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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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GSK obtains FDA approval for bird flu vaccine


GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the first adjuvanted vaccine to prevent H5N1 influenza, also known as bird flu.

GSK obtains FDA approval for bird flu vaccine http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newsgsk-obtains-fda-approval-bird-flu-vaccine?WT.mc_id=DN_News

26 November 2013

 

 

Avian influenza A H5N1 viruses

GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) has received approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the first adjuvanted vaccine to prevent H5N1 influenza, also known as bird flu.

The FDA cleared the pandemic Influenza A (H5N1) virus monovalent vaccine, adjuvanted (also referred to as Q-Pan H5N1 influenza vaccine), for use in people aged 18 and older who are at increased risk of exposure to the virus.

The vaccine is composed of monovalent, inactivated, split A/H5N1 influenza virus antigen and GSK’s AS03 adjuvant.

The company said that in clinical studies, the adjuvanted formulation stimulated the required immune response while using a smaller amount of antigen as compared with a formulation without adjuvant.

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FDA Approves Olysio (simeprevir) for Hepatitis C Virus


Simeprevir

Inhibits HCV NS3/4A protease.

MEDIVIR … originator

launched 2013

923604-59-5  CAS

C38H47N5O7S MF

749.93908  MW

IUPAC standard name
(1R, 4R, 6S, 15R, 17R)-N-(cyclopropanesulfonyl) -17 – ({7-methoxy-8-methyl-2-[4 – (propan-2-yl) -1,3-thiazol-2 -yl] quinolin-4-yl} oxy)-13-methyl-2 ,14-dioxo-3 ,13-diazatricyclo [13.3.0.0 4 , 6 ] octadec-7-ene-4-carboxamide
IUPAC traditional name
(1R, 4R, 6S, 15R, 17R)-N-(cyclopropanesulfonyl) -17 – {[2 – (4-isopropyl-1 ,3-thiazol-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4- yl] oxy}-13-methyl-2 ,14-dioxo-3 ,13-diazatricyclo [13.3.0.0 4 , 6 ] octadec-7-ene-4-carboxamide

  • Olysio
  • Simeprevir
  • TMC 435
  • TMC 435350
  • TMC-435
  • TMC435
  • TMC435350
  • UNII-9WS5RD66HZ

November 22, 2013 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration  approved Olysio (simeprevir), a new therapy to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

OLYSIO™ is the first once-daily protease inhibitor approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a combination antiviral regimen for adults with compensated liver disease

Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. Most people infected with the hepatitis C virus have no symptoms of the disease until liver damage becomes apparent, which may take several years. Most of these people then go on to develop chronic hepatitis C. Some will also develop scarring and poor liver function (cirrhosis) over many years, which can lead to complications such as bleeding, jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections or liver cancer. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 3.2 million Americans are infected with the hepatitis C virus

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect approximately 3 percent of the worldwide population and often lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The standard therapy of pegylated- interferon and ribavirin induces serious side effects and provides viral eradication in less than 50% of patients. Combination therapy of HCV including ribavirin and interferonare currently is the approved therapy for HCV. Unfortunately, such combination therapy also produces side effects and is often poorly tolerated, resulting in major clinical challenges in a significant proportion of patients. Numerous direct acting agents (DAAs) have been or are being developed for treatment of HCV, such as telaprevir and boceprevir (both received MA approved in 2011 for use with interferon and ribavirin based therapy), however direct acting agents are linked to increased toxicity of treatment, the emergence of resistance, and to date do not provide a standard of care which is interferon free. The combination of direct acting agents can also result in drug-drug interactions. To date, no HCV therapy has been approved which is interferon free. There is therefore a need for new combination therapies which have reduced side effects, and interferon free, have a reduced emergence of resistance, reduced treatment periods and/or and enhanced cure rates.

Simeprevir (formerly TMC435) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of hepatitis C. It is being developed byMedivir and Johnson & Johnson‘s pharmaceutical division Janssen Pharmaceutica and is currently in Phase III clinical trials.[1]

Simeprevir is a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor.[2]

Simeprevir is being tested in combination regimens with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin,[3] and in interferon-free regimens with other direct-acting antiviral agents including daclatasvir[4] and sofosbuvir [5]

Simeprevir has been launched in 2013 in Japan by Janssen Pharmaceutical (JP) for use in combination with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients who are treatment naïve, prior non responders or relapsed following treatment with Peg-IFN with or without ribavirin. In 2013, the product has also been approved in the U.S. by Medivir and Janssen R&D Ireland for the oral treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection, in combination with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in adults with compensated liver disease, including cirrhosis, who are treatment-naïve or who have failed previous interferon therapy (pegylated or non-pegylated) with ribavirin.

The drug candidate was originally developed at Medivir, which was acquired by Janssen R&D Ireland in 2012. In November 2004, Medivir entered into a license and research collaboration agreement with Tibotec, a Johnson & Johnson subsidiary, for the discovery and development of orally active protease inhibitors of the NS3/4A protease of HCV. In 2011, a codevelopment agreement between Pharmasset (now Gilead Sciences) and Tibotec was signed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in combination with PSI-7977. Also in 2011, fast track designation was received in the U.S. for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype-1 infection.

In 2011, Tibotec Therapeutics, Division of Centocor Ortho Biotech Products, L.P. announced that it had changed its name to Janssen Therapeutics, Division of Janssen Products, LP.

“Hepatitis C is a complex disease and Janssen is committed to working with the HCV community, caregivers, and health care systems to address this global epidemic,” said Gaston Picchio, Hepatitis Disease Area Leader, Janssen Research & Development. “We are pleased that the FDA has granted simeprevir Priority Review, as it is a significant step forward in making this therapy available to physicians and their hepatitis C patients.”

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide.

Following initial acute infection, a majority of infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis because HCV replicates preferentially in hepatocytes but is not directly cytopathic. Chronic hepatitis can progress to liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis, end- stage liver disease, and HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), making it the leading cause of liver transplantations. This and the number of patients involved, has made HCV the focus of considerable medical research. Replication of the genome of HCV is mediated by a number of enzymes, amongst which is HCV NS3 serine protease and its associated cofactor, NS4A. NS3 serine protease is considered to be essential for viral replication and has become an attractive target for drug discovery.

Current anti-HCV therapy is based on (pegylated) interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in combination with ribavirin. Not only does this therapy result in a limited efficacy in that only part of the patients are treated successfully, but it also faces significant side effects and is poorly tolerated in many patients. Hence there is a need for further HCV inhibitors that overcome the disadvantages of current HCV therapy such as side effects, limited efficacy, poor tolerance, the emergence of resistance, as well as compliance failures.

Various agents have been described that inhibit HCV NS3 serine protease. WO05/073195 discloses linear and macrocyclic NS3 serine protease inhibitors with a central substituted proline moiety and WO 05/073216 with a central cyclopentyl moiety. Amongst these, the macrocyclic derivatives are attractive by overcoming one or more of the disadvantages of current anti-HCV therapy

Figure imgf000003_0001

(I)  simeprevir

The compound of formula (I) is an inhibitor of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serine protease and is described in WO 2007/014926, published on 8 February 2007. This compound overcomes several of the disadvantages of current anti-HCV therapy and in particular shows pronounced activity against HCV, has an attractive pharmacokinetic profile, and is well-tolerated. Following the synthesis procedure described in Example 5 of WO 2007/014926, an amorphous solid form is obtained.

It now has been found that the compound of formula (I) can be converted into crystalline forms, which can advantageously be used as active ingredients in anti-HCV therapy. To that purpose, these crystalline forms are converted into pharmaceutical formulations.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

SIMEPREVIR

Simeprevir_ molecular structure _CAS_923604-59-5)

…………………………

simeprevir

OLYSIO (simeprevir) is an inhibitor of the HCV NS3/4A protease.

The chemical name for simeprevir is (2R,3aR,10Z,11aS,12aR,14aR)-N-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-2[[2-(4-isopropyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl-4-quinolinyl]oxy]-5-methyl-4,14-dioxo2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,8,9,11a,12,13,14,14atetradecahydrocyclopenta[c]cyclopropa[g][1,6]diazacyclotetradecine-12a(1H)-carboxamide. Its molecular formula is C38H47N5O7S2 and its molecular weight is 749.94. Simeprevir has the following structural formula:

OLYSIO (simeprevir) Structural Formula Illustration

Simeprevir drug substance is a white to almost white powder. Simeprevir is practically insoluble in water over a wide pH range. It is practically insoluble in propylene glycol, very slightly soluble in ethanol, and slightly soluble inacetone. It is soluble in dichloromethane and freely soluble in some organic solvents (e.g., tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethylformamide).

OLYSIO (simeprevir) for oral administration is available as 150 mg strength hard gelatin capsules. Each capsule contains 154.4 mg of simeprevir sodium salt, which is equivalent to 150 mg of simeprevir. OLYSIO (simeprevir) capsules contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal anhydrous silica, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate and sodium lauryl sulphate. The white capsule contains gelatin and titanium dioxide (E171) and is printed with ink containing iron oxide black (E172) and shellac (E904).

……………..

Synthesis

WO2008092954A2

Example 1 : preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carboxylic acid (16)

Synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinoline (6) Step 1 : synthesis of Λ/-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (2)

Figure imgf000028_0001

1                                                                                               2

Triethylamine (42.4 mL, 302 mmol) was added to a suspension of 3-methoxy-2- methylbenzoic acid (45.6 g, 274 mmol) in dry toluene (800 mL). A clear solution was obtained. Then, dppa (65.4 mL, 302 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) was slowly added. After 1 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was successively heated at 500C for 0.5 h, at 700C for 0.5 h then at 1000C for 1 h. To this solution, t-BuOH (30.5 g, 411 mmol) in toluene (40 mL) was added at 1000C and the resulting mixture was refluxed for 7h. The solution was cooled to room temperature then successively washed with water, 0.5 N HCl, 0.5 N NaOH and brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated to give 67 g of the target product: m/z = 237 (M)+.

_2: synthesis of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (3)

Figure imgf000029_0001

TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added to a solution of jV-(teτt-butyloxycarbonyl)- 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline, in dichloro methane (500 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then, volatiles were evaporated. The residue was triturated with toluene (100 mL) and diisopropylether (250 mL), filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether (100 mL) to give 56.3 g of the title product as a TFA salt: m/z = 138 (M+H)+. The TFA salt was transformed to the free aniline by treatment with NaHCO3.

Step 3: synthesis of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (4)

Figure imgf000029_0002

A solution Of BCl3 (1.0 M, 200 mL, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 was slowly added under nitrogen to a solution of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (26.0 g, 190 mmol) in xylene (400 mL). The temperature was monitored during the addition and was kept below 100C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 5°C for 0.5 h. Then, dry acetonitrile (13 mL, 246 mmol) was added at 5°C. After 0.5 h at 5°C, the solution was transferred into a dropping funnel and slowly added at 5°C to a suspension OfAlCl3 (26.7 g, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (150 mL). After 45 min at 5°C, the reaction mixture was heated at 700C under a nitrogen stream. After evaporation Of CH2Cl2, the temperature of the reaction mixture reached 65°C. After 12 h at 65°C, the reaction mixture was cooled at 00C, poured onto ice (300 g), and slowly heated to reflux for 7h. After 2 days at room temperature, 6 N NaOH (50 mL) was added. The pH of the resulting solution was 2-3. The xylene layer was decanted. The organic layer was extracted with CH2Cl2. The xylene and CH2Cl2 layers were combined, successively washed with water, IN NaOH, and brine, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether at O0C, filtered off and washed with diisopropylether to give 13.6 g (40 %) of the title product as a yellowish solid: m/z = 180 (M+H)+.

Step 4: synthesis of 2′-[[(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3 ‘- methylacetophenone (5)

Figure imgf000030_0001

A solution of the compound 4 (18.6 g, 104 mmol) in dioxane (50 rnL) was added under nitrogen to a suspension of 4-isopropylthiazole-2-carbonyl chloride in dioxane (250 rnL). After 2 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. Then, the residue was partitioned between an aqueous solution of NaHCOs and AcOEt, organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether to give 30.8 g (90 %) of the title product 5.

Step 5: synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinoline (6)

Figure imgf000030_0002

Potassium tert-butoxide (21.8 g, 195 mmol) was added to a suspension of the compound 5 (30.8 g, 92.7 mmol) in tert-butanol. The resulting reaction mixtures was heated at 1000C overnight. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled at room temperature and diluted with ether (100 mL). The precipitate was filtered off and washed with Et2O to give a powder (fraction A). The mother liquor was concentrated in vacuo, triturated in ether, filtered off, and washed with ether to give a powder (fraction 2). Fractions 1 and 2 were mixed and poured into water (250 mL). The pH of the resulting solution was adjusted to 6-7 (control with pH paper) with HCl IN. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and dried. Then, the solid was triturated in diisopropyl ether, fϊltered off and dried to give 26 g (88%) of the compound 6 as a brownish solid: m/z = 315 (M+H)+.

Synthesis of (hex-5-enyl)(methyl)amine (8)

O CF,

FX N Br’ N O NH

H 7

(a) Sodium hydride (1.05 eq) was slowly added at 00C to a solution of JV-methyl- trifluoro-acetamide (25 g) in DMF (140 mL). The mixture was stirred for Ih at room temperature under nitrogen. Then, a solution of bromohexene (32,1 g) in DMF

(25 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was heated to 700C for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was poured on water (200 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to give 35 g of the target product 7 as a yellowish oil which was used without further purification in the next step.

(b) A solution of KOH (187.7 g) in water (130 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of 7 (35 g) in methanol (200 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for

12 hours. Then, the reaction mixture was poured on water (100 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and the ether was distilled under atmospheric pressure. The resulting oil was purified by distillation under vacuum (13 mm Hg pressure, 500C) to give 7,4 g (34 %) of the title product 8 as a colourless oil: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ 5.8 (m, IH), 5 (ddd, J = Yl 2 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1.8 Hz, IH), 4.95 (m, IH), 2.5 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.08 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.4 (m, 4H), 1.3 (br s, IH).

Preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxyl- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046loctadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid (16)

Figure imgf000031_0001

3-Oxo-2-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylic acid 9 (500 mg, 3.2 mmol) in 4 mL DMF was added at 00C to HATU (1.34 g, 3.52 mmol) and JV-methylhex-5-enylamine (435 mg, 3.84 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), followed by DIPEA. After stirring for 40 min at 00C, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated, the residue dissolved in EtOAc (70 rnL) and washed with saturated NaHCOs (IO mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated NaCl (20 mL), dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (EtO Ac/petroleum ether, 2:1) afforded 550 mg (68%) of the target product 10 as a colorless oil: m/z = 252 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000032_0001

A solution of LiOH (105 mg in 4 mlof water) was added at 00C to the lactone amide 10. After Ih, the conversion was completed (HPLC). The mixture was acidified to pH 2 – 3 with IN HCl, extracted with AcOEt, dried (MgSO4), evaporated, co-evaporated with toluene several times, and dried under high vacuum overnight to give 520 mg (88%) of the target product 11: m/z = 270 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000032_0002

The l-(amino)-2-(vinyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride 12

(4.92 g, 31.7 mmol) and HATU (12.6 g, 33.2 mmol) were added to 11 (8.14 g,

30.2 mmol). The mixture was cooled in an ice bath under argon, and then DMF (100 mL) and DIPEA (12.5 mL, 11.5 mmol) were successively added. After 30 min at 00C, the solution was stirred at room temperature for an additional 3 h. Then, the reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and water, washed successively with 0.5 N HCl (20 mL) and saturated NaCl (2 x 20 mL), and dried (Na2SO4). Purification by flash chromatography (AcOEt/CH2Cl2/Petroleum ether, 1 :1 :1) afforded 7.41 g (60%) of the target product 13 as a colorless oil: m/z = 407 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000033_0001

DIAD (1.02 niL, 5.17 mmol) was added at -15°C under nitrogen atmosphere to a solution of 13 (1.5 g, 3.69 mmol), quinoline 6 (1.39 g, 4.43 mmol) and triphenyl- phosphine (1.26 g, 4.80 mmol) in dry THF (40 mL). After 4.5 h, at -15°C, the reaction mixture was partitioned between ice-cold water and AcOEt, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The crude material was purified by flash column chromatography (gradient of petroleum AcOEt/CH2Cl2, 1 :9 to 2:8) to give 1.45 g (56 %) of the target product 14: m/z = 703 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000033_0002

A solution of 14 (1.07 g, 1.524 mmol) and Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st generation catalyst (33 mg, 0.03 eq) in dried and degassed 1 ,2-dichloroethane (900 mL) was heated at 75°C under nitrogen for 12 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (25% EtOAc in CH2Cl2). 620 mg (60%) of pure macrocycle 15 were obtained, m/z = 674 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.18-1.39 (m, 12H), 1.59 (m, IH), 1.70-2.08 (m, 5H), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.62 (m, 2H), 2.68 (s, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.06 (s, 3H), 3.19 (sept, J= 6.7 Hz, IH), 3.36 (m, IH), 3.83 (m, IH), 3.97 (s, 3H), 4.09 (m, 2H), 4.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 14 Hz, IH), 5.19 (dd, J= 4 Hz,

10 Hz, IH), 5.31 (m, IH), 5.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 8 Hz, IH), 7.00 (s, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.46

(d, J= 9 Hz, IH), 7.48 (s, IH), 8.03 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH).

Figure imgf000034_0001

A solution of lithium hydroxide (1.65 g, 38.53 mmol) in water (15 rnL) was added to a stirred solution of ester 15 (620 mg, 0.920 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and MeOH (20 mL). After 16 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with NH4Cl sat., concentrated under reduced pressure, acidified to pH 3 with HCl IN and extracted with CH2Cl2, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated to give 560 mg (88%) of carboxylic acid 16. m/z = 647 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.11-1.40 (m, 8H), 1.42-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.88-2.00 (m, 2H), 2.13 (m, IH), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.40 (m, IH), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.67 (s, 3H), 2.81 (m, IH), 2.97 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.31 (m, IH), 3.71 (m, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.56 (dt, J= 4 Hz, 12 Hz, IH), 5.23 (m, 2H), 5.66 (m, IH), 7.01 (s, IH), 7.10 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= IO Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 8.00 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH).

Example 2: Preparation of Λ/-[17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carbonyll(cvclopropyl)sulfonamide (17) SIMEPREVIR

Figure imgf000035_0001

A solution of the compound 16 (560mg, 0.867 mmol) prepared according to Example 4, and carbonyldiimidazole (308 mg, 1.90 mmol) in dry THF (10 mL) was stirred at reflux under nitrogen for 2h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and cyclopropylsulfonamide (400 mg, 3.301 mmol) and DBU (286 mg, 1.881 mmol) were added. This solution was heated at 500C for 15 h. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled down at room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was partitioned between CH2Cl2 and HCl 1 N, the organic layer was washed with brine, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (gradient of EtOAc (0 to 25%) in CH2Cl2) afforded 314 mg of an off-white solid which was further washed with water, then isopropylether, and dried in the vacuum oven to deliver 282 mg (40%) of the pure title product 17, which is the compound of formula (I)  SIMEPREVIR , as a white powder: m/z = 750 (M+H)+.

1H NMR (CDCl3): 0.99-1.52 (m, 14H), 1.64-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.77 (m, IH), 2.41 (m, 2H), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.69 (s, 3H), 2.92 (m, 2H), 3.04 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.40 (m, 2H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 4.60 (t, J= 13 Hz, IH), 5.04 (t, J= 11 Hz, IH), 5.37 (m, IH), 5.66 (m, IH), 6.21 (s, IH), 7.02 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= IO Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 7.99 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 10.82 (broad s, IH).

…………………

SYNTHESIS

WO2007014926A1

 

Example 4: preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy] – 13 -methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3 , 13 -diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carboxylic acid (46) FREE ACID

Synthesis of 4-hvdroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinoline (36) Step 1: synthesis of iV-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (32)

 

Figure imgf000071_0002

31 32

Triethylamine (42.4 mL, 302 mmol) was added to a suspension of 3-methoxy-2- methylbenzoic acid (45.6 g, 274 mmol) in dry toluene (800 mL). A clear solution was obtained. Then, dppa (65.4 mL, 302 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) was slowly added. After 1 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was successively heated at 50°C for 0.5 h, at 70°C for 0.5 h then at 100°C for 1 h. To this solution, t-BuOH (30.5 g, 411 mmol) in toluene (40 mL) was added at 100°C and the resulting mixture was refluxed for 7h. The solution was cooled to room temperature then successively washed with water, 0.5 N HCl, 0.5 N NaOH and brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated to give 67 g of the target product: m/z = 237 (M)+.

Step 2: synthesis of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (33)

 

Figure imgf000072_0001

TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added to a solution of iV-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3- methoxy-2-methylaniline, in dichloromethane (500 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then, volatiles were evaporated. The residue was triturated with toluene (100 mL) and diisopropylether (250 mL), filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether (100 mL) to give 56.3 g of the title product as a TFA salt: m/z = 138 (M+H)+. The TFA salt was transformed to the free aniline by treatment with NaHCO3.

Step 3: synthesis of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (34)

 

Figure imgf000072_0002

A solution OfBCl3 (1.0 M, 200 mL, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 was slowly added under nitrogen to a solution of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (26.0 g, 190 mmol) in xylene (400 mL). The temperature was monitored during the addition and was kept below 10°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 5°C for 0.5 h. Then, dry acetonitrile (13 mL, 246 mmol) was added at 5°C. After 0.5 h at 5°C, the solution was transferred into a dropping funnel and slowly added at 5°C to a suspension OfAlCl3 (26.7 g, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (150 mL). After 45 min at 5°C, the reaction mixture was heated at 70°C under a nitrogen stream. After evaporation Of CH2Cl2, the temperature of the reaction mixture reached 65°C. After 12 h at 65°C, the reaction mixture was cooled at 0°C, poured onto ice (300 g), and slowly heated to reflux for 7h. After 2 days at room temperature, 6 N NaOH (50 mL) was added. The pH of the resulting solution was 2-3. The xylene layer was decanted. The organic layer was extracted with CH2Cl2. The xylene and CH2Cl2 layers were combined, successively washed with water, IN NaOH, and brine, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether at O0C, filtered off and washed with diisopropylether to give 13.6 g (40 %) of the title product as a yellowish solid: m/z = 180 (M+H)+.

Step 4: synthesis of 2′-[[(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3 ‘- methylacetophenone (35)

 

Figure imgf000073_0001

A solution of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (18.6 g, 104 mmol) in dioxane (50 mL) was added under nitrogen to a suspension of 4-isopropylthiazole-2- carbonyl chloride in dioxane (250 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. Then, the residue was partitioned between an aqueous solution OfNaHCO3and AcOEt, organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether to give 30.8 g (90 %) of the title product 35.

Step 5: synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinoline (36)

 

Figure imgf000073_0002

Potassium tert-butoxide (21.8 g, 195 mmol) was added to a suspension of 2′-[[(4-iso- propylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3′-methylacetophenone (35, 30.8 g, 92.7 mmol) in tert-butanol. The resulting reaction mixtures was heated at 100°C overnight. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled at room temperature and diluted with ether (100 mL). The precipitate was filtered off and washed with Et2O to give a powder (fraction A). The mother liquor was concentrated in vacuo, triturated in ether, filtered off, and washed with ether to give a powder (fraction 2). Fractions 1 and 2 were mixed and poured into water (250 mL). The pH of the resulting solution was adjusted to 6-7 (control with pH paper) with HCl IN. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and dried. Then, the solid was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and dried to give 26 g (88%) of the title product 36 as a brownish solid: m/z = 315 (M+H)+.

Synthesis of (hex-5-enyl)(methyl)amine (38)

 

Figure imgf000074_0001

Sodium hydride (1.05 eq) was slowly added at 0°C to a solution of iV-methyltrifluoro- acetamide (25 g) in DMF (140 mL). The mixture was stirred for Ih at room temperature under nitrogen. Then, a solution of bromohexene (32,1 g) in DMF (25 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was heated to 70°C for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was poured on water (200 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to give 35 g of the target product 37 as a yellowish oil which was used without further purification in the next step.

Step B:

A solution of potassium hydroxide (187.7 g) in water (130 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of 37 (35 g) in methanol (200 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. Then, the reaction mixture was poured on water (100 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and the ether was distilled under atmospheric pressure. The resulting oil was purified by distillation under vacuum (13 mm Hg pressure, 50°C) to give 7,4 g (34 %) of the title product 38 as a colourless oil: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ 5.8 (m, IH), 5 (ddd, J= 17.2 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1.8 Hz, IH), 4.95 (m, IH), 2.5 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.08 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.4 (m, 4H), 1.3 (br s, IH).

Preparation of 17-r2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxyl-

13-methyl-2,14-dioxo-3,13-diazatricvclori3.3.0.046loctadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid

£46}

 

Figure imgf000074_0002

3-Oxo-2-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylic acid 39 (500 mg, 3.2 mmol) in 4 mlDMF was added at 0°C to HATU (1.34 g, 3.52 mmol) and iV-methylhex-5- enylamine (435 mg, 3.84 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), followed by DIPEA. After stirring for 40 min at 0°C, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated, the residue dissolved in EtOAc (70 mL) and washed with saturated NaHCO3 (10 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated NaCl (20 mL), dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (EtOAc/petroleum ether, 2:1) afforded 550 mg (68%) of the target product 40 as a colorless oil: m/z = 252 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000075_0001

A solution of LiOH (105 mg in 4 mlof water) was added at 0°C to the lactone amide 40. After Ih, the conversion was completed (HPLC). The mixture was acidified to pH 2 – 3 with IN HCl, extracted with AcOEt, dried (MgSO4), evaporated, co-evaporated with toluene several times, and dried under high vacuum overnight to give 520 mg (88%) of the target product 41: m/z = 270 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000075_0002

The l-(amino)-2-(vinyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride 42 (4.92 g, 31.7 mmol) and HATU (12.6 g, 33.2 mmol) were added to 41 (8.14 g, 30.2 mmol). The mixture was cooled in an ice bath under argon, and then DMF (100 mL) and DIPEA (12.5 mL, 11.5 mmol) were successively added. After 30 min at 0°C, the solution was stirred at room temperature for an additional 3 h. Then, the reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and water, washed successively with 0.5 N HCl (20 mL) and saturated NaCl (2 x 20 mL), and dried (Na2SO4). Purification by flash chromatography (AcOEt/CH2Cl2/Petroleum ether, 1:1:1) afforded 7.41 g (60%) of the target product 43 as a colorless oil: m/z = 407 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000076_0001

DIAD (1.02 mL, 5.17 mmol) was added at -15°C under nitrogen atmosphere to a solution of 43 (1.5 g, 3.69 mmol), quinoline 36 (1.39 g, 4.43 mmol) and triphenyl- phosphine (1.26 g, 4.80 mmol) in dry THF (40 mL). After 4.5 h, at -15°C, the reaction mixture was partitioned between ice-cold water and AcOEt, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The crude material was purified by flash column chromatography (gradient of petroleum AcOEt/CH2Cl2, 1 :9 to 2:8) to give 1.45 g (56 %) of the target product 44: m/z = 703 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000076_0002

A solution of 44 (1.07 g, 1.524 mmol) and Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st generation catalyst (33 mg, 0.03 eq) in dried and degassed 1,2-dichloroethane (900 mL) was heated at 75°C under nitrogen for 12 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (25% EtOAc in CH2Cl2). 620 mg (60%) of pure macrocycle 45 were obtained, m/z = 674 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.18-1.39 (m, 12H), 1.59 (m, IH), 1.70-2.08 (m, 5H), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.62 (m, 2H), 2.68 (s, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.06 (s, 3H), 3.19 (sept, J= 6.7 Hz, IH), 3.36 (m, IH), 3.83 (m, IH), 3.97 (s, 3H), 4.09 (m, 2H), 4.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 14 Hz, IH), 5.19 (dd, J= 4 Hz, 10 Hz, IH), 5.31 (m, IH), 5.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 8 Hz, IH), 7.00 (s, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.46 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH), 7.48 (s, IH), 8.03 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH).

Step F

 

Figure imgf000077_0001

A solution of lithium hydroxide (1.65 g, 38.53 mmol) in water (15 mL) was added to a stirred solution of ester 45 (620 mg, 0.920 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and MeOH (20 mL). After 16 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with NH4Cl sat., concentrated under reduced pressure, acidified to pH 3 with HCl IN and extracted with CH2Cl2, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated to give 560 mg (88%) of carboxylic acid 46. m/z = 647 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.11-1.40 (m, 8H), 1.42-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.88-2.00 (m, 2H), 2.13 (m, IH), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.40 (m, IH), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.67 (s, 3H), 2.81 (m, IH), 2.97 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.31 (m, IH), 3.71 (m, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.56 (dt, J= 4 Hz, 12 Hz, IH), 5.23 (m, 2H), 5.66 (m, IH), 7.01 (s, IH), 7.10 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 8.00 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH).

 

Example 5: Preparation of JV-ri7-r2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinolin-4- yloxyl – 13 -methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3 , 13 -diazatricyclol 13.3.0.046loctadec- 7-ene-4-carbonyll (cvclopropyPsulfonamide (47) SIMEPREVIR

 

Figure imgf000078_0001

A solution of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[l 3.3.0.04,6]octadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid 46 (560mg, 0.867 mmol) prepared according to Example 4, and carbonyldiimidazole (308 mg, 1.90 mmol) in dry THF (10 mL) was stirred at reflux under nitrogen for 2h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and cyclopropylsulfonamide (400 mg, 3.301 mmol) and DBU (286 mg, 1.881 mmol) were added. This solution was heated at 50°C for 15 h. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled down at room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was partitioned between CH2CI2 and HCl 1 N, the organic layer was washed with brine, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (gradient of EtOAc (0 to 25%) in CH2CI2) afforded 314 mg of an off-white solid which was further washed with water, then isopropylether, and dried in the vacuum oven to deliver 282 mg (40%) of the pure title product 47  SIMEPREVIR as a white powder: m/z = 750 (M+H)+.

1H NMR (CDCl3): 0.99-1.52 (m, 14H), 1.64-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.77 (m, IH), 2.41 (m, 2H), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.69 (s, 3H), 2.92 (m, 2H), 3.04 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.40 (m, 2H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 4.60 (t, J= 13 Hz, IH), 5.04 (t, J= 11 Hz, IH), 5.37 (m, IH), 5.66 (m, IH), 6.21 (s, IH), 7.02 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 7.99 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 10.82 (broad s, IH).

…………………..

REFERENCES

  1.  “Medivir Announces That Simeprevir (TMC435) Data Will Be Presented at the Upcoming AASLD Meeting”. Yahoo News. October 1, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  2.  Lin, TI; Lenz, O; Fanning, G; Verbinnen, T; Delouvroy, F; Scholliers, A; Vermeiren, K; Rosenquist, A et al. (2009). “In vitro activity and preclinical profile of TMC435350, a potent hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor”Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 53 (4): 1377–85. doi:10.1128/AAC.01058-08PMC 2663092PMID 19171797|displayauthors= suggested (help)
  3.  “Phase 3 Studies Show Simeprevir plus Interferon/Ribavirin Cures Most Patients in 24 Weeks”. hivandhepatitis.com. December 27, 2012.
  4.  Medivir announces TMC435 in an expanded clinical collaboration. Medivir. 18 April 2012.
  5.  Results from a phase IIa study evaluating Simeprevir and Sofosbuvir in prior null responder Hepatitis C patients have been presented at CROI. 6 March 2013.
  6. TMC-435350
    Drugs Fut 2009, 34(7): 545
  7. Structure-activity relationship study on a novel series of cyclopentane-containing macrocyclic inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease leading to the discovery of TMC435350
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008, 18(17): 4853
  8. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure trans-3,4-substituted cyclopentanols by enzymatic resolution
    Acta Chem Scand (1989) 1992, 46: 1127

PATENTS

  1. WO 2008092954
  2. WO 2007014926
  3. WO 2008092955
  4. WO 2000009543
  5. CN 102531932
  6. WO 2013061285
  7. WO 2011113859
  8. WO 2013041655
WO2010097229A2 * 26 Feb 2010 2 Sep 2010 Ortho-Mcneil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc Amorphous salt of a macrocyclic inhibitor of hcv
WO2013037705A2 * 7 Sep 2012 21 Mar 2013 Fovea Pharmaceuticals Aniline derivatives,their preparation and their therapeutic application
WO2005073195A2 * 28 Jan 2005 11 Aug 2005 Per-Ola Johansson Hcv ns-3 serine protease inhibitors
WO2007014926A1 * 28 Jul 2006 8 Feb 2007 Tibotec Pharm Ltd Macrocyclic inhibitors of hepatitis c virus

The compound ritonavir, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and methods for its preparation are described in WO94/14436. For preferred dosage forms of ritonavir, see US6,037, 157, and the documents cited therein: US5,484, 801, US08/402,690, and WO95/07696 and WO95/09614. Ritonavir has the following formula:

Figure imgf000060_0001

Bayer, Onyx win early FDA OK for Nexavar (sorafenib) in thyroid cancer


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration said on Friday it has expanded the approved use of the cancer drug Nexavar to include late-stage differentiated thyroid cancer.

Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer, the FDA said. The National Cancer Institute estimates that 60,220 people in the United States will be diagnosed with it and 1,850 will die from the disease in 2013.

The drug, made by Germany’s Bayer AG and Onyx Pharmaceuticals, is already approved to treat advanced kidney cancer and liver cancer that cannot be surgically removed. Onyx was acquired by Amgen Inc earlier this year.

 

READ ABOUT SORAFENIB IN MY EARLIER BLOGPOST

https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/2013/07/16/nexavar-sorafenib/

European Commission Approves Gilead’s VitektaTM, an Integrase Inhibitor for the Treatment of HIV-1 Infection


Elvitegravir

697761-98-1 CAS

FOSTER CITY, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Nov. 18, 2013– Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) today announced that the European Commission has granted marketing authorization for VitektaTM (elvitegravir 85 mg and 150 mg) tablets, an integrase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults without known mutations associated with resistance to elvitegravir. Vitekta is indicated for use as part of HIV treatment regimens that include a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor.http://www.pharmalive.com/eu-oks-gileads-vitekta Vitekta interferes with HIV replication by blocking the virus from integrating into the genetic material of human cells. In clinical trials, Vitekta was effective in suppressing HIV among patients with drug-resistant strains of HIV.http://www.pharmalive.com/eu-oks-gileads-vitekta

Elvitegravir (EVG, formerly GS-9137) is a drug used for the treatment of HIV infection. It acts as an integrase inhibitor. It was developed[1] by the pharmaceutical company Gilead Sciences, which licensed EVG from Japan Tobacco in March 2008.[2][3][4] The drug gained approval by U.S. Food and Drug Administration on August 27, 2012 for use in adult patients starting HIV treatment for the first time as part of the fixed dose combination known as Stribild.[5]

According to the results of the phase II clinical trial, patients taking once-daily elvitegravir boosted by ritonavir had greater reductions in viral load after 24 weeks compared to individuals randomized to receive a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor.[6]

 Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the causative agent of acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome (AIDS).  After over 26 years of efforts, there is still not a therapeutic cure or an effective vaccine against HIV/AIDS.  The clinical management of HIV-1 infected people largely relies on antiretroviral therapy (ART).  Although highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has provided an effective way to treat AIDS patients, the huge burden of ART in developing countries, together with the increasing incidence of drug resistant viruses among treated people, calls for continuous efforts for the development of anti-HIV-1 drugs.  Currently, four classes of over 30 licensed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and combination regimens of these ARVs are in use clinically including: reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs) (e.g. nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NRTIs; and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, NNRTIs), protease inhibitors (PIs), integrase inhibitors and entry inhibitors (e.g. fusion inhibitors and CCR5 antagonists).

  1.  Gilead Press Release Phase III Clinical Trial of Elvitegravir July 22, 2008
  2.  Gilead Press Release Gilead and Japan Tobacco Sign Licensing Agreement for Novel HIV Integrase Inhibitor March 22, 2008
  3.  Shimura K, Kodama E, Sakagami Y, et al. (2007). “Broad Anti-Retroviral Activity and Resistance Profile of a Novel Human Immunodeficiency Virus Integrase Inhibitor, Elvitegravir (JTK-303/GS-9137)”J Virol 82 (2): 764. doi:10.1128/JVI.01534-07PMC 2224569PMID 17977962.
  4.  Stellbrink HJ (2007). “Antiviral drugs in the treatment of AIDS: what is in the pipeline ?”. Eur. J. Med. Res. 12 (9): 483–95. PMID 17933730.
  5.  Sax, P. E.; Dejesus, E.; Mills, A.; Zolopa, A.; Cohen, C.; Wohl, D.; Gallant, J. E.; Liu, H. C.; Zhong, L.; Yale, K.; White, K.; Kearney, B. P.; Szwarcberg, J.; Quirk, E.; Cheng, A. K.; Gs-Us-236-0102 Study, T. (2012). “Co-formulated elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir versus co-formulated efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir for initial treatment of HIV-1 infection: A randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial, analysis of results after 48 weeks”.The Lancet 379 (9835): 2439–2448. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60917-9PMID 22748591edit
  6.  Thaczuk, Derek and Carter, Michael. ICAAC: Best response to elvitegravir seen when used with T-20 and other active agents Aidsmap.com. 19 Sept. 2007.

 

 The life cycle of HIV-1.  1. HIV-1 gp120 binds to CD4 and co-receptor CCR5/CXCR4 on target cell; 2. HIV-1 gp41 mediates fusion with target cell; 3. Nucleocapsid containing viral genome and enzymes enters cells; 4. Viral genome and enzymes are released; 5. Viral reverse transcriptase catalyzes reverse transcription of ssRNA, forming RNA-DNA hybrids; 6. RNA template is degraded by ribonuclease H followed by the synthesis of HIV dsDNA; 7. Viral dsDNA is transported into the nucleus and integrated into the host chromosomal DNA by the viral integrase enzyme; 8. Transcription of proviral DNA into genomic ssRNA and mRNAs formation after processing; 9. Viral RNA is exported to cytoplasm; 10. Synthesis of viral precursor proteins under the catalysis of host-cell ribosomes; 11. Viral protease cleaves the precursors into viral proteins; 12. HIV ssRNA and proteins assemble under host cell membrane, into which gp120 and gp41 are inserted; 13. Membrane of host-cell buds out, forming the viral envelope; 14. Matured viral particle is released

Elvitegravir, also known as GS 9137 or JTK 303, is an investigational new drug and a novel oral integrase inhibitor that is being evaluated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. After HIVs genetic material is deposited inside a cell, its RNA must be converted (reverse transcribed) into DNA. A viral enzyme called integrase then helps to hide HIVs DNA inside the cell’s DNA. Once this happens, the cell can begin producing genetic material for new viruses. Integrase inhibitors, such as elvitegravir, are designed to block the activity of the integrase enzyme and to prevent HIV DNA from entering healthy cell DNA. Elvitegravir has the chemical name: 6-(3-chloro-2-fluorobenzyl)-1-[(S)-1 -hydroxy -methyl-2- methylpropyl]-7-methoxy-4-oxo-1, 4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid and has the following structural formula:

Figure imgf000002_0001

WO 2000040561 , WO 2000040563 and WO 2001098275 disclose 4-oxo-1 , 4-dihydro-3- quinoline which is useful as antiviral agents. WO2004046115 provides certain 4- oxoquinoline compounds that are useful as HIV Integrase inhibitors.

US 7176220 patent discloses elvitegravir, solvate, stereoisomer, tautomer, pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or pharmaceutical composition containing them and their method of treatment. The chemistry involved in the above said patent is depicted below in the Scheme A. Scheme-A

Toluene, DIPEA

SOCl2 ,COCl (S)-(+)-Valinol

Toluene

Figure imgf000003_0001

,4-Difluoro-5-iodo- benzoic acid

Figure imgf000003_0003
Figure imgf000003_0002

THF

dichlorobis(triphenylphosphine)

palladium argon stream,

Figure imgf000003_0004

Elvitegravir Form ] Elvitegravir (residue) US 7635704 patent discloses certain specific crystalline forms of elvitegravir. The specific crystalline forms are reported to have superior physical and chemical stability compared to other physical forms of the compound. Further, process for the preparation of elvitegravir also disclosed and is depicted below in the Scheme B. The given processes involve the isolation of the intermediates at almost all the stages.

Scheme B

2,

Figure imgf000004_0001

Zn THF,

CK Br THF CU “ZnBr dιchlorobis(trιphenylphos

phine)palladium

Figure imgf000004_0002

Elvitegravir WO 2007102499 discloses a compound which is useful as an intermediate for the synthesis of an anti-HIV agent having an integrase-inhibiting activity; a process for production of the compound; and a process for production of an anti-HIV agent using the intermediate.

WO 2009036161 also discloses synthetic processes and synthetic intermediates that can be used to prepare 4-oxoquinolone compounds having useful integrase inhibiting properties.

The said processes are tedious in making and the purity of the final compound is affected because of the number of steps, their isolation, purification etc., thus, there is a need for new synthetic methods for producing elvitegravir which process is cost effective, easy to practice, increase the yield and purity of the final compound, or that eliminate the use of toxic or costly reagents.

US Patent No 7176220 discloses Elvitegravir, solvate, stereoisomer, tautomer, pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof or pharmaceutical composition containing them and ■ their method of treatment. US Patent No 7635704 discloses Elvitegravir Form II, Form III and processes for their preparation. The process for the preparation of Form Il disclosed in the said patent is mainly by three methods – a) dissolution of Elvitegravir followed by seeding with Form II, b) recrystallisation of Elvitegravir, and c) anti-solvent method.

The process for the preparation of Form III in the said patent is mainly by three methods – a) dissolution of Form Il in isobutyl acetate by heating followed by cooling the reaction mass, b) dissolution of Form Il in isobutyl acetate by heating followed by seeding with Form III, and c) dissolving Form Il in 2-propanol followed by seeding with Form III.

Amorphous materials are becoming more prevalent in the pharmaceutical industry. In order to overcome the solubility and potential bioavailability issues, amorphous solid forms are becoming front-runners. Of special importance is the distinction between amorphous and crystalline forms, as they have differing implications on drug substance stability, as well as drug product stability and efficacy.

An estimated 50% of all drug molecules used in medicinal therapy are administered as salts. A drug substance often has certain suboptimal physicochemical or biopharmaceutical properties that can be overcome by pairing a basic or acidic drug molecule with a counter- ion to create a salt version of the drug. The process is a simple way to modify the properties of a drug with ionizable functional groups to overcome undesirable features of the parent drug. Salt forms of drugs have a large effect on the drugs’ quality, safety, and performance. The properties of salt-forming species significantly affect the pharmaceutical properties of a drug and can greatly benefit chemists and formulators in various facets of drug discovery and development.

Figure imgf000020_0003

chemical synthesis from a carboxylic acid 1 starts after conversion to the acid chloride iodide NIS 2 , and with three condensation 4 . 4 and the amino alcohol 5 addition-elimination reaction occurs 6 , 6 off under alkaline conditions with TBS protected hydroxy get the ring 7 , 7 and zinc reagent 8 Negishi coupling occurs to get 9 , the last 9 hydrolysis and methoxylated

Egypt for Raltegravir (Elvitegravir) -2012 August of anti-AIDS drugs approved by the FDA

Elvitegravir dimer impurity, WO2011004389A2

Isolation of 1-[(2S)-1-({3-carboxy-6-(3-chloro-2-fluorobenzyl)-1 -[(2S)-I- hydroxy-3-methylbutan-2-yl]-4-oxo-1 , 4-dihydroquinolin-7-yl}oxy)-3- methylbutan-2-yl 6-(3-chloro-2-fluorobenzyl)-7-methoxy-4-oxo-1 , 4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (elvitegravir dimer impurity, 13)

After isolation of the elvitegravir from the mixture of ethyl acetate-hexane, solvent from the filtrate was removed under reduced pressure. The resultant residue purified by column chromatography using a mixture of ethyl acetate-hexane (gradient, 20-80% EtOAc in hexane) as an eluent. Upon concentration of the required fractions, a thick solid was obtained which was further purified on slurry washing with ethyl acetate to get pure elvitegravir dimer impurity (13). The 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectral data complies with proposed structure.

Figure imgf000041_0001

1H-NMR (DMSO-Cf6, 300 MHz, ppm) – δ 0.79 (m, d=6.3 Hz, 6H, 20 & 2O’)\ 1.18 & 1.20 (d, J=6.3 Hz & J=6.2 Hz, 6H, 21 & 21′)1, 2.42-2.49 (m, 2H, 19 & 19′), 3.81-3.89 (m, 3H, T & 17’Ha), 3.94-4.01 (m, 1 H, 17’Hb), 4.01 (s, 3H, 23), 4.11 (s, 2H, 7), 4.83-4.85 (m, 3H, 17 & 18′), 5.22 (t, J=4.7 Hz, 1H, OH), 5.41-5.44 (m, 1 H, 18), 6.73-6.78 (t, J=7.1 Hz, 1 H, 11)1‘ 2, 6.92-6.98 (t, J=8.0 Hz, 1H, 3′) 12, 7.12-7.22 (m, 2H, 1 & 3), 7.34-7.39 (m, 1H, 2′),

7.45-7.48 (m, 1 H, 2), 7.49, 7.56 (s, 2H, 15 & 15′), 7.99, 8.02 (s, 2H, 9 & 9′), 8.89, 9.01 (s, 2H, 13 & 13′), 15.30, 15.33 (s, 2H, COOH’ & COOH”).

13C-NMR (DMSO-Cf6, 75 MHz, ppm)- δ 18.87, 19.03 (2OC, 20’C), 19.11 , 19.24 (21 C, 21 ‘C), 27.94 (7’C), 28.40 (7C), 28.91 , 30.08 (19C, 19’C), 56.80(23C), 60.11 (171C), 63.59 (18C), 66.52 (18’C), 68.53 (17C), 97.86, 98.97 (15, 15′), 107.43, 108.16 (12C, 12’C),

118.77, 119.38 (1OC, 10’C), 119.57 (d, J=17.6 Hz, 41C), 119.61 (d, J=17.9 Hz, 4C),

124.88 (d, J=4.3 Hz, 31C), 125.18 (d, J=4.2 Hz, 3C), 126.59, 126.96 (9C1 9’C), 127.14 (8’C), 127.62 (d, J=15.9 Hz, 61C), 127.73 (8C), 127.99 (d, J=15.2 Hz, 6C), 128.66 (2’C),

128.84 (11C), 128.84 (2C), 130.03 (d, J=3.4 Hz, 1C), 142.14, 142.44 (14C, 14’C), 144.37, 145.56 (13C, 131C), 155.24 (d, J=245.1 Hz, 5’C)1 155.61 (d, J=245.1 Hz, 5C),

160.17 (16’C), 162.04 (16C), 166.00, 166.14 (22C, 22’C), 176.17, 176.22 (11C, 111C).

DIP MS: m/z (%)- 863 [M+H]+, 885 [M+Na]+.

Europace Publishes Data Supporting Use Of BRINAVESS™ (Vernakalant) As A First Line Agent For Pharmacological Cardioversion Of Atrial Fibrillation


Vernakalant, MK-6621, RSD 1235

(3R)-1-{(1R,2R)-2-[2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)
ethoxy]cyclohexyl}pyrrolidin-3-ol

C20H31NO4 ,  349.47, Brinavess , Kynapid

cas no 794466-70-9 
748810-28-8 (HCl)

EMA:Link  click here

PATENT   WO 2004099137

VANCOUVER, Nov. 21, 2013 /PRNewswire/ – Cardiome Pharma Corp. (NASDAQ: CRME / TSX: COM) today announced that a publication titled, Pharmacological Cardioversion of Atrial Fibrillation with Vernakalant: Evidence in Support of the ESC Guidelines, was published in Europace, the official Journal of the European Heart Rhythm Association, and was made available in the advanced online article access section. The authors conclude that BRINAVESS is an efficacious and rapid acting pharmacological cardioversion agent, for recent-onset atrial fibrillation (AF,) that can be used first line in patients with little or no underlying cardiovascular disease and in patients with moderate disease, such as stable coronary and hypertensive heart disease.

http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/europace-publishes-data-supporting-use-of-brinavess-vernakalant-as-a-first-line-agent-for-pharmacological-cardioversion-of-atrial-fibrillation-232816731.html

Vernakalant (INN; codenamed RSD1235, proposed tradenames Kynapid and Brinavess) is an investigational drug under regulatory review for the acute conversion of atrial fibrillation. It was initially developed by Cardiome Pharma, and the intravenous formulation has been bought for further development by Merck in April 2009.[1] In September 2012, Merck terminated its agreements with Cardiom and has consequently returned all rights of the drug back to Cardiom.

On 11 December 2007, the Cardiovascular and Renal Drugs Advisory Committee of the USFood and Drug Administration (FDA) voted to recommend the approval of vernakalant,[2]but in August 2008 the FDA judged that additional information was necessary for approval.[1] The drug was approved in Europe on 1 September 2010.[3]

An oral formulation underwent Phase II clinical trials between 2005 and 2008.[4][5]

Like other class III antiarrhythmics, vernakalant blocks atrial potassium channels, thereby prolonging repolarization. It differs from typical class III agents by blocking a certain type of potassium channel, the cardiac transient outward potassium current, with increased potency as the heart rate increases. This means that it is more effective at high heart rates, while other class III agents tend to lose effectiveness under these circumstances. It also slightly blocks the hERG potassium channel, leading to a prolonged QT interval. This may theoretically increase the risk of ventricular tachycardia, though this does not seem to be clinically relevant.[6]

The drug also blocks atrial sodium channels.[6]

  1.  “Merck and Cardiome Pharma Sign License Agreement for Vernakalant, an Investigational Drug for Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation”. FierceBiotech. 9 April 2009. Retrieved 12 October 2010.
  2.  “FDA Advisory Committee Recommends Approval of Kynapid for Acute Atrial Fibrillation”. Drugs.com. Retrieved 2008-03-15.
  3.  “BRINAVESS (vernakalant) for Infusion Approved in the European Union for Rapid Conversion of Recent Onset Atrial Fibrillation” (Press release). Merck & Co., Inc. 1 September 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
  4.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00267930 Study of RSD1235-SR for the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation/Atrial Flutter Recurrence
  5.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00526136 Vernakalant (Oral) Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence Post-Conversion Study
  6.  Miki Finnin, Vernakalant: A Novel Agent for the Termination of Atrial Fibrillation: Pharmacology, Medscape Today, retrieved 12 October 2010
  • Arzneimittel-Fachinformation (EMA)
  • Cheng J.W. Vernakalant in the management of atrial fibrillation. Ann Pharmacother, 2008, 42(4), 533-42Pubmed 
  • Dobrev D., Nattel S. New antiarrhythmic drugs for treatment of atrial fibrillation. Lancet, 2010, 375(9721), 1212-23 Pubmed 
  • Finnin M. Vernakalant: A novel agent for the termination of atrial fibrillation. Am J Health Syst Pharm, 2010, 67(14), 1157-64 Pubmed 
  • Mason P.K., DiMarco J.P. New pharmacological agents for arrhythmias. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol, 2009, 2(5), 588-97 Pubmed 
  • Naccarelli G.V., Wolbrette D.L., Samii S., Banchs J.E., Penny-Peterson E., Stevenson R., Gonzalez M.D. Vernakalant – a promising therapy for conversion of recent-onset atrial fibrillation. Expert Opin Investig Drugs, 2008, 17(5), 805-10 Pubmed 
  • European Patent No. 1,560,812
  • WO 2006138673, WO 200653037
  • WO 200597203, WO 200688525
  • Vernakalant HydrochlorideDrugs Fut 2007, 32(3): 234

//////////////////////////////////////////////////////

Nitrogen: dark blue, oxygen: red, hydrogen: light blue

NMR

1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCI3) 5 6.75 (m, 3H), 4.22 (m, 1H), 3.87 (s, 3H), 3.85 (m, 3H), 3.74 (m, 1H), 3.57 (m, 1H), 3.32 (td, J =
7.7, 3.5, 1H), 2.96-2.75 (m, 5H), 2.64 (dd, J= 10.0, 5.0, 1H), 2.49-2.37 (m, 2H), 2.05-1.98 (m, 2H), 1.84 (m, 1H), 1.69-1.62 (m, 3H), 1.35-1.19 (m, 4H).

IN

WO 201240846

Arrhythmias are abnormal rhythms of the heart. The term “arrhythmia” refers to a deviation from the normal sequence of initiation and conduction of electrical impulses that cause the heart to beat. Arrhythmias may occur in the atria or the ventricles. Atrial arrhythmias are widespread and relatively benign, although they place the subject at a higher risk of stroke and heart failure. Ventricular arrhythmias are typically less common, but very often fatal.

Arrhythmia is a variation from the normal rhythm of the heart beat and generally represents the end product of abnormal ion-channel structure, number or function. Both atrial arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias are known. The major cause of fatalities due to cardiac arrhythmias is the subtype of ventricular arrhythmias known as ventricular fibrillation (VF). Conservative estimates indicate that, in the U.S. alone, each year over one million Americans will have a new or recurrent coronary attack (defined as myocardial infarction or fatal coronary heart disease). About 650,000 of these will be first heart attacks and 450,000 will be recurrent attacks. About one-third of the people experiencing these attacks will die of them. At least 250,000 people a year die of coronary heart disease within 1 hour of the onset of symptoms and before they reach a hospital. These are sudden deaths caused by cardiac arrest, usually resulting from ventricular fibrillation.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen in clinical practice and is a cause of morbidity in many individuals (Pritchett E.L., N. Engl. J. Med. 327(14):1031 Oct. 1, 1992, discussion 1031-2; Kannel and Wolf, Am. Heart J. 123(l):264-7 Jan. 1992). Its prevalence is likely to increase as the population ages and it is estimated that 3-5% of patients over the age of 60 years have AF (Kannel W.B., Abbot R.D., Savage D.D., McNamara P.M., N. Engl. J. Med. 306(17): 1018-22, 1982; Wolf P.A., Abbot R.D., Kannel W.B. Stroke. 22(8):983-8, 1991). While AF is rarely fatal, it can impair cardiac function and is a major cause of stroke (Hinton R.C., Kistler J.P., Fallon J.T., Friedlich A.L., Fisher CM., American Journal of Cardiology 40(4):509-13, 1977; Wolf P.A., Abbot R.D., Kannel W.B., Archives of Internal Medicine 147(9): 1561 -4, 1987; Wolf P. A., Abbot R.D., Kannel W.B. Stroke. 22(8):983-8, 1991; Cabin H.S., Clubb K.S., Hall C, Perlmutter R.A., Feinstein A.R., American Journal of Cardiology 65(16): 1112-6, 1990).

WO95/08544 discloses a class of aminocyclohexylester compounds as useful in the treatment of arrhythmias.

WO93/ 19056 discloses a class of aminocyclohexylamides as useful in the treatment of arrhythmia and in the inducement of local anaesthesia.

WO99/50225 discloses a class of aminocyclohexylether compounds as useful in the treatment of arrhythmias.

Antiarrhythmic agents have been developed to prevent or alleviate cardiac arrhythmia. For example, Class I antiarrhythmic compounds have been used to treat supraventricular arrhythmias and ventricular arrhythmias. Treatment of ventricular arrhythmia is very important since such an arrhythmia can be fatal. Serious ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation) occur most often in the presence of myocardial ischemia and/or infarction. Ventricular fibrillation often occurs in the setting of acute myocardial ischemia, before infarction fully develops. At present, there is no satisfactory pharmacotherapy for the treatment and/or prevention of ventricular fibrillation during acute ischemia. In fact, many Class I antiarrhythmic compounds may actually increase mortality in patients who have had a myocardial infarction.

Class la, Ic and HI antiarrhythmic drugs have been used to convert recent onset AF to sinus rhythm and prevent recurrence of the arrhythmia (Fuch and Podrid, 1992; Nattel S., Hadjis T., Talajic M., Drugs 48(3):345-7l, 1994). However, drug therapy is often limited by adverse effects, including the possibility of increased mortality, and inadequate efficacy (Feld G.K., Circulation. <°3(<5):2248-50, 1990; Coplen S.E., Antman E.M., Berlin J.A., Hewitt P., Chalmers T.C., Circulation 1991; S3(2):714 and Circulation 82(4):1106-16, 1990; Flaker G.C., Blackshear J.L., McBride R., Kronmal R.A., Halperin J.L., Hart R.G., Journal of the American College of Cardiology 20(3):527-32, 1992; CAST, N. Engl. J. Med. 321:406, 1989; Nattel S., Cardiovascular Research. 37(3):567 -77, 1998). Conversion rates for Class I antiarrhythmics range between 50-90% (Nattel S., Hadjis T., Talajic M., Drugs 48(3)345-71, 1994; Steinbeck G., Remp T., Hoffmann E., Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology. 9(8 Suppl):S 104-8, 1998). Class ILT antiarrhythmics appear to be more effective for terminating atrial flutter than for AF and are generally regarded as less effective than Class I drugs for terminating of AF (Nattel S., Hadjis T., Talajic M., Drugs. 48(3):345-71, 1994; Capucci A., Aschieri D., Villani G.Q., Drugs & Aging 13(l):5l- 70, 1998). Examples of such drugs include ibutilide, dofetilide and sotalol. Conversion rates for these drugs range between 30-50% for recent onset AF (Capucci A., Aschieri D., Nillani G.Q., Drugs & Aging J3(l):5l-70, 1998), and they are also associated with a risk of the induction of Torsades de Pointes ventricular tachyarrhythmias. For ibutilide, the risk of ventricular proarrhythmia is estimated at ~4.4%, with ~1.7% of patients requiring cardioversion for refractory ventricular arrhythmias (Kowey P.R., NanderLugt J.T., Luderer J.R., American Journal of Cardiology 78(8A):46-52, 1996). Such events are particularly tragic in the case of AF as this arrhythmia is rarely a fatal in and of itself.

 

Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice. It has been estimated that 2.2 million individuals in the United States have paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation. The prevalence of atrial fibrillation is estimated at 0.4% of the general population, and increases with age. Atrial fibrillation is usually associated with age and general physical condition, rather than with a specific cardiac event, as is often the case with ventricular arrhythmia. While not directly life threatening, atrial arrhythmias can cause discomfort and can lead to stroke or congestive heart failure, and increase overall morbidity.

There are two general therapeutic strategies used in treating subjects with atrial fibrillation. One strategy is to allow the atrial fibrillation to continue and to control the ventricular response rate by slowing the conduction through the atrioventricular (AV) node with digoxin, calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers; this is referred to as rate control. The other strategy, known as rhythm control, seeks to convert the atrial fibrillation and then maintain normal sinus rhythm, thus attempting to avoid the morbidity associated with chronic atrial fibrillation. The main disadvantage of the rhythm control strategy is related to the toxicities and proarrhythmic potential of the anti-arrhythmic drugs used in this strategy. Most drugs currently used to prevent atrial or ventricular arrhythmias have effects on the entire heart muscle, including both healthy and damaged tissue. These drugs, which globally block ion channels in the heart, have long been associated with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia, leading to increased, rather than decreased, mortality in broad subject populations. There is therefore a long recognized need for antiarrhythmic drugs that are more selective for the tissue responsible for the arrhythmia, leaving the rest of the heart to function normally, less likely to cause ventricular arrhythmias.

One specific class of ion channel modulating compounds selective for the tissue responsible for arrhythmia has been described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,057,053, including the ion channel modulating compound known as vernakalant hydrochloride. Vernakalant hydrochloride is the non-proprietary name adopted by the United States Adopted Name (USAN) council for the ion channel modulating compound (1R,2R)-2-[(3R)-hydroxypyrrolidinyl]-1-(3,4-dimethoxyphenethoxy)-cyclohexane monohydrochloride, which compound has the following formula:

Figure US20080312309A1-20081218-C00001

Vernakalant hydrochloride may also be referred to as “vernakalant” herein.

Vernakalant hydrochloride modifies atrial electrical activity through a combination of concentration-, voltage- and frequency-dependent blockade of sodium channels and blockade of potassium channels, including, e.g., the ultra-rapidly activating (lKur) and transient outward (lto) channels. These combined effects prolong atrial refractoriness and rate-dependently slow atrial conduction. This unique profile provides an effective anti-fibrillatory approach suitable for conversion of atrial fibrillation and the prevention of atrial fibrillation.

C20H32ClNO4, Mr = 385.9 g/mol

Pfizer’s Xalkori Granted Regular FDA Approval


Pfizer’s XALKORI® Granted Regular FDA Approval
Standard of Care for Patients With Metastatic ALK-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

NEW YORK, November 21, 2013–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Pfizer Inc. announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Pfizer’s XALKORI® (crizotinib) regular approval for the treatment of patients with metastatic ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as detected by an FDA-approved test. XALKORI was previously granted accelerated approval in August 2011 due to the critical need for new agents for people living with ALK-positive NSCLC

read all at

http://www.pharmalive.com/pfizer%E2%80%99s-xalkori-granted-regular-fda-approval

https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/2013/03/01/pfizer-gains-china-approval-of-kinase-specific-lung-cancer-drug-xalkori-crizotinib/

Daiichi Sankyo anticoagulant edoxaban succeeds in Phase III


Edoxaban, DU-176b

Daiichi Sankyo, APPROVED IN JAPAN as tosylate monohydrate salt in 2011 for the prevention of venous embolism in patients undergoing total hip replacement surgery

for synthesis see….http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0968089613002642  Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 21 (2013) 2795–2825,  see s[pecific page 2808 for description  ie 14/31 of pdf

WO 2010071121, http://www.google.com/patents/WO2010071121A1

WO 2007032498

N’-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-N-[(1S,2R,4S)-4-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-2-[(5-methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-[1,3]thiazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-2-carbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl]oxamide

NOV20, 2013

Daiichi Sankyo will file edoxaban on both sides of the Atlantic shortly after the bloodthinner proved as effective and safer than warfarin in a Phase III trial of patients with atrial fibrillation.

The company has presented data on edoxaban, a once-daily oral factor Xa inhibitor, at the American Heart Association meeting in Dallas, from a study involving 21,105 patients across 46 countries. The drug, evaluated in 60mg and 30mg doses, met its primary endpoint of non-inferiority compared to warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolic events in patients with non-valvular AF.http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/13-11-20/Daiichi_Sankyo_anticoagulant_edoxaban_succeeds_in_Phase_III.aspx

Edoxaban (INN, codenamed DU-176b, trade name Lixiana) is an anticoagulant drug which acts as a direct factor Xa inhibitor. It is being developed by Daiichi Sankyo. It was approved in July 2011 in Japan for prevention of venous thromboembolisms (VTE) following lower-limb orthopedic surgery.[1]

In animal studies, edoxaban is potent, selective for factor Xa and has good oral bioavailability.[2]

Daichi Sankyo’s edoxaban tosilate is an orally administered
coagulation factor Xa inhibitor that was approved and launched
in Japan for the preventive treatment of venous thromboembolic
events (VTE) in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty, total
hip arthroplasty, or hip fracture surgery. Edoxaban has been
shown to have a rapid onset of anticoagulant effect due to short
Tmax (1–2 h) after dosing and sustained for up to 24 h post-dose.
Marketed under the brand name Lixiana, it is currently in phase
III studies in the US for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolic
events in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and venous
thromboembolism (VTE).

Several Phase II clinical trials have been conducted, for example for thromboprophylaxis after total hip replacement[3] (phase III early results compare well to enoxaparin[4]), and for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation[5][6].Those papers follow similar recent major trials showing similar results for the other new factor Xa inhibitorsrivaroxaban and apixaban.

A large phase III trial showed that edoxaban was non inferior to warfarin in preventing recurrent venous thromboembolic events with fewer episodes of major bleeding.[7]

  1.  “First market approval in Japan for LIXIANA (Edoxaban)”Press Release. Daiichi Sankyo Europe GmbH. 2011-04-22.
  2.  Furugohri T, Isobe K, Honda Y, Kamisato-Matsumoto C, Sugiyama N, Nagahara T, Morishima Y, Shibano T (September 2008). “DU-176b, a potent and orally active factor Xa inhibitor: in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profiles”. J. Thromb. Haemost. 6 (9): 1542–9. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2008.03064.xPMID 18624979.
  3.  Raskob, G.; Cohen, A. T.; Eriksson, B. I.; Puskas, D.; Shi, M.; Bocanegra, T.; Weitz, J. I. (2010). “Oral direct factor Xa inhibition with edoxaban for thromboprophylaxis after elective total hip replacement”. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 104 (3): 642–649. doi:10.1160/TH10-02-0142.PMID 20589317edit
  4.  “Phase III Trial Finds Edoxaban Outclasses Enoxaparin in Preventing Venous Thromboembolic Events”. 8 Dec 2010.
  5.  Weitz JI, Connolly SJ, Patel I, Salazar D, Rohatagi S, Mendell J, Kastrissios H, Jin J, Kunitada S (September 2010). “Randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, multinational phase 2 study comparing edoxaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, with warfarin for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation”. Thromb. Haemost. 104 (3): 633–41. doi:10.1160/TH10-01-0066.
  6.  Edoxaban versus Warfarin in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Robert P. Giugliano, M.D., Christian T. Ruff, M.D., M.P.H., Eugene Braunwald, M.D., Sabina A. Murphy, M.P.H., Stephen D. Wiviott, M.D., Jonathan L. Halperin, M.D., Albert L. Waldo, M.D., Michael D. Ezekowitz, M.D., D.Phil., Jeffrey I. Weitz, M.D., Jindřich Špinar, M.D., Witold Ruzyllo, M.D., Mikhail Ruda, M.D., Yukihiro Koretsune, M.D., Joshua Betcher, Ph.D., Minggao Shi, Ph.D., Laura T. Grip, A.B., Shirali P. Patel, B.S., Indravadan Patel, M.D., James J. Hanyok, Pharm.D., Michele Mercuri, M.D., and Elliott M. Antman, M.D. for the ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 InvestigatorsDOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1310907
  7.  “Edoxaban versus Warfarin for the Treatment of Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism”. N. Engl. J. Med. August 2013. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1306638PMID 23991658.
  8. WO 03/000657 pamphlet WO 03/000680 pamphlet WO 03/016302 pamphlet WO 04/058715 pamphlet WO 05/047296 pamphlet WO 07/032498 pamphlet WO 08/129846 pamphlet WO 08/156159 pamphlet
  9. J Am Chem Soc 1978, 100(16): 5199

Drug formulation , lixiana, edoxaban tosylate monohydrate, CAS 912273-65-5, C24 H30 Cl N7 O4 S . C7 H8 O3 S . H2 O, 738.274

    • N1-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-N2-((1S,2R,4S)-4-[(dimethylamino)carbonyl]-2-{[(5-methyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrothiazolo[5,4-c]pyridin-2-yl)carbonyl]amino}cyclohexyl)ethanediamide p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate represented by the following formula (A) (hereinafter, also referred to as compound A) :
    • Figure imgb0001
      Figure imgb0002
    • is known as a compound that exhibits an inhibitory effect on activated blood coagulation factor X (FXa), and is useful as a preventive and/or therapeutic drug for thrombotic diseases (Patent Literature 1 to 8).
    • For example, a method comprising mixing the free form of compound A represented by the following formula (B) (hereinafter, also referred to as compound B):
    • Figure imgb0003
    • with p-toluenesulfonic acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate, followed by crystallization from aqueous ethanol, is known as a method for obtaining compound A (Patent Literature 1 to 8). These literature documents do not make any mention about adding p-toluenesulfonic acid or p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate in a stepwise manner in the step of obtaining compound A from compound B.

Citation ListPatent Literature

    • Patent Literature 1: International Publication No. WO 03/000657
    • Patent Literature 2: International Publication No. WO 03/000680
    • Patent Literature 3: International Publication No. WO 03/016302
    • Patent Literature 4: International Publication No. WO 04/058715
    • Patent Literature 5: International Publication No. WO 05/047296
    • Patent Literature 6: International Publication No. WO 07/032498
    • Patent Literature 7: International Publication No. WO 08/129846
    • Patent Literature 8: International Publication No. WO 08/156159

SIMILAR

OTHER SALTS

Edoxaban hydrochloride
CAS Number: 480448-29-1
Molecular Formula: C24H30ClN7O4S · HCl
Molecular Weight: 584.52 g.mol-1

Edoxaban is reported to be a member of the so-called “Xaban-group” and as such to be a low molecular inhibitor of the enzyme factor Xa, participating in the blood coagulation system. Therefore, edoxaban is classified as an antithrombotic drug and its possible medical indications are reported to be treatment of thrombosis and thrombosis prophylaxis after orthopaedic operations, such as total hip replacement, as well as for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation, the prophylaxis of the acute coronary syndrome and the prophylaxis after thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

The IUPAC name for edoxaban is N’-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-N-[(15,2^,4S)-4- (dimethylcarbamoyl)-2-[(5-methyl-6,7-dihydro-4H-[l ,3]thiazolo[5,4-c]pyridine-2- carbonyl)amino]cyclohexyl]oxamide. The chemical structure of edoxaban is shown in the formula (1) below:

Figure imgf000002_0001

formula ( 1 ) While Edoxaban is reported to be soluble in strongly acidic aqueous solutions, its solubility is considered to be very low in neutral or alkaline aqueous media. EP 2 140 867 A 1 claims an edoxaban-containing pharmaceutical composition comprising a water-swelling additive and/or a sugar alcohol. Further, it is alleged that compositions comprising lactose or cornstarch do not have good dissolution properties. The claimed pharmaceutical compositions in EP 2 140 867 Al are considered to show good dissolution properties in a neutral aqueous medium as well. Tablets comprising said composition were produced by wet granulation. However, it turned out that prior art pharmaceutical formulations comprising edoxaban being suitable for oral administration are still improvable with regards to dissolution rate and bioavailability. Further, stability and content uniformity of the known formulations could be improved. Further, due to the intolerance of many people to sugar alcohol(s), such as sorbitol, the use of sugar alcohol(s) should be avoided.

Merck’s New Drug Application for an Investigational Intravenous (IV) Formulation of NOXAFIL® (posaconazole) Receives FDA Priority Review


Posaconazole,  SCH 56592, Noxafil (Schering-Plough)

Posaconazole is a triazole antifungal drug that is used to treat invasive infections by Candida species and Aspergillus species in severely immunocompromised patients.

For prophylaxis of invasive Aspergillus and Candida infections in patients, 13 years of age and older, who are at high risk of developing these infections due to being severely immunocompromised as a result of procedures such as hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients with graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), or due to hematologic malignancies with prolonged neutropenia from chemotherapy. Also for the treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis, including oropharyngeal candidiasis refractory to itraconazole and/or fluconazole. Posaconazole is used as an alternative treatment for invasive aspergillosis, Fusarium infections, and zygomycosis in patients who are intolerant of, or whose disease is refractory to, other antifungals

Posaconazole is designated chemically as 4-[4-[4-[4-[[ (3R,5R)-5- (2,4-difluorophenyl)tetrahydro-5-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1 -ylmethyl)-3-furanyl]methoxy]phenyl]-1 -piperazinyl]phenyl]-2-[ (1S,2S)-1 -ethyl-2- hydroxypropyl]-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one with an empirical formula of C37H42F2N8O4 and a molecular weight of 700.8.

Posaconazole is used, for example, to prevent and/or treat invasive fungal infections caused by Candida species, Mucor species, Aspergillus species,Fusarium species, or Coccidioides species in immunocompromised patients and/or in patients where the disease is refractory to other antifungal agents such as amphothericin B, fluconazole, or itraconazole, and/or in patients who do not tolerate these antifungal agents.

CAS No. 171228-49-2

Posaconazole compounds have been described inU.S. Pat. Appl. No. 2003/0055067 for “Antifungal Composition with Enhanced Bioavailability,” U.S. Pat. Appl. No. 2004/0058974 for “Treating Fungal Infections,” and European Patent Publication1372394 (A1 ) for “Liquid Suspensions of Posaconazole (SCH 56592) with Enhanced Bioavailability for Treating Fungal Infections.”

Synonyms: Pcz;Pos;Noxafil;Sch 56592;Aids058495;Aids-058495;Posconazole;Posaconazole;Posaconazole for research;HYDROXYPROPYL]-2,4-DIHYDRO-3H-1,2,4-TRIAZOL-3-ONE
Molecular Formula: C37H42F2N8O4
Formula Weight: 700.78

 

 

Merck’s New Drug Application for an Investigational Intravenous (IV) Formulation of NOXAFIL® (posaconazole) Receives FDA Priority Review

Marketing Authorization Application also Filed with the European Medicines Agency

WHITEHOUSE STATION, N.J., Nov. 18, 2013–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that its New Drug Application for an investigational intravenous (IV) solution formulation of the company’s antifungal agent, NOXAFIL® (posaconazole), has been accepted for priority review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).http://www.pharmalive.com/mercks-noxafil-nda-gets-fda-priority-review

Posaconazole (CAS Registry Number 171228-49-2; CAS Name: 2,5-anhydro-1 ,3,4-trideoxy-2- C-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-4-[[4-[4-[4-[1-[(1S,2S)-1-ethyl-2-hydroxypropyl]-1 ,5-dihydro-5-oxo-4H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-4-yl]phenyl]-1-piperazinyl]phenoxy]methyl]-1-(1 H-1 ,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-D-threo-pentitol) which is represented by the following general formula (I)

Figure imgf000002_0001

(I)

is known as an antifungal agent. It is available as an oral suspension (40 mg/ml) under the trademark NOXAFIL® from Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, NJ. WO95/17407 and WO 96/38443 disclose the compound having the general formula (I) and its use in treating fungal infections. Various pharmaceutical compositions comprising posaconazole and being adapted for oral, topical or parenteral use are described e.g. in WO 02/80678, U.S. Patent No. 5,972,381 , U.S. Patent No. 5,834,472, U.S. Patent No. 4,957,730 and WO 2005/117831. As was mentioned above, WO 95/17407 and WO 96/38443 disclose the compound having the general formula (I). However, during prosecution of the subsequently filed European patent application no. 98951994.7, now European patent EP 1 021 439 B1 , the applicant declared that the methods disclosed in these publications only lead to the compound of formula (I) as an amorphous solid.

Polymorphism is a phenomenon relating to the occurrence of different crystal forms for one molecule. There may be several different crystalline forms for the same molecule with distinct crystal structures and distinct and varying physical properties like melting point, XRPD pattern, IR-spectrum and solubility profile. These polymorphs are thus distinct solid forms which share the molecular formula of the compound from which the crystals are made up, however, they may have distinct advantageous physical properties which can have a direct effect on the ability to process and/or manufacture the drug product, like flowability, as well as physical properties such as solubility, stability and dissolution properties which can have a direct effect on drug product stability, solubility, dissolution, and bioavailability.

Three polymorphic forms of posaconazole designated as forms I, Il and III are described and characterized in WO 99/18097 (US-B-6,713,481 , US-B-6,958,337). Crystalline forms Il and III were found to be unstable under the conditions investigated, so that crystalline form I was considered to be useful in the development of a pharmaceutical product.

A. K. Saksena et al., WO 9517407eidemUS 5661151 (1995, 1997 both to Schering);

eidemTetrahedron Lett. 37, 5657 (1996).

SCH-56592, a novel orally active broad spectrum antifungal agent35th Intersci Conf Antimicrob Agents Chemother (Sept 17-20, San Francisco) 1995,Abst F61

seeSaksena, A.K.; Girijavallabhan, V.M.; Lovey, R.G.; Pike, R.E.; Wang, H.; Liu, Y.-T.; Ganguly, A.K.; Bennett, F. (Schering Corp.) EP 0736030; JP 1997500658; US 5661151; US 5703079; WO 9517407

Process for the preparation of triazolonesWO 9633178

Mono N-arylation of piperazine(III): Metal-catalyzed N-arylation and its application to the novel preparations of the antifungal posaconazole and its advanced intermediateTetrahedron Lett 2002,43(18),3359

Comparative antifungal spectrum: A. Cacciapuoti et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44, 2017 (2000).

Pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability: R. Courtney et al., ibid. 47, 2788 (2003).

HPLC determn in serum: H. Kim et al., J. Chromatogr. B 738, 93 (2000).

Review of development: A. K. Saksena et al. inAnti-Infectives: Recent Advances in Chemistry and Structure Activity Relationships (Royal Soc. Chem., Cambridge, 1997) pp 180-199; and clinical efficacy in fungal infections: R. Herbrecht, Int. J. Clin. Pract. 58, 612-624 (2004).

synthesis 1


……………..

Synthesis of intermediate (XX): The reaction of 2-chloro-2′,4′-difluoroacetophenone (I) with sodium acetate and NaI in DMF gives 2-acetoxy-2′,4′-difluoroacetophenone (II), which by methylenation with methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide and sodium bis(trimethylsilyl)amide in THF yields 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-propen-1-ol acetate ester (III). The hydrolysis of (III) with KOH in dioxane/water affords the corresponding alcohol (IV), which is regioselectively epoxidized with titanium tetraisopropoxide and L-(+)-diethyl tartrate in dichloromethane to (S)-(-)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)oxirane-2-methanol (V). The reaction of (V) with 1,2,4-triazole (VI) in DMF affords (R)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propane-1,2-diol (VII), which is selectively mesylated with methanesulfonyl chloride and triethylamine to the monomesylate (VIII). The cyclization of (VIII) with NaH in DMF gives the oxirane (IX), which is condensed with diethyl malonate (X) by means of NaH in DMSO to yield a mixture of (5R-cis)- and (5R-trans)-5-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-oxo-5-(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) tetrahydrofuran-3-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (XI). The reduction of (XI) with NaBH4 and LiCl in ethanol affords (R)-4-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl) pentane-1,4-diol (XII), which is selectively tosylated with tosyl chloride and triethylamine in THF to the bistosylate (XIII). The cyclization of (XIII) by means of NaH in refluxing toluene gives (5R-cis)-5-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-5-(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl) tetrahydrofuran-3-methanol tosylate ester (XIV). The reaction of (XIV) with 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-nitrophenyl)piperazine (XV) to obtain compound (XVI), and the following reaction sequence (XVI) to (XVII) to (XVIII) to (XIX) to (5R-cis)-4-[4-[4-[4-[5-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-5-(1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)tetrahydrofuran-3-ylmethoxy]phenyl]piperazin-1-yl]phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (XX) has been performed according to J Med Chem 1984, 27: 894-900.

………………….pat             approved      expiry

United States 5661151 1999-07-19 2019-07-19
Canada 2305803 2009-12-22 2018-10-05
Canada 2179396 2001-04-17 2014-12-20
United States 5703079 1994-08-26 2014-08-26

 

MORE INFO

US  Patent No Patent expiry
5661151 Jul 19, 2019
5703079 Aug 26, 2014
6958337 Oct 5, 2018
8263600 Apr 1, 2022

 

  1. Cornely OA, Maertens J, Winston DJ, Perfect J, Ullmann AJ, Walsh TJ, Helfgott D, Holowiecki J, Stockelberg D, Goh YT, Petrini M, Hardalo C, Suresh R, Angulo-Gonzalez D: Posaconazole vs. fluconazole or itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 25;356(4):348-59. Pubmed
  2. Ullmann AJ, Lipton JH, Vesole DH, Chandrasekar P, Langston A, Tarantolo SR, Greinix H, Morais de Azevedo W, Reddy V, Boparai N, Pedicone L, Patino H, Durrant S: Posaconazole or fluconazole for prophylaxis in severe graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med. 2007 Jan 25;356(4):335-47. Pubmed
  3. Bhattacharya M, Rajeshwari K, Dhingra B: Posaconazole. J Postgrad Med. 2010 Apr-Jun;56(2):163-7. Pubmed
  4. Frampton JE, Scott LJ: Posaconazole : a review of its use in the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections. Drugs. 2008;68(7):993-1016.Pubmed
  5. Schiller DS, Fung HB: Posaconazole: an extended-spectrum triazole antifungal agent. Clin Ther. 2007 Sep;29(9):1862-86. Pubmed
  6. Kwon DS, Mylonakis E: Posaconazole: a new broad-spectrum antifungal agent. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007 Jun;8(8):1167-78.Pubmed
  7. Groll AH, Walsh TJ: Posaconazole: clinical pharmacology and potential for management of fungal infections. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2005 Aug;3(4):467-87. Pubmed
  8. Rachwalski EJ, Wieczorkiewicz JT, Scheetz MH: Posaconazole: an oral triazole with an extended spectrum of activity. Ann Pharmacother. 2008 Oct;42(10):1429-38. Epub 2008 Aug 19. Pubmed
  9. Li Y, Theuretzbacher U, Clancy CJ, Nguyen MH, Derendorf H: Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of posaconazole. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2010 Jun;49(6):379-96. doi: 10.2165/11319340-000000000-00000. Pubmed

FDA Approves Implanted Brain Stimulator for Epilepsy


 

epilepsy

THURSDAY Nov. 14, 2013 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Thursday gave its approval to a new implanted device that lowers the rate of seizures among people with epilepsy

http://www.drugs.com/news/fda-approves-implanted-brain-stimulator-epilepsy-48978.html

Ixabepilone for breast cancer


Ixabepilone, 219989-84-1 cas

(1R,5S,6S,7R,10S,14S,16S)-6,10-dihydroxy-1,5,7,
9,9-pentamethyl-14-[(E)-1-(2-methyl-1,3-thiazol-
4-yl)prop-1-en-2-yl]-17-oxa-13-azabicyclo[14.1.0]
heptadecane-8,12-dione

Ixabepilone (INN; also known as azaepothilone B, codenamed BMS-247550) is an epothilone B analog developed byBristol-Myers Squibb as a chemotherapeutic medication for cancer.

It is produced by Sorangium cellulosum.

It acts to stabilize microtubules. It is highly potent agent, capable of damaging cancer cells in very low concentrations, and retains activity in cases where tumor cells are insensitive to paclitaxel.

On October 16, 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ixabepilone for the treatment of aggressive metastaticor locally advanced breast cancer no longer responding to currently available chemotherapies. In November 2008, the EMEAhas refused a marketing authorisation for Ixabepilone.

Ixabepilone is administered through injection, and is marketed under the trade name Ixempra.

patent        approval    expiry

United States 7312237 2004-08-21 2024-08-21
United States 6605599 1998-05-26 2018-05-26
Applicant Tradename Generic Name Dosage NDA Approval Date Type RLD US Patent No.
Bristol Myers Squibb
IXEMPRA KIT
ixabepilone
INJECTABLE;IV (INFUSION) 022065 Oct 16, 2007 RX Yes RE41911*PED  
Bristol Myers Squibb
IXEMPRA KIT
ixabepilone
INJECTABLE;IV (INFUSION) 022065 Oct 16, 2007 RX Yes RE41393*PED  
Bristol Myers Squibb
IXEMPRA KIT
ixabepilone
INJECTABLE;IV (INFUSION) 022065 Oct 16, 2007 RX Yes 7,312,237*PED  
Bristol Myers Squibb
IXEMPRA KIT
ixabepilone
INJECTABLE;IV (INFUSION) 022065 Oct 16, 2007 RX Yes 7,125,899*PED  
Patent No Patent Expiry patent use code
6670384 Jan 23, 2022 U-959
6670384 Jan 23, 2022 U-960
6670384*PED Jul 23, 2022
7022330 Jan 23, 2022 U-958
7022330*PED Jul 23, 2022
7125899 May 26, 2018 U-957
7125899*PED Nov 26, 2018
7312237 Aug 21, 2024 U-965
7312237*PED Feb 21, 2025
RE41393 Feb 8, 2022 U-961
RE41393*PED Aug 8, 2022
RE41911 Sep 28, 2020 U-961
RE41911*PED Mar 28, 2021
Exclusivity Code ExclusivityDate
NCE Oct 16, 2012
PED Apr 18, 2015
M-61 Oct 18, 2014
PED Apr 16, 2013
Exclusivity Code ExclusivityDate
NCE Oct 16, 2012

Ixabepilone, in combination with capecitabine, has demonstrated effectiveness in the treatment of metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer in patients after failure of an anthracycline and a taxane.

It has been investigated for use in treatment of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In pancreatic cancer phase two trial it showed some promising results (used alone). Combination therapy trials are ongoing.

Ixabepilone is an anti cancer agent acting as a microtubule inhibitor, and which in particular are efficient in the treatment of cancer not reacting to other anti cancer agents, such as e.g. paclitaxel. Ixabepilone is marketed under the trade name Ixempra® and are approved for the treatment of aggressive metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer which not responding to the current prevailing chemotherapies.

Ixabepilone known under the CAS no. 219989-84-1 has the following structure:

Figure imgf000002_0001

Ixabepilone

Ixabepilone may be prepared from a starting material named epothilone B having the structural formula:

Figure imgf000002_0002

Epothilone B Ixabepilone as a compound is described in the USRE4191 1. USRE4191 1 furthermore disclose a process for synthesizing Ixabepilone.

The US 6,365,749 describes a process for making ixabepilone by reacting epothilone B with a palladium catalyst in the presence of a nucleophilic donor.

The USRE39356 do also describe a process for making Ixabepilone by reacting epothilone B with an azide donor agent and a reducing agent in the presence of a phase transfer catalyst and a palladium catalyst.

Ixabepilone  is the treatment of metastatic and advanced breast cancer drugs.Ixabepilone as anticancer drugs alone or in combination with capecitabine (Capecitabine) in combination. October 16, 2007 approved for marketing by the FDA, trade name Ixempra, by the Bristol-Myers Squibb Company’s development.
Ixabepilone is an anti-mitotic drugs that are inhibitors of tubulin, the mechanism and paclitaxel (Taxol) the same class of drugs. Epothilone (Epothilone) by colistin (myxobacterium) Sorangium cellulosum fermentation of several macrolide metabolites in general. Anticancer activity in vitro experiments, epothilone A and epothilone B showed good activity, even in the paclitaxel-resistant cells also showed good activity. But its activity in vivo experiments in general, this is probably due to the body of the ester hydrolases that macrolide ring opening induced inactivation. In a series of epothilone derivatives activity test, it was found with the lactam bond instead of the original product of ester bonds – ixabepilone anticancer activity can be well retained.
Ixabepilone is epothilone B semi-synthetic derivatives. Epothilone B is a macrocyclic lactone, a hydroxyl moiety is allyl alcohol, the Pd catalyst can be obtained by ring-opening Pd complexes 1 , 1 received azide nucleophile attacking the anion generated with three azide product phosphorus reduction to give methyl amino acids 2 . Here we must point out that the attack was completely azide stereoselectivity, which is determined by two consecutive trans-attack lead, Pd (0)-trans lactone generate offensive allyl Pd complexes, to accept anti-azide anion type attack, to maintain the configuration of the product obtained. Amino acids 2 HoBt and EDCI generated by an amide bond to get ixabepilone.
Ixabepilone (Ixabepilone) - natural product derived anticancer drugs

IXEMPRA (ixabepilone) is a microtubule inhibitor belonging to a class of antineoplastic agents, the epothilones and their analogs. The epothilones are isolated from the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum. Ixabepilone is a semisynthetic analog of epothilone B, a 16-membered polyketide macrolide, with a chemically modified lactam substitution for the naturally existing lactone.

The chemical name for ixabepilone is (1S,3S,7S,10R,11S,12S,16R)-7,11dihydroxy-8,8,10,12,16-pentamethyl-3-[(1E)-1-methyl-2-(2-methyl-4-thiazolyl)ethenyl]17-oxa-4-azabicyclo[14.1.0] heptadecane-5,9-dione, and it has a molecular weight of 506.7. Ixabepilone has the following structural formula:

IXEMPRA® Kit (ixabepilone)  Structural Formula Illustration

IXEMPRA (ixabepilone) for injection is intended for intravenous infusion only after constitution with the supplied DILUENT and after further dilution with a specified infusion fluid . IXEMPRA (ixabepilone) for injection is supplied as a sterile, non-pyrogenic, single-use vial providing 15 mg or 45 mg ixabepilone as a lyophilized white powder. The DILUENT for IXEMPRA is a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution of 52.8% (w/v) purified polyoxyethylated castor oil and 39.8% (w/v) dehydrated alcohol, USP. The IXEMPRA (ixabepilone) for injection and the DILUENT for IXEMPRA are co-packaged and supplied as IXEMPRA Kit.

 

 

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ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

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