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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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LOXO 292

CAS: 2152628-33-4
Chemical Formula: C29H31N7O3
Molecular Weight: 525.613



 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-{6-[(6-methoxypyridin- 3-yl)methyl]-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl}pyridin-3- yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile

Selpercatinib is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antineoplastic properties.

A phase I/II trial is also under way in pediatric patients and young adults with activating RET alterations and advanced solid or primary CNS tumors.

Loxo Oncology (a wholly-owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly ), under license from Array , is developing selpercatinib, a lead from a program of RET kinase inhibitors, for treating cancer, including non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma

In 2018, the compound was granted orphan drug designation in the U.S. for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and in the E.U. for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

Trk is a high affinity receptor tyrosine kinase activated by a group of soluble growth factors called neurotrophic factor (NT). The Trk receptor family has three members, namely TrkA, TrkB and TrkC. Among the neurotrophic factors are (1) nerve growth factor (NGF) which activates TrkA, (2) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and NT4/5 which activate TrkB, and (3) NT3 which activates TrkC. Trk is widely expressed in neuronal tissues and is involved in the maintenance, signaling and survival of neuronal cells.
The literature also shows that Trk overexpression, activation, amplification and/or mutations are associated with many cancers including neuroblastoma, ovarian cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, pancreatic cancer, multiple myeloma, astrocytoma. And medulloblastoma, glioma, melanoma, thyroid cancer, pancreatic cancer, large cell neuroendocrine tumor and colorectal cancer. In addition, inhibitors of the Trk/neurotrophin pathway have been shown to be effective in a variety of preclinical animal models for the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases.
The neurotrophin/Trk pathway, particularly the BDNF/TrkB pathway, has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. The modulating neurotrophic factor/Trk pathway can be used to treat these and related diseases.
It is believed that the TrkA receptor is critical for the disease process in the parasitic infection of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas disease) in human hosts. Therefore, TrkA inhibitors can be used to treat Chagas disease and related protozoal infections.
Trk inhibitors can also be used to treat diseases associated with imbalances in bone remodeling, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and bone metastasis. Bone metastases are a common complication of cancer, up to 70% in patients with advanced breast or prostate cancer and about 15 in patients with lung, colon, stomach, bladder, uterine, rectal, thyroid or kidney cancer Up to 30%. Osteolytic metastases can cause severe pain, pathological fractures, life-threatening hypercalcemia, spinal cord compression, and other neurostress syndromes. For these reasons, bone metastases are a serious cancer complication that is costly. Therefore, an agent that can induce apoptosis of proliferating bone cells is very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, almost all osteoblast apoptosis agents are very advantageous. Expression of the TrkA receptor and TrkC receptor has been observed in the osteogenic region of the fractured mouse model. In addition, localization of NGF was observed in almost all osteoblasts. Recently, it was demonstrated that pan-Trk inhibitors in human hFOB osteoblasts inhibit tyrosine signaling activated by neurotrophic factors that bind to all three Trk receptors. This data supports the theory of using Trk inhibitors to treat bone remodeling diseases, such as bone metastases in cancer patients.
Developed by Loxo Oncology, Larotrectinib (LOXO-101) is a broad-spectrum antineoplastic agent for all tumor patients expressing Trk, rather than tumors at an anatomical location. LOXO-101 chemical name is (S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)-pyrrolidin-1-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a] Pyrimidin-3-yl)-3-hydroxypyrrolidine-1-carboxamide, the structural formula is as follows. LOXO-101 began treatment of the first patient in March 2015; on July 13, 2016, the FDA granted a breakthrough drug qualification for the inoperable removal or metastatic solid tumor of adults and children with positive Trk fusion gene mutations; Key entry was completed in February 2017; in November 2018, the FDA approved the listing under the trade name Vitrakvi.
Poor absorption, distribution, metabolism, and/or excretion (ADME) properties are known to be the primary cause of clinical trial failure in many drug candidates. Many of the drugs currently on the market also limit their range of applications due to poor ADME properties. The rapid metabolism of drugs can lead to the inability of many drugs that could be effectively treated to treat diseases because they are too quickly removed from the body. Frequent or high-dose medications may solve the problem of rapid drug clearance, but this approach can lead to problems such as poor patient compliance, side effects caused by high-dose medications, and increased treatment costs. In addition, rapidly metabolizing drugs may also expose patients to undesirable toxic or reactive metabolites.
Although LOXO-101 is effective as a Trk inhibitor in the treatment of a variety of cancers and the like, it has been found that a novel compound having a good oral bioavailability and a drug-forming property for treating a cancer or the like is a challenging task. Thus, there remains a need in the art to develop compounds having selective inhibitory activity or better pharmacodynamics/pharmacokinetics for Trk kinase mediated diseases useful as therapeutic agents, and the present invention provides such compounds.
WO 2018071447




US 20190106438


WO 2019075108

Compounds of Formula I-IV, 4-(6-(4-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)-6-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula I); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-((6-methoxypyridin-3-yl)methyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula II); 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(6-(6-methoxynicotinoyl)-3,6-diazabicyclo[3.1.1]heptan-3-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula III); and 6-(2-hydroxy-2-methylpropoxy)-4-(6-(4-hydroxy-4-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)piperidin-1-yl)pyridin-3-yl)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine-3-carbonitrile (Formula IV) are inhibitors of RET kinase, and are useful for treating diseases such as proliferative diseases, including cancers.

[0007] Accordingly, provided herein is a compound of Formula I-IV:

and pharmaceutically acceptable salts, amorphous, and polymorph forms thereof.


WO 2019075114



Novel deuterated analogs of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine compounds, particularly selpercatinib , processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claims are their use for treating pain, inflammation, cancer and certain infectious diseases.

Example 2(S)-N-(5-((R)-2-(2,5-difluorophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yl-2,3,3-d 3)-pyrazolo[ 1,5-a] pyrimidin-3-yl) -3-hydroxypyrazole prepared pyrrolidine-1-carboxamide (compound L-2) a.


Use the following route for synthesis:

Patent ID Title Submitted Date Granted Date
US10137124 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10172851 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2018-01-03
US10112942 Substituted pyrazolo[1,5-A]pyridine compounds as RET kinase inhibitors 2017-12-29

/////////////SELPERCATINIB, non-small-cell lung cancer, medullary thyroid cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, papillary thyroid cancer, other solid tumors, infantile myofibromatosis, infantile fibrosarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, LOXO, ELI LILY,  ARRAY, LOXO 292, orphan drug designation







Vandetanib; 443913-73-3; Zactima; ZD6474; Caprelsa; ZD 6474; ch 331, azd 6474

cas 338992-00-0 free form
338992-48-6 HCl
338992-53-3 monotrifluoroacetate


Vandetanib (INN, trade name Caprelsa) is an anti-cancer drug that is used for the treatment of certain tumours of the thyroid gland. It acts as a kinase inhibitor of a number of cell receptors, mainly the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), theepidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and the RET-tyrosine kinase.[1][2] The drug was developed by AstraZeneca.

Orphan drug designation has been assigned in the E.U. for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. In 2005, orphan drug designation was also assigned in the U.S. for several indications, including treatment of patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and locally advanced and metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. In 2013, orphan drug designation has been assigned in Japan as well for the treatment of thyroid cancer.



Approvals and indications

Vandetanib was the first drug to be approved by FDA (April 2011) for treatment of late-stage (metastatic) medullary thyroid cancer in adult patients who are ineligible for surgery.[3] Vandetanib was first initially marketed without a trade name,[4] and is being marketed under the trade name Caprelsa since August 2011.[5]

Vandetanib is an orally active vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2/KDR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, originally developed by AstraZeneca, which was filed for approval in the U.S. and the E.U. for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in combination with chemotherapy, in patients previously treated with one prior anticancer therapy.

However, in late 2009 the company withdrew both the U.S and the EU applications. In 2010, AstraZeneca discontinued development of this compound for the treatment of NSCLC. In 2011, the FDA approved vandetanib for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. Also in 2011, a positive opinion was assigned to the regulatory application filed in the E.U. for this indication and in Japan was filed for approval.

Final EMA approval was granted in February 2012 and first E.U. launch took place in the U.K. in 2012.

2011 年 4 月 6 by the FDA-approved surgical resection can not be used for locally advanced or metastatic medullary thyroid cancer (medullary thyroid cancer, MTC) of the drug. Vandetanib is vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, VEGFR) and epidermal growth factor receptor (epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFR) antagonists, tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tyrosine kinase inhibitor). Produced by AstraZeneca.

The synthetic route is as follows:







Design and structure-activity relationship of a new class of potent VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors
J Med Chem 1999, 42(26): 5369




Radiosynthesis of [(11)C]Vandetanib and [(11)C]chloro-Vandetanib as new potential PET agents for imaging of VEGFR in cancer
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2011, 21(11): 3222

Novel 4-anilinoquinazolines with C-7 basic side chains: Design and structure activity relationship of a series of potent, orally active, VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors
J Med Chem 2002, 45(6): 1300

A novel approach to quinazolin-4(3H)-one via quinazoline oxidation: An improved synthesis of 4-anilinoquinazolines
Tetrahedron 2010, 66(4): 962


CN 104098544

Vandetanib is a synthetic Anilinoquinazoline, advanced medullary thyroid cancer can not be used for the treatment of surgical treatment (medullary thyroid cancer), chemical name: 4- (4-bromo-2- fluoroanilino) _6_ methoxy -7 – [(l- methylpiperidin-4-yl) methoxy] quinazoline, having the following structural formula I:


Figure CN104098544AD00031

[0004] The present method of synthesizing the compound are as follows:

[0005] US Patent US7173038 AstraZeneca announced the following methods:

[0006] Method One:


Figure CN104098544AD00032

Method two:


Figure CN104098544AD00041

 A structure in which the synthesis of compounds of formula as follows:


Figure CN104098544AD00042

the process is cumbersome, long synthetic route, therefore a need to provide a new synthetic way to overcome these problems.

An aspect provides a compound having the structure of formula II:


Figure CN104098544AD00043

 Another aspect provides a process for preparing a compound of the structural formula II, a compound of formula III with a compound of formula IV in the presence of a base to give a compound of the structural formula II,


Figure CN104098544AD00051

where Μ for methylphenylsulfonyl, methylsulfonyl.

Example: 4- (4-bromo-2-fluoroanilino) -6_ methoxy-7 – [(1-formyl-4-yl) methoxy] quinazoline preparation

[0026] in 50mL two-neck flask was added 4- (4-bromo-2-fluoroanilino) -6-methoxy-7-hydroxy-quinazoline (3. 64g, 0 · Olmol), 1- formyl- 4-p methylsulfonyloxy- methylpiperazine steep (3. 56g, 0 · 012mol) and potassium carbonate (4. 14g, 0.03mol), yellow turbid solution was stirred and heated to 100 ° C, TLC detection to feed completion of the reaction. Down to room temperature, the reaction mixture was slowly poured into l〇〇mL water, stirred, filtered, then the filter cake was washed with 50mL water, 15mL of ethyl acetate and then slurried, filtered and dried to give a pale green solid 4- (4- bromo-2-fluoroanilino) -6-methoxy -7 – [(l- carboxylic acid piperidin-4-yl) methoxy] quinazoline 3. 9g, 80% yield.

[0027] ^ NMR (400Mz, DMS0): δ = 1 1〇-1 29 (m, 2H), δ = 1 40-1 43 (m, 2H), δ = 2 15 (s,….. 1H), δ = 2. 64-2. 73 (m, 1H), δ = 3. 06-3. 12 (m, 1H), δ = 3. 71-3. 74 (d, 1H), δ = 3. 95 (s, 3H), δ = 4 • 03-4. 05 (d, 2H), δ = 4. 20-4. 23 (d, 1H), δ = 7. 20 (s, 1H), δ = 7. 46-7. 48 (m, 1H), δ = 7. 51-7 • 53 (m, 1H), δ = 7. 65-7. 67 (d, 1H), δ = 7. 80 (s, 1H), δ = 8. 01 (s, 1H), δ = 8. 35 (s, 1H), δ = 9. 54 (s, 1H).

[0028] Example 2: Preparation of 4- (4-bromo-2-fluoroanilino) -6-methoxy-7 – [(1-methyl-piperidin-4-yl) methoxy] quinazoline preparation

[0029] 4- (4-bromo-2-fluoroanilino) in 100mL three-necked flask, 6-methoxy-7 – [(1-formyl-4-yl) methoxy] quinoline oxazoline (0 · 98g, 2. Ommol), zinc (0 · 6g, 4. 4mmol) and tetrahydrofuran (20mL), stirred pale yellow turbid liquid. At room temperature was added portionwise sodium borohydride (0. 15g, 4. OmmoL), little change in the temperature. Heating

CN 104211649


Vandetanib is well absorbed from the gut, reaches peak blood plasma concentrations 4 to 10 hours after application, and has a half-life of 120 hours days on average, per Phase I pharmacokinetic studies. It has to be taken for about three months to achieve a steady-state concentration. In the blood, it is almost completely (90–96%) bound to plasma proteins such as albumin. It is metabolised to N-desmethylvandetanib via CYP3A4 and to vandetanib-N-oxide via FMO1 and 3. Both of these are active metabolites. Vandetanib is excreted via the faeces (44%) and the urine (25%) in form of the unchanged drug and the metabolites.[2][9][10]

Metabolites of vandetanib (top left): N-desmethylvandetanib (bottom left, via CYP3A4), vandetanib-N-oxide (bottom right, via FMO1 andFMO3), both pharmacologically active, and a minor amount of aglucuronide.[10]

Clinical trials

Non-small cell lung cancer

The drug underwent clinical trials as a potential targeted treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer. There have been some promising results from a phase III trial withdocetaxel.[11] There have also been ambivalent results when used with pemetrexed.[12] Another trial with docetaxel was recruiting in July 2009.[13]

AstraZeneca withdrew EU regulatory submissions for vandetanib (under the proposed trade name Zactima) in October 2009 after trials showed no benefit when the drug was administered alongside chemotherapy.[14]


  1.  “Definition of vandetanib”. NCI Drug Dictionary. National Cancer Institute.
  2.  “Vandetanib Monograph”. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  3. “FDA approves new treatment for rare form of thyroid cancer”. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
  4.  “FDA approves orphan drug vandetanib for advanced medullary thyroid cancer” (Press release). AstraZeneca. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
  5.  “AstraZeneca announces trade name CAPRELSA® for vandetanib” (Press release). AstraZeneca. Retrieved 2011-08-17.
  6.  Khurana V, Minocha M, Pal D, Mitra AK (March 2014). “Role of OATP-1B1 and/or OATP-1B3 in hepatic disposition of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.”. Drug Metabol Drug Interact.0 (0): 1–11. doi:10.1515/dmdi-2013-0062. PMID 24643910.
  7. Haberfeld, H, ed. (2012). Austria-Codex (in German). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag.
  8.  Khurana V, Minocha M, Pal D, Mitra AK (May 2014). “Inhibition of OATP-1B1 and OATP-1B3 by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.”. Drug Metabol Drug Interact. 0 (0): 1–11.doi:10.1515/dmdi-2014-0014. PMID 24807167.
  9.  Martin, P.; Oliver, S.; Kennedy, S. J.; Partridge, E.; Hutchison, M.; Clarke, D.; Giles, P. (2012). “Pharmacokinetics of Vandetanib: Three Phase I Studies in Healthy Subjects”.Clinical Therapeutics 34 (1): 221–237. doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2011.11.011.PMID 22206795.
  10. “Clinical Pharmacology Review: Vandetanib” (PDF). US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. 20 August 2010. Retrieved29 August 2012.
  11.  “Vandetanib Shows Clinical Benefit When Combined With Docetaxel For Lung Cancer”. ScienceDaily. 3 June 2009.
  12.  “IASLC: Vandetanib Fails to Improve NSCLC Outcomes with Pemetrexed”. Medpage today. 5 Aug 2009.
  13.  Clinical trial number NCT00687297 for “Study of Vandetanib Combined With Chemotherapy to Treat Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer” at
  14.  “Zactima”. European Medicines Agency.

External links



Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Trade names Caprelsa
AHFS/ Consumer Drug Information
MedlinePlus a611037
Licence data US FDA:link
  • AU: D
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
Legal status
Routes of
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 90–96%
Metabolism CYP3A4, FMO1, FMO3
Biological half-life 120 hours (mean)
Excretion 44% faeces, 25% urine
CAS Registry Number 443913-73-3 
ATC code L01XE12
PubChem CID: 3081361
DrugBank DB08764 Yes
ChemSpider 2338979 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:49960 Yes
Synonyms ZD6474
Chemical data
Formula C22H24BrFN4O2
Molecular mass 475.354 g/mol


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