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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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NICE Endorses Lundbeck’s Alcohol Dependency Drug For Use In UK


Nalmefene

 

17- (cyclopropylmethyl)-4,5-alpha-epoxy-6-methylenemorphinan-3,14-diol

(5α)-17-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4,5-epoxy-6-methylenemorphinan-3,14-diol;

(-)-Nalmefene;

6-Deoxo-6-methylenenaltrexone; 6-Desoxy-6-methylenenaltrexone;

JF 1; Nalmetrene; ORF 11676;

 

Lundbeck’s novel alcohol dependency drug has been endorsed by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) for use in Britain’s state health service.

read at

 

http://www.clinicalleader.com/doc/nice-endorses-lundbeck-s-alcohol-dependency-drug-for-use-in-uk-0001

A structural analog of Naltrexone (N285780) with opiate antagonist activity used in pharmaceutical treatment of alcoholism. Other pharmacological applications of this compound aim to reduce food cravings, drug abuse and pulmonary disease in affected individuals. Used as an opioid-induced tranquilizer on large animals in the veterinary industry. Narcotic antagonist.

 

Nalmefene
Nalmefene sceletal.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
17-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5α-epoxy-6-methylenemorphinan-3,14-diol
Clinical data
Trade names Selincro
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a605043
Legal status POM (UK)
Routes Oral, Intravenous
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding 45%
Metabolism hepatic
Half-life 10.8 ± 5.2 hours
Excretion renal
Identifiers
CAS number  55096-26-9
58895-64-0 (HCl)
ATC code N07BB05
PubChem CID 5284594
ChemSpider 4447642 Yes
UNII TOV02TDP9I Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL982 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C21H25NO3 
Mol. mass 375.9 g/mol (hydrochloride)

 

Mol. Formula:   C21H25NO3
Appearance:   Off-White to Pale Yellow Solid
Melting Point:   182-185˚C
Mol. Weight:   339.43

Nalmefene (trade name Selincro), originally known as nalmetrene, is an opioid receptor antagonist developed in the early 1970s,[1] and used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence, and also has been investigated for the treatment of other addictions such as pathological gambling and addiction to shopping.

Nalmefene is an opiate derivative similar in both structure and activity to the opiate antagonist naltrexone. Advantages of nalmefene relative to naltrexone include longer half-life, greater oral bioavailability and no observed dose-dependent liver toxicity. As with other drugs of this type, nalmefene can precipitate acute withdrawal symptoms in patients who are dependent on opioid drugs, or more rarely when used post-operatively to counteract the effects of strong opioids used in surgery.

Nalmefene differs from naltrexone by substitution of the ketone group at the 6-position of naltrexone with a methylene group (CH2), which considerably increases binding affinity to the μ-opioid receptor. Nalmefene also has high affinity for the other opioid receptors, and is known as a “universal antagonist” for its ability to block all three.

In clinical trials using this drug, doses used for treating alcoholism were in the range of 20–80 mg per day, orally.[2] The doses tested for treating pathological gambling were between 25–100 mg per day.[3] In both trials, there was little difference in efficacy between the lower and higher dosage regimes, and the lower dose (20 and 25 mg, respectively) was the best tolerated, with similar therapeutic efficacy to the higher doses and less side effects. Nalmefene is thus around twice as potent as naltrexone when used for the treatment of addictions.

Intravenous doses of nalmefene at between 0.5 to 1 milligram have been shown effective at counteracting the respiratory depression produced by opiate overdose,[4] although this is not the usual application for this drug as naloxone is less expensive.

Doses of nalmefene greater than 1.5 mg do not appear to give any greater benefit in this application. Nalmefene’s longer half-life might however make it useful for treating overdose involving longer acting opioids such as methadone, as it would require less frequent dosing and hence reduce the likelihood of renarcotization as the antagonist wears off.

Nalmefene is extensively metabolised in the liver, mainly by conjugation with glucuronic acid and also by N-dealkylation. Less than 5% of the dose is excreted unchanged. The glucuronide metabolite is entirely inactive, while the N-dealkylated metabolite has minimal pharmacological activity.

Lundbeck has licensed the drug from Biotie Therapies and performed clinical trials with nalmefene for treatment of alcohol dependence.[5] In 2011 they submitted an application for their drug termed Selincro to the European Medicines Agency.[6] It has not been available on the US market since at least August 2008.[citation needed]

Side effects

Properties

  • Soluble in water up to 130 mg/mL, soluble in chloroform up to 0.13 mg/mL
  • pKa 7.6
  • Distribution half-life: 41 minutes

 

 

Nalmefene is a known opioid receptor antagonist which can inhibit pharmacological effects of both administered opioid agonists and endogenous agonists deriving from the opioid system. The clinical usefulness of nalmefene as antagonist comes from its ability to promptly (and selectively) reverse the effects of these opioid agonists, including the frequently observed depressions in the central nervous system and the respiratory system.

Nalmefene has primarily been developed as the hydrochloride salt for use in the management of alcohol dependency, where it has shown good effect in doses of 10 to 40 mg taken when the patient experiences a craving for alcohol (Karhuvaara et al, Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res., (2007), Vol. 31 No. 7. pp 1179-1187). Additionally, nalmefene has also been investigated for the treatment of other addictions such as pathological gambling and addiction to shopping. In testing the drug in these developmental programs, nalmefene has been used, for example, in the form of parental solution (Revex™).

Nalmefene is an opiate derivative quite similar in structure to the opiate antagonist naltrexone. Advantages of nalmefene compared to naltrexone include longer half- life, greater oral bioavailability and no observed dose-dependent liver toxicity. Nalmefene differs structurally from naltrexone in that the ketone group at the 6- position of naltrexone is replaced by a methylene (CH2) group, which considerably increases binding affinity to the μ-opioid receptor. Nalmefene also has high affinity for the other opioid receptors (K and δ receptors) and is known as a “universal antagonist” as a result of its ability to block all three receptor types.

Nalmefene can be produced from naltrexone by the Wittig reaction. The Wittig reaction is a well known method within the art for the synthetic preparation of olefins (Georg Wittig, Ulrich Schόllkopf (1954). “Uber Triphenyl-phosphin- methylene ah olefinbildende Reagenzien I”. Chemische Berichte 87: 1318), and has been widely used in organic synthesis.

The procedure in the Wittig reaction can be divided into two steps. In the first step, a phosphorus ylide is prepared by treating a suitable phosphonium salt with a base. In the second step the ylide is reacted with a substrate containing a carbonyl group to give the desired alkene.

The preparation of nalmefene by the Wittig reaction has previously been disclosed by Hahn and Fishman (J. Med. Chem. 1975, 18, 259-262). In their method, naltrexone is reacted with the ylide methylene triphenylphosphorane, which is prepared by treating methyl triphenylphosphonium bromide with sodium hydride (NaH) in DMSO. An excess of about 60 equivalents of the ylide is employed in the preparation of nalmefene by this procedure.

For industrial application purposes, the method disclosed by Hahn and Fishman has the disadvantage of using a large excess of ylide, such that very large amounts phosphorus by-products have to be removed before nalmefene can be obtained in pure form. Furthermore, the NaH used to prepare the ylide is difficult to handle on an industrial scale as it is highly flammable. The use of NaH in DMSO is also well known by the skilled person to give rise to unwanted runaway reactions. The Wittig reaction procedure described by Hahn and Fishman gives nalmefene in the form of the free base. The free base is finally isolated by chromatography, which may be not ideal for industrial applications.

US 4,535,157 also describes the preparation of nalmefene by use of the Wittig reaction. In the method disclosed therein the preparation of the ylide methylene triphenylphosphorane is carried out by using tetrahydrofuran (THF) as solvent and potassium tert-butoxidc (KO-t-Bu) as base. About 3 equivalents of the ylide are employed in the described procedure.

Although the procedure disclosed in US 4,535,157 avoids the use of NaH and a large amount of ylide, the method still has some drawbacks which limit its applicability on an industrial scale. In particular, the use of THF as solvent in a Wittig reaction is disadvantageous because of the water miscibility of THF. During the aqueous work-up much of the end product (nalmefene) may be lost in the aqueous phases unless multiple re-extractions are performed with a solvent which is not miscible with water.

Furthermore, in the method described in US 4,535,157, multiple purification steps are carried out in order to remove phosphine oxide by-products of the Wittig reaction. These purification steps require huge amounts of solvents, which is both uneconomical and labor extensive requiring when running the reaction on an industrial scale. As in the case of the Wittig reaction procedure described by Hahn and Fishman (see above) the Wittig reaction procedure disclosed in US 4,535,157 also yields nalmefene as the free base, such that an additional step is required to prepare the final pharmaceutical salt form, i.e. the hydrochloride, from the isolated nalmefene base.

US 4,751,307 also describes the preparation of nalmefene by use of the Wittig reaction. Disclosed is a method wherein the synthesis is performed using anisole (methoxybenzene) as solvent and KO-t-Bu as base. About 4 equivalents of the ylide methylene triphenylphosphorane were employed in this reaction. The product was isolated by extraction in water at acidic pHs and then precipitating at basic pHs giving nalmefene as base.

Even though the isolation procedure for nalmefene as free base is simplified, it still has some disadvantages. The inventors of the present invention repeated the method disclosed in US 4,751,307 and found that the removal of phosphine oxide by-products was not efficient. These impurities co-precipitate with the nalmefene during basifϊcation, yielding a product still contaminated with phosphorus byproducts and having, as a consequence, a low chemical purity, as illustrated in example 2 herein.

There is therefore a need within the field to improve the method of producing nalmefene by the Wittig reaction. In particular, there is a need for a method that is readily applicable on a large industrial scale and which avoids the use of water- miscible solvents, such as THF, in the Wittig reaction, and permits easy isolation of nalmefene in a pure form suitable for its transformation to the final pharmaceutical salt form.

 

………………………………..

 

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2435439A1?cl=en

present invention the Wittig reaction may be performed by mixing a methyltriphenylphosphonium salt with 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) and a suitable base to afford the ylide methylene triphenylphosphorane :

Figure imgf000007_0001

Methyltriphenylphosphonium salt Methylene triphenylphosphorane Yhde

The preformed ylide is subsequently reacted ‘in situ’ with naltrexone to give nalmefene and triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO):

 

Figure imgf000007_0002

Naltrexone Yhde    Nalmefene TPPO

 

Example 1 Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPPB, 25.8 Kg) was suspended in 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF, 56 litres). Keeping the temperature in the range 20-250C, KO-t-Bu (8.8 kg) was charged in portions under inert atmosphere in one hour. The suspension turned yellow and was stirred further for two hours. An anhydrous solution of naltrexone (8.0 Kg) in MTHF (32 litres) was then added over a period of one hour at 20-250C. The suspension was maintained under stirring for a few hours to complete the reaction. The mixture was then treated with a solution of ammonium chloride (4.2 Kg) in water (30.4 litres) and then further diluted with water (30.4 litres). The phases were separated, the lower aqueous phase was discarded and the organic phase was washed twice with water (16 litres). The organic phase was concentrated to residue under vacuum and then diluted with dichloromethane (40 litres) to give a clear solution. Concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl 37%, 2 litres) was added over one hour at 20- 250C. The suspension was stirred for at least three hours at the same temperature, and then filtered and washed with dichloromethane (8 litres) and then with acetone (16 litres). The solid was then re-suspended in dichloromethane (32 litres) at 20-250C for a few hours and then filtered and washed with dichloromethane (16 litres), affording 9.20 Kg of nalmefene hydrochloride, corresponding to 7.76 kg of nalmefene hydrochloride (99.7% pure by HPLC). Molar yield 89%.

HPLC Chromatographic conditions

Column: Zorbax Eclipse XDB C-18, 5 μm, 150 x 4.6 mm or equivalent Mobile Phase A: Acetonitrile / Buffer pH = 2.3 10 / 90

Mobile Phase B: Acetonitrile / Buffer pH = 2.3 45 / 55

Buffer: Dissolve 1.1 g of Sodium Octansulfonate in 1 L of water. Adjust the pH to 2.3 with diluted

H3PO4. Column Temperature: 35°C

Detector: UV at 230 nm

Flow: 1.2 ml/min

Injection volume: 10 μl

Time of Analysis: 55 minutes

Figure imgf000019_0001

Example 2

The procedure described in US 4,751,307 was repeated, starting from 1Og of naltrexone and yielding 8.5g of nalmefene. The isolated product showed the presence of phosphine oxides by-products above 15% molar as judged by 1HNMR.

Example 3.

Methyltriphenylphosphonium bromide (MTPPB, 112.9g) was suspended in 2- methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF, 245 ml). Keeping the temperature in the range 20- 25°C, KO-t-Bu (38.7 g) was charged in portions under inert atmosphere in one hour. The suspension was stirred for two hours. An anhydrous solution of naltrexone (35 g) in MTHF (144 ml) was then added over a period of one hour at 20-250C. The suspension was maintained under stirring overnight. The mixture was then treated with a solution of glacial acetic acid (17.7 g) in MTHF. Water was then added and the pH was adjusted to 9-10. The phases were separated, the lower aqueous phase was discarded and the organic phase was washed twice with water. The organic phase was concentrated to residue under vacuum and then diluted with dichloromethane (175 ml) to give a clear solution. Concentrated aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl 37%, 10. Ig) was added over one hour at 20- 25°C. The suspension was stirred and then filtered and washed with dichloromethane and acetone. The product was dried affording 38.1g of Nalmefene HCl. Example 4

Example 3 was repeated but the Wittig reaction mixture after olefmation completeness was treated with acetone and then with an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride. After phase separation, washings, distillation and dilution with dichloromethane, the product was precipitated as hydrochloride salt using HCl 37%. The solid was filtered and dried affording 37.6 g of Nalmefene HCl.

Example 5 Preparation of Nalmefene HCl dihydrate from Nalmefene HCl Nalmefene HCl (7.67 Kg, purity 99.37%, assay 93.9%) and water (8.6 litres) were charged into a suitable reactor. The suspension was heated up to 800C until the substrate completely dissolved. Vacuum was then applied to remove organic solvents. The resulting solution was filtered through a 0.65 μm cartridge and then diluted with water (2.1 litres) that has been used to rinse the reactor and pipelines. The solution was cooled down to 500C and 7 g of Nalmefene HCl dihydrate seeding material was added. The mixture was cooled to 0-50C over one hour with vigorous stirring and then maintained under stirring for one additional hour. The solid was filtered of and washed with acetone. The wet product was dried at 25°C under vacuum to provide 5.4 Kg of Nalmefene HCl dihydrate (purity 99.89%, KF 8.3% , yield 69%).

………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2316456A1?cl=en

……………………

http://www.google.com/patents/US8598352

Figure US08598352-20131203-C00003

References

  1.  US patent 3814768, Jack Fishman et al, “6-METHYLENE-6-DESOXY DIHYDRO MORPHINE AND CODEINE DERIVATIVES AND PHARMACEUTICALLY ACCEPTABLE SALTS”, published 1971-11-26, issued 1974-06-04
  2.  Barbara J. Mason, Fernando R. Salvato, Lauren D. Williams, Eva C. Ritvo, Robert B. Cutler (August 1999). “A Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Oral Nalmefene for Alcohol Dependence”Arch Gen Psychiatry 56 (8): 719. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.8.719.
  3.  Clinical Trial Of Nalmefene In The Treatment Of Pathological Gambling
  4.  http://www.fda.gov/cder/foi/label/2000/20459S2lbl.pdf
  5.  “Efficacy of Nalmefene in Patients With Alcohol Dependence (ESENSE1)”.
  6.  “Lundbeck submits Selincro in EU; Novo Nordisk files Degludec in Japan”. thepharmaletter. 22 December 2011.
  7.  Nalmefene Hydrochloride Drug Information, Professional
  8.  Brittain, H.G., et al.: Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. Excip., 24, 351 (1996), Anton, R., et al.: J. Clin. Psychopharmacol., 24, 421 (2004), Bart, G., et al.: Neuropsychopharmacol., 30, 2254 (2005), Wu, X., et al.: Chem. Pharmacol. Bull., 54, 977 (2006),

 

 

US4535157 Nov 1, 1983 Aug 13, 1985 Key Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Reacting naloxone and naltrexone with potassium e-butoxide
US4751307 Feb 27, 1987 Jun 14, 1988 Mallinckrodt, Inc. Wittig-reaction processes
EP0035202A2 Feb 23, 1981 Sep 9, 1981 Miles Laboratories, Inc. Method of blood plasma fractionation
EP0039066A2 Apr 25, 1981 Nov 4, 1981 E.I. Du Pont De Nemours And Company 17-Substituted 6-desoxy-7,8-dihydro-6-alpha-methylnoroxymorphone narcotic antagonists
WO2007110761A2 Mar 23, 2007 Oct 4, 2007 Azad Pharmaceutical Ingredient Polymorphic forms of olopatadine hydrochloride and methods for producing olopatadine and salts thereof

NON-PATENT CITATIONS
Reference
1 Aycock, D.F., 2007, Solvent Applications of 2 Methyitetrahydrofuran in Organometallc and Biphasic Reactions, Organic Process Research & Development, 11:156-159.
2 Dr. Rainer Aul et al., May 2007, A Green Alternative to THF, Manufacturing Chemist, pp. 33-34.
3 Hahn F. and Fishman J., 1975, Narcotic Antagonists. 4. Carbon-6 Derivatives of N-Substituted Noroxymorphones as Narcotic Antagonists, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 18(3):259-262.
4 Hinkley et al., Feb. 10, 2005, Synthesis of a Caryophyllene Isoprenologue, a potential Diterpene Natural Product, Tetrahedron 61, pp. 3671-3680.
5 J.M Aizapurua, Science of Synthesis, 4 (2001), p. 595.
6 Search Report issued May 5, 2013 in Gulf Cooperation Council Application No. GC 2010-15942 filed May 25, 2010.
7 Wittig et al., Jul. 10, 1954, “Über Triphenyl-phosphin-methylene als olefinbildende Reagenzien I“, Chemische Berichte 87: 1318.

Lundbeck has presented promising data on Brintellix, its recently-filed investigational antidepressant co-developed with Takeda.


vortioxetine

9 APRIL 2013

Lundbeck has presented promising data on Brintellix, its recently-filed investigational antidepressant co-developed with Takeda.

Vortioxetine (code name Lu AA21004) is an experimental drug currently under development by Lundbeck and Takeda for the treatment of major depressive disorder(MDD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).Commercial name chosen is Brintellix.

Regulatory approval for the treatment of MDD for the European market has been filed in September 2012, for the United States in October 2012, and filing for Canada should follow. Filing for the Japanese market is expected in 2013

The Danish drugmaker announced results for the REVIVE study which compared  Brintellix (vortioxetine) with Servier’s Valdoxan (agomelatine), Servier’s  in adults with major depression (MDD) who changed antidepressant after an inadequate response to commonly-prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Lundbeck noted that as one of the newest antidepressants, agomelatine was chosen as a comparator because of its different mode of action from conventional SSRI/SNRI therapies.

Lundbeck noted that few randomised, double-blind trials looking at MDD patients who were unresponsive to first-line antidepressants have been conducted and “this is one of these few studies which also shows a significant difference between treatments.” On the primary efficacy endpoint for REVIVE, Brintellix was statistically significantly superior to agomelatine by 2.2 points on the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), a ten-item questionnaire used to measure severity of the disorder.

Brintellix is under review on both sides of the Atlantic and is one of three new products, Lundbeck hopes to launch this year. The other two, which are already approved in some territories, are its once-monthly version of Abilify (aripiprazole) for schizophrenia and the alcohol dependence treatment Selincro (nalmefene); indeed, Lundbeck also presented  new data on the later from three Phase III studies that “consistently show a significant reduction in alcohol consumption” in patients with high-risk drinking levels.

Otsuka receives FDA approval for ABILIFY MAINTENA to treat schizophrenia


7-{4-[4-(2,3-Dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one

aripiprazole

mar 1, 2013

Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Otsuka) and H. Lundbeck A/S (Lundbeck) announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved ABILIFY MAINTENA™ (aripiprazole) for extended- release injectable suspension, an intramuscular (IM) depot formulation indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia.

ABILIFY MAINTENA is the first dopamine D2 partial agonist approved as a once- monthly injection. It contributes a new treatment option to address the ongoing need for relapse prevention in patients with schizophrenia – a chronic, debilitating disease.

Efficacy was demonstrated in a 52-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized-withdrawal, Phase 3 maintenance trial of ABILIFY MAINTENA in patients with schizophrenia. The time to relapse was the primary endpoint. In the trial, ABILIFY MAINTENA>1 In a key secondary endpoint, the percentage of subjects experiencing relapse (i.e., meeting clinical trial criteria for exacerbation of psychotic symptoms/relapse) was also significantly lower with ABILIFY MAINTENA compared to placebo at the end of the study (10% vs. 40%, respectively; p<0.0001). Additional support for efficacy was derived from oral aripiprazole trials.

Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. ABILIFY MAINTENA is not approved for the treatment of patients with dementia-related psychosis. ABILIFY MAINTENA is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity reaction to aripiprazole. Reactions have ranged from pruritus/urticaria to anaphylaxis (see Important Safety Information below).

ABILIFY MAINTENA will be the first commercialized product from the long-term global alliance between Otsuka and Lundbeck to develop CNS medicines worldwide. The companies expect the product will start becoming available in the U.S. on March 18.

Aripiprazolebrand names: AbilifyAripiprex) is a partial dopamine agonist of the second generation class of atypical antipsychoticswith additional antidepressant properties that is used in the treatment of schizophrenia,bipolar disorder, and clinical depression. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for schizophrenia on November 15, 2002 and the European Medicines Agency on 4 June 2004; for acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder on October 1, 2004; as an adjunct for major depressive disorder on November 20, 2007; and to treat irritability in children with autism on 20 November 2009.[1][2] Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan, and in the United States,Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb.

 

EU OKs Lundbeck’s Selincro, Nalmefene to cut alcoholic urges


File:Nalmefene.svg

Nalmefene

17-cyclopropylmethyl-4,5α-epoxy-6-methylenemorphinan-3,14-diol

march 1 2013

Lundbeck will be celebrating news that European regulators have issued a green light for Selincro, making it the first therapy approved for the reduction of alcohol consumption in dependent adults.

Selincro (nalmefene) is a unique dual-acting opioid system modulator that acts on the brain’s motivational system, which is dysregulated in patients with alcohol dependence.

The once daily pill has been developed to be taken on days when an alcoholic feels at greater risk of having a drink, in a strategy that aims to reduce – rather than stop – alcohol consumption, which some experts believe is a more realistic goal.

Clinical trials of the drug have shown that it can reduce alcohol consumption by approximately 60% after six months treatment, equating to an average reduction of nearly one bottle of wine per day.

In March last year, data was published from two Phase III trials, ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2, showing that the mean number of heavy drinking days decreased from 19 to 7 days/month and 20 to 7 days/month, while TAC fell from 85 to 43g/day and from 93 to 30g/day at month six. However, the placebo effect was also strong in the studies.

According to Anders Gersel Pedersen, Executive Vice President and Head of Research & Development at Lundbeck, Selincro “represents the first major innovation in the treatment of alcohol dependence in many years,” and he added that its approval “is exciting news for the many patients with alcohol dependence who otherwise may not seek treatment”.

Alcohol dependence is considered a major public health concern, and yet it is both underdiagnosed and undertreated, highlighting the urgent need for better management of the condition.

In Europe, more than 90% of the 14 million patients with alcohol dependence are not receiving treatment, but research suggests that treating just 40% of these would save 11,700 lives each year.

The Danish firm said it expects to launch Selincro in its first markets in mid-2013, and that it will provide the drug as part of “a new treatment concept that includes continuous psychosocial support focused on the reduction of alcohol consumption and treatment adherence”.

Nalmefene (Revex), originally known as nalmetrene, is an opioid receptor antagonistdeveloped in the early 1970s, and used primarily in the management of alcoholdependence, and also has been investigated for the treatment of other addictions such aspathological gambling and addiction to shopping.

Nalmefene is an opiate derivative similar in both structure and activity to the opiate antagonist naltrexone. Advantages of nalmefene relative to naltrexone include longer half-life, greater oral bioavailability and no observed dose-dependent liver toxicity. As with other drugs of this type, nalmefene can precipitate acute withdrawal symptoms in patients who are dependent on opioid drugs, or more rarely when used post-operatively to counteract the effects of strong opioids used in surgery.

Nalmefene differs from naltrexone by substitution of the ketone group at the 6-position of naltrexone with a methylene group (CH2), which considerably increases binding affinity to the μ-opioid receptor. Nalmefene also has high affinity for the other opioid receptors, and is known as a “universal antagonist” for its ability to block all three.

  1. US patent 3814768, Jack Fishman et al, “6-METHYLENE-6-DESOXY DIHYDRO MORPHINE AND CODEINE DERIVATIVES AND PHARMACEUTICALLY ACCEPTABLE SALTS”, published 1971-11-26, issued 1974-06-04
  2.  Barbara J. Mason, Fernando R. Salvato, Lauren D. Williams, Eva C. Ritvo, Robert B. Cutler (August 1999). “A Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Oral Nalmefene for Alcohol Dependence”Arch Gen Psychiatry 56 (8): 719.
  3.  Clinical Trial Of Nalmefene In The Treatment Of Pathological Gambling
  4.  http://www.fda.gov/cder/foi/label/2000/20459S2lbl.pdf
  5. “Efficacy of Nalmefene in Patients With Alcohol Dependence (ESENSE1)”“Lundbeck submits Selincro in EU; Novo Nordisk files Degludec in Japan”. thepharmaletter. 22 December 2011.
  6. Nalmefene Hydrochloride Drug Information, Professional
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