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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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Takeda’s ixazomib soon to be filed for multiple myeloma

Takeda's ixazomib soon to be filed for multiple myeloma

Takeda’s flagship experimental cancer drug ixazomib is a giant leap closer to being filed with regulatory authorities around the globe for multiple myeloma, after turning in a solid performance in late-stage trials.

Takeda’s ixazomib soon to be filed for multiple myeloma

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Takeda’s Ixazomib, Multiple Myeloma Drug


CAS#:  1201902-80-8

Synonym:   Ixazomib; MLN-9708.

IUPAC/Chemical name: 

4-(carboxymethyl)-2-((R)-1-(2-(2,5-dichlorobenzamido)acetamido)-3-methylbutyl)-6-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaborinane-4-carboxylic acid


CAMBRIDGE, Mass., May 23, 2013 – Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (TSE:4502)  today announced the initiation of an international phase 3 clinical trial evaluating once a week MLN9708 in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with  newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who are not candidates for transplant. The multi-center study with MLN9708, an investigational, oral proteasome inhibitor, will be conducted in Europe and North America.———————-READ MORE AT

Description of Ixazomib:  ixazomib is an orally bioavailable second generation proteasome inhibitor (PI) with potential antineoplastic activity. Ixazomib inhibits the activity of the proteasome, blocking the targeted proteolysis normally performed by the proteasome, which results in an accumulation of unwanted or misfolded proteins; disruption of various cell signaling pathways may follow, resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Compared to first generation PIs, second generation PIs may have an improved pharmacokinetic profile with increased potency and less toxicity. Proteasomes are large protease complexes that degrade unneeded or damaged proteins that have been ubiquinated

MLN9708 is an investigational proteasome inhibitor that, compared with bortezomib, has improved pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity in preclinical studies. MLN9708 rapidly hydrolyzes to MLN2238, the biologically active form. MLN9708 has a shorter proteasome dissociation half-life and improved pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity compared with bortezomib.MLN9708 has a larger blood volume distribution at steady state, and analysis of 20S proteasome inhibition and markers of the unfolded protein response confirmed that MLN9708 has greater pharmacodynamic effects in tissues than bortezomib. MLN9708 showed activity in both solid tumor and hematologic preclinical xenograft models, and we found a correlation between greater pharmacodynamic responses and improved antitumor activity. Moreover, antitumor activity was shown via multiple dosing routes, including oral gavage. Taken together, these data support the clinical development of MLN9708 for both hematologic and solid tumor indications. (source: Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 1;70(5):1970-80. Epub 2010 Feb 16.).


1: Mullard A. Next-generation proteasome blockers promise safer cancer therapy. Nat Med. 2012 Jan 6;18(1):7. doi: 10.1038/nm0112-7a. PubMed PMID: 22227650.

2: Anderson KC. The 39th David A. Karnofsky Lecture: bench-to-bedside translation of targeted therapies in multiple myeloma. J Clin Oncol. 2012 Feb 1;30(4):445-52. Epub 2012 Jan 3. PubMed PMID: 22215754.

3: Appel A. Drugs: More shots on target. Nature. 2011 Dec 14;480(7377):S40-2. doi: 10.1038/480S40a. PubMed PMID: 22169800.

4: Lee EC, Fitzgerald M, Bannerman B, Donelan J, Bano K, Terkelsen J, Bradley DP, Subakan O, Silva MD, Liu R, Pickard M, Li Z, Tayber O, Li P, Hales P, Carsillo M, Neppalli VT, Berger AJ, Kupperman E, Manfredi M, Bolen JB, Van Ness B, Janz S. Antitumor activity of the investigational proteasome inhibitor MLN9708 in mouse models of B-cell and plasma cell malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Dec 1;17(23):7313-23. Epub 2011 Sep 8. PubMed PMID: 21903769.

5: Chauhan D, Tian Z, Zhou B, Kuhn D, Orlowski R, Raje N, Richardson P, Anderson KC. In vitro and in vivo selective antitumor activity of a novel orally bioavailable proteasome inhibitor MLN9708 against multiple myeloma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Aug 15;17(16):5311-21. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-0476. Epub 2011 Jun 30. PubMed PMID: 21724551; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3156932.

6: Kupperman E, Lee EC, Cao Y, Bannerman B, Fitzgerald M, Berger A, Yu J, Yang Y, Hales P, Bruzzese F, Liu J, Blank J, Garcia K, Tsu C, Dick L, Fleming P, Yu L, Manfredi M, Rolfe M, Bolen J. Evaluation of the proteasome inhibitor MLN9708 in preclinical models of human cancer. Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 1;70(5):1970-80. Epub 2010 Feb 16. Erratum in: Cancer Res. 2010 May 1;70(9):3853. Hales, Paul [added]. PubMed PMID: 20160034.

7: Dick LR, Fleming PE. Building on bortezomib: second-generation proteasome inhibitors as anti-cancer therapy. Drug Discov Today. 2010 Mar;15(5-6):243-9. Epub 2010 Jan 29. Review. PubMed PMID: 20116451.8: Marblestone JG. Ubiquitin Drug Discovery & Diagnostics 2009 – First Annual Conference. IDrugs. 2009 Dec;12(12):750-3. PubMed PMID: 19943215.

Chemical structure of ixazomib


Nasopharyngeal cancer is a sub-type of head and neck cancer that arises from the epithelial cells that cover the surface and line the nasopharynx. The incidence of nasopharyngeal cancer has been reported at approximately 0.5 to 2 new cases per year per 100,000 in Europe and the USA. Rottey et ah, Curr. Opin. Oncol., 23(3): 254-258 (201 1). There are three subtypes of nasopharyngeal cancer recognized in the World Health Organization (WHO) classification: (i) Type 1 – squamous cell carcinoma, typically found in the older adult population; (ii) Type 2 non-keratinizing carcinoma; and (iii) Type 3 – undifferentiated carcinoma. Treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer often involves radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. There remains a continuing need for new and improved treatments for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. There remains a further need to identify nasopharyngeal patients most likely to benefit from treatment with a proteasome inhibitor.

Proteasome inhibition represents an important new strategy in cancer treatment. King et al. , Science 274: 1652-1659 ( 1996), describes an essential role for the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in regulating cell cycle, neoplastic growth and metastasis. The authors teach that a number of key regulatory proteins, including cyclins, and the cyclin-dependent kinases p21 and p27K,P ! , are temporally degraded during the cell cycle by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The ordered degradation of these proteins is required for the cell to progress through the cell cycle and to undergo mitosis.

The proteasome inhibitor VELCADE© (bortezomib; N-2-pyrazinecarbonyl-L -phenylalanine -L- leucineboronic acid) is the first proteasome inhibitor to achieve regulatory approval. Mitsiades et ai, Current Drug Targets, 7: 1341 (2006), reviews the clinical studies leading to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma patients who have received at least one prior therapy. Fisher et ai , J. Clin. Oncol, 30:4867, describes an international multi-center Phase II study confirming the activity of bortezomib in patients with relapsed or refractory mantle cell lymphoma. Ishii et al, Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry, 7:359 (2007), and Roccaro et al., Curr. Pharm. Biotech., 7: 1341 (2006), discuss a number of molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the antitumor activities of bortezomib. The proteasome inhibitor MLN9708 [2,2′-{2-[(lR)- l -( {[(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl}amino)-3- methylbutyl]-5-oxo-l,3,2-dioxaborolane-4,4-diyl}diacetic acid] is currently undergoing clinical evaluation for hematological and solid cancers. MLN9708 is a citrate ester which rapidly hydrolyzes to the active form [(lR)-l -({[(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl}amino)-3-methylbutyl]boronic acid (MLN2238) on exposure to aqueous solution or plasma. MLN9708 has demonstrated anti-tumor activity in a range of hematological and solid tumor xenograft models (Kupperman et al. (2010) Cancer Res. 70: 1970- 1980),


The invention relates to the discovery that patients with nasopharyngeal cancer respond to treatment with MLN9708. In one aspect, the invention relates to the discovery of the increased expression of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B RelA 65,000 dalton subunit (NFKB p65) in biological samples comprising cells obtained from patients with nasopharyngeal cancer and responsive to MLN9708.

Accordingly, the invention features treating nasopharyngeal cancer patients withMLN9708 if a sample from the patient demonstrates an elevated expression of NFKB p65.



Figure imgf000013_0001

or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or a pharmaceutical composition or a boronic acid anhydride thereof.

[048| The compound of formula (II), [( l R)-l -( } [(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl} amino)-3- methylbutyljboronic acid (MLN2238) is disclosed in Olhava and Danca, U .S. Patent No. 7,442,830, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety. [049] In some other embodiments, Z and Z together form a moiety derived from a compound having at least two hydroxyl groups separated by at least two connecting atoms in a chain or ring, said chain or ring comprising carbon atoms and, optionally, a heteroatom or heteroatoms which can be N, S, or O, wherein the atom attached to boron in each case is an oxygen atom.


In certain embodiments, wherein the alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acid or beta-hydroxy carboxylic acid is citric acid, the compound of formula (I) is characterized by formula (III-A) or (III-B):

Figure imgf000015_0001

(III-B), or a mixture thereof or a pharmaceutical composition thereof.

[054] In certain embodiments, wherein the alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acid or beta-hydroxy carboxylic acid is citric acid, the compound of formula (I) is characterized by formula (III-A):

Figure imgf000015_0002

or a pharmaceutical composition thereof.

[055] The compound of formula (III-A), 2,2′- {2-[( l i?)- l -( { [(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl } amino)- 3-methylbutyl]-5-oxo- l ,3,2-dioxaborolane-4,4-diyl} diacetic acid (MLN9708) is disclosed in Elliott et al. , WO 09/ 154737, herein incorporated by reference in its entirety


Example 1: Synthesis of 4-(/?,S)-(carboxymethyl)-2-( (R)-I -(2-(2,5- dichlorobenzamido)acetamido)-3-methylbutyl)-6-oxo-l,3,2-dioxaborinane-4- carboxylic acid (1-1)

Figure imgf000062_0001

Step l: 2,5-r(dichlorobenzoyI)aminolacetic acid

[0310] To a mixture of NaOH (12 g, 300 mmol) and glycine (18 g, 239 mmol) in water (120 mL) was added dropwise over 45 min a solution of 2,5-dichlorobenzoyl chloride (10 g, 48 mmol) in THF (15 mL) keeping the internal temperature below about 25 0C. After 1 h, the mixture was acidified with 2.0 M HCl (125 mL) keeping the internal temperature below about 5 0C. The resulting precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration. The crude product was recrystallized from water to give 2,5-[(dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetic acid as a white, crystalline solid (6.1 g, 52%). mp 173.3 0C. 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSOd6, δ): 12.72 (bs, IH), 8.89 (t, J = 6.0 Hz, IH), 7.54 (m, 2H), 7.48 (m, IH), 3.93 (d, J = 6.0 Hz). 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-Ci6, δ): 41.6, 129.3, 129.6, 131.4, 132.2, 138.2, 171.4, 165.9. MS (ni/z): [M+H] calculated for C9H8Cl2NO3, 248.0; found, 248.0; [M+Na] calculated for C9H7Cl2NNaO3, 270.0; found 270.2.

2,5-[(dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetic acid was also be prepared via the following procedure: To a mixture of glycine (21.5 g, 286 mmol) in water (437 mL), was added 2.0 M NaOH (130 mL) and the resulting solution was cooled to 0 0C. A solution of 2,5-dichlorobenzoyl chloride (50.0 g, 239 mmol) in THF (75 mL) was added dropwise at such a rate that the internal temperature was maintained at 0 ± 1 0C. During the addition, the pH was controlled at 11.0 ± 0.2 using a pH controller titrated with 2.0 M NaOH. After complete addition, the mixture was stirred at 0 ± 1 0C for an additional 2 h. The mixture was then acidified with 2.0 M HCl (176 mL) to a final pH of 2.5. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with cold water (125 mL), and dried at 45 0C in a vacuum oven to afford 2,5-[(dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetic acid as a white solid (57.6 g, 97.3%). Step 2: 2,5-dichloro-N-f2-(( (lR’)-3-niethyl-l-r(3aS,4S.6S.7aR)-3a,5,5-trimethylhexahvdro-

4,6-methano-l,3,2-benzodioxaborol-2-yllbutyl }amino)-2-oxoethvπbenzamide

To a solution of 2,5-[(dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetic acid (6.10 g, 24.6 mmol) and TBTU (8.34 g, 26.0 mmol) in DMF (40 mL) with an internal temperature below about 5 0C was added (IR)- 3-methyl-l-[(3aS,4S,6S,7aR)-3a,5,5-trimethylhexahydro-4,6-methano-l,3,2-benodioxaborol-2- yl]butan-l-amine»TFA (9.35 g, 24.7 mmol). DIPEA (13 mL, 75 mmol) was then added dropwise over 2 h keeping the internal temperature below about 5 0C. After 40 min, the mixture was diluted with EtOAc (90 mL), washed with 5% NaCl (150 mL), twice with 10% NaCl (2 x 40 mL), once with 2% K2CO3 (1 x 40 mL), once with 1% H3PO4 (1 x 40 mL), and once with 10% NaCl (1 x 40 mL). The resulting organic layer was concentrated to a thick oil, diluted with heptane (40 mL) and evaporated to yield 2,5-dichloro-N-[2-({ (lR)-3-methyl-l-[(3aS,4S,6S,7aR)-3a,5,5- trimethylhexahydro-4,6-methano-l ,3,2-benzodioxaborol-2-yl]butyl }amino)-2-oxoethyl]benzamide as a white solid which was used in the next step without purification.

Step 3: N,N\N’Wboroxin-2A6-triyltrisir(lR)-3-methylbutane-l J-diyllimino(2-oxoethane- 2,l-diyl)^ ^tris(2,5-dichlorobenzamide)

To a solution of 2,5-dichloro-N-[2-({(lR)-3-methyl-l-[(3aS,4S,6S,7aR)-3a,5,5- trimethylhexahydro-4,6-methano-l,3,2-benzodioxaborol-2-yl]butyl }amino)-2-oxoethyl]benzamide (12.2 g, 24.6 mmol) in methanol/hexane (1 :1) (250 mL) were added IN HCl (30 mL, 30 mmol) and (2-methylpropyl)boronic acid (6.5 g, 64 mmol). The reaction mixture was allowed to stir overnight. The phases were separated and the methanol layer was washed twice with additional heptane (2 x 55 mL). The resulting organic layer was concentrated to about 10 mL and partitioned between 2.0M NaOH (30 mL) and DCM (25 mL). The DCM layer was washed once with additional 2.0M NaOH (5 mL). The basic aqueous layers were then combined, washed twice with DCM (2 x 25 mL) and acidified with IM HCl (60 mL). The resulting mixture was diluted with DCM (40 mL), the layers were separated, and the resulting aqueous layer was washed three times with DCM (3 x 10 mL). The combined DCM extracts were dried over MgSO4 (25 g) and evaporated to a thick oil. The product was precipitated with heptane (50 mL) and collected by filtration to yield N,N’,N”-{boroxin-2,4,6- -riyltris[[(lR)-3-methylbutane-l,l-diyl]imino(2-oxoethane-2,l-diyl)] }tris(2,5-dichlorobenzamide) as a white solid (6.6 g, 74%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-Cl6, δ): 8.93 (t, J – 6.0 Hz, IH), 8.68 (bs, IH), 7.63 (m, IH), 7.52 (m, 2H), 4.00 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 2.62 (m, IH), 1.59 (m, IH), 1.33 (m, IH), 1.24 (m, IH), 0.81 (d, / = 5.9 Hz, 6H). 13C NMR (125 MHz, DMSO-Cl6, δ): 23.2, 25.8, 40.1, 40.7, 43.0, 129.0, 130.0, 131.0, 137.5, 165.0, 172.5. MS (m/z) in CH3CN: [M+H] calculated for C42H52B3Cl6N6O9, 1027.2; found, 1027.3; [M+Na] calculated for C42H51B3Cl6N6NaO9, 1049.2; found 1049.5.

Step 4: 4-(/?.S)-(carboxymethyl)-2-((/?)-l-(2-(2,5-dichlorobenzamido)acetamido)-3- methylbutyl)-6-oxo-l,3,2-dioxaborinane-4-carboxylic acid (1-1)

Form 1: To a solution of citric acid (2.75 g, 14.3 mmol) in EtOAc (85 mL) with an internal temperature of about 74 0C was added N,N’,N”-{boroxin-2,4,6-triyltris[[(lR)-3-methylbutane-l,l- diyl]imino(2-oxoethane-2,l-diyl)] }tris(2,5-dichlorobenzamide) (5.00 g, 4.87 mmol) as a solid. The solution was cooled uncontrolled until the internal temperature was about 25 0C and the mixture was stirred overnight. The resulting precipitate was collected by filtration to yield 2,2′-{2-[(lR)-l-({ [(2,5- dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl }amino)-3-methylbutyl]-5-oxo-l,3,2-dioxaborolane-4,4-diyl}diacetic acid Form 1 as a crystalline solid (6.65 g, 88 %). 1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSOd6, δ 110 0C): 10.08 (s, IH), 8.69 (s, IH), 7.61 (s, IH), 7.52 (d, J = 1.3 Hz, 2H), 4.26 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 2H), 2.70 (q, J = 14.5 Hz, 4H), 2.70 (bs, IH), 1.72 (sept, J – 6.5 Hz, IH), 1.42 (ddd, J = 5.2 Hz, J = 8.6 Hz, J = 13.9 Hz, IH), 1.28 (ddd, J = 5.3, J = 9.4 Hz, J = 14.3 Hz, IH), 0.91 (dd, J = 3.3 Hz, J = 6.6 Hz, 6H). MS (m/z) in CH3CN: [M+Na] calculated for C20H23BCl2N2NaO9, 539.1; found, 539.1.



Ixazomib citrate [USAN]

1,3,2-Dioxaborolane-4,4-diacetic acid, 2-[(1R)-1-[[2-[(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl]amino]-3-methylbutyl]-5-oxo- [ACD/Index Name]

1,3,2-Dioxaborolane-4,4-diacetic acid,2-[(1R)-1-[[2-[(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl]amino]-3-methylbutyl]-5-oxo-

1239908-20-3 [RN]

2,2′-{2-[(1R)-1-{[N-(2,5-Dichlorbenzoyl)glycyl]amino}-3-methylbutyl]-5-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-4,4-diyl}diessigsäure [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]

2,2′-{2-[(1R)-1-{[N-(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)glycyl]amino}-3-methylbutyl]-5-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaborolane-4,4-diyl}diacetic acid [ACD/IUPAC Name]

2-[(1R)-1-[[2-[(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl]amino]-3-methylbutyl]-5-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaborolane-4,4-diacetic acid

2-[4-(carboxymethyl)-2-[(1R)-1-[[2-[(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)amino]acetyl]amino]-3-methyl-butyl]-5-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-4-yl]acetic acid

Acide 2,2′-{2-[(1R)-1-{[N-(2,5-dichlorobenzoyl)glycyl]amino}-3-méthylbutyl]-5-oxo-1,3,2-dioxaborolane-4,4-diyl}diacétique [French] [ACD/IUPAC Name]



Ixazomib (trade name Ninlaro) is a drug for the treatment of multiple myeloma, developed by Takeda Pharma. It acts as aproteasome inhibitor and has orphan drug status in the US. In November 2015, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved ixazomib for use in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of multiple myeloma after at least one prior therapy.[2]


Ixazomib is a peptide analogue that reversibly inhibits the protein proteasome subunit beta type-5 (PSMB5), which is part of the 20Sproteasome complex.[3]


Ixazomib citrate—a prodrug for ixazomib

Ixazomib citrate—a prodrug for ixazomib

U.S. FDA Approves Takeda’s NINLARO® (ixazomib), the First and Only Oral Proteasome Inhibitor to Treat Multiple Myeloma

NINLARO Provides a New Option for Patients Living with Multiple Myeloma Who Have Received at Least One Prior Therapy

Cambridge, Mass. and Osaka, Japan, November 20, 2015 – Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited (TSE: 4502) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved NINLARO®(ixazomib) capsules, the first and only oral proteasome inhibitor, indicated in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. NINLARO is a once-weekly pill. More information is available at

Takeda submitted a New Drug Application for NINLARO to the FDA in July 2015, and in September NINLARO was granted Priority Review status with a PDUFA date of March 10, 2016, reflecting the profound and continuing unmet need for new treatments for multiple myeloma, a devastating, relapsing and incurable rare cancer.

“With the approval of NINLARO, we can now offer patients a once-weekly oral proteasome inhibitor as part of a highly active triplet therapy,” said Paul Richardson, M.D., Clinical Program Leader and Director of Clinical Research, Jerome Lipper Multiple Myeloma Center Institute Physician at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and investigator for TOURMALINE-MM1, the pivotal Phase 3 trial on which today’s approval is based. “We, as investigators of the TOURMALINE-MM1 trial, felt it was vital to conduct a comprehensive ‘real world’ evaluation of this combination that included some of the most common patient types in the relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma setting, such as older patients, patients with moderate renal impairment, light chain disease, and high risk cytogenetics. Further, we treated patients until disease progression to determine the sustainability of NINLARO in treating their relapsed/refractory disease. The TOURMALINE-MM1 data demonstrate convincingly that oral NINLARO-based triplet treatment is effective at extending progression-free survival, over and above the clinical benefit seen with lenalidomide and dexamethasone, with a tolerable safety profile.”

“We introduced the first proteasome inhibitor for multiple myeloma, VELCADE, into clinical research approximately 20 years ago. Since that time, we’ve significantly advanced scientific understanding of this rare cancer, culminating in the introduction of NINLARO,” said Andy Plump, M.D., Ph.D, Takeda Chief Medical and Scientific Officer. “NINLARO is an entirely new molecule that offers the efficacy of this proteasome inhibitor in a convenient once-weekly pill with a tolerable safety profile. Takeda is delighted to bring this significant innovation to multiple myeloma patients today, and we continue to examine the potential of NINLARO through a robust clinical development program.”

Dr. Brian Durie, Chairman of the International Myeloma Foundation, said, “The IMF is pleased by the approval of ixazomib. This opens the door for a fully oral proteasome inhibitor-based triplet combination therapy. Having worked in multiple myeloma for decades, I’ve seen notable progress, yet significant unmet needs remain. With today’s approval, we now have another attractive option for many patients living with multiple myeloma.”

The FDA approval of NINLARO is based on results from the TOURMALINE-MM1 Phase 3 clinical trial, the first double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with a proteasome inhibitor. TOURMALINE-MM1 is the first of five ongoing Phase 3 clinical trials with study results available. The TOURMALINE program has enrolled approximately 3,000 patients to date in 40 countries. Data from the NINLARO Phase 3 TOURMALINE-MM1 pivotal trial will be presented at the upcoming 57th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology on December 7, 2015.

“The approval of ixazomib offers a much-needed additional option in the multiple myeloma treatment landscape. It is developments such as these that help us to better understand the disease and provide continued hope for patients,” said Kathy Giusti, Founder and Executive Chairman of the Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF). “A cancer diagnosis today is different from what it was just a few years ago and it’s exciting to see continued progress. As a patient, I understand the urgent need for advancing research through partnerships that bring new treatment options, as we’ve done with Takeda.”

“NINLARO is a first-of-its-kind innovation that is supported by a global development program, unprecedented for us at Takeda Oncology, and we would like to express our immense appreciation for all patients involved for their incredible strength and invaluable participation. The introduction of NINLARO marks an important step forward, as its efficacy and safety profile – coupled with its completely oral administration – potentially can reduce some logistical burdens, and help enable patients to reap the full benefits of this sustainable therapy,” explained Christophe Bianchi, M.D., President, Takeda Oncology. “As part of our unwavering 20-year commitment, Takeda will continue to pursue advances for these patients, and we look forward to introducing and expanding access to NINLARO in other markets around the world.”

About the TOURMALINE-MM1 Trial

TOURMALINE-MM1 is an international, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 722 patients, designed to evaluate NINLARO plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone compared to placebo plus lenalidomide and dexamethasone in adult patients with relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma. Results showed NINLARO is effective in extending Progression Free Survival (PFS) and has a manageable safety profile. The trial achieved its primary endpoint and demonstrated a clinically meaningful and statistically significant prolongation in PFS at this analysis, which showed that patients treated in the NINLARO arm lived without their disease worsening for a significantly longer time compared to patients in the control arm. Patients continue to be treated to progression in this trial and will be evaluated for long term outcomes.

In the TOURMALINE-MM1 trial, the most common adverse reactions (≥20%) in patients receiving NINLARO included diarrhea, constipation, thrombocytopenia, peripheral neuropathy, nausea, peripheral edema, vomiting and back pain. Serious adverse reactions reported in ≥2% patients included thrombocytopenia (2%) and diarrhea (2%).

Efficacy and safety data were reviewed by an Independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC), who recommended the study be continued in blinded fashion to allow further maturation of long term outcomes, including overall survival (OS) and long-term safety.

About NINLARO (ixazomib) capsules

NINLARO (ixazomib) is the first and only oral proteasome inhibitor indicated in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma who have received at least one prior therapy. NINLARO is administered orally, once-weekly on days 1, 8, and 15 of a 28-day treatment cycle. NINLARO is currently under review by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and was granted an accelerated assessment by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP). NINLARO also received Breakthrough Therapy status by the U.S. FDA for relapsed or refractory systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, a related ultra orphan disease, in 2014.

The TOURMALINE clinical development program further reinforces Takeda’s ongoing commitment to developing innovative therapies for people living with multiple myeloma worldwide and the healthcare professionals who treat them. Five global Phase 3 trials are ongoing:

  • TOURMALINE-MM1, investigating ixazomib vs. placebo, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in relapsed and/or refractory multiple myeloma
  • TOURMALINE-MM2, investigating ixazomib vs. placebo, in combination with lenalidomide and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma
  • TOURMALINE-MM3, investigating ixazomib vs. placebo as maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma following induction therapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT)
  • TOURMALINE-MM4, investigating ixazomib vs. placebo as maintenance therapy in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma who have not undergone ASCT
  • TOURMALINE-AL1, investigating ixazomib plus dexamethasone vs. physician choice of selected regimens in patients with relapsed or refractory AL amyloidosis

In addition to the TOURMALINE program, a large number of investigator initiated studies are evaluating ixazomib for patients globally.

For additional information on the ongoing Phase 3 studies please visit To learn more about NINLARO, please visit or call 1-844-N1POINT (1-844-617-6468).


  1.  “Ninlaro (ixazomib) Capsules, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information” (PDF). NINLARO (ixazomib) For Healthcare Professionals. Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited Cambridge, MA 02139. Retrieved 21 November 2015.
  2.  “FDA Okays Ixazomib, Another Multiple Myeloma Drug”. November 20, 2015.
  3.  KEGG: Ixazomib
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Trade names Ninlaro
AHFS/ entry
Legal status
  • (Prescription only)
Routes of
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 58%[1]
Protein binding 99%
Metabolism hepatic, CYP3A4 (42%),CYP1A2 (26%) and others
Biological half-life 9.5 days
Excretion urine (62%), feces (22%)
CAS Number 1072833-77-2
ATC code L01XX50
PubChem CID 25183872
ChemSpider 25027391
UNII 71050168A2
KEGG D10130
ChEBI CHEBI:90942 Yes
Synonyms MLN2238
Chemical data
Formula C14H19BCl2N2O4
Molar mass 361.03 g·mol−1



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