rising blood pressure and an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. There follows a continued increase in urinary protein excretion and declining glomerular filtration rate. Diabetic nephropathy has many possible underlying pathophysiological causes including metabolic, glycosylation of proteins, haemodynamics, altered flow/pressure in glomeruli, the development of hypertension and cytokine production; all of these are associated with the development of extracellular matrix and increased vascular permeability leading to glomerular damage and proteinuria.
WO2005113543A1 * May 12, 2005 Dec 1, 2005 Alexander Bilz Crystalline forms of a pyridinyl-sulfonamide and their use as endothelin receptor antagonists
WO2007031501A2 * Sep 11, 2006 Mar 22, 2007 Speedel Pharma Ag Pyridylsulfonamidyl-pyrimidines for the prevention of blood vessel graft failure
WO2008077916A1 * Dec 21, 2007 Jul 3, 2008 Ovidiu Baltatu Pharmaceutical composition using aliskiren and avosentan
EP1454625A1 * Mar 6, 2003 Sep 8, 2004 Speedel Development AG Pyridylsulfonamidyl-pyrimidines for the treatment of diabetic nephropathies
EP1595880A1 * May 13, 2004 Nov 16, 2005 Speedel Pharma AG Crystalline forms of a pyridinyl-sulfonamide and their use as endothelin receptor antagonists
EP1938812A1 * Dec 22, 2006 Jul 2, 2008 Speedel Pharma AG Pharmaceutical composition using aliskiren and avosentan
US6951856 Jul 10, 2001 Oct 4, 2005 Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd. Arylethene-sulfonamides
US7402587 May 12, 2005 Jul 22, 2008 Speedel Pharma Ag Crystalline forms of a pyridinyl-sulfonamide and their use as endothelin receptor antagonists
WO1996019459A1 * Dec 8, 1995 Jun 27, 1996 Volker Breu Novel sulfonamides
EP0713875A1 * Nov 13, 1995 May 29, 1996 F. Hoffmann-La Roche AG Sulfonamides
EP0897914A1 * Aug 10, 1998 Feb 24, 1999 F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ag Process for the preparation of 2,5-disubstitued pyridines

READ MORE ON SNTAN SERIES……http://medcheminternational.blogspot.in/p/sentan-series.html

 Indian Bollywood Film  animation

TELMISARTAN ..Actavis’ Generic Version of Micardis Receives FDA Approval


DUBLIN, Jan. 8, 2014 /PRNewswire/ — Actavis plc today announced that it has received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on its Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) for Telmisartan Immediate-Release Tablets, 20 mg, 40 mg and 80 mg, a generic equivalent to Boehringer Ingelheim’s Micardis. Actavis intends to launch the product immediately.

http://www.drugs.com/news/actavis-version-micardis-receives-fda-approval-49915.html?utm_source=ddc&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Today%27s+news+summary+-+January+8%2C+2014

APREMILAST, … ORALLY ACTIVE PDE4 INHIBITOR


APREMILAST

PDE4 inhibitor

N-{2-[(1S)-1-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide

(+)-2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2- methanesulfonylethyl]-4-acetylaminoisoindolin-l,3-dione,

(S)—N-{2-[1-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxy-phenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide
(S)-N-{2-[1-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl}acetamide
Molecular Formula: C22H24N2O7S   Molecular Weight: 460.50016

608141-41-9 CAS NO

Celgene (Originator)
CC-10004 (apremilast) is an oral compound that is being studied in multiple Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. We successfully completed our early stage studies, demonstrating clinical activity and tolerability and meeting safety endpoints in a placebo controlled proof-of mechanism trial in moderate-to-severe psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. With the initiation of six multi-center international clinical trials, we are advancing the clinical development of CC-10004.

Celgene's apremilast could be game-changer in PsA

CC-10004, , Apremilast (USAN), SureCN302992, Apremilast (CC-10004), QCR-202,

Apremilast is an orally available small molecule inhibitor of PDE4 being developed byCelgene for ankylosing spondylitispsoriasis, and psoriatic arthritis.[1][2] The drug is currently in phase III trials for the three indications. Apremilast, an anti-inflammatory drug, specifically inhibits phosphodiesterase 4. In general the drug works on an intra-cellular basis to moderate proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediator production.

APREMILAST

Apremilast is being tested for its efficacy in treating “psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis and other chronic inflammatory diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, Behcet’s disease, and rheutmatoid arthritis.

“Apremilast is Celgene’s lead oral phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor and anti-TNF alpha agent in phase III clinical studies at Celgene for the oral treatment of moderate to severe plaque-type psoriasis and for the oral treatment of psoriatic arthritis.

Early clinical development is also ongoing for the treatment of acne, Behcet’s disease, cutaneous sarcoidosis, prurigo nodularis, ankylosing spondylitis, atopic or contact dermatitis and rheumatoid arthritis. No recent development has been reported for research for the treatment of skin inflammation associated with cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

In 2011, Celgene discontinued development of the compound for the management of vision-threatening uveitis refractory to other modes of systemic immunosuppression due to lack of efficacy.

Celgene had been evaluating the potential of the drug for the treatment of asthma; however, no recent development has been reported for this research. The drug candidate is also in phase II clinical development at the William Beaumont Hospital Research Institute for the treatment of chronic prostatitis or chronic pelvic pain syndrome and for the treatment of vulvodynia (vulvar pain).

In 2013, orphan drug designations were assigned to the product in the U.S. and the E.U. for the treatment of Behcet’s disease.

Celgene Corp has been boosted by more impressive late-stage data on apremilast, an oral drug for psoriatic arthritis, this time in previously-untreated patients.

The company is presenting data from the 52-week PALACE 4 Phase III study of apremilast tested in PsA patients who have not taken systemic or biologic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) at the American College of Rheumatology meeting in San Diego. The results from the 527-patient trial show that at week 16, patients on 20mg of the  first-in-class oral inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) achieved an ACR20 (ie a 20% improvement in the condition) response of 29.2% and 32.3% for 30mg aapremilast, compared with 16.9% for those on placebo.

After 52 weeks, 53.4% on the lower dose and 58.7% on 30mg achieved an ACR20 response. ACR50 and 70 was reached by 31.9% and 18.1% of patients, respectively, for apremilast 30mg. The compound was generally well-tolerated and discontinuation rates for diarrhoea and nausea were less than 2% over 52 weeks.

Commenting on the data, Alvin Wells, of the Rheumatology and Immunotherapy Center in Franklin, Wisconsin, noted that apremilast demonstrated long-term safety and tolerability and significant clinical benefit in treatment-naive patients. He added that “these encouraging results suggest that apremilast may have the potential to be used alone and as a first-line therapy”. Celgene is also presenting various pooled data from the first three trials in the PALACE programme which, among other things, shows that apremilast significantly improves swollen and tender joints.

Treatment for PSA, which affects about 30% of the 125 million people worldwide who have psoriasis, currently involves injectable tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors, notably AbbVie’s Humira (adalimumab) and Pfizer/Amgen’s Enbrel (etanercept), once patients have not responded to DMARDs (at least in the UK). While the biologics are effective, the side effect profile can be a concern, due to the risk of infection and tuberculosis and many observers believe that apremilast will prove popular with patients and doctors due to the fact that it is oral, not injectable.

Apremilast was filed for PsA with the US Food and Drug Administration in the first quarter and will be submitted on both sides of the Atlantic for psoriasis before year-end. The European filing will also be for PsA.

Apremilast impresses for Behcet’s disease

Celgene has also presented promising Phase II data on apremilast as a treatment for the rare inflammatory disorder Behcet’s disease. 71% of patients achieved complete response at week 12 in clearing oral ulcers

APREMILAST

  1.  “Apremilast Palace Program Demonstrates Robust and Consistent Statistically Significant Clinical Benefit Across Three Pivotal Phase III Studies (PALACE-1, 2 & 3) in Psoriatic Arthritis” (Press release). Celgene Corporation. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
  2.  “US HOT STOCKS: OCZ, VeriFone, Men’s Wearhouse, AK Steel, Celgene”The Wall Street Journal. 6 September 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-06.
  3. Discovery of (S)-N-[2-[1-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methanesulfonylethyl]-1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindol-4-yl] acetamide (apremilast), a potent and orally active phosphodiesterase 4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor.

    Man HW, Schafer P, Wong LM, Patterson RT, Corral LG, Raymon H, Blease K, Leisten J, Shirley MA, Tang Y, Babusis DM, Chen R, Stirling D, Muller GW.

    J Med Chem. 2009 Mar 26;52(6):1522-4. doi: 10.1021/jm900210d.

  4. Therapeutics: Silencing psoriasis.Crow JM.Nature. 2012 Dec 20;492(7429):S58-9. doi: 10.1038/492S58a. No abstract available.
  5. NMR…http://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/nmr/S803401-Apremilast-HNMR-Selleck.pdf
  6. WO 2003080049
  7. WO 2013126495
  8. WO 2013126360
  9. WO 2003080049
  10. WO 2006065814
  11. US2003/187052 A1 …..MP 144 DEG CENT
  12. US2007/155791
  13. J. Med. Chem.200851 (18), pp 5471–5489
    DOI: 10.1021/jm800582j
  14. J. Med. Chem.201154 (9), pp 3331–3347
    DOI: 10.1021/jm200070e

…………………………………………

INTRODUCTION

2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione is a PDE4 inhibitor that is currently under investigation as an anti-inflammatory for the treatment of a variety of conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psoriasis and other allergic, autoimmune and rheumatologic conditions. S-enantiomer form of 2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione can be prepared by reacting (5)-aminosulfone 1 with intermediate 2.

Figure imgf000003_0001

Existing methods for synthesizing (S)-aminosulfone 1 involve resolution of the corresponding racemic aminosulfone by techniques known in the art. Examples include the formation and crystallization of chiral salts, and the use of chiral high performance liquid chromatography. See, e.g., Jacques, J., et al., Enantiomers, Racemates and Resolutions (Wiley Interscience, New York, 1981); Wilen, S. H., et al, Tetrahedron 33:2725 (1977); Eliel, E. L., Stereochemistry of Carbon Compounds (McGraw Hill, NY, 1962); and Wilen, S. H., Tables of Resolving Agents and Optical Resolutions p. 268 (E.L. Eliel, Ed., Univ. of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN, 1972). In one example, as depicted in Scheme 1 below, (5)-aminosulfone 1 is prepared by resolution of racemic aminosulfone 3 with N-Ac-L-Leu. Racemic aminosulfone 3 is prepared by converting 3-ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile 4 to enamine intermediate 5 followed by enamine reduction and borate hydrolysis. This process has been reported in U.S. Patent

Application Publication No. 2010/0168475.

Figure imgf000003_0002

CH2CI2, NaOH

Figure imgf000003_0003

Scheme 1

The procedure for preparing an enantiomerically enriched or enantiomerically pure aminosulfone, such as compound 1, may be inefficient because it involves the resolution of racemic aminosulfone 3. Thus, a need exists as to asymmetric synthetic processes for the preparation of an enantiomerically enriched or enantiomerically pure aminosulfone, particularly for manufacturing scale production. Direct catalytic asymmetric hydrogenation of a suitable enamine or ketone intermediate is of particular interest because it eliminates the need for either classic resolution or the use of stoichiometric amount of chiral auxiliary, and thus, may be synthetically efficient and economical.

……………………………………….

SYNTHESIS OF KEY INTERMEDIATE

WO2013126495A2

Example 1

Synthesis of 1 -(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine

Figure imgf000058_0001

[00232] A slurry of dimethylsulfone (85 g, 903 mmol) in THF (480 ml) was treated with a

1.6M solution of n-butyllithium in hexane (505 ml, 808 mmol) at 0 – 5 °C. The resulting mixture was agitated for 1 hour then a solution of 3-ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (80 g, 451 mmol) in THF (240 ml) was added at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was agitated at 0 – 5 °C for 0.5 hour, warmed to 25 – 30 °C over 0.5 hour and then agitated for 1 hour. Water (1.4 L) was added at 25 – 30 °C and the reaction mass was agitated overnight at room temperature (20 – 30 °C). The solid was filtered and subsequently washed with a 2: 1 mixture of water :THF (200 ml), water (200 ml) and heptane (2 x 200 ml). The solid was dried under reduced pressure at 40 – 45 °C to provide the product as a white solid (102 g, 83% yield); 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 1.34 (t, J=7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 4.08 (q, J=7.0 Hz, 2H), 5.03 (s, 1H), 6.82 (s, 2H), 7.01 (d, J=8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.09 – 7.22 (m, 2H).

Example 2

Synthesis of (R)- 1 -(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanamine

Figure imgf000059_0001

[00233] A solution of bis(l,5-cyclooctadiene)rhodium(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate (36 mg, 0.074 mmol) and (i?)-l-[(5)-2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]ethyldi-tert-butylphosphine (40 mg, 0.074 mmol) in 25 mL of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was prepared under nitrogen. To this solution was then charged l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine (2.0 g, 7.4 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated to 50 °C and hydrogenated under 90 psig hydrogen pressure. After 18 h, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and removed from the hydrogenator. The mixture was evaporated and the residue was purified by chromatography on a CI 8 reverse phase column using a water-acetonitrile gradient. The appropriate fractions were pooled and evaporated to -150 mL. To this solution was added brine (20 mL), and the resulting solution was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were dried (MgS04) and evaporated to provide the product as a white crystalline solid (1.4 g, 70% yield); achiral HPLC (Hypersil BDS C8, 5.0 μπι, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.5 mL/min, 278nm, 90/10 gradient to 80/20 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over 10 min then gradient to 10/90 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over the next 15 min): 9.11 (99.6%); chiral HPLC (Chiralpak AD-H 5.0 μιη Daicel, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.0 mL/min, 280 nm, 70:30:0.1 heptane-z-PrOH-diethylamine): 7.32 (97.5%), 8.26 (2.47%); 1H NMR (DMSO-de) δ 1.32 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.08 (s, 2H), 2.96 (s, 3H), 3.23 (dd, J= 3.6, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.41 (dd, J= 9.4, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.26 (dd, J= 3.7, 9.3 Hz, 1H), 6.89 (s, 2H), 7.02 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 14.77, 41.98, 50.89, 55.54, 62.03, 63.68, 111.48, 111.77, 118.36, 137.30, 147.93, 148.09. Example 3

Synthesis of (6 -l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethanamine N-Ac-L-Leu salt

Figure imgf000060_0001

[00234] A solution of bis(l,5-cyclooctadiene)rhodium(I) trifluoromethanesulfonate (17 mg, 0.037 mmol) and (5)-l-[(i?)-2-(diphenylphosphino)ferrocenyl]ethyldi-tert-butylphosphine (20 mg, 0.037 mmol) in 10 mL of 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol was prepared under nitrogen. To this solution was then charged l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-(methylsulfonyl)ethenamine (2.0 g, 7.4 mmol). The resulting mixture was heated to 50 °C and hydrogenated under 90 psig hydrogen pressure. After 18 h, the mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and removed from the hydrogenator. Ecosorb C-941 (200 mg) was added and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 3 h. The mixture was filtered through Celite, and the filter was washed with additional trifluoroethanol (2 mL). Then, the mixture was heated to 55 °C, and a solution of N- acetyl-L-leucine (1.3 g, 7.5 mmol) was added dropwise over the course of 1 h. Stirring proceeded at the same temperature for 1 h following completion of the addition, and then the mixture was cooled to 22 °C over 2 h and stirred at this temperature for 16 h. The crystalline product was filtered, rinsed with methanol (2 x 5 mL), and dried under vacuum at 45 °C to provide the product as a white solid (2.6 g, 80% yield); achiral HPLC (Hypersil BDS Cg, 5.0 μιη, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.5 mL/min, 278nm, 90/10 gradient to 80/20 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over 10 min then gradient to 10/90 0.1% aqueous TFA/MeOH over the next 15 min): 8.57 (99.8%); chiral HPLC (Chiralpak AD-H 5.0 μιη Daicel, 250 x 4.6 mm, 1.0 mL/min, 280 nm, 70:30:0.1 heptane-z-PrOH-diethylamine): 8.35 (99.6%); 1H NMR (DMSO-<¾) δ 0.84 (d, 3H), 0.89 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 3H), 1.33 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 3H), 1.41 – 1.52 (m, 2H), 1.62 (dt, J= 6.7, 13.5 Hz, 1H), 1.83 (s, 3H), 2.94 (s, 3H), 3.28 (dd, J= 4.0, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.44 (dd, J= 9.1, 14.4 Hz, 1H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (q, J= 6.9 Hz, 2H), 4.18 (q, J= 7.7 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (dd, J= 4.0, 9.1 Hz, 1H), 5.46 (br, 3H), 6.90 (s, 2H), 7.04 (s, 1H), 8.04 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H); Anal. (C20H34N2O7S) C, H, N. Calcd C, 53.79; H, 7.67; N 6.27. Found C, 53.78; H, 7.57; N 6.18.

SUBSEQUENT CONVERSION

S-enantiomer form of 2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-methylsulfonylethyl]-4- acetylaminoisoindoline-l ,3-dione can be prepared by reacting (5)-aminosulfone 1 with intermediate 2.

Figure imgf000003_0001

……………………………………

APREMILAST

GENERAL SYNTHESIS AND SYNTHESIS OF APREMILAST

WO2012083153A1

Figure imgf000044_0001

Figure imgf000044_0002

Figure imgf000044_0004

(apremilast)

[0145] Preparation of 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (Compound 2). 3-Ethoxy-

4-methoxybenzaldehyde (Compound 1, 10.0 gm, 54.9 mmol, Aldrich) and hydroxylamine hydrochloride (4.67 gm, 65.9 mmol, Aldrich) were charged to a 250 mL three-necked flask at room temperature, followed by the addition of anhydrous acetonitrile (50 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for thirty minutes and then heated to reflux (oil bath at 85 °C). After two hours of reflux, the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, and added 50 mL of deionized water. The mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to remove acetonitrile and then transferred to a separatory funnel with an additional 80 mL of deionized water and 80 mL dichloromethane. The aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 50 mL). The combined organic layers were washed successively with water (80 mL) and saturated sodium chloride (80 mL). The organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (approximately 20 gm). The organic layer was filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a yellow oil. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0 to 1 % MeOH/DCM ) afforded 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile

(Compound 2) as a white solid (7.69 gm, 79 % yield). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 178.1 (M + 1). HPLC indicated >99% purity by peak area. 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾: δ ppm 1.32 (t, 3H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 4.05 (q, 2H), 7.10 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (d, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.40 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H).

[0146] Preparation of l-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyi)-2-

(niethylsulfonyl)ethanamine (Compound 3). Dimethyl sulfone (2.60 gm, 27.1 mmol, Aldrich) and tetrahydrofuran (10 mL, Aldrich) were charged to a 250 mL three-necked flask at room temperature. The mixture was cooled to 0 – 5 °C, and the solution gradually turned white. n-Butyllithium (10.8 mL, 27.1 mmol, 2.5 M solution in hexanes, Aldrich) was added to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 5 – 10 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for one hour, turning light-yellow. 3-Ethoxy-4-methoxybenzonitrile (Compound 2, 4.01 gm, 22.5 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (8 mL) was then charged to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for another 15 minutes. After warming to room temperature, the reaction mixture was stirred for another 1.5 hours and then transferred to a second 250 mL three-necked flask containing a suspension of sodium borohydride (1.13 gm, 29.3 mmol, Aldrich) in

tetrahydrofuran (1 1 mL), maintained at – 5 – 0 °C for 30 minutes. Trifluoroacetic acid (“TFA,” 5.26 mL, 68.3 mmol, Aldrich) was charged to the flask at a rate such that the reaction mixture was maintained at 0 – 5 °C. The mixture was stirred at 0 – 5 °C for 40 minutes and an additional 17 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was then charged with 2.7 mL of deionized water over five minutes at room temperature. The mxiture was stirred at room temperature for 15 hours. Aqueous NaOH (10 N, 4.9 mL) was charged to the flask over 15 minutes at 45 °C. The mixture was stirred at 45 °C for two hours, at 60 °C for 1.5 hours, and at room temperature overnight. After approximately 17 hours at room temperature the mixture was cooled to 0 °C for thirty minutes and then concentrated under reduced pressure. The residual material was charged with deionized water (3 mL) and absolute ethanol (3 mL) and stirred at 0 – 5 °C for 2 hours. The mixture was filtered under vacuum, and the filtered solid was washed with cold absolute ethanol (3 x 5 mL), followed by deionized water until the pH of the wash was about 8. The solid was air dried overnight, and then in a vacuum oven at 60 °C for 17 hours to afford Compound 3 as a white solid (4.75 gm, 77 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 274.1 (M + 1). Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾): δ ppm 1.32 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.08 (bs, 2H), 2.95 (s, 3H), 3.23 (dd, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 3.40 (dd, J = 9.5 Hz, 1H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 4.01 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.25 (dd, J = 3.5 Hz, 1H), 6.88 (s, 2H), 7.02 (s, 1H).

[0147] Preparation of 4-Nitroisobenzofuran-l,3-dione (Compound 5). Into a 250 mL round bottom flask, fitted with a reflux condenser, was placed 3-nitrophthalic acid (21.0 gm, 99 mmol, Aldrich) and acetic anhydride (18.8 mL, 199 mmol, Aldrich). The solid mixture was heated to 85 °C, under nitrogen, with gradual melting of the solids. The yellow mixture was heated at 85 °C for 15 minutes, and there was noticeable thickening of the mixture. After 15 minutes at 85 °C, the hot mixture was poured into a weighing dish, and allowed to cool. The yellow solid was grinded to a powder and then placed on a cintered funnel, under vacuum. The solid was washed with diethyl ether (3 x 15 mL), under vacuum and allowed to air dry overnight, to afford 4-nitroisobenzofuran-l ,3-dione, Compound 5, as a light-yellow solid (15.8 gm, 82 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 194.0 (M + 1). TLC: Rf = 0.37 (10% MeOH/DCM with 2 drops Acetic acid) Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-i¾: δ ppm 8.21 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 8.39 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (dd, J = 7.5 Hz, 1 H).

[0148] Preparation of 2-(l-(3-Ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyI)-2-

(methylsulfonyl)ethyl)-4-nitroisoindoline-l,3-dione (Compound 6). Into a 2 – 5 mL microwave vial was added 4-nitroisobenzofuran-l ,3-dione (Compound 5, 0.35 gm, 1.82 mmol), the amino-sulfone intermediate (Compound 3, 0.50 gm, 1.82 mmol) and 4.0 mL of glacial acetic acid. The mixture was placed in a microwave at 125 °C for 30 minutes. After 30 minutes the acetic acid was removed under reduced pressure. The yellow oil was taken up in ethyl acetate and applied to a 10 gm snap Biotage samplet. Purification by silica gel chromatography (0 to 20 % Ethyl Acetate/Hexanes) afforded Compound 6 as a light-yellow solid (0.67 gm, 82 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 449.0 (M + 1). TLC: Rf = 0.19

(EtOAc:Hexanes, 1 : 1). HPLC indicated 99% purity by peak area. Ή-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c¾: δ ppm 1.32 (t, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.02 (m, 2H), 4.21 (dd, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 4.29 (dd, J = 10.0 Hz, 1H), 5.81 (dd, J = 5.0 Hz, 1H), 6.93 (d, J – 8.5 Hz, 1H), 7.00 (dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 1H), 7.10 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.07 (t, J = 15.5 Hz, 1H), 8.19 (dd, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 8.30 (dd, J = 9.0 Hz, 1H).

[0149] Preparation of 4-Amino-2-(l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-

(methylsulfonyl)ethyl)isoindoline-l,3-dione (Compound 7). Compound 6 (0.54 gm, 1.20 mmol) was taken up in ethyl acetate / acetone (1 : 1 , 24 mL) and flowed through the H-cube™ hydrogen reactor using a 10 % Pd/C CatCart™ catalyst cartridge system (ThalesNano, Budapest Hungary). After eluting, the yellow solvent was concentrated under reduced pressure to give Compound 7 as a yellow foam solid (0.48 gm, 95 %). MS (ESI positive ion) m/z 419.1 (M + 1). 1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-<¾): δ ppm 1.31 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 3H), 2.99 (s, 3H), 3.72 (s, 3H), 4.04 (q, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4.09 (m, 1H), 4.34 (m, 1H), 5.71 (dd, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H), 6.52 (bs, 2H), 6.92-6.98 (m, 3H), 7.06 (bs, 1 H), 7.42 (dd, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H).

[0150] Preparation of N-(2-(l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2-

(methylsuIfonyl)ethyl)-l,3-dioxoisoindolin-4-yl)acetamide (Apremilast, Compound 8).

Into a 2-5 mL microwave vial was placed Compound 7 (0.18 gm, 0.43 mmol), acetic anhydride (0.052 mL, 0.53 mmol) and acetic acid (4 mL). The microwave vial was placed into a Biotage microwave and heated to 125 °C for 30 minutes. The solvents were removed under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (0 to 5% MeOH/DCM) to afford apremilast (Compound 8) as a yellow oil (0.14 gm, 71%). HPLC indicated 94.6% purity by peak area.

1H-NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-c 6): δ ppm 1.31 (t, 3H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 3.01 (s, 3H), 3.73 (s, 3H), 4.01 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 4,14 (dd, J = 4.0 Hz, 1H), 4.33 (m, 1H), 5.76 (dd, J = 3.0 Hz, 1H), 6.95 (m, 2H), 7.06 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.56 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (t, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (d, J = 8.5 Hz, 1H), 9.72 (bs, 1H).

……………………..

SYNTHESIS

EP2501382A1

5. EXAMPLES

Certain embodiments provided herein are illustrated by the following non-limiting examples.

5.1 PREPARATION OF (+)-2-[l-(3-ETHOXY-4-METHOXYPHENYL)-2- METHANESULFONYLETHYLJ-4- ACETYL AMINOISOINDOLIN-1,3- DIONE (APREMILAST)

Figure imgf000021_0001

5.1.1 Preparation of 3-aminopthalic acid

10% Pd/C (2.5 g), 3-nitrophthalic acid (75.0 g, 355 mmol) and ethanol (1.5 L) were charged to a 2.5 L Parr hydrogenator under a nitrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen was charged to the reaction vessel for up to 55 psi. The mixture was shaken for 13 hours, maintaining hydrogen pressure between 50 and 55 psi. Hydrogen was released and the mixture was purged with nitrogen 3 times. The suspension was filtered through a celite bed and rinsed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo. The resulting solid was reslurried in ether and isolated by vacuum filtration. The solid was dried in vacua to a constant weight, affording 54 g (84%> yield) of 3-aminopthalic acid as a yellow product. 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ: 3.17 (s, 2H), 6.67 (d, 1H), 6.82 (d, 1H), 7.17 (t, 1H), 8-10 (brs, 2H). 13C-NMR(DMSO-d6) δ: 112.00, 115.32, 118.20, 131.28, 135.86, 148.82, 169.15, 170.09.

5.1.2 Preparation of 3-acetamidopthalic anhydride

A I L 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and condenser and charged with 3-aminophthalic acid (108 g, 596 mmol) and acetic anhydride (550 mL). The reaction mixture was heated to reflux for 3 hours and cooled to ambient temperature and further to 0-5. degree. C. for another 1 hour. The crystalline solid was collected by vacuum filtration and washed with ether. The solid product was dried in vacua at ambient temperature to a constant weight, giving 75 g (61% yield) of 3-acetamidopthalic anhydride as a white product. 1H-NMR (CDCI3) δ: 2.21 (s, 3H), 7.76 (d, 1H), 7.94 (t, 1H), 8.42 (d, 1H), 9.84 (s, 1H).

5.1.3 Resolution of 2-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)- ethyl-2-amine

A 3 L 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermometer, and condenser and charged with 2-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-ylamine (137.0 g, 500 mmol), N-acetyl-L-leucine (52 g, 300 mmol), and methanol (1.0 L). The stirred slurry was heated to reflux for 1 hour. The stirred mixture was allowed to cool to ambient temperature and stirring was continued for another 3 hours at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered and washed with methanol (250 mL). The solid was air-dried and then dried in vacuo at ambient temperature to a constant weight, giving 109.5 g (98% yield) of the crude product (85.8% ee). The crude solid (55.0 g) and methanol (440 mL) were brought to reflux for 1 hour, cooled to room temperature and stirred for an additional 3 hours at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake was washed with methanol (200 mL). The solid was air-dried and then dried in vacuo at 30°C. to a constant weight, yielding 49.6 g (90%> recovery) of (S)-2-(3-ethoxy-4- methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-ylamine-N-acety 1-L-leucine salt (98.4% ee). Chiral HPLC (1/99 EtOH/20 mM KH2P04 @pH 7.0, Ultron Chiral ES-OVS from Agilent Technologies, 150 mm.times.4.6 mm, 0.5 mL/min., @240 nm): 18.4 min (S-isomer, 99.2%), 25.5 min (R-isomer, 0.8%)

5.1.4 Preparation of (+)-2-[l-(3-ethoxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-2- methanesulfonylethyl] -4-acetylaminoisoindolin- 1 ,3-dione

A 500 mL 3 -necked round bottom flask was equipped with a mechanical stirrer,

thermometer, and condenser. The reaction vessel was charged with (S)-2-(3-ethoxy-4- methoxyphenyl)-l-(methylsulphonyl)-eth-2-yl amine N-acetyl-L-leucine salt (25 g, 56 mmol, 98% ee), 3-acetamidophthalic anhydride (12.1 g, 58.8 mmol), and glacial acetic acid (250 mL). The mixture was refluxed over night and then cooled to <50°C. The solvent was removed in vacuo, and the residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate. The resulting solution was washed with water (250 mL x

2), saturated aqeous NaHC03 (250 mL.times.2), brine (250 mL.times.2), and dried over sodium sulphate. The solvent was evaporated in vacuo, and the residue recrystallized from a binary solvent containing ethanol (150 mL) and acetone (75 mL). The solid was isolated by vacuum filtration and washed with ethanol (100 mL.times.2). The product was dried in vacuo at 60°C. to a constant weight, affording 19.4 g (75% yield) of Compound 3 APREMILAST with 98% ee. Chiral HPLC (15/85 EtOH/20 mM KH2P04 @pH 3.5, Ultron Chiral ES-OVS from Agilent Technology, 150 mm x 4.6 mm, 0.4 mL/min., @240 nm): 25.4 min (S-isomer, 98.7%), 29.5 min (R-isomer, 1.2%).

1H-NMR (CDC13) δ: 1.47 (t, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.87 (s, 3H), 3.68-3.75 (dd, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 4.07-4.15 (q, 2H), 4.51-4.61 (dd, 1H), 5.84-5.90 (dd, 1H), 6.82-8.77 (m, 6H), 9.46 (s, 1H).

13C-NMR(DMSO-d6) δ: 14.66, 24.92, 41.61, 48.53, 54.46, 55.91, 64.51, 111.44, 112.40, 115.10, 118.20, 120.28, 124.94, 129.22, 131.02, 136.09, 137.60, 148.62, 149.74, 167.46, 169.14, 169.48.

…………………………………..

NMR

US20100129363

1H-NMR (CDCl3) δ: 1.47 (t, 3H), 2.26 (s, 3H), 2.87 (s, 3H), 3.68-3.75 (dd, 1H), 3.85 (s, 3H), 4.07-4.15 (q, 2H), 4.51-4.61 (dd, 1H), 5.84-5.90 (dd, 1H), 6.82-8.77 (m, 6H), 9.46 (s, 1H). 13C-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ: 14.66, 24.92, 41.61, 48.53, 54.46, 55.91, 64.51, 111.44, 112.40, 115.10, 118.20, 120.28, 124.94, 129.22, 131.02, 136.09, 137.60, 148.62, 149.74, 167.46, 169.14, 169.48.

…………….

APREMILAST

J. Med. Chem., 2009, 52 (6), pp 1522–1524
DOI: 10.1021/jm900210d

Figure

aReagents and conditions: (a) LiN(SiMe3)2, then Me2SO2/n-BuLi/BF3Et2O, −78 °C; (b) N-Ac-l-leucine, MeOH; (c) HOAc, reflux.

……………………

SARCOIDOSIS

Sarcoidosis is a disease of unknown cause. Sarcoidosis is characterized by the presence of granulomas in one or more organ systems. The most common sites of involvement are the lungs and the lymph nodes in the mediastinum and hilar regions. However, sarcoidosis is a systemic disease and a variety of organ systems or tissues may be the source of primary or concomitant clinical manifestations and morbidity. The clinical course of sarcoidosis is extremely variable, and ranges from a mild or even asymptomatic disease with spontaneous resolution to a chronic progressive disease leading to organ system failure and, in 1-5% of cases, death. See Cecil

Textbook of Medicine, 21st ed. (Goldman, L., Bennett, J. C. eds), W. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 2000, p. 433-436.

While the cause of sarcoidosis is unknown, a substantial body of information suggests that immune mechanisms are important in disease pathogenesis. For example, sarcoidosis is

characterized by enhanced lymphocyte and macrophage activity. See Thomas, P.D. and

Hunninghake, G.W., Am. Rev. Respir. Dis., 1987, 135: 747-760. As sarcoidosis progresses, skin rashes, erythema nodosum and granulomas may form. Granulomas or fibrosis caused by sarcoidosis can occur throughout the body, and may affect the function of vital organs such as the lungs, heart, nervous system, liver or kidneys. In these cases, the sarcoidosis can be fatal. See

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/sarcoidosis.html (accessed November 12, 2009).

Moreover, a variety of exogenous agents, both infectious and non-infectious, have been hypothesized as a possible cause of sarcoidosis. See Vokurka et ah, Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med., 1997, 156: 1000-1003; Popper et al, Hum. Pathol, 1997, 28: 796-800; Almenoff et al, Thorax, 1996, 51 : 530-533; Baughman et al., Lancet, 2003, 361 : 1111-1118. These agents include mycobaceria, fungi, spirochetes, and the agent associated with Whipple’s disease. Id.

Sarcoidosis may be acute or chronic. Specific types of sarcoidosis include, but are not limited to, cardiac sarcoidosis, cutaneous sarcoidosis, hepatic sarcoidosis, oral sarcoidosis, pulmonary sarcoidosis, neurosarcoidosis, sinonasal sarcoidosis, Lofgren’s syndrome, lupus pernio, uveitis or chronic cutaneous sarcoidosis.

As the lung is constantly confronted with airborne substances, including pathogens, many researchers have directed their attention to identification of potential causative transmissible agents and their contribution to the mechanism of pulmonary granuloma formation associated with sarcoidosis. See Conron, M. and Du Bois, R.M., Clin. Exp. Allergy, 2001, 31 : 543-554; Agostini et al, Curr. Opin. Pulm. Med. , 2002, 8: 435-440.

Corticosteroid drugs are the primary treatment for the inflammation and granuloma formation associated with sarcoidosis. Rizatto et al. , Respiratory Medicine, 1997, 91 : 449-460. Prednisone is most often prescribed drug for the treatment of sarcoidosis. Additional drugs used to treat sarcoidosis include methotrexate, azathioprine, hydroxychloroquine, cyclophosphamide, minocycline, doxycycline and chloroquin. TNF-a blockers such as thalidomide and infliximab have been reported to be effective in treating patients with sarcoidosis. Baughman et al, Chest, 2002, 122: 227-232; Doty et al, Chest, 2005, 127: 1064-1071. Antibiotics have also been studied for the treatment of sarcoidosis, such as penicillin antibiotics, cephalosporin antibiotics, macrolide antibiotics, lincomycin antibiotics, and tetracycline antibiotics. Specific examples include minocycline hydrochloride, clindamycin, ampicillin, or clarithromycin. See, e.g., U.S. Patent Publication No. 2007/0111956.

There currently lacks a Food and Drug Administration-approved therapeutic agent for the treatment of sarcoidosis, and many patients are unable to tolerate the side effects of the standard corticosteroid therapy. See Doty et al, Chest, 2005, 127: 1064-1071. Furthermore, many cases of sarcoidosis are refractory to standard therapy. Id. Therefore, a demand exists for new methods and compositions that can be used to treat patients with sarcoidosis.

……………..

PATENTS

8-15-2012
PROCESSES FOR THE PREPARATION OF AMINOSULFONE COMPOUNDS
11-4-2011
HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS AS PHOSPHODIESTERASE INHIBITORS
5-27-2011
Nanosuspension of a Poorly Soluble Drug via Microfluidization Process
5-28-2010
METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS USING PDE4 INHIBITORS FOR THE TREATMENT AND MANAGEMENT OF CANCERS

 

 

 

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

THANKS AND REGARD’S
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

did you feel happy, a head to toe paralysed man’s soul in action for you round the clock

need help, email or call me

MOBILE-+91 9323115463
web link

I was  paralysed in dec2007, Posts dedicated to my family, my organisation Glenmark, Your readership keeps me going and brings smiles to my family

 

TEDIGLUTIDE ..Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog; protects small intestinal stem cells from radiation damage.


File:Teduglutide.png

TEDUGLUTIDE
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) analog; protects small intestinal stem cells from radiation damage.

Gattex (teduglutide) is a recombinant analog of human glucagon-like peptide 2 for the treatment of adults with short bowel syndrome.

  • (Gly2)GLP-2
  • ALX 0600
  • ALX-0600
  • Gattex
  • Gly(2)-GLP-2
  • Teduglutide
  • UNII-7M19191IKG

[Gly2]hGLP-2, [Gly2]-hGLP-2, ALX-0600,

Gattex, Revestive

CAS number 197922-42-2

L-histidylglycyl-L-α-aspartylglycyl-L-seryl-L-phenylalanyl-L-seryl-L-α-aspartyl-L-α-glutamyl-L-methionyl-L-asparaginyl-L-threonyl-L-isoleucyl-L-leucyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-α-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-asparaginyl-L-tryptophyl-L-leucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-glutaminyl-L-threonyl-L-lysyl-L-isoleucyl-L-threonyl-L-aspartic acid

Formula C164H252N44O55S 
Mol. mass 3752.082 g/mol

Gattex, ALX-0600, (Gly2)GLP-2, Gly(2)-GLP-2, ALX 0600, [Gly2]GLP-2, Glucagon-like peptide II (2-glycine) (human), UNII-7M19191IKG

LAUNCHED 2013, NPS Pharmaceuticals

APPROVAL FDA

Company: NPS Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Date of Approval: December 21, 2012 FDA

NDA 203441

POWDER; SUBCUTANEOUS GATTEX

U-1320=TREATMENT OF ADULT PATIENTS WITH SHORT BOWEL SYNDROME WHO ARE DEPENDENT ON PARENTERAL SUPPORT

Patent No Patent Expiry Date Patent use code
5789379 Apr 14, 2015 U-1320
7056886 Sep 18, 2022 U-1320
7847061 Nov 1, 2025 U-1320
Exclusivity Code Exclusivity_Date
ORPHAN DRUG EXCLUSIVITY Dec 21, 2019
NEW CHEMICAL ENTITY Dec 21, 2017

SEE FDA

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/203441Orig1s000lbl.pdf

CLINICAL TRIALS

http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=Teduglutide+OR+ALX-0600

The active ingredient in GATTEX (teduglutide [rDNA origin]) for injection is teduglutide (rDNA origin), which is a 33 amino acid glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) analog manufactured using a strain of Escherichia coli modified byrecombinant DNA technology. The chemical name of teduglutide is L-histidyl-L-glycyl-L-aspartyl-L-glycyl-L-seryl-L-phenylalanyl-L-seryl-L-aspartyl-L-glutamyl-L-methionyl-L-asparaginyl-L-threonyl-L-isoleucyl-L-leucyl-L-aspartyl-L-asparaginyl-L-leucyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-isoleucyl-L-asparaginyl-L-tryptophanyl-L-leucyl-L-isoleucyl-L-glutaminyl-L-threonyl-L-lysyl-L-isoleucyl-L-threonyl-L-aspartic acid. The structural formula is:

Figure 1: Structural formula of teduglutide

GATTEX (teduglutide) structural formula illustration

Teduglutide has a molecular weight of 3752 Daltons. Teduglutide drug substance is a clear, colorless to light-straw–colored liquid.

Each single-use vial of GATTEX contains 5 mg of teduglutide as a white lyophilized powder for solution for subcutaneous injection. In addition to the active pharmaceutical ingredient (teduglutide), each vial of GATTEX contains 3.88 mg L-histidine, 15 mg mannitol, 0.644 mg monobasic sodium phosphate monohydrate, 3.434 mg dibasic sodium phosphate heptahydrate as excipients. No preservatives are present.

At the time of administration the lyophilized powder is reconstituted with 0.5 mL of Sterile Water for Injection, which is provided in a prefilled syringe. A 10 mg/mL sterile solution is obtained after reconstitution. Up to 0.38 mL of the reconstituted solution which contains 3.8 mg of teduglutide can be withdrawn for subcutaneous injection upon reconstitution.

Teduglutide (brand names Gattex and Revestive) is a 36-membered polypeptide andglucagon-like peptide-2 analog that is used for the treatment of short bowel syndrome. It works by promoting mucosal growth and possibly restoring gastric emptying and secretion.[1] In Europe it is marketed under the brand Revestive by Nycomed. It was approved by the United States under the name Gattex on December 21, 2012.

Teduglutide is a proprietary analogue of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) which was approved in the U.S. in December 2012 for the once-daily treatment of short-bowel syndrome in adults who are dependent on parenteral support. Commercial launch took place in 2013.The product was filed for approval in the E.U. in 2011 by Nycomed for this indication. In June 2012, a positive opinion was received in the E.U. and final approval was assigned in September 2012.

At NPS Pharmaceuticals, the compound is in phase III clinical development for this indication in pediatric patients and in phase II clinical studies for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. Preclinical studies are also ongoing at the company for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced enterocolitis and for the prevention and treatment of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants.

Teduglutide has been found to induce intestinal hyperplasia, reduce apoptosis and inflammation and improve cell barrier integrity in animal models. In 2001, orphan drug designation was assigned to teduglutide for the treatment of short-bowel syndrome.

In 2007, the compound was licensed to Nycomed for development and commercialization outside the U.S., Canada and Mexico for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. In 2012, the product was licensed to Neopharm by NPS Pharmaceuticals in Israel for development and commercialization for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.

The estimated prevalence of short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients with non-malignant disease requiring home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is at least 40 per million of the U.S. population. SBS usually results from surgical resection of some or most of the small intestine for conditions such as Crohn’s disease, mesenteric infarction, volvulus, trauma, congenital anomalies, and multiple strictures due to adhesions or radiation. Surgical resection may also include resection of all or part of the colon. SBS patients suffer from malabsorption that may lead to malnutrition, dehydration and weight loss. Some patients can maintain their protein and energy balance through hyperphagia; more rarely they can sustain fluid and electrolyte requirements to become independent from parenteral fluid.

Although long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) is life saving in patients with intestinal failure, it is expensive, impairs quality of life and is associated with serious complications such as catheter sepsis, venous occlusions and liver failure. Treatments that amplify absolute intestinal absorption, and eliminate or minimize the need for PN have great potential significance to SBS patients.

The endogenous meal-stimulated hormone, glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2), raises considerable interest for SBS patients. GLP-2 functions to slow gastric emptying, reduce gastric secretions, increase intestinal blood-flow and stimulate growth of the small and large intestine. In animal studies, GLP-2 administration induces mucosal epithelial proliferation in the stomach and small and large intestine by stimulation of crypt cell proliferation and inhibition of enterocyte apoptosis.

SBS patients with end-jejunostomy and no colon have low basal GLP-2 levels and limited meal-stimulated GLP-2 secretion due to removal of GLP-2 secreting L-cells, which are located primarily in the terminal ileum and colon. This GLP-2 deficiency results in a minimal adaptive response following resection and could explain the gastric hypersecretion, rapid intestinal transit and lack of intestinal adaptation observed in these SBS patients.

Jeppesen et al. (Gastroenterology 2001; 120:806-815) have described positive benefit in an open-label study using pharmacologic doses of native GLP-2 in SBS jejunostomy patients. There was significant improvement in intestinal wet weight absorption and a more modest improvement in energy absorption that led to an increase in body weight, lean body mass and a rise in urinary creatinine excretion.

In contrast, SBS patients with colon-in-continuity have elevated basal endogenous GLP-2 levels resulting in an adaptive response to resection characterized by improved wet weight gain and energy absorption. The potential for added benefit of pharmacologic doses of GLP-2 receptor agonists in these patients is not obvious and has not been studied.

TEDUGLUTIDE

  1.  Jeppesen PB (May 2012). “Teduglutide, a novel glucagon-like peptide 2 analog, in the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome”Therap Adv Gastroenterol 5 (3): 159–71. doi:10.1177/1756283X11436318PMC 3342570PMID 22570676.
  2. US 2013157954
  3. WO 2006050244
  4. WO 2005021022
  5. US 6586399
  6. WO 2002066062
  7. US 6297214
  8. US 2001021767
  9. WO 2001041779
  10. WO 1999058144
  11. WO 1998052600

Gattex Approved By FDA For Short Bowel Syndrome

Gattex (teduglutide) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to be used in patients that have short bowel syndrome and require parenteral nutrition.

The drug, once it is in the market, will compete against two others that have been approved by the FDA for this type of patient population. Those two medications are Nutrestore (glutamine) and Zorbtive (Somatropin).

Short bowel syndrome comes on following the removal surgically of part of the large or small intestine or part of both. Patients who are affected must have parenteral nutrition due to the poor absorption they have of nutrients and fluids. Teduglutide is injected one time each day and improves the absorption making it less important to have nutrition assistance.

The advisory committee for the FDA voted unanimously in October to recommend the drug’s approval after seeing the results from a pair of clinical trials that showed the advantage teduglutide had over just a placebo in at least a reduction of 20% in the amount of parenteral nutrition at 6 months.

During the first clinical trial, 46% of the patients that took the drug saw a level of reduction, which was compared to only 6% who had taken only a placebo. In the other study, the figure increased to 63%, while the placebo rated was up to 30%

The side effects most common found in those who use teduglutide during the trials included nausea, reactions around the injection site, abdominal pain abdominal distension and headaches.

………..

US5789379 Jun 28, 1996 Aug 4, 1998 1149336 Ontario Inc. Glucagon-like peptide-2 analogs
US6077949 Apr 24, 1997 Jun 20, 2000 Allelix Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. Cloned glucagon-like peptide 2 receptors
US6184201 * Apr 8, 1997 Feb 6, 2001 Nps Allelix Corp. Intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide-2 analogs
US7411039 Oct 14, 2003 Aug 12, 2008 Novo Nordisk A/S GLP-2 compounds, formulations, and uses thereof
EP1231219A1 Apr 11, 1997 Aug 14, 2002 1149336 Ontario Inc. GLucagon-like peptide-2 analogs
WO1997039031A1 Apr 11, 1997 Oct 23, 1997 Allelix Biopharma Glucagon-like peptide-2 analogs
WO1997039091A1 Apr 16, 1997 Oct 23, 1997 Burckett St Laurent James Char Mid-chain branched surfactants
WO2002066511A2 Feb 15, 2002 Aug 29, 2002 Conjuchem Inc Long lasting glucagon-like peptide 2 (glp-2) for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases and disorders

 

 

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

THANKS AND REGARD’S
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

did you feel happy, a head to toe paralysed man’s soul in action for you round the clock

need help, email or call me

MOBILE-+91 9323115463
web link

I was  paralysed in dec2007, Posts dedicated to my family, my organisation Glenmark, Your readership keeps me going and brings smiles to my family

CASOPITANT


CASOPITANT

 

READ ALL AT

 

http://worlddrugtracker.blogspot.in/2014/01/casopitant.html

Aeterna Zentaris Submits New Drug Application to FDA for Macimorelin Acetate (AEZS-130) for Evaluation of AGHD


New Drug Approvals

Macimorelin

CAS  381231-18-1

Chemical Formula: C26H30N6O3

Exact Mass: 474.23794

Molecular Weight: 474.55480

Elemental Analysis: C, 65.80; H, 6.37; N, 17.71; O, 10.11

945212-59-9 (Macimorelin acetate)

AEZS-130
ARD-07
D-87875
EP-01572
EP-1572
JMV-1843

USAN (ab-26)
MACIMORELIN ACETATE

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM
Diagnostic agent for adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD)
CHEMICAL NAMES
1. D-Tryptophanamide, 2-methylalanyl-N-[(1R)-1-(formylamino)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-, acetate (1:1)
2. N2-(2-amino-2-methylpropanoyl-N1-[(1R)-1-formamido-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]- D-tryptophanamide acetate

MOLECULAR FORMULA
C26H30N6O3.C2H4O2
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
534.6

SPONSOR
Aeterna Zentaris GmbH
CODE DESIGNATIONS
D-87575, EP 1572, ARD 07
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
945212-59-9

Macimorelin (also known as AEZS-130, EP-1572) is a novel synthetic small molecule, acting as a ghrelin agonist, that is orally active and stimulates the secretion of growth hormone (GH). Based on results of Phase 1 studies, AEZS-130 has potential applications for the treatment of cachexia, a condition frequently associated with severe chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and AIDS. In addition to the therapeutic application, a Phase 3 trial with AEZS-130 as a…

View original post 2,777 more words

NETUPITANT


NETUPITANT

  • Ro 67-3189/000
  • UNII-7732P08TIR
  • Ro-67-3189
  • Netupitant, an NK-1 antagonist is under development for the treatment of overactive bladder. HELSINN GROUP

CAS:  290297-26-6

290296-54-7 (di HCl)

U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,303,790, 6,531,597, 6,297,375 and 6,479,4836,719,996 and 6,593,472  to Hoffmann La Roche(originator).

IUPAC/Chemical name: 

2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N,2-dimethyl-N-(6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-(o-tolyl)pyridin-3-yl)propanamide

Chemical Formula: C30H32F6N4O
Exact Mass: 578.24803
Molecular Weight: 578.59
Elemental Analysis: C, 62.28; H, 5.57; F, 19.70; N, 9.68; O, 2.77

Netupitant is another selective NKi receptor antagonist under development by Helsinn Healthcare, having the formula 2-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N,2-dimethyl-N-[4-(2- methylphenyl)-6-(4-methylpiperazin- l-yl)pyridin-3-yl]propanamide, or Benzeneacetamide, N,a,a-trimethyl-N-[4-(2-methylphenyl)-6-(4-methyl-l-piperazinyl)-3-pyridinyl]-3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)-, and the below chemical structure:

Figure imgf000004_0001

Netupitant is a tachykinin NK-1 antagonist which had been in phase III clinical trials at Helsinn for the prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and in phase II clinical studies for the treatment of overactive bladder. However, no recent development has been reported for this research.

NK-1 receptor antagonists work by blocking the action of neurokinin-1 (Substance P), a naturally-occurring neurotransmitter in the brain that causes emesis. Netupitant was originally developed at Roche. In June 2005, Helsinn and Roche signed a licensing agreement granting Helsinn worldwide rights to the drug candidate.

Methods of synthesizing and formulating netupitant and its prodrugs are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,297,375, 6,719,996 and 6,593,472 to Hoffmann La Roche.

Netupitant is a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist, which is thought to work by blocking the action of substance P, an endogenous neurotransmitter contained in high concentrations in the vomiting center of the brainstem that can stimulate the vomiting reflex.  Netupitant is currently under phase III trials.

Chemotherapy is one of the treatment options utilized by oncologists in treating different types of cancers. Nausea and vomiting are the most common side-effects experienced by cancer patients when administered with chemotherapy. Netupitant-palonosetron, which is currently in Phase III trials helps in preventing CINV. The blockage of P/NK1 receptors by Netupitant in the central nervous system inhibits the binding of endogenous tachykinin neuropeptide substance and this result in preventing the chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Moreover, Palonosetron helps in the blockage of serotonin at 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors and it also helps in the chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

Netupitant-Palonosetron FDC is estimated to answer significant unmet needs of the CINV market post its launch that is expected to be commercialized in 2014, as it would overcome the problems associated with current treatment with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. Similar to Emend, Netupitant-Palonosetron FDC would gain considerable patient pool after its estimated launch in 2014, and subsequently match the patient share of Aloxi by 2018. Netupitant-Palonosetron FDC sales are expected to reach an estimated USD 515.0 million USD by 2018. FDC combination of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist and neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist have shown better efficacy results in Phase II clinical trials for CINV patients and would thus lead to high uptake due to shifting physician and patient preference pattern  towards better treatment for CINV.

 

Neurokinin 1 receptor antagonists are being developed for the treatment of a number of physiological disorders associated with an excess or imbalance of tachykinin, in particular substance P. Examples of conditions in which substance P has been implicated include disorders of the central nervous system such as anxiety, depression and psychosis (WO 95/16679, WO 95/18124 and WO 95/23798).

The neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists are further useful for the treatment of motion sickness and for treatment induced vomiting. The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 340, No. 3 190-195, 1999 has been described the reduction of cisplatin-induced emesis by a selective neurokinin-l-receptor antagonist. US5,972,938 describes a method for treating a psychoimmunologic or a psychosomatic disorder by administration of a tachykinin receptor, such as NK-1 receptor antagonist.

With the development of the 5-HT3 antagonist in the early 1990s, there emerged new strategies in the medical community to better control nausea and vomiting caused by various medical procedures, including chemotherapy (CINV), surgery (PONV), and radiation therapy (RINV). When added to steroids such as dexamethasone, several 5-HT3 antagonists have been demonstrated to significantly improve the standard of life for patients undergoing emetogenic medical procedures. Examples of 5-HT3 antagonists include ondansetron, marketed by

GlaxoSmithKline, and palonosetron, developed by Helsinn Healthcare.

Netupitant is another selective NKi receptor antagonist under development by Helsinn Healthcare, having the formula 2-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-N,2-dimethyl-N-[4-(2- methylphenyl)-6-(4-methylpiperazin- l-yl)pyridin-3-yl]propanamide, or Benzeneacetamide, N,a,a-trimethyl-N-[4-(2-methylphenyl)-6-(4-methyl-l-piperazinyl)-3-pyridinyl]-3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)-, and the below chemical structure:

Figure imgf000004_0001

Methods of synthesizing and formulating netupitant and its prodrugs are described in U.S. Patent Nos. 6,297,375, 6,719,996 and 6,593,472  to Hoffmann La Roche.

Other representative NKi antagonists include ZD4974 (developed by AstraZeneca), CGP49823 (developed by Ciba-Geigy), Lanepitant and LY686017 (developed by Eli Lilly), FK888 (developed by Fujisawa), Vofopitant, Vestipitant and Orvepitant (developed by

GlaxoSmithKline), Befetupitant (developed by Hoffmann-La Roche), Rl 16031 (developed by Janssen), L-733060 and L-736281 (developed by Merck), TKA731, NKP608 and DNK333 (developed by Novartis), CP-96345, CP-99994, CP- 122721, CJ-17493, CJ-11974 and CJ-11972 (developed by Pfizer), RP67580 and Dapitant (developed by Rhone-Poulenc Rorer),

Nolpitantium and SSR240600 (developed by Sanofi-Aventis), SCH388714 and Rolapitant (developed by Schering-Plough), TAK637 (developed by Takeda), HSP117 (developed by Hisamitsu), KRP103 (developed by Kyorin Pharm) and SLV317 (developed by Solvay).

Chemical structures of the above-mentioned NKi antagonists are shown below and discussion of those compounds as well as other NKi antagonists is present in Expert Opin. Ther. Patents (2010) 20(8), pp 1019- 1045 by Huang et al.

………………………………………………

WO 2013057554

WO 2011061622

WO 2010119347

WO 2003006016

WO 2006002860///

WO 2002085458

US 2002091265…….

…………………………………………………..

J. Org. Chem., 2006, 71 (5), pp 2000–2008
DOI: 10.1021/jo0523666

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jo0523666

…………………………………………..

https://www.google.co.in/patents/US6297375

(2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide) which has the formula Ib

Figure US06297375-20011002-C00016

and to pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts thereof.

The compound of formula Ib and its salts is also characterized by valuable therapeutic properties as a highly selective antagonist of the Neurokinin 1 (NK-1, substance P) The present compound of formula lb and its pharmaceutically acceptable salts can be prepared by methods known in the art, for example, by processes described below, which process comprises

a) reacting the compound of formula

Figure US06297375-20011002-C00017

with the compound of formula

Figure US06297375-20011002-C00018

to the compound of formula

Figure US06297375-20011002-C00019

Figure US06297375-20011002-C00020

Figure US06297375-20011002-C00021

EXAMPLE 14

2-(3,5-Bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide hydrochloride (1:2)

a) 1-Methyl-4-(5-nitro-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine

To a solution of 20 g (126 mmol) of 2-chloro-5-nitropyridine in 200 ml tetrahydrofuran were added dropwise 35 ml (315 mmol) 1-methylpiperazine within 10 min. The reaction mixture was refluxed for additional 1.5 h. After cooling to room temperature, the solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was re-dissolved in 200 ml ethyl acetate. The organic phase was washed with 200 ml 1 N sodium bicarbonate solution, dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated to give 27.9 g (quantitative) of the title compound as a yellow solid.

MS m/e (%):223 (M+H+, 100).

b)2,2-Dimethyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl]-propionamide

To a solution of 27.9 g (125.5 mmol) of 1-methyl-4-(5-nitro-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine in 400 ml methanol were added 2.6 g of 10% of palladium on activated charcoal. The reaction mixture was hydrogenated (room temperature to ca. 45° C., 1 bar) until the theoretical amount of hydrogen was taken up (about 2 h). The catalyst was filtered off and was washed twice with 100 ml portions of methanol. The filtrate was evaporated in vacuo to give 28 g of a purple oil which consisted to ca. 90% of the desired aniline derivative according to analysis by thin layer chromatography.

This crude product was dissolved in a mixture of 400 ml tetrahydrofuran and 100 ml diethyl ether. After cooling to 0° C., 30 ml (215 mmol) of triethylamine were added in one portion. Stirring was continued while 26 g (215 mmol) of pivaloyl chloride were added dropwise within a period of 10 min. The ice bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. Then, the solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was suspended in 200 ml 1 N sodium bicarbonate solution. The product was extracted three times with 200 ml portions of dichloromethane, dried (sodium sulfate) and purified by flash chromatography to give 30 g (86%) of the title compound as pink crystals.

MS m/e (%):277 (M+H+, 100).

c) N-[4-Iodo-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl]-2,2-dimethyl-propionamide

A solution of 30 g (108 mmol) 2,2-dimethyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl]-propionamide and 58 ml (380 mmol) N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine under argon in 650 ml tetrahydrofuran was cooled in a dry ice bath to −78° C. Within lh, 239 ml (380 mmol) of a 1.6 N n-butyllithium solution in hexane were added dropwise. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to −30° C. overnight. After cooling again to −78° C., 43.6 g (170 mmol) iodine dissolved in 60 ml tetrahydrofuran were added dropwise during 15 min. The dry ice bath was replaced by an ice bath and a solution of 90 g (363 mmol) sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate in 250 ml water were added within 10 min when the temperature of the reaction mixture had reached 0° C. Then, 1000 ml diethyl ether were added and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted twice with 500 ml dichloromethane and the combined organic layers were dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated. Flash chromatography gave 18.5 g (42%) of the title compound as a light brown oil which crystallized upon standing at room temperature.

MS m/e (%): 403 (M+H+, 100).

d) 2,2-Dimethyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-propionamide

A mixture of 54 g (134 mmol) N-[4-iodo-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl]-2,2-dimethyl-propionamide, 420 ml toluene, 150 ml 2 N sodium carbonate solution, 4.63 g (3.9 mmol) tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) and 20.16 g (147 mmol) o-tolylboronic acid was heated under argon at 80° C. for 12 h. After cooling to room temperature, the aqueous phase was separated and washed twice with toluene. The combined organic layers were washed with 50 ml brine, dried (sodium sulfate), evaporated and dried in vacuo to yield 49 g (quantitative) of the title compound as a brown oil.

MS m/e (%): 367 (M+H+, 100).

e) 6-(4-Methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-ylamine

A suspension of 56 g (152 mmol) 2,2-dimethyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-propionamide in 1300 ml 3 N hydrochloric acid solution was heated to 90-95° C. overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, washed with three 500 ml portions diethyl ether and filtered over celite. The filtrate was diluted with 500 ml water and was adjusted to pH 7-8 by addition of 28% sodium hydroxide solution under ice cooling. The product was extracted with four 1000 ml portions of dichloromethane. The combined organic layers were washed with 500 ml brine, dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated to give 35 g (82%) of the title compound as a light brown oil.

MS m/e (%):283 (M+H+, 100).

f) Methyl-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-amine

A solution of 35 g (124 mmol) 6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-ylamine in 270 ml trimethyl orthoformate and 8 drops trifluoroacetic acid was heated for 3 h at 130° C. The reaction mixture was evaporated and dried in vacuo for 30 min. The residual oil was dissolved in 100 ml tetrahydrofuran and was added dropwise under ice cooling to 9.4 g (248 mmol) lithium aluminum hydride in 300 ml tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture was stirred for lh at room temperature, cooled to 0° C. again and acidified (pH 1-2) by addition of 28% hydrochloric acid solution. After stirring for 5 min, 28% sodium hydroxide solution was added to reach pH 10. The solution was filtered over celite, evaporated and purified by flash chromatography to give 23.6 g (64%) of the title compound as a light brown oil.

MS m/e (%):297 (M+H+, 100).

g) 2-(3,5-Bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide

A solution of 20 g (67.5 mmol) methyl-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-amine and 17.5 ml (101 mmol) N-ethyldiisopropylamine in 200 ml dichloromethane was cooled in an ice bath and a solution of 24 g (75 mmol)2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-propionyl chloride in 50 ml dichloromethane was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was warmed to 35-40° C. for 3 h, cooled to room temperature again and was stirred with 250 ml saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organic layers were dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography to give 31.6 g (81%) of the title compound as white crystals. M.p. 155-157° C.

MS m/e (%): 579 (M+H+, 100).

h)2-(3,5-Bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide hydrochloride (1:2)

To a solution of 31.6 g (54.6 mmol)2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide in 250 ml diethyl ether were added under ice cooling 60 ml 3 N hydrochloric acid solution in diethyl ether. After stirring for 15 min at 0° C., the suspension was evaporated to dryness, re-suspended in 100 ml diethyl ether, filtered and dried in vacuo to give 34.8 g (98%) of the title compound as white crystals. M.p. 235-238° C.

MS m/e (%): 579 (M+H+, 100).

……………………………….

US20130231315

2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N,2-dimethyl-N-(6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-(o-tolyl)pyridin-3-yl)propanamide (Netupitant)

Figure US20130231315A1-20130905-C00018

Other general procedures of preparing similar compounds to intermediate 1 of Scheme 1 are also disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,303,790, 6,531,597, 6,297,375 and 6,479,483, the entirety of which are incorporated herein by reference.

Synthesis of methyl-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-amine

Figure US20130231315A1-20130905-C00019

Step 1:

13.0 g (82.5 mMol) 6-Chloro-nicotinic acid in 65 ml THF were cooled to 0° C. and 206.3 ml (206.3 mMol) o-tolylmagnesium chloride solution (1M in THF) were added over 45 minutes. The solution obtained was further stirred 3 hours at 0° C. and overnight at room temperature. It was cooled to −60° C. and 103.8 ml (1.8 Mol) acetic acid were added, followed by 35 ml THF and 44.24 g (165 mMol) manganese(III) acetate dihydrate. After 30 minutes at −60° C. and one hour at room temperature, the reaction mixture was filtered and THF removed under reduced pressure. The residue was partitioned between water and dichloromethane and extracted. The crude product was filtered on silica gel (eluent: ethyl acetate/toluene/formic acid 20:75:5) then partitioned between 200 ml aqueous half-saturated sodium carbonate solution and 100 ml dichloromethane. The organic phase was washed with 50 ml aqueous half-saturated sodium carbonate solution, The combined aqueous phases were acidified with 25 ml aqueous HCl 25% and extracted with dichloromethane. The organic extracts were dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 10.4 g (51%) of 6-chloro-4-o-tolyl-nicotinic acid as a yellow foam. MS (ISN): 246 (M−H, 100), 202 (M-CO2H, 85), 166 (36).

Step 2:

To a solution of 8.0 g (32.3 mMol) 6-chloro-4-o-tolyl-nicotinic acid in 48.0 ml THF were added 3.1 ml (42.0 mMol) thionylchloride and 143 .mu.l (1.8 mMol) DMF. After 2 hours at 50° C., the reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and added to a solution of 72.5 ml aqueous ammonium hydroxide 25% and 96 ml water cooled to 0″C. After 30 minutes at 0° C., THF was removed under reduced pressure and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. Removal of the solvent yielded 7.8 g (98%) 6-chloro-4-o-tolyl-nicotinamide as a beige crystalline foam. MS (ISP): 247 (M+H30 , 100).

Step 3:

1.0 g (4.05 mMol) 6-Chloro-4-o-tolyl-nicotinamidein 9.0 ml 1-methyl-piperazine was heated to 100° C. for 2 hours. The excess N-methyl-piperazine was removed under high vacuum and the residue was filtered on silica gel (eluent: dichloromethane) to yield 1.2 g (95%) 6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1yl)-4-o-tolyl-nicotinamide as a light yellow crystalline foam. MS (ISP): 311 (M+H+, 100), 254 (62).

Step 4:

A solution of 0.2 g (0.6 mMol) 6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-nicotinamide in 1.0 ml methanol was added to a solution of 103 mg (2.6 mMol) sodium hydroxide in 1.47 ml (3.2 mMol) NaOCl (13%) and heated for 2 hours at 70° C. After removal of methanol, the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined. organic extracts were dried (Na2SO4), concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue filtered on silica gel (eluent: dichloromethane/methanol 4:1) to yield 100 mg (70%) 6-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-yl)-4o-tolyl-pyridin-3-ylamine as a brown resin. MS (ISP): 283 (M+H+, 100), 226 (42).

Step 5:

2.15 ml (11.6 mMol) Sodium methoxide in methanol were added over 30 minutes to a suspension of 0.85 g (4.6 mMol) N-bromosuccinimide in 5.0 ml dichloromethane cooled to −5° C. The reaction mixture was stirred 16 hours at −5° C. Still at this temperature, a solution of 1.0 g (3.1 mMol) 6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-nicotinamide in 5.0 ml methanol was added over 20 minutes and stirred for 5 hours. 7.1 ml (7.1 mMol) Aqueous HCl 1N and 20 ml dichloromethane were added. The phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with deionized water. The aqueous phases were extracted with dichloromethane, brought to pH=8 with aqueous NaOH 1N and further extracted with dichloromethane. The latter organic, extracts were combined, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated to yield 1.08 g (quant.) [6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-carbamic acid methyl ester as a grey foam. MS (ISP): 341 (M+H+, 100), 284 (35).

Step 6:

A solution of 0.5 g (1.4 mMol) [6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-carbamic acid methyl ester in 3.0 ml dichloromethane was added over 10 minutes to a solution of 1.98 ml (6.9 mMol) Red-Al.RTM. (70% in toluene) and 2.5 ml toluene (exothermic, cool with a water bath to avoid temperature to go >50° C.). The reaction mixture was stirred 2 hours at 50° C. in CH2Cl2, extracted with ethyl acetate and cooled to 0° C. 4 ml Aqueous NaOH 1N were carefully (exothermic) added over 15 minutes, followed by 20 ml ethyl acetate. The phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate. The combined organic extracts were washed with deionized water and brine, dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated under reduced pressure to yield 0.37 g (89%) methyl-[6-4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-amine as an orange resin. MS (ISP): 297 (M+H+, 100).

Synthesis of 2-(3,5-bis-Trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-propionyl Chloride

Figure US20130231315A1-20130905-C00020

15.0 g (50 mmol) 2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-propionic acid were dissolved in 127.5 ml dichloromethane in the presence of 0.75 ml DMF. 8.76 ml (2 eq.) Oxalyl chloride were added and after 4.5 hours, the solution was rotary evaporated to dryness. 9 ml Toluene were added and the resulting solution was again rotary evaporated, then dried under high vacuum yielding 16.25 g (quant.) of 2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-propionyl chloride as a yellow oil of 86% purity according to HPLC analysis. NMR (250 MHz, CDCl3): 7.86 (br s, 1H); 7.77, (br s, 2H, 3 Harom); 1.77 (s, 6H, 2 CH3).

Synthesis of 2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N,2-dimethyl-N-(6-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-(o-tolyl)pyridin-3-yl)propanamide (Netupitant)

Figure US20130231315A1-20130905-C00021

A solution of 20 g (67.5 mmol) methyl-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-amine and 17.5 ml (101 mmol) N-ethyldiisopropylamine in 200 ml dichloromethane was cooled in an ice bath and a solution of 24 g (75 mmol)2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-propionyl chloride in 50 ml dichloromethane was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was warmed to 35-40° C. for 3 h, cooled to room temperature again and was stirred with 250 ml saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane, The combined organic layers were dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography to give 31.6 g (81%) of 2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N,2-dimethyl-N-(6-(4-methylpiperazin-1yl)-4-(o-tolyl)pyridin-3yl)propanamide as white crystals. M.P. 155-157° C.; MS m/e (%): 579 (M+H+, 100).

…………………………………..

http://www.google.com/patents/US20130231315

N OXIDE SYNTHESIS

Synthesis of 5-(2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl-N,2-dimethylpropanamido)2-(4-methylpiperazin-1yl)-4-(o-tolyl)pyridine 1-oxide

Figure US20130231315A1-20130905-C00022

Step 1:

The solution of 6-chloropyridin-3-amine (115 g, 0.898 mol) and (Boc)2O (215.4 g, 0.988 mol) in 900 mL of dioxane was refluxed overnight. The resulting solution was poured into 1500 mL of water. The resulting solid was collected, washed with water and re-crystallized from EtOAc to afford 160 g tert-butyl (6-chloropyridin-3yl)carbamate as a white solid (Yield: 78.2%).

Step 2:

To the solution of tert-butyl (6-chloropyridin-3-yl)carbamate (160 g, 0.7 mol) in 1 L of anhydrous THF was added n-BuLi (600 mL, L5 ml) at −78° C. under Natmosphere. After the addition was finished, the solution was stirred at −78° C. for 30 min, and the solution of I(177.68 g, 0.7 mol) in 800 mL of anhydrous THF was added. Then the solution was stirred at −78° C. for 4 hrs, TLC indicated the reaction was over. Water was added for quench, and EtOAc was added to extract twice. The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and purified by flash chromatography to afford 80 g of tert-butyl (6-chloro-4-iodopyridin-3-yl)carbamate as a yellow solid (32.3%).

Step 3:

To the solution of tert-butyl (6-chloro-4-iodopyridin-3-yl)carbamate (61 g, 0.172 mol) in 300 of anhydrous THF was added 60% NaH (7.6 g, 0.189 mol) at 0° C. under Natmosphere. After the addition was finished, the solution was stirred for 30 min, and then the solution of MeI (26.92 g, 0.189 mol) in 100 mL of dry THF was added. Then the solution was stirred at 0° C. for 3 hrs. TLC indicated the reaction was over. Water was added for quench, and EtOAc was added to extract twice. The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to afford 63 g of crude tert-butyl (6-chloro-4-iodopyridin-3-yl)methyl)carbamate used into the following de-protection without the further purification.

Step 4:

To the solution of tert-butyl (6-chloro-4-iodopyridin-3-yl)(methyl)carbamate (62.5 g, 0.172 mol) in 500 mL of anhydrous DCM was added 180 mL of TFA. Then the solution was stirred at room temperature for 4 hrs. Concentrated to remove the solvent, and purified by flash chromatography to afford 45.1 g 6-chloro-4-iodo-N-methylpyridin-3-amine as a yellow solid (Yield: 97.3%).

Step 5:

To the solution of 6-chloro-4-iodo-N-methylpyridin-3-amine (40.3 g, 0.15 mol) and 2-methylbenzene boric acid (24.5 g, 0.18 mol) in 600 mL of anhydrous toluene was added 400 mL of 2 N aq. Na2COsolution, Pd(OAc)(3.36 g, 15 mmol) and PPh3(7.87 g, 0.03 mmol), The solution was stirred at 100° C. for 2 hrs. Cooled to room temperature, and diluted with water. EtOAc was added to extract twice. The combined organic phases were washed with water and brine consecutively, dried over Na2SO4, concentrated and purified by flash chromatography to afford 19 g 6-chloro-N-methyl-4-(o-tolyl)pyridin-3-amine as a white solid (Yield: 54.6%).

Step 6:

To the solution of 6-chloro-N-methyl-4-(o-tolyl)pyridin-3-amine (18.87 g, 81.3 mmol) and DMAP (29.8 g, 243.9 mmol) in 200 mL of anhydrous toluene was added the solution of 2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-propionyl chloride (28.5 g, 89.4 mmol) in toluene under Natmosphere. The solution was heated at 120° C. for 23 hrs. Cooled to room temperature, poured into 1 L of 5% aq. NaHCOsolution, and extracted with EtOAc twice. The combined organic phases were washed by water and brine consecutively, dried. over Na2SO4, filtered and purified by flash chromatography to afford 35 g 2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N-(6-chloro-4-(4-tolyl)pyridin-3-yl)-N,2-dimethylpropanamide as a white solid (Yield: 83.9%).

Step 7:

To the solution of 2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N-(6-chloro-4-(o-tolyl)pyridin-3-yl)-N,2-dimethylpropanamide (5.14 g, 10 mmol) in 60 mL of DCM was added m-CPBA (6.92 g, 40 mmol) at 0° C. under Natmosphere. Then the solution was stirred overnight at room temperature. 1 N aq. NaOH solution was added to wash twice for removing the excess m-CPBA. and a side product. The organic phase was washed by brine, dried over Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated to afford 5.11 g of crude 5-(2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl-N,2-dimethylpropanamido)-2-chloro-4(o-tolyl)pyridine 1-oxide as a white solid (Yield: 96.4%).

Step 8:

To the solution of crude 5-(2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-N,2-dimethylpropanamido)-2-chloro-4-(o-tolyl)pyridine 1-oxide (5.1 g, 9.62 mmol) in 80 mL of n-BuOH was added N-methylpiperazine (7.41 g, 74.1 mmol) under Natmosphere. Then the solution was stirred at 80° C. overnight. Concentrated and purified by flash chromatography to afford 4.98 g 5-(2-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl-N,2-dimethylpropanamido)-2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-4-(o-tolyl)pyridine 1-oxide as a white solid (Yield: 87.2%), 1HNMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) δ 8.15 (s, 1H), 7.93 (s, 1H), 7.78 (s, 2H), 7.38 (m, 2H), 7.28 (m, 1H), 7.17 (m, 1H), 7.07 (s, 1H), 5.50 (s, 3H), 2.72 (d, J=4.4 Hz, 4H), 2.57 (m, 3H), 2.40 (s, 3H), 2.23 (s, 3H), 1.45-1.20 (m, 6H).

………………………………….

https://www.google.co.in/patents/US6479483

Figure US06479483-20021112-C00028

Figure US06479483-20021112-C00029

EXAMPLE 14 2-(3,5-bis-Trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperan-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide Hydrochloride (1:2)

a) 1-Methyl-4-(5-nitro-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine

To a solution of 20 g (126 mmol) of 2-chloro-5-nitropyridine in 200 ml tetrahydrofuran were added dropwise 35 ml (315 mmol) 1-methylpiperazine within 10 min. The reaction mixture was refluxed for additional 1.5 h. After cooling to room temperature, the solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was re-dissolved in 200 ml ethyl acetate. The organic phase was washed with 200 ml 1 N sodium bicarbonate solution, dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated to give 27.9 g (quantitative) of the title compound as a yellow solid.

MS m/e (%): 223 (M+H+, 100).

b) 2,2-Dimethyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl-propionamide

To a solution of 27.9 g (125.5 mmol) of 1-methyl-4-(5-nitro-pyridin-2-yl)-piperazine in 400 ml methanol were added 2.6 g of 10% of palladium on activated charcoal. The reaction mixture was hydrogenated (room temperature to ca. 45° C., 1 bar) until the theoretical amount of hydrogen was taken up (about 2 h). The catalyst was filtered off and was washed twice with 100 ml portions of methanol. The filtrate was evaporated in vacuo to give 28 g of a purple oil which consisted to ca. 90% of the desired aniline derivative according to analysis by thin layer chromatography.

This crude product was dissolved in a mixture of 400 ml tetrahydrofuran and 100 ml diethyl ether. After cooling to 0° C., 30 ml (215 mmol) of triethylamine were added in one portion. Stirring was continued while 26 g (215 mmol) of pivaloyl chloride were added dropwise within a period of 10 min. The ice bath was removed and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. Then, the solvent was removed in vacuo and the residue was suspended in 200 ml 1 N sodium bicarbonate solution. The product was extracted three times with 200 ml portions of dichloromethane, dried (sodium sulfate) and purified by flash chromatography to give 30 g (86%) of the title compound as pink crystals.

MS m/e (%): 277 (M+H+, 100).

c) N-[4-Iodo-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl]-2,2-dimethyl-propionamide

A solution of 30 g (108 mmol) 2,2-dimethyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl]-propionamide and 58 ml (380 mmol) N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine under argon in 650 ml tetrahydrofuran was cooled in a dry ice bath to −78° C. Within 1 h, 239 ml (380 mmol) of a 1.6 N n-butyllithium solution in hexane were added dropwise. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm up to −30° C. overnight. After cooling again to −78° C., 43.6 g (170 mmol) iodine dissolved in 60 ml tetrahydrofuran were added dropwise during 15 min. The dry ice bath was replaced by an ice bath and a solution of 90 g (363 mmol) sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate in 250 ml water were added within 10 min when the temperature of the reaction mixture had reached 0° C. Then, 1000 ml diethyl ether were added and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted twice with 500 ml dichloromethane and the combined organic layers were dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated. Flash chromatography gave 18.5 g (42%) of the tide compound as a light brown oil which crystallized upon standing at room temperature.

MS m/e (%): 403 (M+H+, 100).

d) 2,2-Dimethyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-propionamide

A mixture of 54 g (134 mmol) N-[4-iodo-6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-3-yl]-2,2-dimethyl-propionamide, 420 ml toluene, 150 ml 2 N sodium carbonate solution, 4.63 g (3.9 mmol) tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) and 20.16 g (147 mmol) o-tolylboronic acid was heated under argon at 80° C. for 12 h. After cooling to room temperature, the aqueous phase was separated and washed twice with toluene. The combined organic layers were washed with 50 ml brine, dried (sodium sulfate), evaporated and dried in vacuo to yield 49 g (quantitative) of the title compound as a brown oil.

MS m/e (%): 367 (M+H+, 100).

e) 6-(4-Methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-ylamine

A suspension of 56 g (152 mmol) 2,2-dimethyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-propionamide in 1300 ml 3 N hydrochloric acid solution was heated to 90-95° C. overnight. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, washed with three 500 ml portions diethyl ether and filtered over celite. The filtrate was diluted with 500 ml water and was adjusted to pH 7-8 by addition of 28% sodium hydroxide solution under ice cooling. The product was extracted with four 1000 ml portions of dichloromethane. The combined organic layers were washed with 500 ml brine, dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated to give 35 g (82%) of the title compound as a light brown oil.

MS m/e (%):283 (M+H+, 100).

f) Methyl-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-amine

A solution of 35 g (124 mmol) 6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-ylamine in 270 ml trimethyl orthoformate and 8 drops trifluoroacetic acid was heated for 3 h at 130° C. The reaction mixture was evaporated and dried in vacuo for 30 min. The residual oil was dissolved in 100 ml tetrahydrofuran and was added dropwise under ice cooling to 9.4 g (248 mmol) lithium aluminum hydride in 300 ml tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature, cooled to 0° C. again and acidified (pH 1-2) by addition of 28% hydrochloric acid solution. After stirring for 5 min, 28% sodium hydroxide solution was added to reach pH 10. The solution was filtered over celite, evaporated and purified by flash chromatography to give 23.6 g (64%) of the title compound as a light brown oil.

MS m/e (%): 297 (M+H+, 100).

g) 2-(3,5-bis-Trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide

A solution of 20 g (67.5 mmol) methyl-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]amine and 17.5 ml (101 mmol) N-ethyldiisopropylamine in 200 ml dichloromethane was cooled in an ice bath and a solution of 24 g (75 mmol) 2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-methyl-propionyl chloride in 50 ml dichloromethane was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was warmed to 35-40° C. for 3 h, cooled to room temperature again and was stirred with 250 ml saturated sodium bicarbonate solution. The organic layer was separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane. The combined organic layers were dried (magnesium sulfate) and evaporated. The residue was purified by flash chromatography to give 31.6 g (81%) of the title compound as white crystals. M.p. 155-157° C.

MS m/e (%): 579 (M+H+, 100).

h) 2-(3,5-bis-Trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide Hydrochloride (1:2)

To a solution of 31.6 g (54.6 mmol) 2-(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-N-methyl-N-[6-(4-methyl-piperazin-1-yl)-4-o-tolyl-pyridin-3-yl]-isobutyramide in 250 ml diethyl ether were added under ice cooling 60 ml 3 N hydrochloric acid solution in diethyl ether. After stirring for 15 min at 0° C., the suspension was evaporated to dryness, re-suspended in 100 ml diethyl ether, filtered and dried in vacuo to give 34.8 g (98%) of the title compound as white crystals. M.p. 235-238° C.

MS m/e (%): 579 (M+H+, 100).

…………………………….

Research and development of an efficient process for the construction of the 2,4,5-substituted pyridines of NK-1 receptor antagonists
Org Process Res Dev 2006, 10(6): 1157

Management of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting : focus on newer agents and new uses for older agents.

Navari RM.

Drugs. 2013 Mar;73(3):249-62. doi: 10.1007/s40265-013-0019-1. Review.

Efficient synthesis of novel NK1 receptor antagonists: selective 1,4-addition of grignard reagents to 6-chloronicotinic acid derivatives.

Hoffmann-Emery F, Hilpert H, Scalone M, Waldmeier P.

J Org Chem. 2006 Mar 3;71(5):2000-8.

Design and synthesis of a novel, achiral class of highly potent and selective, orally active neurokinin-1 receptor antagonists.

Hoffmann T, Bös M, Stadler H, Schnider P, Hunkeler W, Godel T, Galley G, Ballard TM, Higgins GA, Poli SM, Sleight AJ.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006 Mar 1;16(5):1362-5. Epub 2005 Dec 5.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X05014824

…………………………………….
……………………………………………………….
US6897226 * 9 Jul 2003 24 May 2005 Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. NK-1 receptor active amine oxide prodrugs
US7211579 * 15 Mar 2006 1 May 2007 Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. NK-1 receptor antagonists
US8426450 23 May 2012 23 Apr 2013 Helsinn Healthcare Sa Substituted 4-phenyl pyridines having anti-emetic effect
WO2011061622A1 18 Nov 2010 26 May 2011 Helsinn Healthcare S.A. Compositions for treating centrally mediated nausea and vomiting
WO2013057554A2 10 Oct 2012 25 Apr 2013 Helsinn Healthcare Sa Therapeutic combinations of netupitant and palonosetron
US8426450 23 May 2012 23 Apr 2013 Helsinn Healthcare Sa Substituted 4-phenyl pyridines having anti-emetic effect
WO2011061622A1 18 Nov 2010 26 May 2011 Helsinn Healthcare S.A. Compositions for treating centrally mediated nausea and vomiting
WO2013057554A2 10 Oct 2012 25 Apr 2013 Helsinn Healthcare Sa Therapeutic combinations of netupitant and palonosetron

………………………………………………………………………………………. art    animation

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

THANKS AND REGARD’S
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

did you feel happy, a head to toe paralysed man’s soul in action for you round the clock

need help, email or call me

MOBILE-+91 9323115463
web link

I was  paralysed in dec2007

Palbociclib


PALBOCICLIB

Mechanism of action: selective inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6
Indication: Estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), HER2-negative (HER2 -) breast cancer
Current Status: Phase III (US, UK, EU), (US Clinical trials numbers NCT01864746,NCT01740427NCT01942135)
Expected Launch Date: 2015
Potential Sales(peak):$5 billion
Company:Pfizer

CHEMICAL NAMES
1. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one, 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-[[5-(1-
piperazinyl)-2-pyridinyl]amino]-
2. 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-{[5-(piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-
yl]amino}pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one
MOLECULAR FORMULA C24H29N7O2
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 447.5
TRADEMARK None as yet
SPONSOR Pfizer Inc.
CODE DESIGNATION PD-0332991
CAS#:  571190-30-2 (PD0332991);  827022-32-2 (PD0332991 HCl salt) 827022-33-3 (palbociclib isethionate)

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/palbociclib.pdf  FOR STRUCTURE AND DETAILS

recent studies have identified a number of selective CDK4 inhibitors that, as discussed above, may prove useful in treating cancer—either as anti-cancer agents or as chemoprotective agents—and in treating cardiovascular disorders, such as restenosis and atherosclerosis, diseases caused by infectious agents, and autoimmune disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis. For a disclosure of these selective CDK4 inhibitors, see commonly assigned International Patent Application PCT/IB03/00059, filed Jan. 10, 2003 (the ‘059 application), which is herein incorporated by reference in its entirety for all purposes.

The ‘059 application discloses a particularly potent and selective CDK4 inhibitor, 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one:

Figure US07345171-20080318-C00002

In standard enzyme assays the compound of Formula 1 exhibits IC50 concentrations for CDK4 and CDK2 inhibition (at 25° C.) of 0.011 μM and >5 μM, respectively. For a discussion of standard CDK4 and CDK2 assays for IC50 determinations, see D. W. Fry et al., J. Biol. Chem. (2001) 16617-16623.

Though the compound of Formula 1 is a potent and selective CDK4 inhibitor, its use in pharmaceutical products presents challenges. For example, the free base has poor water solubility (9 μg/mL) and exhibits low bioavailability in animal studies. A di-HCl salt of the compound of Formula 1 appears to exhibit adequate water solubility. However, moisture uptake studies reveal that, even at low relative humidity (10% RH), the di-HCl salt absorbs water in an amount greater than about 2% of its mass, making it unsuitable for use in a solid drug product. A mono-HCl salt of the compound of Formula 1 is marginally hygroscopic, absorbing more than 2% of its mass at a relative humidity above 80%. However, the process for preparing the mono-HCl salt yields partially crystalline drug substance, indicating potential problems with process scale-up. Other salt forms of the compound of Formula 1 are thus needed.

Pfizer’s breast cancer drug Palbociclib (PD-0332991), a first in the class oral inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) 4 and 6, is widely seen by investors as Pfizer’s most valuable compound in late-stage development. The FDA awarded Palbociclib “breakthrough therapy designation” in April 2013 based on the preliminary phase 2 data showing palbociclib, combined with Novartis’ drug,Femara (Letrozole), stopped breast tumors progression for more than two years as compared with 7.5 months with letrozole alone. The phase 3 trial started in February 2013 and estimated final completion date is March 2016. Leerink Swann analyst Seamus Fernandez forecasts palbociclib could become a $5 billion drug, with potential for $3 billion in first-line metastatic breast cancer alone.

Palbociclib, also known as PD0332991, is an orally available pyridopyrimidine-derived cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor with potential antineoplastic activity. PD-0332991 selectively inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases (particularly Cdk4/cyclin D1 kinase), which may inhibit retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation; inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents Rb-positive tumor cells from entering the S phase of the cell cycle (arrest in the G1 phase), resulting in suppression of DNA replication and decreased tumor cell proliferation. PD 0332991 is a highly specific inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) (IC50 = 0.011 μmol/L) and Cdk6 (IC50 =  0.016 μmol/L), having no activity against a panel of 36 additional protein kinases.

6-Acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one hydrochloride (also referred to as “Compound 1”),

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00003

as well as its intermediates. Compound 1 is described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,936,612, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated in its entirety. This compound is a protein kinase inhibitor and represents a synthetic, small molecule inhibitor capable of modulating cell cycle control.

A method of preparing Compound 1 is disclosed as Example 36 of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 6,936,612. Methods of preparing the isethionate salt forms of Compound 1 are disclosed in Examples 1-13 of WO 2005/005426. These methods are for synthesis of small quantities of the salt forms of Compound 1 and are not designed for commercial scale-up. Therefore, a preparation of the salt forms for CDK inhibitor 6-Acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one hydrochloride which is cost-efficient, scaleable and productive is highly desirable.

flashing art animation

Synthesis of Palbociclib Isethionate -CDK4 and 6 dual inhibitor - A highly Anticipated Investigational Breast Cancer Drug from Pfizer 辉瑞乳腺癌试验药物palbociclib的合成

USAN (zz-153)

PALBOCICLIB ISETHIONATE
THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Antineoplastic
CHEMICAL NAMES
1. Ethanesulfonic acid, 2-hydroxy-, compd. with 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-
2-[[5-(1-piperazinyl)-2-pyridinyl]amino]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one (1:1)

2. 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-{[5-(piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-
yl]amino}pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(8H)-one mono(2-hydroxyethanesulfonate)

MOLECULAR FORMULA C24H29N7O2 . C2H6O4S
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 573.7
SPONSOR Pfizer, Inc.
CODE DESIGNATIONS PD 0332991-0054, PF-00080665-73
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER 827022-33-3

  • PD 0332991-0054
  • PF-00080665-73
  • UNII-W1NYL2IRDR

picture animation

SYNTHESIS

:WO2008032157

……………………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/US7781583Figure US07781583-20100824-C00026

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00027

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00034

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00035

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1A Preparation of 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

A suspension of 6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-2-methansulfinyl-5-methyl-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (10.00 g, 0.027 mol, prepared as in Example 6 of WO 01/707041, which is incorporated herein by reference) and 10.37 g (0.0373 mol) of 4-(6-amino-pyridin-3-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester in toluene (100 mL) was heated under nitrogen in an oil bath for 7 hours. Thin layer chromatography (SiO2, 10% MeOH/DCM) indicated the presence of both starting materials. The suspension was heated under reflux for an additional 18 hours. The resulting suspension was cooled to RT and filtered to give 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (5.93 g, 38%). Melting point>250° C. MS (APCI) M++1: calc’d, 584.2, found, 584.2.

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1B Preparation of 4-{6-[8-cyclopentyl-6-(1-ethoxy-vinyl)-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

A suspension of 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (5.93 g, 0.010 mol, prepared as in Example 1A), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (1.40 g, 0.00121 mol), and tributyl(1-ethoxyvinyl)tin (5.32 mL, 0.0157 mol) in toluene (30 mL) was heated under reflux for 3.5 hours. The mixture was cooled and filtered to give a solid. Purification of the solid by silica gel chromatography using a gradient of 5%-66% ethyl acetate/hexane over 15 minutes gave 4-{6-[8-cyclopentyl-6-(1-ethoxy-vinyl)-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester as a yellow foam (4.50 g, 78%). MS (APCI) M++1: calc’d 576.2, found, 576.3.

COMPARATIVE EXAMPLE 1C Preparation of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one hydrochloride

Hydrogen chloride gas was bubbled into an ice-bath cooled solution of 4-{6-[8-cyclopentyl-6-(1-ethoxy-vinyl)-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (4.50 g, 0.00783 mol, prepared as in 2005-0059670A1) in DCM (100 mL). The resulting suspension was stoppered and stirred at RT overnight, then diluted with diethyl ether (200 mL). The solid was collected by filtration, washed with diethyl ether, and dried to give the hydrochloride salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one as a yellow solid (4.01 g, 92%). Melting point 200° C. HPLC, C18 reverse phase, 10%-95% gradient of 0.1% TFA/CH3CN in 0.1% TFA/H2O during 22 minutes: 99.0% at 11.04 minutes. MS (APCI) M++1: calc’d, 448.2, found, 448.3. Anal. calc’d for C24H29N7O2.2.4H2O.1.85 HCl: C, 51.64; H, 6.44; N, 17.56, Cl (total), 11.75. Found: C, 51.31; H, 6.41; N, 17.20; Cl (total), 12.11.

EXAMPLE 2 Preparation of 4-(6-Nitro-pyridin-3-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00038

EXAMPLE 2A Preparation of 4-(6-Nitro-pyridin-3-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

To 1.0 kg (5 mol) 5-bromo-2-nitropyridine was added 1.2 kg (6.4 mol) boc piperazine (tert-Butyl piperazine-1-carboxylate) in 2.6 L DMSO and 0.5 kg triethylamine under nitrogen. The mixture was heated to 65-70° C. and held for 30 hours after which some solids precipitated. Water was added and the reaction cooled to 25° C. over 2 hrs. The resulting slurry was filtered, washed and dried at 45° C. to give 1.2 kg (79% crude yield) of canary yellow solid intermediate (2A), which was used without further purification in the subsequent step.

EXAMPLE 2 Preparation of 4-(6-Nitro-pyridin-3-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (2)

60.0 g of 20% Pd(OH)2/C, 1213.1 g (3.9 moles) of intermediate 2a, and isopropanol were charged and stirred in a Parr reactor, then purged under gas, followed by removal of the catalyst under pressure. The filtrates were concentrated in vacuo at ˜20° C. leaving 917 g of dry brown powder (crude yield ˜84%).

EXAMPLE 3 Preparation of 2-Chloro-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00039

EXAMPLE 3A Preparation of 5-bromo-2-chloro-4-cyclopentyl-aminopyrimidine

To 1 g (0.004 mol) of 5-bromo-2,4-dichloropyrimidine in ethanol was added 1.5 kg (0.018 mol) cyclopentylamine under nitrogen. The mixture was stirred at 25° C. for 2 hrs. Water was added to precipitate the product, and the solid was recrystallized using hexane 4:1 to give a white crystalline product (3A).

EXAMPLE 3 Preparation of 2-Chloro-8-Cyclopentyl-5-methyl-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one

41.5 g (0.15 mol) of 5-bromo-2-chloro-4-cyclopentylaminopyrimidine 3a and 32.3 g (0.375 mol) of crotonic acid were mixed in 100 L of THF and 105 ml (1.6 mol) diisopropyl ethylamine under nitrogen. The slurry was stirred, evacuated and refilled with nitrogen three times, after which 860 mg (0.0022 mol) palladium dichloride dibenzonitrile complex and 685 mg (0.0022 mol) tri-ortho-tolylphosphine were added and the resulting slurry degassed an additional three times. The mixture was then heated and stirred at 70° C. for 16 hrs, after which 35 ml acetic anhydride was added and the mixture stirred for an additional 1.5 hrs. The mixture was cooled and diluted with 100 ml MTBE and then extracted with 1NHCl, then aqueous sodium bicarbonate and brine. The organic phase was dried over magnesium sulfate, filtered, concentrated in vacuo, and recrystallized from IPA to yield 31.2 g (68%) of crude product (3).

EXAMPLE 4 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00040

EXAMPLE 4A Preparation of 2-chloro-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine-7-one

10 g (0.04 mol) of intermediate 3 and 13 g (0.16 mol) of sodium acetate were mixed with 50 ml of glacial acetic acid and 12 g (0.08 mol) bromine under nitrogen. The solution was heated to 50° C. and stirred for 35 hrs, then cooled to room temperature. Sodium bisulfite solids were added until the bromine color disappeared, then quenched, filtered and washed to provide a solid which was subsequently dissolved in 500 ml hot IPA, filtered hot, and cooled. The resulting crystals were further filtered, and dried in vacuo at 65° C. to yield 8 g (61%) of crude product (4A).

EXAMPLE 4 Preparation of 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

3.78 g (2.10 equiv; 13.6 mmoles) of intermediate 1, 25 ml toluene and lithium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in 1 M THF (13.6 mmoles; 13.6 mL; 12.1 g) were mixed for 10 min under nitrogen to form a dark solution. In a separate beaker the intermediate 4a (1.00 equiv, 6.47 mmoles; 2.50 g) was slurried in toluene then added to the mixture containing 1 and stirred for 30 min, after which the combined mixture was quenched with 25 ml 1 M sodium bicarbonate and then filtered. Alternatively, the combined mixture can be quenched with ammonium chloride. The filter cake was washed with toluene, then acetone, then water and dried at 60° C. to give 3.5 g (92%) of a grey-yellow solid 4.

EXAMPLE 5 Preparation of 4-{6-[6-(1-butoxy-vinyl)-8-cycloentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00041

768 g (1.3 mol) of intermediate 4, was mixed with 395 g (3.9 mol) of butyl vinyl ether, 4.7 L of n-butanol, and 275 ml (1.6 mol) diisopropyl ethylamine under nitrogen. The slurry was stirred and placed under ca. 50 tore vacuum and then refilled with nitrogen; this was repeated 2 more times. To this degassed solution was added 22 g (0.03 mol) Bis-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene)palladium dichloride dichloromethane complex and the resulting slurry was degassed an additional three times as described above. The mixture was then heated and stirred at 95° C. for 20 hrs. The resulting thin red slurry was diluted with 4 L branched octane’s and cooled to about 5° C. after which 1 L saturated aq. potassium carbonate was added and the mixture was filtered and rinsed with 500 ml branched octanes. After drying for 16 hrs at 45° C., 664 g (83%) of gray-solid product (5) was obtained. In addition, column chromatography can be used to further purify the crude product.

EXAMPLE 6 Preparation of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one

Figure US07781583-20100824-C00042

11.6 g (1.00 eq, 19.2 mmol) of intermediate 5, water (10.1 equiv; 193 mmoles; 3.48 mL; 3.48 g) and methanol (3.62 moles; 146 mL; 116 g) were combined and heated to 55-60° C. Isethionic acid was added slowly until a clear solution was obtained; 3.3 g isethionic acid solution was necessary to reach this end point. The resulting clear orange solution was filtered through paper and rinsed through with 20 ml methanol, after which the filtrate was reheated to 55-60° C. and the remaining isethionic acid was added (a total of 9.93 g was added). The reaction mixture precipitated and thickened for 6 hours, after which it was cooled and held at 30-35° C. while triethylamine (2.92 g; 28.8 mmoles) was added slowly as a 10% solution in methanol over 12 hrs. About halfway through the addition of triethylamine, desired polymorphic seeds were added to help formation of the desired polymorph. The resulting slurry was cooled and held at 5° C. for 15 minutes and the crystals were filtered and washed with methanol. The solid product was dried in vacuo at 55° C. to obtain 11 g of yellow crystals of the title compound.

 painting pot animation

……………………………………………………………………

http://www.google.com/patents/US7345171

EXAMPLES

The following examples are intended to be illustrative and non-limiting, and represent specific embodiments of the present invention.

Example 1 Preparation of 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

A suspension of 6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-2-methansulfinyl-5-methyl-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (10.00 g, 0.027 mol, prepared as in Example 6 of WO 01/707041, which is incorporated herein by reference) and 10.37 g (0.0373 mol) of 4-(6-amino-pyridin-3-yl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester in toluene (100 mL) was heated under nitrogen in an oil bath for 7 hours. Thin layer chromatography (SiO2, 10% MeOH/DCM) indicated the presence of both starting materials. The suspension was heated under reflux for an additional 18 hours. The resulting suspension was cooled to RT and filtered to give 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (5.93 g, 38%). Melting point>250° C. MS (APCI) M++1: calc’d, 584.2, found, 584.2.

Example 2 Preparation of 4-{6-[8-cyclopentyl-6-(1-ethoxy-vinyl)-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2.3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

A suspension of 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (5.93 g, 0.010 mol, prepared as in Example 1), tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (1.40 g, 0.00121 mol), and tributyl(1-ethoxyvinyl)tin (5.32 mL, 0.0157 mol) in toluene (30 mL) was heated under reflux for 3.5 hours. The mixture was cooled and filtered to give a solid. Purification of the solid by silica gel chromatography using a gradient of 5%-66% ethyl acetate/hexane over 15 minutes gave 4-{6-[8-cyclopentyl-6-(1-ethoxy-vinyl)-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester as a yellow foam (4.50 g, 78%). MS (APCI) M++1: calc’d 576.2, found, 576.3.

Example 3 Preparation of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one hydrochloride

Hydrogen chloride gas was bubbled into an ice-bath cooled solution of 4-{6-[8-cyclopentyl-6-(1-ethoxy-vinyl)-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (4.50 g, 0.00783 mol, prepared as in Example 2) in DCM (100 mL). The resulting suspension was stoppered and stirred at RT overnight, then diluted with diethyl ether (200 mL). The solid was collected by filtration, washed with diethyl ether, and dried to give the hydrochloride salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one as a yellow solid (4.01 g, 92%). Melting point 200° C. HPLC, C18 reverse phase, 10%-95% gradient of 0.1% TFA/CH3CN in 0.1% TFA/H2O during 22 minutes: 99.0% at 11.04 minutes. MS (APCI) M++1: calc’d, 448.2, found, 448.3. Anal. calc’d for C24H29N7O2.2.4H2O.1.85 HCl: C, 51.64; H, 6.44; N, 17.56, Cl (total), 11.75. Found: C, 51.31; H, 6.41; N, 17.20; Cl (total), 12.11.

Example 4 Preparation of a mono-isethionate salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2.3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (Form B)

To a slurry of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (7.0 g, 15.64 mmol, prepared as in Example 3 following contact with NaOH) dispersed in 250 mL of water was added drop-wise 30 mL of a 0.52 M solution of isethionic acid in MeOH (15.64 mmol) to a pH of 5.2. The solution was filtered through a glass filter (fine) and the clear solution was freeze-dried to give 9.4 g of the amorphous salt. The amorphous salt (3.16 g) was mixed with 25 mL of MeOH and after almost complete dissolution a new precipitate formed. Another 25 mL of MeOH was added and the mixture was stirred at 46° C. to 49° C. for four hours. The mixture was slowly cooled to 32° C. and put in a cold room (+4° C.) overnight. A sample was taken for PXRD, which indicated formation of Form B. The mixture was filtered and the precipitate was dried overnight at 50° C. in a vacuum oven. This furnished 2.92 g of the mono-isethionate salt of the compound of Formula 1 in 92% yield. HPLC-99.25%, PXRD-Form B, CHNS, H-NMR were consistent with the structure.

Example 5 Preparation of a mono-isethionate salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2.3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (Form B)

MeOH (100 mL) was placed in a 250 mL flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, thermocouple/controller, condenser, and heating mantle and preheated to 35° C. An amorphous isethionate salt (2 g, prepared as in Example 4) was slowly added in three even portions with a 25 min to 30 min interval between the additions. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at 35° C. and subsequently cooled. A sample was filtered and examined by PXRD. It was pure Form B. The whole reaction mixture was then used as Form B seeds in a larger scale experiment.

Example 6 Preparation of a mono-isethionate salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (Form B)

MeOH (50 mL) was placed in a 250 mL flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer, condenser, thermocouple/controller, and heating mantle, and preheated to 40° C. An amorphous isethionate salt (1 g, prepared as in Example 4) was slowly added in three even portions with 30 min interval between the portions and then stirred overnight at 40° C. The reaction was monitored by in-situ Raman spectroscopy. The sample was taken, filtered and analyzed by PXRD. It was pure Form B by PXRD and Raman spectroscopy. The mixture was cooled to 25° C. at a rate of 3° C./h, cooled to −10° C., filtered, and vacuum dried to furnish 0.85 g of the Form B crystalline product.

Example 7 Preparation of a mono-isethionate salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (Form B)

The free base (Formula 1, 0.895 mg, 2 mmol) was mixed with 10 mL of MeOH and seeded with 33 mg of a mono-isethionate salt of the compound of Formula 1 (Form B). Then 5.6 mL of a 0.375 M solution of isethionic acid in MeOH (2.1 mmol) was added in 10 even portions over 75 min time period. The mixture was stirred for an additional hour and a sample was taken for PXRD analysis. It confirmed formation of crystalline Form B. The mixture was stirred at RT overnight and another PXRD was taken. There was no change in the crystal form. The mixture was cooled in a refrigerator at −8° C. overnight, filtered, and dried at 50° C. in a vacuum oven to give 1.053 g (91.8% of theory) of the above-named compound (Form B). HPLC—99.8%, CHNS, H-NMR, IR are consistent with the structure, PXRD-Form B.

Example 8 Preparation of a mono-isethionate salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2.3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (Form A)

An amorphous isethionate salt (47 mg, prepared as in Example 4) was mixed with 4 mL of EtOH in a 15 mL flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer, thermocouple and condenser. The mixture was heated to reflux, which resulted in the formation of a nearly clear solution. After refluxing for 10-15 min, the mixture became cloudy. It was slowly cooled to 50° C. and was seeded at 69° C. with Form A. The mixture was held at 50° C. for 5 h and was allowed to cool to RT overnight. The mixture was subsequently cooled to 1° C. with an ice bath, held for 1.5 h, filtered, washed with 0.5 mL of cold EtOH, air-dried, and then dried in a vacuum oven at 70° C. overnight to furnished 38.2 mg of a fine crystalline material. The crystalline material was found to be mono-isethionate salt Form A by PXRD. H-NMR was consistent for the mono-isethionate salt and indicated the presence of residual EtOH ca. 5.9 mol % or 0.6 wt %.

Example 9 Preparation of a mono-isethionate salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (Form D)

An amorphous isethionate salt (9.0 g, prepared as in Example 4) was mixed with 300 mL of MeOH, stirred and heated to 63.8° C. (at reflux). To the slightly cloudy mixture was added two 50-mL portions of MeOH. The hot mixture was filtered into a 2-L flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer. The mixture was briefly heated to reflux and then cooled to 60° C. IPA (100 mL) was added to the mixture. The mixture was again heated to 60° C. and an additional 110 mL of IPA was added. A precipitate started to form at 59.7° C. The mixture was reheated to 67.5° C., cooled to 50° C., and held overnight. A sample was taken the next morning for PXRD analysis. The mixture was cooled to 25° C. at a rate of 3° C./h and another PXRD sample was taken when the mixture reached 28° C. The mixture was allowed to cool to RT overnight. A precipitate was collected and dried in a vacuum oven at 65° C. and 30 Torr. The procedure produced 7.45 g (82.8% yield) of the crystalline compound (Form D by PXRD analysis). Previously analyzed samples were also Form D. HPLC showed 98.82% purity and CHNS microanalysis was within +/−0.4%. A slurry of isethionate salt Form A, B, and D in MeOH yielded substantially pure Form B in less than three days.

Example 10 Preparation of isethionic acid (2-hydroxy-ethanesulfonic acid)

A 5-L, four-necked, round-bottomed flask, equipped with mechanical stirrer, thermocouple, gas sparger, and an atmosphere vent through a water trap was charged with 748 g (5.05 mol) of sodium isethionate (ALDRICH), and 4 L of IPA. The slurry was stirred at RT. An ice bath was used to keep the internal temperature below 50° C. as 925 g (25.4 mol) of hydrogen chloride gas (ALDRICH) was sparged into the system at a rate such that it dissolved as fast as it was added (as noted by lack of bubbling through the water trap). Sufficient HCl gas was added until the system was saturated (as noted by the start of bubbling through the water trap). During the addition of HCl, the temperature rose to 45° C. The slurry was cooled to RT and filtered over a coarse-fritted filter. The cake was washed with 100 mL of IPA and the cloudy filtrate was filtered through a 10-20μ filter. The resulting clear, colorless filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator, while keeping the bath temperature below 50° C. The resulting 1.07 kg of clear, light yellow oil was diluted with 50 mL of tap water and 400 mL of toluene and concentrated under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator for three days, while keeping the bath temperature below 50° C. The resulting 800 g of clear, light yellow oil was diluted with 500 mL of toluene and 250 mL of IPA and concentrated under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator for 11 days, keeping the bath temperature below 50° C. The resulting 713 g of clear, light yellow oil was titrated at 81 wt % (580 g, 91.1% yield) containing 7.9 wt % water and 7.5 wt % IPA.

Example 11 Preparation of 4-{6-[6-(1-butoxy-vinyl)-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester

A 5-L, three-necked, round-bottomed flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple, and a nitrogen inlet/outlet vented through a silicone oil bubbler was placed under a nitrogen atmosphere and charged with 4-[6-(6-bromo-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino)-pyridin-3-yl]-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (300 g, 0.51 mol, prepared as in Example 2), butyl vinyl ether (154 g, 1.54 mol, ALDRICH), n-butanol (1.5 L, ALDRICH), and diisopropyl ethylamine (107 mL, 0.62 mol, ALDRICH). The slurry was placed under approximately 50 Torr vacuum and then refilled with nitrogen 3 times. To this was added 8.3 g (0.01 mol) bis-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene) palladium dichloride dichloromethane (JOHNSON MATTHEY, Lot 077598001) and the resulting slurry was purged an additional three times as described above. The mixture was then heated to 95° C. and stirred for 20 h. The resulting thin red slurry was diluted with 2 L of heptane and cooled to approximately 5° C. At this temperature, 400 mL saturated aqueous potassium carbonate was added and the mixture was filtered and rinsed with 250 mL of heptane. After drying in an oven for 16 h at 45° C., 231.7 g (75% yield) of the title compound was obtained as a yellow solid.

Example 12 Preparation of a mono-isethionate salt of 6-acetyl-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (Form B)

A 22-L, three-necked, round-bottomed flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple, and a nitrogen inlet/outlet vented through a silicone oil bubbler was placed under a nitrogen atmosphere and charged with 4-{6-[6-(1-butoxy-vinyl)-8-cyclopentyl-5-methyl-7-oxo-7,8-dihydro-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-2-ylamino]-pyridin-3-yl}-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester (725 g, 1.20 mol, prepared as in Example 11) and MeOH (14 L). The slurry was stirred at RT as it was charged with a solution of isethionic acid (530 g, 4.20 mol, prepared as in Example 10), MeOH (1.5 L), and water (70 mL, 3.89 mol). The resulting slurry was heated to 55° C. over 30 minutes and then stirred at 55° C. for 30 minutes. A solution of 175 g (1.73 mol) of Et3N (ALDRICH) in 200 mL of MeOH was charged to the slurry as it was cooled to 30° C. The slurry was held at 30° C. as a solution of 128 g (1.26 mol) of Et3N in 2 L of MeOH was added dropwise over 6 hours. The resulting slurry was sampled to determine crystal form (Form B). The slurry was cooled and held at 5° C. for 15 minutes and was subsequently filtered through a coarse-fritted filter. The resulting filter cake was washed with multiple washes of 200 mL of cold MeOH. The solid product was dried at 55° C. under vacuum to yield 710 g (91% yield) of the title compound as yellow crystals.

potter at potters wheel animation

1)Peter L. Toogood, Patricia J. Harvey, Joseph T. Repine, Derek J. Sheehan, Scott N. VanderWel, Hairong Zhou, Paul R. Keller, Dennis J. McNamara, Debra Sherry, Tong Zhu, Joanne Brodfuehrer, Chung Choi, Mark R. Barvian, and David W. Fry;Discovery of a Potent and Selective Inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4/6Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2005, 48(7),2388-2406;

2)Scott N. VanderWel, Patricia J. Harvey, Dennis J. McNamara, Joseph T. Repine, Paul R. Keller, John Quin III, R. John Booth, William L. Elliott, Ellen M. Dobrusin, David W. Fry, and Peter L. Toogood; Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-ones as Specific Inhibitors of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4Journal of Medicinal Chemistry,2005,48(7),2371-2387;

3)Erdman, David Thomas et al;Preparation of 2-(pyridin-2-ylamino)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-ones;PCT Int. Appl., WO2008032157

4)Sharpless, Norman E. et al;Hematopoietic protection against chemotherapeutic compounds using selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors;PCT Int. Appl., WO2010039997

5)Dirocco, Derek Paul et al;Protection of renal tissues from schema through inhibition of the proliferative kinases CDK4 and CDK6;PCT Int. Appl., WO2012068381

6)Logan, Joshua E.et al.;PD- 0332991, a potent and selective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6, demonstrates inhibition of proliferation in renal cell carcinoma at nanomolar concentrations and molecular markers predict for sensitivityAnticancer Research (2013), 33(8), 2997-3004.

7)Phase III Study Evaluating Palbociclib (PD-0332991), a Cyclin-Dependent Kinase (CDK) 4/6 Inhibitor in Patients With Hormone-receptor-positive, HER2-normal Primary Breast Cancer With High Relapse Risk After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy “PENELOPEB”;ClinicalTrials.gov number:NCT01864746;currently recruiting participants(as of January 2, 2013)

8)A Randomized, Multicenter, Double-Blind Phase 3 Study Of PD-0332991 (Oral CDK 4/6 Inhibitor) Plus Letrozole Versus Placebo Plus Letrozole For The Treatment Of Postmenopausal Women With ER (+), HER2 (-) Breast Cancer Who Have Not Received Any Prior Systemic Anti Cancer Treatment For Advanced Disease;ClinicalTrials.gov number:NCT01740427;currently recruiting participants(as of January 2, 2013)

9)Multicenter, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Trial Of Fulvestrant (Faslodex®) With Or Without PD-0332991 (Palbociclib) +/- Goserelin In Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive, HER2-Negative Metastatic Breast Cancer Whose Disease Progressed After Prior Endocrine Therapy;ClinicalTrials.gov number:NCT01942135;currently recruiting participants(as of January 2, 2013)

US6936612 Jan 16, 2003 Aug 30, 2005 Warner-Lambert Company 2-(Pyridin-2-ylamino)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-ones
WO2005005426A1 Jun 28, 2004 Jan 20, 2005 Vladimir Genukh Beylin Isethionate salt of a selective cdk4 inhibitor
US20030229026 * Dec 18, 2000 Dec 11, 2003 Al-Awar Rima Salim Agents and methods for the treatment of proliferative diseases
US20040006074 * Dec 2, 2002 Jan 8, 2004 The Government Of The United States Of America Cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)4 inhibitors and their use for treating cancer
US20040048915 * Sep 24, 2001 Mar 11, 2004 Engler Thomas Albert Methods and compounds for treating proliferative diseases
US20050222163 * Mar 30, 2005 Oct 6, 2005 Pfizer Inc Combinations of signal transduction inhibitors
US20070027147 * Dec 3, 2004 Feb 1, 2007 Takashi Hayama Biarylurea derivatives
WO2008032157A2 * Aug 27, 2007 Mar 20, 2008 David Thomas Erdman Synthesis of 2-(pyridin-2-ylamino)-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-ones
WO2010075074A1 Dec 15, 2009 Jul 1, 2010 Eli Lilly And Company Protein kinase inhibitors
WO2012098387A1 Jan 17, 2012 Jul 26, 2012 Centro Nacional De Investigaciones Oncológicas (Cnio) 6, 7-ring-fused triazolo [4, 3 – b] pyridazine derivatives as pim inhibitors
US7781583 Sep 10, 2007 Aug 24, 2010 Pfizer Inc Synthesis of 2-(pyridin-2-ylamino)-pyrido[2,3-d] pryimidin-7-ones
US7855211 Dec 15, 2009 Dec 21, 2010 Eli Lilly And Company Protein kinase inhibitors
US8247408 * Oct 9, 2006 Aug 21, 2012 Exelixis, Inc. Pyridopyrimidinone inhibitors of PI3Kα for the treatment of cancer
US8273755 Feb 9, 2010 Sep 25, 2012 Pfizer Inc 4-methylpyridopyrimidinone compounds

Mona Lisa Painting animation

old info

Date: April 10, 2013

Pfizer Inc. said that its experimental pill for advanced, often deadly breast cancer has been designated as a breakthrough therapy by the Food and Drug Administration.

The breakthrough designation, created under legislation enacted last summer to fund and improve operations of the FDA, is meant to speed up development and review of experimental treatments that are seen as big advances over existing therapies for serious diseases. Pfizer is working with the agency to determine exactly what research results it will need to apply for approval of the drug.

Palbociclib is being evaluated as an initial treatment for the biggest subgroup of postmenopausal women whose breast cancer is locally advanced or has spread elsewhere in the body. About 60% of women with such advanced breast cancer have tumors classified as ER+, or estrogen-receptor positive, but HER2-, or lacking an excess of the growth-promoting protein HER2.

Estrogen-receptor positive tumors have proteins inside and on the surface of their cells to which the estrogen hormone can attach and then fuel growth of cells. These tumors tend to grow slowly and can be fought with drugs that block estrogen’s effects.

Meanwhile, about 80% of breast cancer tumor cells are HER2 negative. That means that unlike HER2 positive tumors, they don’t produce too much of the HER2 protein, which makes tumors grow and spread more aggressively than in other breast cancer types.

New York-based Pfizer is currently running a late-stage study of palbociclib at multiple centers, comparing its effects when used in combination with letrozole with the effects of letrozole alone.

Letrozole, sold under the brand name Femara for about the past 15 years, is a pill that works by inhibiting aromatase. That’s an enzyme in the adrenal glands that makes estrogen.

According to Pfizer, palbociclib targets enzymes called cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6. By inhibiting those enzymes, the drug has been shown in laboratory studies to block cell growth and suppress copying of the DNA of the cancer cells.

Pfizer, which has made research on cancer medicines a priority in recent years, also is testing palbociclib as a treatment for other cancers.

Highlight of recent study using PD-0332991

Phase I study of PD-0332991: Forty-one patients were enrolled. DLTs were observed in five patients (12%) overall; at the 75, 125, and 150 mg once daily dose levels. The MTD and recommended phase II dose of PD 0332991 was 125 mg once daily. Neutropenia was the only dose-limiting effect. After cycle 1, grade 3 neutropenia, anemia, and leukopenia occurred in five (12%), three (7%), and one (2%) patient(s), respectively. The most common non-hematologic adverse events included fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea. Thirty-seven patients were evaluable for tumor response; 10 (27%) had stable disease for ≥4 cycles of whom six derived prolonged benefit (≥10 cycles). PD 0332991 was slowly absorbed (median T(max), 5.5 hours), and slowly eliminated (mean half-life was 25.9 hours) with a large volume of distribution (mean, 2,793 L). The area under the concentration-time curve increased linearly with dose. Using an E(max) model, neutropenia was shown to be proportional to exposure. CONCLUSIONS:
PD 0332991 warrants phase II testing at 125 mg once daily, at which dose neutropenia was the sole significant toxicity. (Source: Clin Cancer Res; 18(2); 568-76.)

Phase I study of PD-0332991 in 3-week cycles (Schedule 2/1): Six patients had DLTs (18%; four receiving 200 mg QD; two receiving 225 mg QD); the MTD was 200 mg QD. Treatment-related, non-haematological adverse events occurred in 29 patients (88%) during cycle 1 and 27 patients (82%) thereafter. Adverse events were generally mild-moderate. Of 31 evaluable patients, one with testicular cancer achieved a partial response; nine had stable disease (≥10 cycles in three cases). PD 0332991 was slowly absorbed (mean T(max) 4.2 h) and eliminated (mean half-life 26.7 h). Volume of distribution was large (mean 3241 l) with dose-proportional exposure. Using a maximum effective concentration model, neutropenia was proportional to exposure. CONCLUSION: PD 0332991 was generally well tolerated, with DLTs related mainly to myelosuppression. The MTD, 200 mg QD, is recommended for phase II study. (source: Br J Cancer. 2011 Jun 7;104(12):1862-8)

Mona Lisa Painting animation

References

1: Flaherty KT, Lorusso PM, Demichele A, Abramson VG, Courtney R, Randolph SS, Shaik MN, Wilner KD, O’Dwyer PJ, Schwartz GK. Phase I, dose-escalation trial of the oral cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitor PD 0332991, administered using a 21-day schedule in patients with advanced cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2012 Jan 15;18(2):568-76. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0509. Epub 2011 Nov 16. PubMed PMID: 22090362.

2: Smith D, Tella M, Rahavendran SV, Shen Z. Quantitative analysis of PD 0332991 in mouse plasma using automated micro-sample processing and microbore liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2011 Oct 1;879(27):2860-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.08.009. Epub 2011 Aug 16. PubMed PMID: 21889427.

3: Katsumi Y, Iehara T, Miyachi M, Yagyu S, Tsubai-Shimizu S, Kikuchi K, Tamura S, Kuwahara Y, Tsuchiya K, Kuroda H, Sugimoto T, Houghton PJ, Hosoi H. Sensitivity of malignant rhabdoid tumor cell lines to PD 0332991 is inversely correlated with p16 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011 Sep 16;413(1):62-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.08.047. Epub 2011 Aug 17. PubMed PMID: 21871868; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3214763.

4: Schwartz GK, LoRusso PM, Dickson MA, Randolph SS, Shaik MN, Wilner KD, Courtney R, O’Dwyer PJ. Phase I study of PD 0332991, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, administered in 3-week cycles (Schedule 2/1). Br J Cancer. 2011 Jun 7;104(12):1862-8. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2011.177. Epub 2011 May 24. PubMed PMID: 21610706; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3111206.

5: Nguyen L, Zhong WZ, Painter CL, Zhang C, Rahavendran SV, Shen Z. Quantitative analysis of PD 0332991 in xenograft mouse tumor tissue by a 96-well supported liquid extraction format and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2010 Nov 2;53(3):228-34. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2010.02.031. Epub 2010 Feb 26. PubMed PMID: 20236782.

6: Finn RS, Dering J, Conklin D, Kalous O, Cohen DJ, Desai AJ, Ginther C, Atefi M, Chen I, Fowst C, Los G, Slamon DJ. PD 0332991, a selective cyclin D kinase 4/6 inhibitor, preferentially inhibits proliferation of luminal estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cell lines in vitro. Breast Cancer Res. 2009;11(5):R77. doi: 10.1186/bcr2419. PubMed PMID: 19874578; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2790859.

7: Menu E, Garcia J, Huang X, Di Liberto M, Toogood PL, Chen I, Vanderkerken K, Chen-Kiang S. A novel therapeutic combination using PD 0332991 and bortezomib: study in the 5T33MM myeloma model. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 15;68(14):5519-23. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6404. PubMed PMID: 18632601.

8: Fry DW, Harvey PJ, Keller PR, Elliott WL, Meade M, Trachet E, Albassam M, Zheng X, Leopold WR, Pryer NK, Toogood PL. Specific inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 by PD 0332991 and associated antitumor activity in human tumor xenografts. Mol Cancer Ther. 2004 Nov;3(11):1427-38. PubMed PMID: 15542782.

 picture animation

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

THANKS AND REGARD’S
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

did you feel happy, a head to toe paralysed man’s soul in action for you round the clock

need help, email or call me

MOBILE-+91 9323115463
web link

I was  paralysed in dec2007, Posts dedicated to my family, my organisation Glenmark, Your readership keeps me going and brings smiles to my family

TEDIZOLID (torezolid)


TEDIZOLID PHOSPHATE

[(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl]phenyl}-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl]phosphate,

DA 7157

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections
CHEMICAL NAMES
1. 2-Oxazolidinone, 3-[3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl]-5- [(phosphonooxy)methyl]-, (5R)-
2. [(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl]phenyl}-2-oxooxazolidin-5- yl]methyl hydrogen phosphate

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/tedizolid-phosphate.pdf

MOLECULAR FORMULA C17H16FN6O6P

MOLECULAR WEIGHT 450.3
TRADEMARK None as yet
SPONSOR Trius Therapeutics
CODE DESIGNATION TR-701 FA
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER 856867-55-5
Note: This adoption statement supersedes the USAN torezolid phosphate (N09/81), which is hereby rescinded and replaced by the USAN tedizolid phosphate (N10/118).\

……………………………..

ChemSpider 2D Image | Torezolid | C17H15FN6O3

Tedizolid, 856866-72-3

(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl]phenyl}-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one

(5R)-3-[3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl]-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxazolidinone,

TR 700

  • Molecular Formula: C17H15FN6O3
  • Average mass: 370.337799

 

Torezolid (also known as TR-701 and now tedizolid[1]) is an oxazolidinone drug being developed by Trius Therapeutics (originator Dong-A Pharmaceuticals) for complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSI), including those caused by Methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[2]

As of July 2012, tedizolid had completed one phase III trial, with another one under way. [3]Both trials compare a six-day regimen of tedizolid 200mg once-daily against a ten-day regimen of Zyvox (linezolid) 600mg twice-daily.

The prodrug of tedizolid is called “TR-701″, while the active ingredient is called “TR-700″.[4][5]

Trius Therapeutics will soon be reporting data from its second phase III trial (ESTABLILSH-2) and the recently announced publication of the data from its first phase III trial (ESTABLISH-1) in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)

  1. “Trius grows as lead antibiotic moves forward”. 31 Oct 2011.
  2. “Trius Completes Enrollment In Phase 2 Clinical Trial Evaluating Torezolid (TR-701) In Patients With Complicated Skin And Skin Structure Infections”. Jan 2009.
  3. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?flds=Xf&flds=a&flds=b&term=tedizolid&phase=2&fund=2&show_flds=Y
  4. PMID 19528279 In vitro activity of TR-700, the active ingredient of the antibacterial prodrug TR-701, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agent.
  5. PMID 19218276 TR-700 in vitro activity against and resistance mutation frequencies among Gram-positive pathogens.

…………………………………………………….

Emergence of bacterial resistance to known antibacterial agents is becoming a major challenge in treating bacterial infections. One way forward to treat bacterial infections, and especially those caused by resistant bacteria, is to develop newer antibacterial agents that can overcome the bacterial resistance. Coates et al. (Br. J. Pharmacol. 2007; 152(8), 1147-1154.) have reviewed novel approaches to developing new antibiotics. However, the development of new antibacterial agents is a challenging task. For example, Gwynn et al. (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2010, 1213: 5-19) have reviewed the challenges in the discovery of antibacterial agents.

Several antibacterial agents have been described in the prior art (for example, see PCT International Application Nos. PCT/US2010/060923, PCT/EP2010/067647, PCT/US2010/052109, PCT/US2010/048109, PCT/GB2009/050609, PCT/EP2009/056178 and PCT/US2009/041200). However, there remains a need for potent antibacterial agents for preventing and/or treating bacterial infections, including those caused by bacteria that are resistant to known antibacterial agents.

Various oxazolidinone-containing compounds have been disclosed for use asantibiotics. For example, oxazolidinone-containing compounds have been described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/596,412 (filed Dec. 17, 2004), and WO 04/048350, WO 03/022824 and WO 01/94342, which are incorporated herein by reference.

U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/577,089 (filed Oct. 9, 2009) and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/699,864 (filed Feb. 3, 2010), which are assigned to the same assignee as in the present application, disclose phosphate dimer impurities made during the process of making of the compounds disclosed therein. Surprisingly, it has been found that compounds containing at least two phosphates binding two oxazolidinone-containing moieties, such as dimers of oxazolidinone-containing compounds have antibacterial activity similar to their dihydrogen monophosphate analog

active drug of Formula I is (5R)-3-[3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl]-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxazolidinone, i.e.,

Figure US20100305069A1-20101202-C00012

These active compounds have been disclosed in WO 05/058886 and US Patent Publication No. 20070155798, while processes for making these and related compounds have been disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/577,089 (filed Oct. 9, 2009), and a crystalline form of the phosphate ester and related salts of the above compound has been disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/699,864 (filed Feb. 3, 2010).

US Patent Publication No. 20070155798,  recently disclosed a series of potently anti-bacterial oxazolidinones including

Figure US08426389-20130423-C00001

wherein R═H, PO(OH)2, and PO(ONa)2.

Cubist Announces Submission of New Drug Application for Investigational Antibiotic Tedizolid for Treatment of Serious Skin Infections

LEXINGTON, Mass.–(BUSINESS WIRE)– Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced that it has submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of its investigational antibiotic tedizolid phosphate (TR-701). Cubist is seeking approval of tedizolid phosphate for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). Tedizolid phosphate is a once daily oxazolidinone being developed for both intravenous (I.V.) and oral administration for the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

http://www.drugs.com/nda/tedizolid_131023.html

…………………………………………………………..

Efficacy of DA-7218, a new oxazolidinone prodrug, in the treatment of experimental actinomycetoma produced by Nocardia brasiliensis.

Espinoza-González NA, Welsh O, de Torres NW, Cavazos-Rocha N, Ocampo-Candiani J, Said-Fernandez S, Lozano-Garza G, Choi SH, Vera-Cabrera L.

Molecules. 2008 Jan 11;13(1):31-40.

…………………………………………..

imp patents

12-3-2010
OXAZOLIDINONE CONTAINING DIMER COMPOUNDS, COMPOSITIONS AND METHODS TO MAKE AND USE
10-20-2010
Oxazolidinone derivatives
7-31-2009
NOVEL OXAZOLIDINONE DERIVATIVES

…………………………………………..

TEDIZOLID disodium salt

59 nos in

http://www.google.com/patents/US20130102523

Figure US20130102523A1-20130425-C00064

Figure US20130102523A1-20130425-C0004338 nos

Tedizolid (formerly known as torezolid or TR-700) is the active hydroxymethyl oxazolidinone having the following formula:

Figure US20130102523A1-20130425-C00083

Pharmaceutical prodrugs such as tedizolid phosphate (also referred to as TR-701, torezolid phosphate, and TR-701 “free acid” or FA) have the following formula:

Figure US20130102523A1-20130425-C00084

The disodium salt of tedizolid phosphate, has the following structure:

Figure US20130102523A1-20130425-C00085
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Example 1 Preparation of the Phosphate Monohydrogen Diester, Formula III
In this and the following Examples, “Formula III” refers to a compound wherein Z is
Figure US20100305069A1-20101202-C00024
and M=OH.
A 1-L, three-neck round-bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer, nitrogen inlet/outlet and thermocouple was charged with the compound of Formula Ia below (16.0 g, 0.0499 mol], THF (320 mL, 20 vol) and Et3N (21.9 g, 0.216 mol, 5.0 equiv.).
Figure US20100305069A1-20101202-C00025
POCl3 (3.31 g, 0.0216 mol, 0.5 equiv.) was added dropwise via syringe over 5 minutes. The reaction temperature was maintained below 25° C. The batch was aged for 16 hours at room temperature at which point HPLC analysis (XBridge, C18) indicated that the reaction was complete. The reaction vessel was then immersed in an ice-water bath and a 500-mL addition funnel charged with 320 mL of H2O was attached to the reaction vessel. When the temperature of the reaction reached 2.7° C., H2O was added drop wise over 30 minutes. The temperature of the reaction was maintained below 10° C. Upon completion of the H2O addition, the ice-water bath was removed and the batch was aged for 3 hours. The solution was transferred to a 2-L round-bottom flask and concentrated under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator. After removal of most of the THF from the solution, the aqueous mixture was extracted with 5 1-L portions of CH2Cl2:MeOH (9:1). The CH2Cl2 layers were combined and concentrated to a dark oil. This crude material was purified on 200 g of silica gel, eluting with 10% MeOH/CH2Cl2 to 20% 2 N NH3 in MeOH/CH2Cl2. Fractions containing mostly the bis-ester (as judged by TLC Rf=0.3 eluting with 20% 2 N NH3 in MeOH/CH2Cl2) were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure on a rotary evaporator, during which time a white precipitate was observed. The flask containing the slurry was removed from the rotary evaporator and equipped with a magnetic stir bar and allowed to stir while cooling to room temperature over 3 hours, during which time the slurry thickened. The solid was filtered and dried in a vacuum oven at 45° C. for 16 hours to give 3.55 g of bis-ester as an off-white solid (20% yield). HPLC analysis (Method A): 99.0% (AUC), tR=16.3 min. This reaction was repeated and the combined lots of the compound of Formula III (6.7 g) were slurried in 100 mL of MeOH (15 vol). The slurry was heated to 40° C. for 30 minutes and then allowed to cool to room temperature over 1 hour. The off-white solid was filtered and dried in a vacuum oven at 40° C. for 16 hours to give 6.15 g of the compound of Formula III (92% yield). The 1H NMR analysis of the product was consistent with the assigned structure. HPLC analysis (Method A): 99.0% (AUC), tR=16.3 min.

Example 2 Preparation of the Diphosphate Dihydrogen Diester, Formula IV
In Examples 2-5, “Formula IV” refers to a compound wherein Z is
Figure US20100305069A1-20101202-C00026
n=0 and M=O-imidazolium salt.

A 250-mL 3-neck round-bottom flask equipped with a magnetic stirrer, nitrogen inlet/outlet and thermocouple was charged with the compound of Formula IIa below (5.0 g, 11.1 mmol), carbonyldiimidazole (890 mg, 5.55 mmol, 0.5 equiv.) and DMF (100 mL, 20 vol).
Figure US20100305069A1-20101202-C00027
The suspension was heated to 50° C. and held at that temperature for 4 hours at which point HPLC analysis (XBridge, C18) indicated that the reaction was complete. The reaction was filtered at 50° C. and dried in a vacuum oven at 50° C. for 24 hours to give 5.15 g of the imidazolium salt (i.e., the compound of Formula IV) as an off-white solid (98% yield). The 1H NMR analysis of the product was consistent with the assigned structure. HPLC analysis (Method A): 94.5% (AUC), tR=14.6 min.
TABLE 1
Method A (Waters XBridge C18 Column)
Time (min) Flow (mL/min) % A % B
0.0 1.0 98.0 2.0
15.0 1.0 5.0 95.0
25.0 1.0 5.0 95.0
27.0 1.0 98.0 2.0
30.0 1.0 98.0 2.0
A = 87% 25 mM ammonium bicarbonate solution in water/13% Acetonitrile
B = Acetonitrile
Wavelength = 300 nm

Figure US20100305069A1-20101202-C00016disodium salt is TR 701

……………………………………

US8580767

Various oxazolidinone-containing compounds have been disclosed for use as antibiotics. For example, oxazolidinone-containing compounds have been described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/596,412 (filed Dec. 17, 2004), and WO 04/048350, WO 03/022824 and WO 01/94342, which are incorporated herein by reference.

U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/577,089 (filed Oct. 9, 2009) and U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/699,864 (filed Feb. 3, 2010), which are assigned to the same assignee as in the present application, disclose phosphate dimer impurities made during the process of making of the compounds disclosed therein. Surprisingly, it has been found that compounds containing at least two phosphates binding two oxazolidinone-containing moieties, such as dimers of oxazolidinone-containing compounds have antibacterial activity similar to their dihydrogen monophosphate analog,

These active compounds have been disclosed in WO 05/058886 and US Patent Publication No. 20070155798, while processes for making these and related compounds have been disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/577,089 (filed Oct. 9, 2009), and a crystalline form of the phosphate ester and related salts of the above compound has been disclosed in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/699,864 (filed Feb. 3, 2010). The latter two applications are assigned to the same assignee as in the present application

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

SYNTHESIS

US20070155798

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00077

DESCRIPTION OF COMPDS

10,

(R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyl oxazolidin-2-on (compound 10)

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00013

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

18

Preparation of (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-fluoromethyl oxazolidin-2-on (compound 18)

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00013

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

33

(R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-methoxymethyl oxazolidin-2-on (compound 33)

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00013

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

59

(R)-[3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl disodiumphosphate (compound 59)

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00062

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

72

mono-[(R)-[3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl]phosphate (compound 72)

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00075

COMPLETE SYNTHESIS

Example 5

Preparation of 2-cyano-5-bromopyridine

In 1 L of dimethylformamide was dissolved 100 g of 2,5-dibromopyridine, 32 g of cupper cyanide and 17.8 g of sodium cyanide were added to the solution at room temperature and the solution was stirred at the temperature of 150° C. for 7 hours for reaction. After being cooled to room temperature, the reaction mixture was added with water and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer was washed with brine, dehydrated, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. The title compound 54 g was obtained. Yield 70%.

1HNMR(CDCl3) δ 8.76(s,1H), 7.98(dd,1H), 7.58(dd,1H)

Example 6

Preparation of 2-(tetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine

10 g of 2-cyano-5-bromopyridine prepared in the Preparation example 5 was dissolved in 100 ml of dimethylformamide, 5.33 g of sodiumazide, and 4.4 g of ammonium chloride were added to the solution at room temperature, and the solution was stirred at the temperature of 110° C. for 3 hours for reaction. The reaction mixture was added with water and then was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer, thus separated, was washed with brine, dehydrated, filtrated and concentrated in vacuo thereby to obtain 10.5 g of the title compound. Yield 85%.

Preparation Example 7 Preparation of 2-(1-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine and 2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine

10.5 g of 2-(tetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine prepared in the Preparation example 6 was dissolved in 100 ml of dimethylformamide. And then 6.5 g of sodium hydroxide was added to the solution and 9.3 g of iodomethane was slowly added to the solution at the temperature of 0° C. The solution was stirred for 6 hours at room temperature, added with water, extracted with ethyl acetate. And then the organic layer was washed with brine, dehydrated, filtrated, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography to obtain 4 g of 2-(1-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine and 5 g of 2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine.

1) 2-(1-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine

1HNMR(CDCl3) δ 8.77(t,1H), 8.23(dd,1H), 8.04(dd,1H), 4.46(s,3H)

2) 2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine

1HNMR(CDCl3) δ 8.80(t,1H), 8.13(dd,1H), 7.98(dd,1H), 4.42(s,3H)

Example 1

Preparation of N-Carbobenzyloxy-3-fluoroaniline

3-fluoroaniline 100 g was dissolved in 1 L of tetrahydrofuran (THF) and the solution was added with 150 g (1.8 mol) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). After being cooled to 0° C., the solution was slowly added with 154 ml of N-carbobenzyloxy chloride (CbzCl) for reaction. While the temperature was maintained at 0° C., the reaction mixture was let to react for 2 hours with stirring. Afterwards, the reaction was extracted with 0.5 L of ethyl acetate. The organic layer, after being separated, was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was washed twice with n-hexane to afford the title compound as white crystal. 132 g. Yield 85%.

Example 2

Preparation of (R)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinylmethanol

132 g of N-carbobenzyloxy-3-fluoroaniline 132 g prepared in the Preparation example 1 was dissolved in 1.3 L of tetrahydrofuran and the solution was cooled to −78° C. 370 ml of n-buthyllitium (n-BuLi, 1.6M/n-hexane) was slowly added to the solution in a nitrogen atmosphere, followed by stirring for 10 min. And 84 ml of (R)-(−)-glycidylbuthylate was slowly added to the reaction mixture, stirred at the same temperature for 2 hours and allowed to react for 24 hours at room temperature. After completion of the reaction, the solution was added with ammonium chloride (HH4Cl) solution and extracted with 0.5 L of ethyl acetate at room temperature. The organic layer, thus separated, was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in 100 ml of ethyl acetate and washed with n-hexane to give white crystals, which were purified to the title compound. 80 g. Yield 70%.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 7.85(t,1H), 7.58(dd,1H), 7.23(dd,1H), 4.69(m,1H), 4.02 (t,1H), 3.80(dd,1H), 3.60(br dd,2H).

Example 3

Preparation of (R)-3-(4-iodo-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinylmethanol

In 300 ml of acetonitryl was dissolved 30 g of (R)-3-(3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinylmethanol prepared in the Preparation example 2, and 46 g of trifluoroacetic acid silver salt (CF3COOAg) and 43 g of iodide were added to the solution. After being stirred for one day at room temperature, the solution was added with water and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer, thus separated, was washed with brine and dehydrated. And then the residue was filtered, concentrated in vacuo and dried thereby to form the title compound 44 g. Yield 94%.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 7.77(t,1H), 7.56(dd,1H), 7.20(dd,1H), 5.20(m,1H), 4.70 (m,1H), 4.07(t,1H), 3.80(m,1H), 3.67(m,2H), 3.56(m,3H)

Example 4

Preparation of (R)-3-(4-tributhylstannyl-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinylmethanol

In 660 ml of 1,4-dioxan was dissolved 50 g of (R)-3-(4-iodo-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinylmethanol prepared in the Preparation example 3, 52 g of hexabutylditin ((Bu3Sn)2) and 9.3 g of dichlorobistriphenylphosphinpalladium were added into the solution, and stirred for 2 hours. The solution was filtered using celite and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by column chromatography and 45 g of the title compound was formed.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 7.74(m,3H), 5.20(t,1H), 4.71(m,1H), 4.08(t,1H), 3.82(dd,1H), 3.68(m,1H), 3.52(m,1H), 1.48(m, 6H), 1.24(m, 6H), 1.06(m,6H), 0.83(t,9H)

COMPD 10

Example 1 Preparation of (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyl oxazolidin-2-on (compound 10)

In 150 ml of 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone was dissolved 37 g of (R)-3-(4-tributhylstannyl-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinylmethanol. The solution was added with 19.7 g of 2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)-5-bromopyridine, 10.44 g of lithium chloride and 2.9 g of dichlorobistriphenylphospine palladium(II) at room temperature and then stirred at the temperature of 120° C. for 4 hours. The reaction mixture was added with water and then extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layer, thus separated, was washed with brine, dehydrated, filtrated, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography to provide 8 g of the title compound. Yield 26%.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 8.90(s,1H), 8.18(m,2H), 7.70(m,2H), 7.49(dd,1H), 5.25(t,1H), 4.74(m,1H), 4.46(s,3H), 4.14(t,1H), 3.88(dd,1H), 3.68(m,1H), 3.58 (m,1H)

COMPD 18

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00013

Example 28 Preparation of (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-fluoromethyl oxazolidin-2-on (compound 18)

In 5 ml of methylenchloride was dissolved 100 mg of the compound 10. The solution was added with 43 mg of diethylaminosulfurtrifloride (DAST) and 0.078 ml of triethylamine and then stirred for 24 hours. After being concentrating, the reaction mixture was purified by column chromatography to obtain the title compound 75 mg. Yield 75%.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 8.91(s,1H), 8.19(m,2H), 7.74(t,1H), 7.66(dd,1H) 7.49 (dd,1H), 5.06(m,1H), 4.89(m,2H), 4.46(s,3H), 4.23(t,1H), 3.95(dd,1H)

COMPD 33

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00013

Example 37 Preparation of (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-methoxymethyl oxazolidin-2-on (compound 33)

In 10 ml of methanol was dissolved 400 mg of (R)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-methansulfonyloxymethyl oxazolidin-2-on prepared in the secondary step of the Example 24. The solution was added with 90 mg of sodium methoxide at room temperature and then stirred for one day at room temperature. The solution was extracted with ethyl acetate and the organic layer, thus separated, was washed with water and brine. The organic layer was dehydrated, filtered, concentrated in vacuo and purified by column chromatography to provide the title compound 200 mg. Yield 58%.

1H NMR(CDCl3) δ 8.90(s,1H), 8.29(d,1H), 8.04(d,1H), 7.61(dd,1H), 7.58 (t,1H), 7.38(dd,1H), 4.80(m,1H), 4.45(s,3H), 4.08(t,1H), 3.96(dd,1H), 3.67 (m,2H), 3.43(s,3H)

COMPD 59

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00062

Example 58 Preparation of mono-[(R)-[3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl]phosphate (compound 72) and (R)-[3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl disodiumphosphate (compound 59)

1. The Primary Step

In 10 ml of mixture solvent (tetrahydrofuran:methylenchloride=1:1) was dissolved 1 g of compound 10. The solution was added with 0.6 g of tetrazole and 2.3 g of di-tetrabutyl diisoprophylphosphoamidite and stirred for 15 hours at room temperature. The reaction mixture was refrigerated to −78° C., added with 0.7 g of metachloroperbenzoic acid and stirred for 2 hours. After being cooling to −78° C., the reaction mixture was added with metachloroperbenzoic acid (0.7 g). When the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours, the temperature of the reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was then added with ethyl acetate. The organic layer, thus separated, was washed with sodium bisulfate, sodium bicarbonate and brine, dehydrated, filtered and concentrated in vacuo, followed by purification with column chromatography thereby to provide (R)-[3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl phosphoric acid ditetrabuthylester (0.71 g, 71%).

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 8.90(s,1H), 8.18(m,2H), 7.74(t,1H), 7.68 (dd,1H), 7.49(dd,1H), 4.98(m,1H), 4.46(s,3H), 4.23(t,1H), 4.18(m,1H), 4.09(m,1H), 3.89 (dd,1H), 1.39(s,9H), 1.38(s,9H)

The crystal prepared the above method was dissolved in a mixture of methanol and chloroform. And then the solution added with 3.4 ml of sodium methoxide (0.3M methanol solution) at the room temperature and stirred for 10 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated to prepare the residue. The residue was crystallized and filtered thereby to obtain the title compound (compound 59) 300 mg.

1H NMR (D2O) δ 8.27(s,1H), 7.56(dd,2H), 7.06(m,2H), 6.90(m,1H), 4.79 (m,1H), 4.63(s,3H), 3.90(m,4H)

COMPD 72

Figure US20070155798A1-20070705-C00075

The Secondary Step

In 30 ml of methylenchloride was dissolved the compound (0.7 g) in the Primary Step. The solution was added with 15 ml of trifluoroacetic acid and then stirred for 1 hour at room temperature. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to prepare the residue. The residue was crystallized with ethanol and ethyl ether to obtain mono-[(R)-[3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]methyl]phosphate (compound 72) 400 mg.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 8.92(s,1H), 8.20(m,2H), 7.74(t,1H), 7.66(dd,1H), 7.500(dd,1H), 4.95 (m,1H), 4.46(s,3H), 4.21(t,1H), 4.05(m,2H), 3.91(dd,1H)

US20070155798

………………………………………………………

IMPURITIES

US8426389

Organic Impurities in TR-701 FA Drug Substance
Impurity
‘Name’ Structure and Chemical Name
Rx600013 ‘Des-methyl TR- 701’
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00010
dihydrogen ((5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-
yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolan-5-yl)methyl
phosphate
Rx600024 ‘Pyrophosphate’
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00011
trihydrogen ((5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3,4-
tetraazol-5-yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolan-5-
yl)methyl pyrophosphate
Rx600014 ‘Ring opened’
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00012
dihydrogen 3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3,4-tetraazol-5-
yl)-3-pyridinyl]aniline}-2-hydroxypropyl phosphate
Rx600023 ‘Me-isomer’
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00013
dihydrogen ((5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(1-methyl-1H-1,2,3,4-
tetraazol-5-yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolan-5-
yl)methyl phosphate
Rx600025 ‘Overalkylated- phosphorylated impurity’
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00014
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00015
(R)-1-((3-(3-fluoro-4-(6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-
yl)pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)-2-oxooxazolidin-5-yl)methoxy)-3-
hydroxypropan-2-yl dihydrogen phosphate;
(R)-3-((3-(3-fluoro-4-(6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-
yl)pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)-2-oxooxazolidin-5-yl)methoxy)-2-
hydroxypropyl dihydrogen phosphate
Rx600020 ‘Dimer impurity’
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00016
dihydrogen bis-O-O′-[(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-
2H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-
oxazolidin-5-yl]methyl pyrophosphate
Rx600026 “Chloro”
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00017
(R)-5-(chloromethyl)-3-(3-fluoro-4-(6-(2-methyl-2H-
tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)oxazolidin-2-one
Rx600001 TR-700
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00018
5R)-3-{3-Fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3,4-tetrazol-5-yl)-
pyridin-3-yl]-phenyl}-5-hydroxymethyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one
Rx600022 ‘Bis phosphate’
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00019
hydrogen bis-O-O′-[(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-1,2,3,4-
tetrazol-5-yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl]methyl
phosphate
Rx600042
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00020
3-{[(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-
yl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl]methoxy}-2-hydroxypropyl
[(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-
yl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl]methyl hydrogen phosphate
Rx600043
Figure US08426389-20130423-C00021
2-{[(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-
yl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl]methoxy}-1-hydroxyethyl
[(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-
yl]phenyl}-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl]methyl hydrogen phosphate

……………………………………………..

US4128654 10 Feb 1978 5 Dec 1978 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company 5-Halomethyl-3-phenyl-2-oxazolidinones
US4250318 9 Aug 1978 10 Feb 1981 Delalande S.A. Novel 5-hydroxymethyl oxazolidinones, the method of preparing them and their application in therapeutics
US4340606 23 Oct 1980 20 Jul 1982 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company 3-(p-Alkylsulfonylphenyl)oxazolidinone derivatives as antibacterial agents
US4461773 5 Jan 1984 24 Jul 1984 E. I. Dupont De Nemours And Company P-Oxooxazolidinylbenzene compounds as antibacterial agents
US4476136 24 Feb 1982 9 Oct 1984 Delalande S.A. Aminomethyl-5 oxazolidinic derivatives and therapeutic use thereof
US4948801 29 Jul 1988 14 Aug 1990 E. I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company Aminomethyloxooxazolidinyl arylbenzene derivatives useful as antibacterial agents
US5523403 22 May 1995 4 Jun 1996 The Upjohn Company Tropone-substituted phenyloxazolidinone antibacterial agents
US5565571 28 Apr 1994 15 Oct 1996 The Upjohn Company Substituted aryl- and heteroaryl-phenyloxazolidinones
US5652238 27 Sep 1994 29 Jul 1997 Pharmacia & Upjohn Company Esters of substituted-hydroxyacetyl piperazine phenyl oxazolidinones
US5688792 16 Aug 1994 18 Nov 1997 Pharmacia & Upjohn Company Substituted oxazine and thiazine oxazolidinone antimicrobials
US6365751 17 Apr 2001 2 Apr 2002 Zeneca Ltd. Antibiotic oxazolidinone derivatives
US6627646 * 17 Jul 2001 30 Sep 2003 Sepracor Inc. Norastemizole polymorphs
US6689779 18 May 2001 10 Feb 2004 Dong A Pharm. Co., Ltd. Oxazolidinone derivatives and a process for the preparation thereof
US7129259 1 Dec 2004 31 Oct 2006 Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Halogenated biaryl heterocyclic compounds and methods of making and using the same
US7141583 23 Apr 2001 28 Nov 2006 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinone derivatives with antibiotic activity
US7144911 24 Dec 2003 5 Dec 2006 Deciphera Pharmaceuticals Llc Anti-inflammatory medicaments
US7202257 6 Jul 2004 10 Apr 2007 Deciphera Pharmaceuticals, Llc Anti-inflammatory medicaments
US7396847 9 Sep 2002 8 Jul 2008 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinone and/or isoxazoline as antibacterial agents
US7462633 29 Jun 2004 9 Dec 2008 Merck & Co., Inc. Cyclopropyl group substituted oxazolidinone antibiotics and derivatives thereof
US7473699 25 Feb 2003 6 Jan 2009 Astrazeneca Ab 3-cyclyl-5-(nitrogen-containing 5-membered ring)methyl-oxazolidinone derivatives and their use as antibacterial agents
US7498350 24 Nov 2003 3 Mar 2009 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinones as antibacterial agents
US7816379 17 Dec 2004 19 Oct 2010 Dong-A Pharm. Co., Ltd. Oxazolidinone derivatives
US20020115669 29 Aug 2001 22 Aug 2002 Wiedeman Paul E. Oxazolidinone chemotherapeutic agents
US20030166620 18 May 2001 4 Sep 2003 Jae-Gul Lee Novel oxazolidinone derivatives and a process for the preparation thereof
US20040180906 24 Dec 2003 16 Sep 2004 Flynn Daniel L Anti-inflammatory medicaments
US20050038092 29 Jun 2004 17 Feb 2005 Yasumichi Fukuda Cyclopropyl group substituted oxazolidinone antibiotics and derivatives thereof
US20050107435 9 Sep 2002 19 May 2005 Gravestock Michael B. Oxazolidinone and/or isoxazoline as antibacterial agents
US20050288286 6 Jul 2004 29 Dec 2005 Flynn Daniel L Anti-inflammatory medicaments
US20060116386 24 Nov 2003 1 Jun 2006 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinones as antibacterial agents
US20060116400 24 Nov 2003 1 Jun 2006 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinone and/or isoxazoline derivatives as antibacterial agents
US20060270637 24 Feb 2004 30 Nov 2006 Astrazeneca Ab Hydroxymethyl substituted dihydroisoxazole derivatives useful as antibiotic agents
US20070155798 17 Dec 2004 5 Jul 2007 Dong-A Pharm. Co., Ltd. Novel oxazolidinone derivatives
US20070185132 29 Jun 2004 9 Aug 2007 Yasumichi Fukuda Cyclopropyl group substituted oxazolidinone antibiotics and derivatives thereo
US20070191336 23 Dec 2004 16 Aug 2007 Flynn Daniel L Anti-inflammatory medicaments
US20070203187 22 Jan 2007 30 Aug 2007 Merck & Co., Inc. Cyclopropyl group substituted oxazolidinone antibiotics and derivatives thereof
US20070208062 24 May 2005 6 Sep 2007 Astrazeneca Ab 3-(4-(2-dihydroisoxazol-3-ylpyridin-5-yl)phenyl)-5-triazol-1-ylmethyloxazolidin-2-one derivatives as mao inhibitors for the treatment of bacterial infections
US20080021012 24 May 2005 24 Jan 2008 Astrazeneca Ab 3-[4-{6-Substituted Alkanoyl Pyridin-3-Yl}-3-Phenyl]-5-(1H-1,2,3-Triazol-1-Ylmethyl)-1,3-Oxazolidin-2-Ones As Antibacterial Agents
US20080021071 24 May 2005 24 Jan 2008 Astrazeneca Ab 3-{4-(Pyridin-3-Yl) Phenyl}-5-(1H-1,2,3-Triazol-1-Ylmethyl)-1,3-Oxazolidin-2-Ones as Antibacterial Agents
US20080064689 24 May 2004 13 Mar 2008 Astrazeneca Ab 3-[4-(6-Pyridin-3-Yl)-3-Phenyl] -5-(1H-1,2,3-Triazol-1-Ylmethyl)-1,3-Oxazolidin-2-Ones as Antibacterial Agents
US20090018123 19 Jun 2006 15 Jan 2009 Milind D Sindkhedkar Oxazolidinones Bearing Antimicrobial Activity Composition and Methods of Preparation
US20090192197 16 Sep 2008 30 Jul 2009 Dong-A Pharm. Co., Ltd. Novel oxazolidinone derivatives
US20100093669 9 Oct 2009 15 Apr 2010 Trius Therapeutics Methods for preparing oxazolidinones and compositions containing them
US20100227839 3 Feb 2010 9 Sep 2010 Trius Therapeutics Crystalline form of r)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin- 5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyl oxazolidin-2-one dihydrogen phosphate
AU2004299413A1 Title not available
AU2009200606A1 Title not available
CA2549062A1 17 Dec 2004 30 Jun 2005 Chong Hwan Cho Novel oxazolidinone derivatives
CN101982468A 17 Dec 2004 2 Mar 2011 东亚制药株式会社 Novel oxazolidinone derivatives and pharmaceutical compositions comprising the derivatives
EP0312000A1 12 Oct 1988 19 Apr 1989 The Du Pont Merck Pharmaceutical Company Aminomethyl oxooxazolidinyl aroylbenzene derivatives useful as antibacterial agents
EP0352781A2 27 Jul 1989 31 Jan 1990 The Du Pont Merck Pharmaceutical Company Aminomethyloxooxazolidinyl arylbenzene derivatives useful as antibacterial agents
EP1699784A1 17 Dec 2004 13 Sep 2006 Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Novel oxazolidinone derivatives
EP2305657A2 17 Dec 2004 6 Apr 2011 Dong-A Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Oxazolidinone derivatives
EP2435051A1 27 May 2010 4 Apr 2012 Trius Therapeutics Oxazolidinone containing dimer compounds, compositions and methods to make and use
IN236862A1 Title not available
JPS5799576A Title not available
KR20110071107A Title not available
NZ547928A Title not available
NZ575842A Title not available
WO1993009103A1 5 Oct 1992 13 May 1993 Upjohn Co Substituted aryl- and heteroarylphenyloxazolidinones useful as antibacterial agents
WO1993023384A1 21 Apr 1993 25 Nov 1993 Michael Robert Barbachyn Oxazolidinones containing a substituted diazine moiety and their use as antimicrobials
WO1995007271A1 16 Aug 1994 16 Mar 1995 Michael R Barbachyn Substituted oxazine and thiazine oxazolidinone antimicrobials
WO1995014684A1 27 Sep 1994 1 Jun 1995 Michel R Barbachyn Esters of substituted-hydroxyacetyl piperazine phenyl oxazolidinones
WO2001094342A1 18 May 2001 13 Dec 2001 Cho Jong Hwan Novel oxazolidinone derivatives and a process for the preparation thereof
WO2002081470A1 3 Apr 2002 17 Oct 2002 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinones containing a sulfonimid group as antibiotics
WO2003022824A1 9 Sep 2002 20 Mar 2003 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinone and/or isoxazoline as antibacterial agents
WO2003035648A1 23 Oct 2002 1 May 2003 Astrazeneca Ab Aryl substituted oxazolidinones with antibacterial activity
WO2003047358A1 2 Dec 2002 12 Jun 2003 Vaughan Leslie Crow Cheese flavour ingredient and method of its production
WO2003072575A1 25 Feb 2003 4 Sep 2003 Astrazeneca Ab 3-cyclyl-5-(nitrogen-containing 5-membered ring) methyl-oxazolidinone derivatives and their use as antibacterial agents
WO2003072576A2 25 Feb 2003 4 Sep 2003 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinone derivatives, processes for their preparation, and pharmaceutical compositions containing them
WO2004048350A2 24 Nov 2003 10 Jun 2004 Astrazeneca Ab Oxazolidinones as antibacterial agents
WO2004083205A1 16 Mar 2004 30 Sep 2004 Astrazeneca Ab Antibacterial 1, 3- oxazolidin -2- one derivatives
WO2005005398A2 29 Jun 2004 20 Jan 2005 Yasumichi Fukuda Cyclopropyl group substituted oxazolidinone antibiotics and derivatives thereof
WO2005051933A1 23 Nov 2004 9 Jun 2005 Vijay Kumar Kaul An improved process for the synthesis of 4-(4-benzyloxy-carbonylamino-2-fluorophenyl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester, a key intermediate for oxazolidinone antimicrobials and compounds prepared thereby
WO2005058886A1 17 Dec 2004 30 Jun 2005 Dong A Pharm Co Ltd Novel oxazolidinone derivatives
WO2005116017A1 24 May 2005 8 Dec 2005 Astrazeneca Ab Process for the preparation of aryl substituted oxazolidinones as intermediates for antibacterial agents
WO2006038100A1 6 Oct 2005 13 Apr 2006 Ranbaxy Lab Ltd Oxazolidinone derivatives as antimicrobials
WO2007023507A2 19 Jun 2006 1 Mar 2007 Milind D Sindkhedkar Oxazolidinones bearing antimicrobial activity composition and methods of preparation
WO2007138381A2 13 Oct 2006 6 Dec 2007 Delorme Daniel Phosphonated oxazolidinones and uses thereof for the prevention and treatment of bone and joint infections
WO2010042887A2 9 Oct 2009 15 Apr 2010 Trius Therapeutics Methods for preparing oxazolidinones and compositions containing them
WO2010091131A1 3 Feb 2010 12 Aug 2010 Trius Therapeutics Crystalline form of r)-3-(4-(2-(2-methyltetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-5-yl)-3-fluorophenyl)-5-hydroxymethyl oxazolidin-2-one dihydrogen phosphate
WO2010138649A1 27 May 2010 2 Dec 2010 Trius Therapeutics, Inc. Oxazolidinone containing dimer compounds, compositions and methods to make and use

 

 

………………………………………………………………………………………. art    animation

ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

THANKS AND REGARD’S
DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

did you feel happy, a head to toe paralysed man’s soul in action for you round the clock

need help, email or call me

MOBILE-+91 9323115463
web link

I was  paralysed in dec2007

%d bloggers like this: