New Drug Approvals

Home » Posts tagged 'inhibitor'

Tag Archives: inhibitor

Advertisements
DRUG APPROVALS BY DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO .....FOR BLOG HOME CLICK HERE

Blog Stats

  • 2,525,379 hits

Flag and hits

Flag Counter

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,365 other followers

Follow New Drug Approvals on WordPress.com

Categories

Flag Counter

ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email.

Join 2,365 other followers

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

Personal Links

Verified Services

View Full Profile →

Categories

Flag Counter
Advertisements

Discovery of Pyrazolopyrimidine Derivatives as Novel Dual Inhibitors of BTK and PI3Kδ


str2

(-)-32 as an off-white solid.
Analytical data
LCMS 418 [M+H]+1
H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.23 (s, 1H), 6.88 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 6.68 (s, 1H), 6.61 (dd,J = 11.2, 2.0 Hz, 1H), 6.49-6.38 (m, 2H), 6.33 (s, 1H), 5.61 (m, 1H), 4.88 (s, 2H), 4.20(t, J = 4.3 Hz, 2H), 3.35-3.18 (m, 6H).
Optical rotation [α]D20 -38.5° (c = 0.107, DMSO)

 

 

PAPER

Discovery of Pyrazolopyrimidine Derivatives as Novel Dual Inhibitors of BTK and PI3Kδ

Medivation, Inc., 525 Market Street, 36th Floor, San Francisco, California 94105, United States
Integral BioSciences, Pvt. Ltd., C-64, Hosiery Complex Phase II Extension, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201306, India
§ Curadev, Pvt. Ltd., B-87, Sector 83, Noida, Uttar Pradesh 201305, India
Fundación Ciencia y Vida, Avenida Zañartu 1482, Ñuñoa, Santiago 7780272, Chile
Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Andrés Bello, Santiago 8370146, Chile
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00356

Image result for Medivation, Inc

Son Pham

Son Pham

Associate Director, Medicinal Chemistry at Medivation

Roopa Rai

Roopa Rai

Sr. Director, Medicinal Chemistry at Medivation

 str0

Brahmam Pujala

Brahmam Pujala

Senior Research Scientist at Integral Biosciences

Ashu Gupta

Ashu Gupta

Research Scientist at Integral Biosciences

rambabu guguloth

Rambabu guguloth

Abstract

Abstract Image

The aberrant activation of B-cells has been implicated in several types of cancers and hematological disorders. BTK and PI3Kδ are kinases responsible for B-cell signal transduction, and inhibitors of these enzymes have demonstrated clinical benefit in certain types of lymphoma. Simultaneous inhibition of these pathways could result in more robust responses or overcome resistance as observed in single agent use. We report a series of novel compounds that have low nanomolar potency against both BTK and PI3Kδ as well as acceptable PK properties that could be useful in the development of treatments against B-cell related diseases.

Image result for Curadev

Monali Banerjee

Director, R&D

Ms. Banerjee has more than 10 years of research experience, during which she has held positions of increasing responsibility. Her past organizations include TCG Lifesciences (Chembiotek) and Sphaera Pharma. Ms. Banerjee is a versatile scientist with a deep understanding of the fundamental issues that underlie various aspects of drug discovery. At Curadev, she has been responsible for target selection, patent analysis, pharmacophore design, assay development, ADME/PK and in vivo and in vitro pharmacology. Ms. Banerjee holds a Masters in Biochemistry and a Bachelors in Chemistry both from Kolkata University.

Nidhi Adlaka & Neha Munjal are developing a bioprocess for butanediol. Over the next few decades, chemical routes of manufacture will gradually be replaced by more environment friendly biological methods.Nidhi Adlaka & Neha Munjal are developing a bioprocess for butanediol. Over the next few decades, chemical routes of manufacture will gradually be replaced by more environment friendly biological methods.

Image result for Arjun Surya CURADEV

Dr. Arjun Surya, CSO, Curadev enthralling participants with anecdotes of his entrepreneurial jrney in drugdiscovery

Manish Tandon

Manish Tandon

Co-founder Curadev Pharma Pvt Ltd

//////////////B-cell BCR BTK inhibitor p110δ PI3K pyrazolopyrimidineNovel Dual Inhibitors, BTK , PI3Kδ, Medivation, Integral BioSciences,  Curadev, Fundación Ciencia y Vida, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas,

Nc1ccc2CC(Cc2c1)n6nc(c3cc(F)c4OCCNc4c3)c5c(N)ncnc56

Advertisements

Doravirine, MK-1439


Doravirine.svg

Image for unlabelled figure

Doravirine.png

Doravirine, MK-1439……….. AN ANTIVIRAL

3-Chloro-5-({1-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydro-3-pyridinyl}oxy)benzonitrile

Benzonitrile, 3-chloro-5-[[1-[(4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-5-oxo-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-1,2-dihydro-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3-pyridinyl]oxy]-

3-chloro-5-({1-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile

(3-Chloro-5-((1-((4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile)

1338225-97-0 CAS

MF  C17H11ClF3N5O3
MW 425.7  Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp

Merck Frosst Canada Ltd. INNOVATOR

Jason Burch, Bernard Cote, Natalie Nguyen,Chun Sing Li, Miguel St-Onge, Danny Gauvreau,

Reverse transcriptase inhibitor

UNII:913P6LK81M

  • Originator Merck & Co
  • Class Antiretrovirals; Nitriles; Pyridones; Small molecules; Triazoles
  • Mechanism of Action Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
  • Phase III HIV-1 infections

Most Recent Events

  • 16 Jul 2016 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in HIV-1-infections(Monotherapy, Treatment-naive) in Germany (PO, Tablet)
  • 01 Jun 2016 Merck Sharp & Dohme completes a phase I pharmacokinetics trial in subjects requiring methadone maintenance therapy in USA (PO, Tablet) (NCT02715700)
  • 01 May 2016 Merck completes a phase I trial in severe renal impairment in USA (NCT02641067)

SYNTHESIS COMING………

WO  2015084763

STR1

CONTD………………………

STR1

img_pgene01.jpg

SPECTRAL DATA

19F DMSOD6
STR1

13C NMR DMSOD6

STR1

1H NMR DMSOD6

STR1

3-chloro-5-((2-oxo-1-((5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.47 (br. s., 1H), 11.40 (s, 1H), 7.93 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (t, J =1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.58 (dd, J = 1.2, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.51 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1H), 6.66 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1H), 5.02 (s, 2H)

13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 157.25, 156.20, 155.97, 142.52, 140.09 (q, JC-F = 2.0 Hz), 137.74,134.97, 130.17 (q, JC-F = 31.2 Hz), 126.53, 121.70 (q, JC-F = 274.7 Hz), 121.16, 118.37, 116.96, 113.70,99.96 (q, JC-F = 4.0 Hz), 44.90

19F NMR (376 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ -62.24 (s, 1F)
HRMS [M + H]+ for C16H10ClF3N5O3 calcd, 412.0419; found, 412.0415.
mp 148.46-156.11 °C

REF Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00163

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00163

STR1

str2

Doravirine (MK-1439) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor under development by Merck & Co. for use in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Doravirine demonstrated robust antiviral activity and good tolerability in a small clinical study of 7-day monotherapy reported at the 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in March 2013. Doravirine appeared safe and generally well-tolerated with most adverse events being mild-to-moderate.[2][3]

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the standard of care for the treatment of HIV infection. Typically, this protocol recommends the combination of two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with either a non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor or an integrase inhibitor. 

NNRTI-based combinations have become first-line therapy mainly because of their demonstrated efficacies, convenient dosing regimen and relatively low toxicities. These inhibitors block the polymerase activity of the HIV reverse transcriptase by binding to an allosteric hydrophobic pocket adjacent to the active site. Efavirenz (1, ) is a first generation NNRTI that has been conveniently co-formulated with NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) as a once-a-day fixed-dose combination (Atripla®). Although recommended for the therapy of treatment-naïve patients, efavirenz suffers from neurocognitive side effects, teratogenicity and exacerbation of hyperlipidemia. Moreover, the low barrier to genetic resistance of first generation NNRTIs led to the emergence of resistant viruses bearing mutations K103N and Y181C in patients failing therapy.

Structures of marketed and lead NNRTIs.

Figure .

Structures of marketed and lead NNRTIs.

Second generation NNRTIs etravirine (2) and rilpivirine (3) efficiently suppress the replication of the K103N resistant mutants as shown by an improved activity in cell culture assays . Etravirine (200 mg, bid) is approved for use in treatment-experienced adult patients with multi-drug resistance. With an improved pharmacokinetic profile, the close analog rilpivirine (25 mg, qd) was recently approved for use in treatment-naïve patients. Phase III data reveal that at the 96-week point, a rilpivirine/truvada®  combination was better tolerated than efavirenz/truvada®. However, the virologic failure rate was twice as high for rilpivirine (14%) than it was for efavirenz (8%). For patients with viral load greater than 500,000 copies/mL, the response rate is 62% (rilpivirine) versus 81% (efavirenz). As a result, rilpivirine is not recommended for treating HIV patients with viral load >500,000 copies/mL. This difference in treatment durability could be explained by the much higher ratio of trough concentration over the antiviral activity for efavirenz versus rilpivirine.

Investigational next-generation, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI). Interim data demonstrating potent antiretroviral (ARV) activity for four doses (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) of once-daily, oral doravirine in combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine in treatment-naïve, HIV-1 infected adults after 24 weeks of treatment were presented during a late-breaker oral session. Based on these findings as well as other data from the doravirine clinical program, Merck plans to initiate a Phase 3 clinical trial program for doravirine in combination with ARV therapy in the second half of 2014.

“Building on our long-standing commitment to the HIV community, Merck continues to evaluate new candidates we believe have the potential to make a meaningful difference in the lives of HIV patients,” said Daria Hazuda, Ph.D., vice president, Infectious Diseases, Merck Research Laboratories. “We look forward to advancing doravirine into Phase 3 clinical trials in the second half of 2014.”

Doravirine Clinical Data

This randomized, double-blind clinical trial examined the safety, tolerability and efficacy of once-daily doravirine (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg) in combination with once-daily tenofovir/emtricitabine versus efavirenz (600 mg), in treatment-naïve, HIV-1 infected patients. The primary efficacy analysis was percentage of patients achieving virologic response (< 40 copies/mL).

At 24 weeks, doravirine doses of 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg showed virologic response rates consistent with those observed for efavirenz at a dose of 600 mg. All treatment groups showed increased CD4 cell counts.

Proportion of Patients with Virologic
Response at 24 weeks (95% CI)

Mean CD4 Change
from Baseline (95% CI)

Treatment* Dose (mg) n/N

% <40
copies/mL

cells/μL

Doravirine 25 32/40 80.0 (64.6, 90.9) 158 (119, 197)
50 32/42 76.2 (60.5, 87.9) 116 (77, 155)
100 30/42 71.4 (55.4, 84.3) 134 (100, 167)
200 32/41 78.0 (62.4, 89.4) 141 (96, 186)
Efavirenz 600 27/42 64.3 (48.0, 78.4) 121 (73, 169)
Missing data approach: Non-completer = Failure Observed Failure

*In combination with tenofovir/emtricitabine

The incidence of drug-related adverse events was comparable among the doravirine-treated groups. The overall incidence of drug-related adverse events was lower in the doravirine-treated groups (n=166) than the efavirenz-treated group (n=42), 35 percent and 57 percent, respectively. The most common central nervous system (CNS) adverse events at week 8, the primary time point for evaluation of CNS adverse experiences, were dizziness [3.0% doravirine (overall) and 23.8% efavirenz], nightmare [1.2% doravirine (overall) and 9.5% efavirenz], abnormal dreams [9.0% doravirine (overall) and 7.1% efavirenz], and insomnia [5.4% doravirine (overall) and 7.1% efavirenz].

Based on the 24-week data from this dose-finding study, a single dose of 100 mg doravirine was chosen to be studied for the remainder of this study, up to 96 weeks.

About Doravirine

DORAVIRINE

Doravirine, also known as MK-1439, is an investigational next-generation, NNRTI being evaluated by Merck for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. In preclinical studies, doravirine demonstrated potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 with a characteristic profile of resistance mutations selected in vitro compared with currently available NNRTIs. In early clinical studies, doravirine demonstrated a pharmacokinetic profile supportive of once-daily dosing and did not show a significant food effect.

Merck’s Commitment to HIV

For more than 25 years, Merck has been at the forefront of the response to the HIV epidemic, and has helped to make a difference through our proud legacy of commitment to innovation, collaborating with the community, and expanding global access to medicines. Merck is dedicated to applying our scientific expertise, resources and global reach to deliver healthcare solutions that support people living with HIV worldwide.

About Merck

Today’s Merck is a global healthcare leader working to help the world be well. Merck is known as MSD outside the United States and Canada. Through our prescription medicines, vaccines, biologic therapies, and consumer care and animal health products, we work with customers and operate in more than 140 countries to deliver innovative health solutions. We also demonstrate our commitment to increasing access to healthcare through far-reaching policies, programs and partnerships. For more information, visit www.merck.com and connect with us on TwitterFacebook and YouTube.

PATENT

WO 2014089140

The compound 3 -chloro-5-( { 1 – [(4-methyl-5 -oxo-4,5 -dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 – yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile has the following chemical structure.

Figure imgf000017_0001

Anhydrous 3 -chloro-5-( { 1 – [(4-methyl-5 -oxo-4,5 -dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)methyl] -2-oxo-4- (trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile is known to exist in three crystalline forms – Form I, Form II and Form III. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve for crystalline anhydrous Form II shows an endotherm with an onset at 230.8° C, a peak maximum at 245.2°C, and an enthalpy change of 3.7 J/g, which is due to polymorphic conversion of anhydrous Form II to anhydrous Form I, and a second melting endotherm with an onset at 283.1°C, a peak maximum at 284.8°C, and an enthalpy change of 135.9 J/g, due to melting of Anhydrous Form I. Alternative production and the ability of this compound to inhibit HIV reverse transcriptase is illustrated in WO 201 1/120133 Al, published on October 6, 201 1, and US 201 1/0245296 Al, published on October 6, 201 1, both of which are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.

The process of the present invention offers greater efficiency, reduced waste, and lower cost of goods relative to the methods for making the subject compounds existing at the time of the invention. Particularly, the late stage cyanation and methylation steps are not required.

The following examples illustrate the invention. Unless specifically indicated otherwise, all reactants were either commercially available or can be made following procedures known in the art. The following abbreviations are used:

EXAMPLE 1

Figure imgf000018_0001
Figure imgf000018_0002

Step 1

Figure imgf000018_0003

1 2

3-(Chloromethyl)-l-(2-methoxypropan-2-yl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (2): A

100 ml round bottom flask equipped with stir bar and a nitrogen inlet was charged with 1 (5 g, 33.9 mmol) and (lS)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid (0.39 g, 1.694 mmol) at ambient temperature. After 2,2-dimethoxy propane (36.0 g, 339 mmol) was charged at ambient temperature, the resulting mixture was heated to 45°C. The resulting mixture was stirred under nitrogen at 45°C for 18 hours and monitored by HPLC for conversion of the starting material (< 5% by HPLC). After the reaction was completed, the batch was taken on to the next step without further workup or isolation. ‘H NMR (CDCI3, 500 MHz): 4.45 (s, 2H), 3.35 (s, 3H), 3.21 (s, 3H), 1.83 (s, 6H).

Step 2

Figure imgf000019_0001

3-Fluoro-l-((l-(2-methoxypropan-2-yl)-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2(lH)-one (3): A mixture of 2 (100 mg, 93.1% purity, 0.49 mmol), pyridone (1 17 mg, 97.6% purity, 0.49 mmol) and K2CO3 (82 mg, 0.59 mmol) in DMF (0.5 ml) was aged with stirring at ambient temperature for 3h. After the reaction was completed, the batch was taken on to the next step without further work up or isolation.

Step 3

Figure imgf000019_0002

3-Chloro-5-((l-((l-(2-methoxypropan-2-yl)-4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (4): To a mixture of compound 3 in DMF (reaction mixture from the previous step) was added 3-chloro-5- hydroxybenzonitrile (1.77 g, 1 1.5 mmol) at ambient temperature. The resulting mixture was then heated to 95-100°C and held for 20 hours.

Upon completion (typically 18-20 hours), the reaction was cooled to room temperature, diluted with ethyl acetate and washed with water. The aqueous cut was back extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic layers were combined and then concentrated to an oil. MeOH (80 ml) was added and the resulting slurry was taken on to the next step. XH NMR (CDC13, 500 MHz): 7.60 (d, IH), 7.42 (s, IH), 7.23 (s, IH), 7.12 (s, IH), 6.56 (d, IH), 5.14 (s, 2H), 3.30 (s, 3H), 3.22 (s, 3H), 1.82 (s, 6H).

Step 4

Figure imgf000020_0001

4 5

3-Chloro-5-((l-((4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4- (trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (5): To a solution of 4 (5.74 g., 1 1.53 mmol) in MeOH (from previous step) was added concentrated hydrochloric acid (lml, 12.18 mmol) at ambient temperature. The resulting mixture was agitated for 1 hour at room temperature.

The resulting solids were collected by filtration and dried under a nitrogen sweep, providing 5 as a white solid (2.63 g, 46% yield): XH NMR (DMSO, 400 MHz): 1 1.74 (S, IH), 7.92 (d, IH), 7.76 (s, IH), 7.61 (s, IH), 7.54 (s, IH), 6.69 (d, IH), 5.15 (s, 2H), 3.10 (s, 3H)

EXAMPLE 2

Figure imgf000021_0001

Step 1

Figure imgf000021_0002

Phenyl methylcarbamate: 40% Aqueous methylamine (500 g, 6.44 mol) was charged to a 2 L vessel equipped with heat/cool jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe and nitrogen inlet. The solution was cooled to -5 °C. Phenyl chloroformate (500.0 g, 3.16 mol) was added over 2.5 h maintaining the reaction temperature between -5 and 0 °C. On complete addition the white slurry was stirred for lh at ~0 °C.

The slurry was filtered, washed with water (500 mL) and dried under 2 sweep overnight to afford 465g (96%> yield) of the desired product as a white crystalline solid; 1H NMR (CDCI3, 500 MHz): δ 7.35 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.19 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 4.95 (br s, 1H), 2.90 (d, J = 5 Hz, 3H).

Step 2

Figure imgf000022_0001

2-(2-Hydroxyacetyl)-N-methylhydrazinecarboxamide: Part A: Phenyl methylcarbamate (300 g, 1.95 mol) was charged to a 2 L vessel with cooling jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser and nitrogen inlet. IPA (390 mL) was added at 23 °C. Hydrazine hydrate (119 g, 2.33 mol) was added and the slurry heated to 75 °C for 6 h.

Part B: On complete reaction (>99% conversion by HPLC), IPA (810 mL) and glycolic acid (222 g, 2.92 mol) were added and the mixture stirred at 83-85 °C for 10-12 h. The reaction mixture is initially a clear colorless solution. The mixture is seeded with product (0.5 g) after 4h at 83-85 °C. The slurry was slowly cooled to 20 °C over 2h and aged for lh.

The slurry was filtered and washed with IPA (600 mL). The cake was dried under 2 sweep to afford 241.8g (81% yield) of the desired product as a white crystalline solid: XH NMR (D20, 500 MHz): δ 4.11 (s, 2H), 2.60 (s, 3H).

Step 3

Figure imgf000022_0002

3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one: 2-(2-Hydroxyacetyl)-N- methylhydrazinecarboxamide (130 g @ ~95wt%, 0.84 mol), w-propanol (130 mL) and water (130 mL) were charged to a 1 L vessel with jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser and nitrogen inlet. Sodium hydroxide (pellets, 16.8 g, 0.42 mol) was added and the slurry warmed to reflux for 3h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 °C and the pH adjusted to 6.5 (+/- 0.5) using cone hydrochloric acid (28.3 mL, 0.34 mol). Water was azeotropically removed under vacuum at 40-50 °C by reducing the volume to -400 mL and maintaining that volume by the slow addition of n-propanol (780 mL). The final water content should be <3000 ug/mL. The resultant slurry (~ 400 mL) was cooled to 23 °C and heptane (390 ml) was added. The slurry was aged lh at 23 °C, cooled to 0 °C and aged 2h. The slurry was filtered, the cake washed with 1 :2 n-PrOH/heptane (100 mL) and dried to provide 125g (85% yield) of an off- white crystalline solid. The solid is ~73 wt% due to residual inorganics (NaCl): ‘H NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ 3.30 (s, 3H), 4.46 (s, 2H).

Step 4

Figure imgf000023_0001

3-(Chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (1): A mixture of 3- (Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (54 g, at 73wt%, 307 mmol) in ethyl acetate (540 mL) was stirred at 45 °C. SOCI2 (26.9 mL, 369 mmol) was added over 30-45 min and aged at 50 °C for 2h. Monitor reaction progress by HPLC. On complete reaction (>99.5% by area at 210nm.), the warm suspension was filtered and the filter cake (mainly NaCl) was washed with ethyl acetate (108 mL). The combined filtrate and wash were concentrated at 50-60 °C under reduced pressure to approximately 150 mL. The resulting slurry was cooled to -10 °C and aged lh. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake washed with ethyl acetate (50 mL). The cake was dried under 2 sweep to afford 40. lg (86% yield) of the desired product as a bright yellow solid: ‘H NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ 3.30 (s, 3H), 4.58 (s, 2H).

EXAMPLE 3

Figure imgf000023_0002

3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2(lH)-one (2): To a 250 ml round bottom flask equipped with overhead stirring and a nitrogen inlet was added a mixture of sulfuric acid (24.31 ml, 437 mmol) and water (20.00 ml). To this was added 2,3-difluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (6.83 ml, 54.6 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 65 °C and stirred for 4 h. By this time the reaction was complete, and the mixture was cooled to room temperature. To the flask was slowly added 5M sodium hydroxide (43.7 ml, 218 mmol), maintaining room temperature with an ice bath. The title compound precipitates as a white solid during addition. Stirring was maintained for an additional lh after addition. At this time, the mixture was filtered, the filter cake washed with 20 mL water, and the resulting white solids dried under nitrogen. 3-fluoro-4- (trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2(lH)-one (2) was obtained as a white crystalline solid (9.4g, 51.9 mmol, 95 % yield): ¾ NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz): 12.97 (br s, 1H), 7.36 (d, 1H), 6.44 (m, 1H).

EXAMPLE 4

Step 1 – Ethyl Ester Synthesis Experimental Procedure;

Figure imgf000024_0001

Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate (A): A 1L round bottom flask equipped with overhead stirring was charged with 3-chloro-5-hydroxybenzonitrile (50.0 g, 98 wt% purity, 319 mmol) and 15% aqueous DMF (200 mL DMF + 35.5 mL FLO). To the resulting solution was added diisopropylethylamine (61.3 mL, 99.0% purity, 1.1 equiv) and ethyl 2-bromoacetate (35.7 g, 98% purity, 1.15 equiv) at ambient temperature. The resulting solution was warmed to 50°C under nitrogen and aged for 12 h. Upon completion of the reaction the batch was cooled to 0- 5°C. To the clear to slightly cloudy solution was added 5% seed (3.8g, 16.0 mmol). H20 (64.5mL) was added to the thin suspension via syringe pump over 3h while maintaining the temp at 0-5 °C. Additional FLO (200mL) was added over lh while maintaining the temp at 0-5 °C. The final DMF/FLO ratio is 1 : 1.5 (10 vol). The resulting slurry was typically aged lh at 0-5 °C. The batch was filtered and the cake slurry washed with 2: 1 DMF/water (150 mL, 3 vol), followed by water (200 mL, 4 vol). The wet cake was dried on the frit with suction under a nitrogen stream at 20-25 °C; note: heat must not be applied during drying as product mp is 42 °C. The cake is considered dry when H20 is <0.2%. Obtained 73.4 g ethyl ester as a light tan solid, 96% yield (corrected), 99.5 LCAP: XH NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) δ = 7.29 (s, 1H), 7.15 (s, 1H), 7.06 (s, 1H), 4.67 (s, 2H), 4.32 (q, 2H), 1.35 (t, 3H) ppm. Step 2 – Pyridone Synthesis

Synthetic Scheme; batch

TEA, TFAA, 10 °C;

then MeOH, rt

Figure imgf000025_0001

[isolated solid, A] [PhMe exit stream, B]

Figure imgf000025_0002

[PhMe/MeOH solution, C] [PhMe/MeOH/NH3 solution, D] [isolated solid, E]

Experimental Procedures;

Aldol Condensation, Ester A to Diene C

(2E/Z,4E)-Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)-5-ethoxy-3-(trifluoromethyl)penta-2,4- dienoate (C): Ester A (25.01 g, 104.4 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was charged to toluene (113.43 g, 131 mL, 5.24 vol) and 4-ethoxy-l, l, l-trifluoro-3-buten-2-one (26.43 g, 157.2 mmol, 1.51 equiv) was added.

The flow reactor consisted of two feed solution inlets and an outlet to a receiving vessel. The flow reactor schematic is shown in Figure 1.

The ester solution was pumped to one flow reactor inlet. Potassium tert-pentoxide solution was pumped to the second reactor inlet. Trifluoroacetic anhydride was added continuously to the receiver vessel. Triethylamine was added continuously to the receiver vessel. The flow rates were: 13 mL/min ester solution, 7.8 mL/min potassium tert-pentoxide solution, 3.3 mL/min trifluoroacetic anhydride and 4.35 mL/min triethylamine.

Charged toluene (50 mL, 2 vol) and potassium trifluoroacetate (0.64 g, 4.21 mmol, 0.04 equiv) to the receiver vessel. The flow reactor was submerged in a -10 °C bath and the pumps were turned on. The batch temperature in the receiver vessel was maintained at 5 to 10 °C throughout the run using a dry ice/acetone bath. After 13.5 min the ester solution was consumed, the reactor was flushed with toluene (10 mL) and the pumps were turned off.

The resulting yellow slurry was warmed to room temperature and aged for 4.5 h. Charged methanol (160 mL) to afford a homogeneous solution which contained 81.20 area percent diene C by HPLC analysis.

The solution of diene C (573 mL) was used without purification in the subsequent reaction. Cyclization, Diene C to E

3-Chloro-5-((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (E): To a solution of diene C in PhMe/MeOH (573 mL; 40.69 g, 104.4 mmol theoretical C) was charged methanol (25 mL, 0.61 vol). Ammonia (32 g, 1.88 mol, 18 equiv based on theoretical C) was added and the solution was warmed to 60 °C. The reaction was aged at 60 °C for 18 h. The temperature was adjusted to 35-45 °C and the pressure was decreased maintain a productive distillation rate. The batch volume was reduced to -300 mL and methanol (325 mL, 8 vol) was charged in portions to maintain a batch volume between 250 and 350 mL. The heating was stopped and the system vented. The resulting slurry was cooled to room temperature and aged overnight.

The batch was filtered and the cake washed with methanol (3x, 45 mL). The wet cake was dried on the frit with suction under a nitrogen stream to afford 18.54 g of a white solid: XH NMR (DMSO-i/6, 500 MHz): δ 12.7 (br s, 1H), 7.73 (t, 1H, J= 1.5 Hz), 7.61-7.59 (m, 2H), 7.53 (t, 1H, J= 2.0 Hz), 6.48 (d, 1H, J= 7.0 Hz) ppm.

Step 3 – Chlorination, Alkylation and Isolation of 3-Chloro-5-({l-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro- lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile

Figure imgf000027_0001

3-(Chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one: 3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH- l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (1.638 kg of 68wt%, 8.625 mol) and N-methylpyrrolidinone (8.9 L) was charged into a 30 L vessel. The suspension was aged for lOh at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered through a 4L sintered glass funnel under 2 and the filter cake (mainly NaCl) was washed with NMP (2.23 L). The combined filtrate and wash had a water content of 5750 μg/mL. The solution was charged to a 75L flask equipped with a 2N NaOH scrubber to capture off-gasing vapors. Thionyl chloride (0.795 L, 10.89 mol) was added over lh and the temperature rose to 35 °C. HPLC analysis indicated that the reaction required an additional thionyl chloride charge (0.064 L, 0.878 mol) to bring to full conversion. The solution was warmed to 50 °C, placed under vacuum at 60 Torr (vented to a 2N NaOH scrubber), and gently sparged with subsurface N2 (4 L/min). The degassing continued for lOh until the sulfur dioxide content in the solution was <5 mg/mL as determined by quantitative GC/MS. The tan solution of 3-(chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one in NMP weighed 13.0 kg and was assayed at 9.63 wt% providing 1.256 kg (97% yield).

3-chloro-5-((l-((4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4- (trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile: To a 75L flask was charged a 9.63wt% solution of 3-(chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one in NMP (1 1.6 kg, 7.55 mol), 3 -chloro-5 -((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-3 -yl)oxy)benzonitrile (2.00 kg, 6.29 mol), NMP (3.8 L) and 2-methyl-2-butanol (6.0 L). To the resulting suspension was slowly added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (4.38 L, 25.2 mol) over 4h. The reaction was aged 18h at ambient temperature. The reaction is considered complete when HPLC indicates <1% 3 -chloro-5 -((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile remaining. The tan solution was quenched with acetic acid (1.26 L, 22.0 mol) and aged at ambient temperature overnight. The tan solution was warmed to 70 °C. Water (2.52 L) was added and the batch was seed with anhydrate Form II (134 g). The thin suspension was aged lh at 70 °C. Additional water (14.3 L) was added evenly over 7 h. The slurry was aged 2h at 70 °C and then slowly cooled to 20 °C over 5 h. The slurry was filtered and washed with 2 : 1 NMP/water (6 L), followed by water washes (6 L x 2). The filter cake was dried over a 2 sweep to give 2.53 kg (85% yield – corrected) of a white solid that was confirmed to be crystalline Form II by X-ray powder detraction analysis.

PATENT

WO 2015084763

The following scheme is an example of Step 3A.

EXAMPLE 1

1

Step 1

c| 0. h CH3NH3 Me.NA0.Ph

H

Phenyl methylcarbamate: 40% Aqueous methylamine (500 g, 6.44 mol) was charged to a 2 L vessel equipped with heat/cool jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe and nitrogen inlet. The solution was cooled to -5 °C. Phenyl chloroformate (500.0 g, 3.16 mol) was added over 2.5 h maintaining the reaction temperature between -5 and 0 °C. On complete addition the white slurry was stirred for lh at ~0 °C.

The slurry was filtered, washed with water (500 mL) and dried under a nitrogen sweep overnight to afford 465g (96% yield) of the desired product as a white crystalline solid; XH NMR (CDCI3, 500 MHz): δ 7.35 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.19 (t, J = 8.0 Hz, 1H), 7.12 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 4.95 (br s, 1H), 2.90 (d, J = 5 Hz, 3H).

Step 2

2-(2-Hydroxyacetyl)-N-methylhydrazinecarboxamide: Part A: Phenyl methylcarbamate (300 g, 1.95 mol) was charged to a 2 L vessel with cooling jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser and nitrogen inlet. IPA (390 mL) was added at 23 °C. Hydrazine hydrate (119 g, 2.33 mol) was added and the slurry heated to 75 °C for 6 h.

Part B: On complete reaction (>99% conversion by HPLC), IPA (810 mL) and glycolic acid (222 g, 2.92 mol) were added and the mixture stirred at 83-85 °C for 10-12 h. The reaction mixture was initially a clear colorless solution. The mixture was seeded with product (0.5 g) after 4h at 83-85 °C. The slurry was slowly cooled to 20 °C over 2h and aged for lh. Seed was used to advance the crystallization, but the crystalline product can be precipitated and isolated without seed by allowing the solution to age at 83-85 °C for 4 hours.

The slurry was filtered and washed with IPA (600 mL). The cake was dried under a nitrogen sweep to afford 241.8g (81% yield) of the desired product as a white crystalline solid: XH NMR (D20, 500 MHz): δ 4.11 (s, 2H), 2.60 (s, 3H).

Step 3

3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one: 2-(2-Hydroxyacetyl)-N-methylhydrazinecarboxamide (130 g @ ~95wt%, 0.84 mol), w-propanol (130 mL) and water (130 mL) were charged to a 1 L vessel with jacket, overhead stirrer, temperature probe, reflux condenser and nitrogen inlet. Sodium hydroxide (pellets, 16.8 g, 0.42 mol) was added and the slurry warmed to reflux for 3h. The reaction mixture was cooled to 20 °C and the pH adjusted to 6.5 (+/- 0.5) using concentrated hydrochloric acid (28.3 mL, 0.34 mol). Water was

azeotropically removed under vacuum at 40-50 °C by reducing the volume to -400 mL and maintaining that volume by the slow addition of n-propanol (780 mL). The final water content was <3000 ug/mL. The resultant slurry (~ 400 mL) was cooled to 23 °C and heptane (390 ml) was added. The slurry was aged lh at 23 °C, cooled to 0 °C and aged 2h. The slurry was filtered, the cake washed with 1 :2 n-PrOH/heptane (100 mL) and the filter cake was dried under a nitrogen sweep to provide 125g (85% yield) of an off-white crystalline solid. The solid was -73 wt% due to residual inorganics (NaCl): ¾ NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ 3.30 (s, 3H), 4.46 (s, 2H).

Step 4

3-(Chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (1): A mixture of 3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (54 g, at 73wt%, 307 mmol) in ethyl acetate (540 mL) was stirred at 45 °C. SOCl2 (26.9 mL, 369 mmol) was added over 30-45 min and aged at 50 °C for 2h. The reaction progress was monitored by HPLC. On complete reaction (>99.5% by area at 210nm), the warm suspension was filtered and the filter cake (mainly NaCl) was washed with ethyl acetate (108 mL). The combined filtrate and wash were concentrated at 50-60 °C under reduced pressure to approximately 150 mL. The resulting slurry was cooled to – 10 °C and aged lh. The slurry was filtered and the filter cake washed with ethyl acetate (50 mL). The cake was dried under a nitrogen sweep to afford 40. lg (86% yield) of the desired product as a bright yellow solid: XH NMR (CD3OD, 500 MHz): δ 3.30 (s, 3H), 4.58 (s, 2H).

EXAMPLE 2

Step 1 – Ethyl Ester Synthesis

Experimental Procedure;

A

Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate (A): A 1L round bottom flask equipped with overhead stirring was charged with 3-chloro-5-hydroxybenzonitrile (50.0 g, 98 wt% purity, 319 mmol) and 15% aqueous DMF (200 mL DMF + 35.5 mL Η20). To the resulting solution was added diisopropylethylamine (61.3 mL, 99.0% purity, 1.1 equiv) and ethyl 2-bromoacetate (35.7 g, 98% purity, 1.15 equiv) at ambient temperature. The resulting solution was warmed to 50°C under nitrogen and aged for 12 h. Upon completion of the reaction the batch was cooled to 0-5°C. To the clear to slightly cloudy solution was added 5% seed (3.8g, 16.0 mmol). H20 (64.5mL) was added to the thin suspension via syringe pump over 3h while maintaining the temperature at 0-5 °C. Additional H20 (200mL) was added over lh while maintaining the temp at 0-5 °C. The final DMF/H20 ratio is 1 : 1.5. The resulting slurry was aged lh at 0-5 °C. The batch was filtered and the cake slurry washed with 2: 1 DMF/water (150 mL), followed by water (200 mL). The wet cake was dried on the frit with suction under a nitrogen stream at 20-25 °C. The cake is considered dry when H20 is <0.2%. Obtained 73.4 g ethyl ester as a light tan solid, 96% yield: XH NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) δ = 7.29 (s, 1H), 7.15 (s, 1H), 7.06 (s, 1H), 4.67 (s, 2H), 4.32 (q, 2H), 1.35 (t, 3H) ppm. Seed was used to advance the crystallization, but the crystalline product can be precipitated and isolated without seed by allowing the solution to age at 0-5 °C for at least about 2 hours.

Step 2 – Pyridone Synthesis

Synthetic Scheme;

Experimental Procedures;

Aldol Condensation

(2E/Z,4E)-Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)-5-ethoxy-3-(trifluoromethyl)penta-2,4-dienoate (C): Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate (25.01 g, 104.4 mmol, 1.00 equiv) was charged to toluene (113.43 g, 131 mL) and 4-ethoxy-l, l,l-trifluoro-3-buten-2-one (26.43 g, 157.2 mmol, 1.51 equiv) was added.

The flow reactor consisted of two feed solution inlets and an outlet to a receiving vessel. The flow reactor schematic is shown in Figure 1.

The ester solution was pumped to one flow reactor inlet. Potassium tert-amylate solution was pumped to the second reactor inlet. Trifluoroacetic anhydride was added continuously to the receiver vessel. Triethylamine was added continuously to the receiver vessel.

The flow rates were: 13 mL/min ester solution, 7.8 mL/min potassium tert-amylate solution, 3.3 mL/min trifluoroacetic anhydride and 4.35 mL/min triethylamine.

Charged toluene (50 mL) and potassium trifluoroacetate (0.64 g, 4.21 mmol, 0.04 equiv) to the receiver vessel. The flow reactor was submerged in a -10 °C bath and the pumps were turned on. The batch temperature in the receiver vessel was maintained at 5 to 10 °C throughout the run using a dry ice/acetone bath. After 13.5 min the ester solution was consumed, the reactor was flushed with toluene (10 mL) and the pumps were turned off.

The resulting yellow slurry was warmed to room temperature and aged for 4.5 h. Charged methanol (160 mL) to afford a homogeneous solution which contained 81.20 LCAP diene .

The solution of diene (573 mL) was used without purification in the subsequent reaction.

Cyclization

3-Chloro-5-((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (E): To a solution of diene in PhMe/MeOH (573 mL; 40.69 g, 104.4 mmol theoretical) was charged methanol (25 mL). Ammonia (32 g, 1.88 mol, 18 equiv based on theoretical) was added and the solution was warmed to 60 °C. The reaction was aged at 60 °C for 18 h. The temperature was adjusted to 35-45 °C and the pressure was decreased to maintain a productive distillation rate. The batch volume was reduced to -300 mL and methanol (325 mL) was charged in portions to maintain a batch volume between 250 and 350 mL. The heating was stopped and the system vented. The resulting slurry was cooled to room temperature and aged overnight.

The batch was filtered and the cake washed with methanol (3x, 45 mL). The wet cake was dried on the frit with suction under a nitrogen stream to afford 18.54 g of a white solid: XH NMR (DMSO-ifc, 500 MHz): δ 12.7 (br s, 1H), 7.73 (t, 1H, J= 1.5 Hz), 7.61-7.59 (m, 2H), 7.53 (t, 1H, J= 2.0 Hz), 6.48 (d, 1H, J= 7.0 Hz) ppm.

Step 3 – Chlorination, Alkylation and Isolation of 3-Chloro-5-({l-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-‘ dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile

3-(Chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one: 3-(Hydroxymethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (1.638 kg of 68wt%, 8.625 mol) and N-methylpyrrolidinone (8.9 L) was charged into a 30 L vessel. The suspension was aged for lOh at ambient temperature. The slurry was filtered through a 4L sintered glass funnel under 2 and the filter cake (mainly NaCl) was washed with NMP (2.23 L). The combined filtrate and wash had a water content of 5750 μg/mL. The solution was charged to a 75L flask equipped with a 2N NaOH scrubber to capture off-gasing vapors. Thionyl chloride (0.795 L, 10.89 mol) was added over lh and the temperature rose to 35 °C. HPLC analysis indicated that the reaction required an additional thionyl chloride charge (0.064 L, 0.878 mol) to bring to full conversion. The solution was warmed to 50 °C, placed under vacuum at 60 Torr (vented to a 2N NaOH scrubber), and gently sparged with subsurface nitrogen (4 L/min). The degassing continued for lOh until the sulfur dioxide content in the solution was <5 mg/mL as determined by quantitative GC/MS. The tan solution of 3-(chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one in NMP weighed 13.0 kg and was assayed at 9.63 wt% providing 1.256 kg (97% yield).

3-chloro-5-((l-((4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl)-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile: To a 75L flask was charged a 9.63wt% solution of 3-(chloromethyl)-4-methyl-lH-l,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one in NMP (1 1.6 kg, 7.55 mol), 3-chloro-5-((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile (2.00 kg, 6.29 mol), NMP (3.8 L) and 2-methyl-2-butanol (6.0 L). To the resulting suspension was slowly added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (4.38 L, 25.2 mol) over 4h. The reaction was aged 18h at ambient temperature. The reaction is considered complete when HPLC indicated <1% 3-chloro-5-((2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-l,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl)oxy)benzonitrile remaining. The tan solution was quenched with acetic acid (1.26 L, 22.0 mol) and aged at ambient temperature overnight. The tan solution was warmed to 70 °C. Water (2.52 L) was added and the batch was seeded with anhydrate Form II (134 g)(procedures for making anhydrate Form II are described in WO2014/052171). The thin suspension was aged lh at 70 °C. Additional water (14.3 L) was added evenly over 7 h. The slurry was aged 2h at 70 °C and then slowly cooled to 20 °C over 5 h. The slurry was filtered and washed with 2 : 1 NMP/water (6 L), followed by water washes (6 L x 2). The filter cake was dried under N2 to give 2.53 kg (85% yield) of a white solid that was confirmed to be crystalline Form II of the title compound by X-ray powder detraction analysis.

EXAMPLE 3

Ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate (A):

70%

Step 3

Three step one pot sequence

Steps 1 and 2:

To an oven dried 250mL round bottom flask was added sodium 2-methylpropan-2-olate (12.85 g, 134 mmol) and BHT (0.641 g, 2.91 mmol) then added DMF (30mL). After lOmin, a light yellow solution resulted. 2-Phenylethanol (7.66 ml, 63.9 mmol) was added and the solution exothermed to 35 °C. The light yellow solution was warmed to 55 °C and then a solution of 3,5-dichlorobenzonitrile (10 g, 58.1 mmol) in DMF (15mL) was added over 2h via syringe pump. The resulting red-orange suspension was aged at 55-60 °C. After 2h, HPLC showed >98% conversion to the sodium phenolate.

Step 3:

The suspension was cooled to 10 °C, then ethyl 2-bromoacetate (8.70 ml, 78 mmol) was added over lh while maintaining the temperature <20 °C. The resulting mixture was aged at ambient temperature. After lh, HPLC showed >99% conversion to the title compound.

Work-up and isolation:

To the suspension was added MTBE (50mL) and H20 (50mL) and the layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with 20% aq brine (25mL). The organic layer was assayed at 12.5g (90% yield). The organic layer was concentrated to -38 mL, diluted with hexanes (12.5mL) and then cooled to 5 °C. The solution was seeded with 0.28g (2 wt%) of crystalline ethyl 2-(3-chloro-5-cyanophenoxy)acetate and aged 0.5h at 5 °C to give a free flowing slurry. Hexane (175mL) was added to the slurry over lh at 0-5 °C. The slurry was filtered at 0-5 °C, washed with hexane (50 mL) and dried under a nitrogen sweep to give 9.8g (70% yield) of the title compound as a white crystalline solid. Seed was used to advance the crystallization, but the crystalline product can be precipitated and isolated without seed by allowing the solution to age at 0-5 °C for at least about 2 hours.

Paper

Discovery of MK-1439, an orally bioavailable non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor potent against a wide range of resistant mutant HIV viruses
Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2014, 24(3): 917

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X13014546

The optimization of a novel series of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) led to the identification of pyridone 36. In cell cultures, this new NNRTI shows a superior potency profile against a range of wild type and clinically relevant, resistant mutant HIV viruses. The overall favorable preclinical pharmacokinetic profile of 36 led to the prediction of a once daily low dose regimen in human. NNRTI 36, now known as MK-1439, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of HIV infection.

Full-size image (16 K)

Full-size image (10 K)

Scheme 1. 

Reagents and conditions: (a) K2CO3, NMP, 120 °C; (b) KOH, tert-BuOH, 75 °C; (c) Zn(CN)2, Pd(PPh3)4, DMF, 100 °C.

Full-size image (12 K)

Scheme 3.

Reagents and conditions: (a) K2CO3, DMF, −10 °C; (b) MeI or EtI, K2CO3, DMF.

36 IS DORAVIRINE

PATENT

WO 2011120133

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011120133A1?cl=en

Scheme I depicts a method for preparing compounds of Formula I in which hydroxypyridine 1-1 is alkylated with chlorotriazolinone 1-2 to provide 1-3 which can be selectively alkylated with an alkyl halide (e.g., methyl iodide, ethyl iodide, etc.) to afford the desired 1-4. Scheme I

Figure imgf000039_0001

Scheme II depicts an alternative route to compounds of the present invention, wherein fluorohydroxypyridine II-l can be alkylated with chlorotriazolinone II-2 to provide the alkylated product II-3 which can be converted to the desired II-5 via nucleophilic aromatic substitution (S] fAr) using a suitable hydroxyarene II-4.

Scheme II

Figure imgf000039_0002

Hydroxypyridines of formula I-l (Scheme 1) can be prepared in accordance with Scheme III, wherein a SNAr reaction between pyridine III-l (such as commercially available 2- chloro-3-fluoro-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine) and hydroxyarene H-4 can provide chloropyridine III-2, which can be hydrolyzed under basic conditions to the hydroxypyridine I-l. Scheme III

Figure imgf000040_0001

Another method for preparing hydroxypyridines of formula I-l is exemplified in Scheme IV, wherein S Ar coupling of commercially available 2-chloro-3-fluoro-4- nitropyridone-N-oxide IV-1 with a suitable hydroxyarene II-4 provides N-oxide IV-2, which can first be converted to dihalides IV-3 and then hydro lyzed to hydroxypyridine IV-4. Further derivatization of hydroxypyridine IV-4 is possible through transition metal-catalyzed coupling processes, such as Stille or boronic acid couplings using a PdLn catalyst (wherein L is a ligand such as triphenylphosphine, tri-tert-butylphosphine or xantphos) to form hydroxypyridines IV-5, or amination chemistry to form hydroxypyridines IV-6 in which R2 is N(RA)RB.

Scheme IV

Figure imgf000040_0002

IV-1

Figure imgf000040_0003

– – Scheme V depicts the introduction of substitution at the five-position of the hydroxypyridines via bromination, and subsequent transition metal-catalyzed chemistries, such as Stille or boronic acid couplings using PdLn in which L is as defined in Scheme IV to form hydroxypyridines V-3, or amination chemistry to form hydroxypyridines V-4 in which R3 is N(RA)RB.

Scheme V

Figure imgf000041_0001

As shown in Scheme IV, fiuorohydroxypyridines II-l (Scheme II) are available from the commercially available 3-fluoroypridines VI- 1 through N-oxide formation and rearrangement as described in Konno et al., Heterocycles 1986, vol. 24, p. 2169.

Scheme VI

Figure imgf000041_0002

The following examples serve only to illustrate the invention and its practice. The examples are not to be construed as limitations on the scope or spirit of the invention.

The term “room temperature” in the examples refers to the ambient temperature which was typically in the range of about 20°C to about 26°C.

EXAMPLE 1

3-Chloro-5-({ l-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4- (trifluoromethyl)-l ,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile (1-1)

Figure imgf000042_0001

Step 1(a):

Figure imgf000042_0002

A mixture of the 3-bromo-5-chlorophenol (3.74 g; 18.0 mmol), 2-chloro-3-fluoro- 4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (3.00 g; 15.0 mmol) and 2CO3 (2.49 g; 18.0 mmol) in NMP (15 mL) was heated to 120°C for one hour, then cooled to room temperature. The mixture was then diluted with 250 mL EtOAc and washed with 3 x 250 mL 1 :1 H20:brine. The organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by ISCO CombiFlash (120 g column; load with toluene; 100:0 to 0:100 hexanes:CH2Cl2 over 40 minutes) provided title compound (1-2) as a white solid. Repurification of the mixed fractions provided additional title compound. lH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3): δ 8.55 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H); 7.64 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H);

7.30 (s, 1 H); 6.88 (s, 1 H); 6.77 (s, 1 H).

3-(3-bromo-5-chlorophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-ol (1-3)

Figure imgf000042_0003

To a suspension of 3-(3-bromo-5-chlorophenoxy)-2-chloro-4- (trifluoromethyl)pyridine (1-2; 3.48 g; 8.99 mmol) in lBuOH (36 mL) was added KOH (1.51 g; 27.0 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 75°C overnight, at which point a yellow oily solid had precipitated from solution, and LCMS analysis indicated complete conversion. The mixture was cooled to room temperature, and neutralized by the addition of -50 mL saturated aqueous NH4CI. The mixture was diluted with 50 mL H2O, then extracted with 2 x 100 mL EtOAc. The combined organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by ISCO CombiFlash (120 g column; dry load; 100:0 to 90: 10 CH2Cl2:MeOH over 40 minutes) provided the title compound (1-3) as a fluffy white solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 12.69 (s, 1 H); 7.59 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H); 7.43 (t, J = 1.7 Hz, 1 H); 7.20 (t, J = 1.9 Hz, 1 H); 7.13 (t, J = 2.0 Hz, 1 H); 6.48 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H).

3-chloro-5-{[2-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl]oxy}benzonitrile (1-4)

Figure imgf000043_0001

To a suspension of 3-(3-bromo-5-chlorophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-ol (1-3; 3.25 g; 8.82 mmol) in NMP (29 mL) was added CuCN (7.90 g; 88 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 175°C for 5 hours, then cooled to room temperature slowly. With increased fumehood ventilation, 100 mL glacial AcOH was added, then 100 mL EtOAc and the mixture was filtered through Celite (EtOAc rinse). The filtrate was washed with 3 x 200 mL 1 : 1 H20:brine, then the organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo.

Purification by ISCO CombiFlash (120 g column; dry load; 100:0 to 90:10 CH2Cl2:MeOH over 40 minutes), then trituration of the derived solid with Et20 (to remove residual NMP which had co-eluted with the product) provided the title compound (1-4). lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 12.71 (s, 1 H); 7.75 (s, 1 H); 7.63-7.57 (m, 2 H); 7.54 (s, 1 H); 6.49 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H).

Step 1(d): 5-(chloromethyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-l,2,4-triazol-3-one (1-5)

Figure imgf000043_0002

The title compound was prepared as described in the literature: Cowden, C. J.; Wilson, R. D.; Bishop, B. C; Cottrell, I. F.; Davies, A. J.; Dolling, U.-H. Tetrahedron Lett. 2000, 47, 8661.

3 -chloro-5 -( { 2-oxo- 1 – [(5 -oxo-4,5 -dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)methyl] – 4- (trifiuoromethyl)- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-3 -yl } oxy)benzonitrile (1-6)

Figure imgf000044_0001

A suspension of the 3-chloro-5-{[2-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3- yl]oxy}benzonitrile (1-4; 2.00 g; 6.36 mmol), 5-(chloromethyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-l,2,4-triazol-3- one (1-5; 0.849 g; 6.36 mmol) and K2CO3 (0.878 g; 6.36 mmol) in DMF (32 mL) was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, at which point LCMS analysis indicated complete conversion. The mixture was diluted with 200 mL Me-THF and washed with 150 mL 1 : 1 : 1 H20:brine:saturated aqueous NH4CI, then further washed with 2 x 150 mL 1 : 1 H20:brine. The aqueous fractions were further extracted with 150 mL Me-THF, then the combined organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by ISCO CombiFlash (80 g column; dry load; 100:0 to 90:10 EtOAc:EtOH over 25 minutes) provided the title compound (1-6) as a white solid. lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 1 1.46 (s, 1 H); 1 1.39 (s, 1 H); 7.93 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H); 7.76 (s, 1 H); 7.58 (s, 1 H); 7.51 (s, 1 H); 6.67 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H); 5.02 (s, 2 H).

Step 1(f): 3 -chloro-5 -( { 1 – [(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5 -dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,2,4-triazol-3 -yl)methyl] -2- oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)- 1 ,2-dihydropyridin-3 -yl } oxy)benzonitrile (1 -1 )

A solution of 3-chloro-5-({2-oxo-l -[(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l,2,4-triazol-3- yl)methyl]- 4-(trifluoromethyl)-l ,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile (1-6; 2.37 g; 5.76 mmol) and K2CO3 (0.796 g; 5.76 mmol) in DMF (58 mL) was cooled to 0°C, then methyl iodide (0.360 mL; 5.76 mmol) was added. The mixture was allowed to warm to room

temperature, and stirred for 90 minutes, at which point LCMS analysis indicated >95%

conversion, and the desired product of -75% LCAP purity, with the remainder being unreacted starting material and 6/s-methylation products. The mixture was diluted with 200 mL Me-THF, and washed with 3 x 200 mL 1 : 1 H20:brine. The aqueous fractions were further extracted with 200 mL Me-THF, then the combined organic extracts were dried (Na2S04) and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting white solid was first triturated with 100 mL EtOAc, then with 50 mL THF, which provided (after drying) the title compound (1-1) of >95% LCAP. Purification to >99% LCAP is possible using Prep LCMS (Max-RP, 100 x 30 mm column; 30-60% CH3CN in 0.6% aqueous HCOOH over 8.3 min; 25 mL/min). lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 1 1.69 (s, 1 H); 7.88 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H); 7.75 (s, 1 H); 7.62 (s, 1 H); 7.54 (s, 1 H); 6.67 (d, J = 7.3 Hz, 1 H); 5.17 (s, 2 H); 3.1 1 (s, 3 H). EXAMPLE 1A

3-Chloro-5-({ l-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-lH-l ,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2- (trifluoromethyl)-l ,2-dihydropyridin-3-yl}oxy)benzonitrile (1-1)

Figure imgf000045_0001

Step lA(a): 2-chloro-3-(3-chloro-5-iodophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (1A-2)

Figure imgf000045_0002

A mixture of the 3-chloro-l-iodophenol (208 g; 816.0 mmol), 2-chloro-3-fluoro-

4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (155 g; 777.0 mmol) and K2CO3 (161 g; 1 165.0 mmol) in NMP (1.5 L) was held at 60°C for 2.5 hours, and then left at room temperature for 2 days. The mixture was then re-heated to 60°C for 3 hours, then cooled to room temperature. The mixture was then diluted with 4 L EtOAc and washed with 2 L water + 1 L brine. The combined organics were then washed 2x with 500 mL half brine then 500 mL brine, dried over MgS04 and concentrated to afford crude 1A-2. lH NMR (500 MHz, DMSO) δ 8.67 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.98 (d, J = 5.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.63-7.62 (m, 1 H), 7.42-7.40 (m, 1 H), 7.22 (t, J = 2.1 Hz, 1 H).

Step lA(b): 2-chloro-3-(3-chloro-5-iodophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (1A-3)

Figure imgf000045_0003

To a suspension of 3-(3-chloro-5-iodophenoxy)-2-chloro-4- (trifluoromethyl)pyridine (1A-2; 421 g, 970 mmol) in t-BuOH (1 L) was added KOH (272 g, 4850 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 75°C for 1 hour, at which point HPLC analysis indicated >95% conversion. The t-BuOH was evaporated and the mixture diluted with water (7mL/g, 2.4L) and then cooled to 0°C, after which 12N HC1 (~240mL) was added until pH 5. This mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (20mL/g, 6.5L), back extracted with EtOAc 1 x 5mL/g (1.5L), washed 1 x water:brine 1 : 1 (l OmL/g, 3.2L), 1 x brine (lOmL/g, 3.2L), dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated to afford a crude proudct. The crude product was suspended in MTBE (2.25 L, 7mL/g), after which hexanes (1 L, 3 mL/g) was added to the suspension over ten minutes, and the mixturen was aged 30minutes at room temperature. The product was filtered on a Buchner, rinsed with MTBE hexanes 1 :2 (2 mL/g = 640 mL), then hexanes

(640mL), and dried on frit to afford 1A-3. lH NMR (400 MHz, acetone-d6): δ 11.52 (s, 1 H); 7.63 (d, J = 7.01 Hz, 1 H); 7.50-7.48 (m, 1 H); 7.34-7.32 (m, 1 H); 7.09-7.07 (m, 1 H); 6.48 (d, J = 7.01 Hz, 1 H).

Step lA(c): 3-chloro-5-{[2-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl]oxy}benzonitrile (1-4)

Figure imgf000046_0001

A solution of 3-(3-chloro-5-iodophenoxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-ol (1A-3; 190 g; 457 mmol) in DMF (914 mL) was degassed for 20 minutes by bubbling N2, after which CuCN (73.7 g; 823 mmol) was added, and then the mixture was degassed an additional 5 minutes. The mixture was then heated to 120°C for 17 hours, then cooled to room temperature and partitioned between 6 L MeTHF and 2 L ammonium buffer (4:3: 1 = NH4CI

sat/water/NH-iOH 30%). The organic layer washed with 2 L buffer, 1 L buffer and 1 L brine then, dried over MgS04 and concentrated. The crude solid was then stirred in 2.2 L of refluxing

MeCN for 45 minutes, then cooled in a bath to room temperature over 1 hour, aged 30 minutes, then filtered and rinsed with cold MeCN (2 x 400mL). The solid was dried on frit under N2 atm for 60 hours to afford title compound 1-4. lH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO): δ 12.71 (s, 1 H); 7.75 (s, 1 H); 7.63-7.57 (m, 2 H); 7.54 (s, 1 H); 6.49 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 1 H).

Steps lA(d) and lA(e)

The title compound 1-1 was then prepared from compound 1-4 using procedures similar to those described in Steps 1(d) and 1(e) set forth above in Example 1.

Patent

WO-2014052171

Crystalline anhydrous Form II of doravirine, useful for the treatment of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. The compound was originally claimed in WO2008076223. Also see WO2011120133. Merck & Co is developing doravirine (MK-1439), for the oral tablet treatment of HIV-1 infection. As of April 2014, the drug is in Phase 2 trials.

CLIPS

The next-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) doravirine (formerly MK-1439) showed potent antiretroviral activity and good tolerability in combination with tenofovir/FTC (the drugs in Truvada) in a dose-finding study presented at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) last week in Boston.

NNRTIs are generally well tolerated and well suited for first-line HIV treatment, but as a class they are susceptible to resistance. Pre-clinical studies showed that Merck’s doravirine has a distinct resistance profile and remains active against HIV with common NNRTI resistance mutations including K103N and Y181C.

As reported at last year’s CROI, doravirine reduced HIV viral load by about 1.3 log in a seven-day monotherapy study. Doravirine is processed by the CYP3A4 enzyme, but it is neither a CYP3A4 inducer nor inhibitor, so it is not expected to have major drug interaction concerns.

Javier Morales-Ramirez from Clinical Research Puerto Rico reported late-breaking findings from a phase 2b study evaluating the safety and efficacy of various doses of doravirine versus efavirenz (Sustiva) for initial antiretroviral therapy.

This study included 208 treatment-naive people living with HIV from North America, Europe and Asia. More than 90% were men, 74% were white, 20% were black and the median age was 35 years. At baseline, the median CD4 cell count was approximately 375 cells/mm3 and 13% had received an AIDS diagnosis. Study participants were stratified by whether their viral load was above (about 30%) or below 100,000 copies/ml; median HIV RNA was approximately 4.5 log10.

Morales-Ramirez reported 24-week results from part 1 of the study, which will continue for a total of 96 weeks. In this part, participants were randomly allocated into five equal-sized arms receiving doravirine at doses of 25, 50, 100 or 200mg once daily, or else efavirenz once daily, all in combination with tenofovir/FTC.

At 24 weeks, 76.4% of participants taking doravirine had viral load below 40 copies/ml compared with 64.3% of people taking efavirenz. Response rates were similar across doravirine doses (25mg: 80.0%; 50mg: 76.2%; 100mg: 71.4%; 200mg: 78.0%). More than 80% of participants in all treatment arms reached the less stringent virological response threshold of <200 copies/ml.

Both doravirine and efavirenz worked better for people with lower pre-treatment viral load in an ad hoc analysis. For people with <100,000 copies/ml at baseline, response rates (<40 copies/ml) ranged from 83 to 89% with doravirine compared with 74% with efavirenz. For those with >100,000 copies/ml, response rates ranged from 50 to 91% with doravirine vs 54% with efavirenz.

Median CD4 cell gains were 137 cells/mm3 for all doravirine arms combined and 121 cells/mmfor the efavirenz arm.

Doravirine was generally safe and well tolerated. People taking doravirine were less than half as likely as people taking efavirenz to experience serious adverse events (3.0% across all doravirine arms vs 7.1% with efavirenz) or to stop treatment for this reason (2.4 vs 4.8%). Four people taking doravirine and two people taking efavirenz discontinued due to adverse events considered to be drug-related.

The most common side-effects were dizziness (3.6% with doravirine vs 23.8% with efavirenz), abnormal dreams (9.0 vs 7.1%), diarrhoea (4.8 vs 9.5%), nausea (7.8 vs 2.4%) and fatigue (6.6 vs 4.8%). Other central nervous system (CNS) adverse events of interest included insomnia (5.4 vs 7.1%), nightmares (1.2 vs 9.5%) and hallucinations (0.6 vs 2.4%). Overall, 20.5% of people taking doravirine reported at least one CNS side-effect, compared with 33.3% of people taking efavirenz.

People taking doravirine had more favourable lipid profiles and less frequent liver enzyme (ALT and AST) elevations compared with people taking efavirenz.

The researchers concluded that doravirine demonstrated potent antiretroviral activity in treatment-naive patients, a favourable safety and tolerability profile, and fewer drug-related adverse events compared with efavirenz.

Based on these findings, the 100mg once-daily dose was selected for future development and will be used in part 2 of this study, a dose-confirmation analysis that will enrol an additional 120 participants.

In the discussion following the presentation, Daniel Kuritzkes from Harvard Medical School noted that sometimes it takes longer for viral load to go down in people who start with a high level, so with further follow-up past 24 weeks doravirine may no longer look less effective in such individuals.

Reference

Morales-Ramirez J et al. Safety and antiviral effect of MK-1439, a novel NNRTI (+FTC/TDF) in ART-naive HIV-infected patients. 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Boston, abstract 92LB, 2014.

Merck Moves Doravirine Into Phase 3 Clinical Trials

Wednesday Mar 19 | Posted by: roboblogger | Full story: EDGE

Earlier this month, at the 21st Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections , Merck indicated plans to initiate a Phase 3 clinical trial program for doravirine in combination with ARV therapy in the second half of 2014.

PAPER

A Robust Kilo-Scale Synthesis of Doravirine

Process Research and Development, Merck Research Laboratories, 126 E. Lincoln Ave., Rahway, New Jersey 07065,United States
Process Research and Development, Merck Frosst Center for Therapeutic Research, 16711 Trans Canada Highway, Kirkland, Quebec H9H 3L1, Canada
WuXi AppTec Co., Ltd., No. 1 Building, No. 288 FuTe ZhongLu, WaiGaoQiao Free Trade Zone, Shanghai 200131, China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
Abstract Image

Doravirine is non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of HIV infection. Herein we describe a robust kilo-scale synthesis for its manufacture. The structure and origin of major impurities were determined and their downstream fate-and-purge studied. This resulted in a redesign of the route to introduce the key nitrile functionality via a copper mediated cyanation which allowed all impurities to be controlled to an acceptable level. The improved synthesis was scaled to prepare ∼100 kg batches of doravirine to supply all preclinical and clinical studies up to phase III. The synthesis affords high-quality material in a longest linear sequence of six steps and 37% overall yield.

PAPER

Highly Efficient Synthesis of HIV NNRTI Doravirine

Department of Process Chemistry, Merck & Co., Inc., P.O. Box 2000, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, United States
Org. Lett., 2015, 17 (6), pp 1353–1356
DOI: 10.1021/ol503625z
Publication Date (Web): March 09, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society

Gauthier, D. R., Jr.; Sherry, B. D.; Cao, Y.; Journet, M.; Humphrey, G.; Itoh, T.; Mangion, I.; Tschaen, D. M.Org. Lett. 2015, 17, 1353, DOI: 10.1021/ol503625z………..http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/ol503625z

STR1

US20100034813 * 8 Nov 2007 11 Feb 2010 Yi Xia Substituted pyrazole and triazole compounds as ksp inhibitors
US20100256181 * 14 Nov 2008 7 Oct 2010 Tucker Thomas J Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
US20110245296 * 6 Oct 2011 Jason Burch Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Reference
1 * COWDEN ET AL.: “A new synthesis of 1,2,4-triazolin-5-ones: application to the convergent synthesis of an NK1 antagonist.“, TETRAHEDRON LETTERS, vol. 41, no. 44, 2000, pages 8661 – 8664, XP004236142
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015329521 2015-11-19 PROCESS FOR MAKING REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
US9150539 2015-10-06 Crystalline form of a reverse transcriptase inhibitor
US2015232447 2015-08-20 CRYSTALLINE FORM OF A REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITOR
US2013296382 2013-11-07 NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS
US2011245296 2011-10-06 NON-NUCLEOSIDE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE INHIBITORS

References

  1.  Collins, Simon; Horn, Tim. “The Antiretroviral Pipeline.” (PDF). Pipeline Report. p. 10. Retrieved 6 December 2015.
  2. Safety and Antiviral Activity of MK-1439, a Novel NNRTI, in Treatment-naïve HIV+ Patients. Gathe, Joseph et al. 20th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. 3–6 March 2013. Abstract 100.
  3.  CROI 2013: MK-1439, a Novel HIV NNRTI, Shows Promise in Early Clinical Trials. Highleyman, Liz. HIVandHepatitis.com. 6 March 2013.
Doravirine
Doravirine structure.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
3-Chloro-5-({1-[(4-methyl-5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1H-1,2,4-triazol-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydro-3-pyridinyl}oxy)benzonitrile
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral[1]
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational New Drug
Identifiers
CAS Number 1338225-97-0
ATC code none
PubChem CID 58460047
ChemSpider 28424197
UNII 913P6LK81M Yes
KEGG D10624
ChEMBL CHEMBL2364608
Synonyms MK-1439
PDB ligand ID 2KW (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
Chemical data
Formula C17H11ClF3N5O3
Molar mass 425.75 g/mol

//////////Doravirine, MK-1439, 1338225-97-0 , Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Reverse transcriptase inhibitor, ANTIVIRAL, Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase, HIV, Triazolinone, Pyridone, Inhibitor,

Supporting Info

AND

Supporting Info

Cn1c(n[nH]c1=O)Cn2ccc(c(c2=O)Oc3cc(cc(c3)Cl)C#N)C(F)(F)F

GSK 6853


STR1

STR1

GSK 6853

CAS  1910124-24-1

C22 H27 N5 O3, 409.48
Benzamide, N-[2,3-dihydro-1,3-dimethyl-6-[(2R)-2-methyl-1-piperazinyl]-2-oxo-1H-benzimidazol-5-yl]-2-methoxy-
(R)-N-(1 ,3- dimethyl-6-(2-methylpiperazin-1 -yl)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)-2- methoxybenzamide

A white solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt = 0.90 min, [M+H+]+ 410.5.

δΗ NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 10.74 (s, 1 H), 8.39 (s, 1 H), 8.05 (dd, J = 7.7, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (ddd, J = 8.3, 7.2, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.29 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.23 (s, 1 H), 7.17-7.1 1 (m, 1 H), 4.10 (s, 3H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 3.32 (s, 3H), 3.30 (br s, 1 H), 3.07-3.02 (m, 1 H), 3.02-2.99 (m, 1 H), 2.92-2.87 (m, 1 H), 2.80 (td, J = 1 1.3, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.73 (td, J = 1 1 .0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.68-2.63 (m, 1 H), 2.55 (dd, J = 12.0, 9.8 Hz, 1 H), 0.71 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

δ0 NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 162.1 , 156.8, 154.1 , 134.4, 133.2, 131.5, 130.1 , 126.6, 125.7, 121.9, 121.0, 1 12.5, 103.0, 99.4, 56.8, 55.4, 55.3, 53.3, 46.3, 26.8, 26.6, 16.7.

[aD]25 °c = -50.1 (c = 0.3, MeOH).

Scheme 1

STR1

The genomes of eukaryotic organisms are highly organised within the nucleus of the cell. The long strands of duplex DNA are wrapped around an octomer of histone proteins (most usually comprising two copies of histones H2A, H2B, H3 and H4) to form a

nucleosome. This basic unit is then further compressed by the aggregation and folding of nucleosomes to form a highly condensed chromatin structure. A range of different states of condensation are possible, and the tightness of this structure varies during the cell cycle, being most compact during the process of cell division. Chromatin structure plays a critical role in regulating gene transcription, which cannot occur efficiently from highly condensed chromatin. The chromatin structure is controlled by a series of post-translational

modifications to histone proteins, notably histones H3 and H4, and most commonly within the histone tails which extend beyond the core nucleosome structure. These modifications include acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, ubiquitinylation, SUMOylation and numerous others. These epigenetic marks are written and erased by specific enzymes, which place the tags on specific residues within the histone tail, thereby forming an epigenetic code, which is then interpreted by the cell to allow gene specific regulation of chromatin structure and thereby transcription.

Histone acetylation is usually associated with the activation of gene transcription, as the modification loosens the interaction of the DNA and the histone octomer by changing the electrostatics. In addition to this physical change, specific proteins bind to acetylated lysine residues within histones to read the epigenetic code. Bromodomains are small (=1 10 amino acid) distinct domains within proteins that bind to acetylated lysine residues commonly but not exclusively in the context of histones. There is a family of around 50 proteins known to contain bromodomains, and they have a range of functions within the cell.

BRPF1 (also known as peregrin or Protein Br140) is a bromodomain-containing protein that has been shown to bind to acetylated lysine residues in histone tails, including H2AK5ac, H4K12ac and H3K14ac (Poplawski et al, J. Mol. Biol., 2014 426: 1661-1676). BRPF1 also contains several other domains typically found in chromatin-associated factors, including a double plant homeodomain (PHD) and zinc finger (ZnF) assembly (PZP), and a chromo/Tudor-related Pro-Trp-Trp-Pro (PWWP) domain. BRPF1 forms a tetrameric complex with monocytic leukemia zinc-finger protein (MOZ, also known as KAT6A or MYST3) inhibitor of growth 5 (ING5) and homolog of Esa1 -associated factor (hEAF6). In humans, the t(8;16)(p1 1 ;p13) translocation of MOZ (monocytic leukemia zinc-finger protein, also known as KAT6A or MYST3) is associated with a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia and

contributes to the progression of this disease (Borrow et al, Nat. Genet., 1996 14: 33-41 ). The BRPF1 bromodomain contributes to recruiting the MOZ complex to distinct sites of active chromatin and hence is considered to play a role in the function of MOZ in regulating transcription, hematopoiesis, leukemogenesis, and other developmental processes (Ullah et al, Mol. Cell. Biol., 2008 28: 6828-6843; Perez-Campo et al, Blood, 2009 1 13: 4866-4874). Demont et al, ACS Med. Chem. Lett., (2014) (dx.doi.org/10.1021/ml5002932), discloses certain 1 ,3-dimethyl benzimidazolones as potent, selective inhibitors of the BRPF1 bromodomain.

BRPF1 bromodomain inhibitors, and thus are believed to have potential utility in the treatment of diseases or conditions for which a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated. Bromodomain inhibitors are believed to be useful in the treatment of a variety of diseases or conditions related to systemic or tissue inflammation, inflammatory responses to infection or hypoxia, cellular activation and proliferation, lipid metabolism, fibrosis and in the prevention and treatment of viral infections. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of a wide variety of chronic autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis), asthma, chronic obstructive airways disease, pneumonitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, myositis, eczema, dermatitis (including atopic dermatitis), alopecia, vitiligo, bullous skin diseases, nephritis, vasculitis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, depression, Sjogren’s syndrome, sialoadenitis, central retinal vein occlusion, branched retinal vein occlusion, Irvine-Gass syndrome (post-cataract and post-surgical), retinitis pigmentosa, pars planitis, birdshot retinochoroidopathy, epiretinal membrane, cystic macular edema, parafoveal telengiectasis, tractional maculopathies, vitreomacular traction syndromes, retinal detachment,

neuroretinitis, idiopathic macular edema, retinitis, dry eye (kerartoconjunctivitis Sicca), vernal keratoconjunctivitis, atopic keratoconjunctivitis, uveitis (such as anterior uveitis, pan uveitis, posterior uveits, uveitis-associated macula edema), scleritis, diabetic retinopathy, diabetic macula edema, age-related macula dystrophy, hepatitis, pancreatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, sclerosing cholangitis, Addison’s disease, hypophysitis, thyroiditis, type I diabetes, type 2 diabetes and acute rejection of transplanted organs. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of a wide variety of acute inflammatory conditions such as acute gout, nephritis including lupus nephritis, vasculitis with organ involvement such as

glomerulonephritis, vasculitis including giant cell arteritis, Wegener’s granulomatosis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Behcet’s disease, Kawasaki disease, Takayasu’s Arteritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, vasculitis with organ involvement and acute rejection of transplanted organs. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of diseases or conditions which involve inflammatory responses to infections with bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites or their toxins, such as sepsis, sepsis syndrome, septic shock, endotoxaemia, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, toxic shock syndrome, acute

lung injury, ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome), acute renal failure, fulminant hepatitis, burns, acute pancreatitis, post-surgical syndromes, sarcoidosis, Herxheimer reactions, encephalitis, myelitis, meningitis, malaria and SIRS associated with viral infections such as influenza, herpes zoster, herpes simplex and coronavirus. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of conditions associated with ischaemia-reperfusion injury such as myocardial infarction, cerebro-vascular ischaemia (stroke), acute coronary syndromes, renal reperfusion injury, organ transplantation, coronary artery bypass grafting, cardio-pulmonary bypass procedures, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, gastro-intestinal or peripheral limb embolism. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of disorders of lipid metabolism via the regulation of APO-A1 such as hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis and Alzheimer’s disease. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of fibrotic conditions such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, renal fibrosis, postoperative stricture, keloid scar formation, scleroderma (including morphea) and cardiac fibrosis. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of a variety of diseases associated with bone remodelling such as osteoporosis, osteopetrosis, pycnodysostosis, Paget’s disease of bone, familial expanile osteolysis, expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia, hyperososis corticalis deformans Juvenilis, juvenile Paget’s disease and Camurati

Engelmann disease. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of viral infections such as herpes virus, human papilloma virus, adenovirus and poxvirus and other DNA viruses. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of cancer, including hematological (such as leukaemia, lymphoma and multiple myeloma), epithelial including lung, breast and colon carcinomas, midline carcinomas, mesenchymal, hepatic, renal and neurological tumours. Bromodomain inhibitors may be useful in the treatment of one or more cancers selected from brain cancer (gliomas), glioblastomas, Bannayan-Zonana syndrome, Cowden disease, Lhermitte-Duclos disease, breast cancer, inflammatory breast cancer, colorectal cancer, Wilm’s tumor, Ewing’s sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, ependymoma, medulloblastoma, colon cancer, head and neck cancer, kidney cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, ovarian cancer, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, sarcoma cancer, osteosarcoma, giant cell tumor of bone, thyroid cancer,

lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, hairy-cell leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic neutrophilic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic T-cell leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, plasmacytoma, immunoblastic large cell leukemia, mantle cell leukemia, multiple myeloma, megakaryoblastic leukemia, acute megakaryocytic leukemia, promyelocytic leukemia, mixed lineage leukaemia, erythroleukemia, malignant lymphoma, Hodgkins lymphoma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, lymphoblastic T-cell lymphoma, Burkitt’s lymphoma, follicular lymphoma, neuroblastoma, bladder cancer, urothelial cancer, vulval cancer, cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, renal cancer, mesothelioma, esophageal cancer, salivary gland cancer, hepatocellular cancer, gastric cancer, nasopharangeal cancer, buccal cancer, cancer of the mouth, GIST (gastrointestinal stromal tumor) and testicular cancer. In one embodiment the cancer is a leukaemia, for example a leukaemia selected from acute monocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia,

acute myeloid leukemia and mixed lineage leukaemia (MLL). In another embodiment the cancer is multiple myeloma. In another embodiment the cancer is a lung cancer such as small cell lung cancer (SCLC). In another embodiment the cancer is a neuroblastoma. In another embodiment the cancer is Burkitt’s lymphoma. In another embodiment the cancer is cervical cancer. In another embodiment the cancer is esophageal cancer. In another embodiment the cancer is ovarian cancer. In another embodiment the cancer is breast cancer. In another embodiment the cancer is colarectal cancer. In one embodiment the disease or condition for which a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated is selected from diseases associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, such as sepsis, burns, pancreatitis, major trauma, haemorrhage and ischaemia. In this embodiment the

bromodomain inhibitor would be administered at the point of diagnosis to reduce the incidence of: SIRS, the onset of shock, multi-organ dysfunction syndrome, which includes the onset of acute lung injury, ARDS, acute renal, hepatic, cardiac or gastro-intestinal injury and mortality. In another embodiment the bromodomain inhibitor would be administered prior to surgical or other procedures associated with a high risk of sepsis, haemorrhage, extensive tissue damage, SIRS or MODS (multiple organ dysfunction syndrome). In a particular embodiment the disease or condition for which a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated is sepsis, sepsis syndrome, septic shock and endotoxaemia. In another embodiment, the bromodomain inhibitor is indicated for the treatment of acute or chronic pancreatitis. In another embodiment the bromodomain is indicated for the treatment of burns. In one embodiment the disease or condition for which a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated is selected from herpes simplex infections and reactivations, cold sores, herpes zoster infections and reactivations, chickenpox, shingles, human papilloma virus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cervical neoplasia, adenovirus infections, including acute respiratory disease, poxvirus infections such as cowpox and smallpox and African swine fever virus. In one particular embodiment a bromodomain inhibitor is indicated for the treatment of Human papilloma virus infections of skin or cervical epithelia. In one embodiment the bromodomain inhibitor is indicated for the treatment of latent HIV infection.

PATENT

WO 2016062737

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2016062737A1?cl=en

Scheme 1

Example 1

Step 1

5-fluoro-1 H-benzordlimidazol-2(3H)-one

A stirred solution of 4-fluorobenzene-1 ,2-diamine (15.1 g, 120 mmol) in THF (120 mL) under nitrogen was cooled using an ice-bath and then was treated with di(1 -/-imidazol-1 -yl)methanone (23.4 g, 144 mmol) portion-wise over 15 min. The resulting mixture was slowly warmed to room temperature then was concentrated in vacuo after 2.5 h. The residue was suspended in a mixture of water and DCM (250 mL each) and filtered off. This residue was then washed with water (50 mL) and DCM (50 mL), before being dried at 40 °C under vacuum for 16 h to give the title compound (16.0 g, 105 mmol, 88%) as a brown solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 0.57 min; [M-H+] = 151.1

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 10.73 (br s, 1 H), 10.61 (br s, 1 H), 6.91-6.84 (m, 1 H), 6.78-6.70 (m, 2H).

Step 2

5-fluoro-1 ,3-dimethyl-1 /-/-benzo[dlimidazol-2(3/-/)-one

A solution of 5-fluoro-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3H)-one (16.0 g, 105 mmol) in DMF (400 mL) under nitrogen was cooled with an ice-bath, using a mechanical stirrer for agitation. It was then treated over 10 min with sodium hydride (60% w/w in mineral oil, 13.1 g, 327 mmol) and the resulting mixture was stirred at this temperature for 30 min before being treated with iodomethane (26.3 mL, 422 mmol) over 30 min. The resulting mixture was then allowed to warm to room temperature and after 1 h was carefully treated with water (500 mL). The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3 x 800 mL) and the combined organics were washed with brine (1 L), dried over MgS04 and concentrated in vacuo. Purification of the brown residue by flash chromatography on silica gel (SP4, 1.5 kg column, gradient: 0 to 25% (3: 1 EtOAc/EtOH) in cyclohexane) gave the title compound (15.4 g, 86 mmol, 81 %) as a pink solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 0.76 min; [M+H+]+ = 181.1

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) ppm 6.86-6.76 (m, 2H), 6.71 (dd, J = 8.3, 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.38 (s, 3H).

Step 3

5-fluoro-1 ,3-dimethyl-6-nitro-1 /-/-benzordlimidazol-2(3/-/)-one

A stirred solution of 5-fluoro-1 ,3-dimethyl-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3/-/)-one (4.55 g, 25.3 mmol) in acetic anhydride (75 mL) under nitrogen was cooled to -30 °C and then was slowly treated with fuming nitric acid (1 .13 mL, 25.3 mmol) making sure that the temperature was kept below -25°C. The solution turned brown once the first drop of acid was added and a thick brown precipitate formed after the addition was complete. The mixture was allowed to slowly warm up to 0 °C then was carefully treated after 1 h with ice-water (100 mL). EtOAc (15 mL) was then added and the resulting mixture was stirred for 20 min. The precipitate formed was filtered off, washed with water (10 mL) and EtOAc (10 mL), and then was dried under vacuum at 40 °C for 16 h to give the title compound (4.82 g, 21 .4mmol, 85%) as a yellow solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 0.76 min; [M+H+]+ not detected

δΗ NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 7.95 (d, J = 6.4 Hz, 1 H, (H-7)), 7.48 (d, J = 1 1.7 Hz, 1 H, (H-4)), 3.38 (s, 3H, (H-10)), 3.37 (s, 3H, (H-12)).

δ0 NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 154.3 (s, 1 C, (C-2)), 152.3 (d, J = 254.9 Hz, 1 C, (C-5)), 135.5 (d, J = 13.0 Hz, 1 C, (C-9)), 130.1 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 1 C, (C-6)), 125.7 (s, 1 C, (C-8)), 104.4 (s, 1 C, (C-7)), 97.5 (d, J = 28.5 Hz, 1 C, (C-4)), 27.7 (s, 1 C, (C-12)), 27.4 (s, 1 C, (C-10)).

Step 4

(R)-tert-but \ 4-( 1 ,3-dimethyl-6-nitro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzordlimidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate

A stirred suspension of 5-fluoro-1 ,3-dimethyl-6-nitro-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-2(3/-/)-one (0.924 g, 4.10 mmol), (R)-ie f-butyl 3-methylpiperazine-1 -carboxylate (1.23 g, 6.16 mmol), and DI PEA (1 .43 mL, 8.21 mmol) in DMSO (4 mL) was heated to 120 °C in a Biotage Initiator microwave reactor for 13 h, then to 130 °C for a further 10 h. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo then partitioned between EtOAc and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution. The aqueous was extracted with EtOAc and the combined organics were dried (Na2S04), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was purified by silica chromatography (0-100% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane) to give the title compound as an orange/yellow solid (1.542 g, 3.80 mmol, 93%).

LCMS (formate): Rt 1.17 min, [M+H+]+ 406.5.

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) ppm 7.36 (s, 1 H), 6.83 (s, 1 H), 4.04-3.87 (m,1 H), 3.87-3.80 (m, 1 H), 3.43 (s, 6H), 3.35-3.25 (m, 1 H), 3.23-3.08 (m, 2H), 3.00-2.72 (m, 2H), 1.48 (s, 9H), 0.81 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H)

Step 5

(RHerf-butyl 4-(6-amino-1 ,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 /-/-benzordlimidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate

To (R)-iert-butyl 4-(1 ,3-dimethyl-6-nitro-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (1 .542 g) in /so-propanol (40 mL) was added 5% palladium on carbon (50% paste) (1.50 g) and the mixture was hydrogenated at room temperature and pressure. After 4 h the mixture was filtered, the residue washed with ethanol and DCM, and the filtrate concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was purified by silica chromatography (50-100% ethyl acetate in cyclohexane) to afford the title compound (1.220 g, 3.25 mmol, 85%) as a cream solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 1 .01 min, [M+H+]+ 376.4.

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) ppm 6.69 (s, 1 H), 6.44 (s, 1 H), 4.33-3.87 (m, 4H), 3.36 (s, 3H), 3.35 (s, 3H), 3.20-2.53 (m, 5H), 1.52 (s, 9H), 0.86 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

Step 6

(flVferf-butyl 4-(6-(2-methoxybenzamidoV 1 ,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihvdro-1 H-benzordlimidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1 -carboxylate

A stirred solution of (R)-iert-butyl 4-(6-amino-1 ,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 /-/-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1 -carboxylate (0.254 g, 0.675 mmol) and pyridine (0.164 ml_, 2.025 mmol) in DCM (2 mL) at room temperature was treated 2-methoxybenzoyl chloride (0.182 mL, 1.35 mmol). After 1 h at room temperature the reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was taken up in DMSO:MeOH (1 :1 ) and purified by HPLC (Method C, high pH) to give the title compound (0.302 g, 0.592 mmol, 88%) as a white solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt 1 .27 min, [M+H+]+ 510.5.

δΗ NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) ppm 10.67 (s, 1 H), 8.53 (s, 1 H), 8.24 (dd, J = 7.8, 1.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.54-7.48 (m, 1 H), 7.18-7.12 (m, 1 H), 7.07 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1 H), 6.82 (s, 1 H), 4.27-3.94 (m, 2H), 4.08 (s, 3H), 3.45 (s, 3H), 3.40 (s, 3H), 3.18-2.99 (m, 2H), 2.92-2.70 (m, 3H), 1.50 (s, 9H), 0.87 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

Step 7

(R)-N-( 1 ,3-dimethyl-6-(2-methylpiperazin-1 -yl)-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 H-benzordlimidazol-5-yl)-2-methoxybenzamide

A stirred solution of (R)-ie f-butyl 4-(6-(2-methoxybenzamido)-1 ,3-dimethyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1 /-/-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)-3-methylpiperazine-1-carboxylate (302 mg, 0.592 mmol) in DCM (4 mL) at room temperature was treated with trifluoroacetic acid (3 ml_). After 15 minutes the mixture was concentrated in vacuo to give a residue which was loaded on a solid-phase cation exchange (SCX) cartridge (5 g), washed with MeOH, and then eluted with methanolic ammonia (2 M). The appropriate fractions were combined and concentrated in vacuo to give a white solid (240 mg). Half of this material was taken up in DMSO:MeOH (1 :1 ) and purified by HPLC (Method B, high pH) to give the title compound (101 mg, 0.245 mmol, 41 %) as a white solid.

LCMS (high pH): Rt = 0.90 min, [M+H+]+ 410.5.

δΗ NMR (600 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 10.74 (s, 1 H), 8.39 (s, 1 H), 8.05 (dd, J = 7.7, 1.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.57 (ddd, J = 8.3, 7.2, 2.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.29 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1 H), 7.23 (s, 1 H), 7.17-7.1 1 (m, 1 H), 4.10 (s, 3H), 3.33 (s, 3H), 3.32 (s, 3H), 3.30 (br s, 1 H), 3.07-3.02 (m, 1 H), 3.02-2.99 (m, 1 H), 2.92-2.87 (m, 1 H), 2.80 (td, J = 1 1.3, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.73 (td, J = 1 1 .0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 2.68-2.63 (m, 1 H), 2.55 (dd, J = 12.0, 9.8 Hz, 1 H), 0.71 (d, J = 6.1 Hz, 3H).

δ0 NMR (151 MHz, DMSO-d6) ppm 162.1 , 156.8, 154.1 , 134.4, 133.2, 131.5, 130.1 , 126.6, 125.7, 121.9, 121.0, 1 12.5, 103.0, 99.4, 56.8, 55.4, 55.3, 53.3, 46.3, 26.8, 26.6, 16.7.

[aD]25 °c = -50.1 (c = 0.3, MeOH).

CLIPS

STR1

STR1

STR1

STR1

PAPER

Abstract Image

The BRPF (Bromodomain and PHD Finger-containing) protein family are important scaffolding proteins for assembly of MYST histone acetyltransferase complexes. A selective benzimidazolone BRPF1 inhibitor showing micromolar activity in a cellular target engagement assay was recently described. Herein, we report the optimization of this series leading to the identification of a superior BRPF1 inhibitor suitable for in vivo studies.

GSK6853, a Chemical Probe for Inhibition of the BRPF1 Bromodomain

Epinova Discovery Performance Unit, Quantitative Pharmacology, Experimental Medicine Unit, §Flexible Discovery Unit, and Platform Technology and Science, GlaxoSmithKline, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, U.K.
Cellzome GmbH, GlaxoSmithKline, Meyerhofstrasse 1, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany
# WestCHEM, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, 295 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G1 1XL, U.K.
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00092
SEE

//////////////BRPF1,  BRPF2,   bromodomain, chemical probe,  inhibitor, GSK 6853, PRECLINICAL

  • Supporting Info  SEE NMR COMPD 34,  SMILES       COc1ccccc1C(=O)Nc2cc4c(cc2N3CCNC[C@H]3C)N(C)C(=O)N4C

MK 8718


img

Figure imgf000105_0002

MK 8718

Cas 1582729-24-5 (free base); 1582732-29-3 (HCl).
MF: C30H30ClF6N5O4
MW: 673.1891

INNOVATOR Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Merck Canada Inc.

((3S,6R)-6-(2-(3-((2S,3S)-2-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,5-difluorophenyl)propanamido)-5-fluoropyridin-4-yl)ethyl)morpholin-3-yl)methyl (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)carbamate

MK-8718 is a potent, selective and orally bioavailable HIV protease inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile with potential for further development.

A retrovirus designated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), particularly the strains known as HIV type-1 (HIV-1) virus and type-2 (HIV-2) virus, is the etiological agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a disease characterized by the destruction of the immune system, particularly of CD4 T-cells, with attendant susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and its precursor AIDS-related complex (“ARC”), a syndrome characterized by symptoms such as persistent generalized lymphadenopathy, fever and weight loss. This virus was previously known as LAV, HTLV-III, or ARV. A common feature of retrovirus replication is the extensive post-translational processing of precursor polyproteins by a virally encoded protease to generate mature viral proteins required for virus assembly and function. Inhibition of this processing prevents the production of normally infectious virus. For example, Kohl et al., Proc. Nat’l Acad. Sci. 1988, 85: 4686, demonstrated that genetic inactivation of the HIV encoded protease resulted in the production of immature, non-infectious virus particles. These results indicated that inhibition of the HIV protease represents a viable method for the treatment of AIDS and the prevention or treatment of infection by HIV.

Nucleotide sequencing of HIV shows the presence of a pol gene in one open reading frame [Ratner et al, Nature 1985, 313: 277]. Amino acid sequence homology provides evidence that the pol sequence encodes reverse transcriptase, an endonuclease, HIV protease and gag, which encodes the core proteins of the virion (Toh et al, EMBO J. 1985, 4: 1267; Power et al, Science 1986, 231 : 1567; Pearl et al, Nature 1987, 329: 351].

Several HIV protease inhibitors are presently approved for clinical use in the treatment of AIDS and HIV infection, including indinavir (see US 5413999), amprenavir (US5585397), saquinavir (US 5196438), ritonavir (US 5484801) and nelfmavir (US 5484926). Each of these protease inhibitors is a peptide-derived peptidomimetic, competitive inhibitor of the viral protease which prevents cleavage of the HIV gag-pol polyprotein precursor. Tipranavir (US 5852195) is a non-peptide peptidomimetic protease inhibitors also approved for use in treating HIV infection. The protease inhibitors are administered in combination with at least one and typically at least two other HIV antiviral agents, particularly nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) and/or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors such as efavirenz and nevirapine. Indinavir, for example, has been found to be highly effective in reducing HIV viral loads and increasing CD4 cell counts in HIV-infected patients, when used in combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. See, for example, Hammer et al, New England J. Med. 1997, 337: 725-733 and Gulick et al, New England J. Med. 1997, 337: 734-739.

The established therapies employing a protease inhibitor are not suitable for use in all HIV-infected subjects. Some subjects, for example, cannot tolerate these therapies due to adverse effects. Many HIV-infected subjects often develop resistance to particular protease inhibitors. Furthermore, the currently available protease inhibitors are rapidly metabolized and cleared from the bloodstream, requiring frequent dosing and use of a boosting agent.

Accordingly, there is a continuing need for new compounds which are capable of inhibiting HIV protease and suitable for use in the treatment or prophylaxis of infection by HIV and/or for the treatment or prophylaxis or delay in the onset or progression of AIDS.

str1

str1

PATENT

https://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2014043019A1?cl=en

INTERMEDIATE 1

Synthesis of morpholine intermediate (tert-butyl ( ^S^-S-d tert- butyl(dimethyl)silylloxy|methyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)morpholine-4-carboxylate)

Scheme 1

EXAMPLE 97

( S)- -(4-Chlorophenyl)-3,5-difiuoro-N-(5-fiuoro-4-{2-[(2R,5S)-5-({[(2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl]oxy}methyl)morpholin-2-yl]ethyl}pyridin-3-yl)-L-phenylalaninamide

Step 1. (2S,3S)-2-Azido-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,5-difluorophenyl)propanoic acid

The title compound was prepared from 4-chlorocinnamic acid and 3,5- difluorophenylmagnesium bromide using the procedures given in steps 1-4 of Example 92.

Step 2. (2R,5S)-tert-butyl 2-(2-(3-((2S,3S)-2-azido-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,5- difluorophenyl)propanamido)-5-fluoropyridin-4-yl)ethyl)-5-((((2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)oxy)methyl)morpholine-4-carboxylate

The product from step 1 (105 mg, 0.31 mmol) and the product from step 4 of Example 89 (150 mg, 0.31 mmol) were dissolved in pyridine (1 mL) and the stirred solution was cooled to -10 °C in an ice/acetone bath. To the cold solution was added POCI3 dropwise (0.035 mL, 0.38 mmol). The mixture was stirred at -10 °C for 30 min. The reaction was quenched by the addition of saturated aqueous NaHC03 solution (1 mL) and the mixture was allowed to warm to ambient temperature. The mixture was diluted with water (10 mL) and extracted with dichloromethane (3 x 10 mL). The combined dichloromethane phases were dried (Na2S04), filtered, and the filtrate solvents were removed in vacuo. The residue was purified on a 12 g silica gel column using a gradient elution of 0-70% EtOAc:hexanes. Fractions containing product were combined and the solvents were removed in vacuo to give the title compound as a gum. (M+H)+ = 800.6.

Step 3. (2R,5S)-tert-butyl 2-(2-(3-((2S,3S)-2-amino-3-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-(3,5- difluorophenyl)propanamido)-5-fluoropyridin-4-yl)ethyl)-5-((((2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl)oxy)methyl)morpholine-4-carboxylate

The product from step 2 (150 mg, 0.19 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (74 mg, 0.28 mmol) were dissolved in THF (4 mL) and to the solution was added water (1 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux under a nitrogen atmosphere for 12 h. The mixture was cooled to ambient temperature and the solvents were removed in vacuo. The residue was purified on a 12 g silica gel column eluting with a gradient of 0-10% methanol: chloroform. Fractions containing product were combined and the solvents were removed in vacuo to give the title compound as a gum. (M+H)+ = 774.7. Step 4. ( S)- -(4-Chlorophenyl)-3,5-difluoro-N-(5-fluoro-4-{2-[(2R,5S)-5-({[(2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)carbamoyl]oxy}methyl)morpholin-2-yl]ethyl}pyridin-3-yl)-L-phenylala

The product from step 3 (60 mg, 0.078 mmol) was dissolved in a solution of 4M HCl in dioxane (1 mL, 4 mmol) and the solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h. The solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was dried in vacuo for 12 h to give an HCl salt of the title compound as a solid. LCMS: RT = 0.95 min (2 min gradient), MS (ES) m/z = 674.6 (M+H)+.

PAPER

Abstract Image

A novel HIV protease inhibitor was designed using a morpholine core as the aspartate binding group. Analysis of the crystal structure of the initial lead bound to HIV protease enabled optimization of enzyme potency and antiviral activity. This afforded a series of potent orally bioavailable inhibitors of which MK-8718 was identified as a compound with a favorable overall profile.

Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group

Merck Research Laboratories, 770 Sumneytown Pike, PO Box 4, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, United States
Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, 16711 TransCanada Highway, Kirkland, Quebec H9H 3L1, Canada
§Albany Molecular Research Singapore Research Center, 61 Science Park Road #05-01, The Galen Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117525
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00135
*E-mail: christopher_bungard@merck.com. Phone: 215-652-5002.

References

Discovery of MK-8718, an HIV Protease Inhibitor Containing a Novel Morpholine Aspartate Binding Group
Christopher J. Bungard*†, Peter D. Williams†, Jeanine E. Ballard†, David J. Bennett†, Christian Beaulieu‡, Carolyn Bahnck-Teets†, Steve S. Carroll†, Ronald K. Chang†, David C. Dubost†, John F. Fay†, Tracy L. Diamond†, Thomas J. Greshock†, Li Hao§, M. Katharine Holloway†, Peter J. Felock, Jennifer J. Gesell†, Hua-Poo Su†, Jesse J. Manikowski†, Daniel J. McKay‡, Mike Miller†, Xu Min†, Carmela Molinaro†, Oscar M. Moradei‡, Philippe G. Nantermet†, Christian Nadeau‡, Rosa I. Sanchez†, Tummanapalli Satyanarayana§, William D. Shipe†, Sanjay K. Singh§, Vouy Linh Truong‡, Sivalenka Vijayasaradhi§, Catherine M. Wiscount†, Joseph P. Vacca‡, Sheldon N. Crane‡, and John A. McCauley†
† Merck Research Laboratories, 770 Sumneytown Pike, PO Box 4, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, United States
‡ Merck Frosst Centre for Therapeutic Research, 16711 TransCanada Highway, Kirkland, Quebec H9H 3L1, Canada
§ Albany Molecular Research Singapore Research Center, 61 Science Park Road #05-01, The Galen Singapore Science Park II, Singapore 117525
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00135
Publication Date (Web): May 09, 2016

////MK-8718, HIV, protease, inhibitor

Supporting Info

O=C(OC[C@H]1NC[C@@H](CCC(C(F)=CN=C2)=C2NC([C@@H](N)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(Cl)C=C3)C4=CC(F)=CC(F)=C4)=O)OC1)NCC(F)(F)F

%d bloggers like this: