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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, CLEANCHEM LABS as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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FDA approves Admelog, the first short-acting “follow-on” insulin product to treat diabetes

FDA approves Admelog, the first short-acting “follow-on” insulin product to treat diabetes


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Admelog (insulin lispro injection), a short-acting insulin indicated to improve control in blood sugar levels in adults and pediatric patients aged 3 years and older with type 1 diabetes mellitus and adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Admelog is the first short-acting insulin approved as a “follow-on” product (submitted through the agency’s 505(b)(2) pathway). Continue reading.


December 11, 2017


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Admelog (insulin lispro injection), a short-acting insulin indicated to improve control in blood sugar levels in adults and pediatric patients aged 3 years and older with type 1 diabetes mellitus and adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Admelog is the first short-acting insulin approved as a “follow-on” product (submitted through the agency’s 505(b)(2) pathway).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than 30 million people in the U.S. have diabetes, a chronic disease that affects how the body turns food into energy and the body’s production of natural insulin. Over time, diabetes increases the risk of serious health complications, including heart disease, blindness, and nerve and kidney damage. Improvement in blood sugar control through treatment with insulin, a common treatment, can reduce the risk of some of these long-term complications.

“One of my key policy efforts is increasing competition in the market for prescription drugs and helping facilitate the entry of lower-cost alternatives. This is particularly important for drugs like insulin that are taken by millions of Americans every day for a patient’s lifetime to manage a chronic disease,” said FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D. “In the coming months, we’ll be taking additional policy steps to help to make sure patients continue to benefit from improved access to lower cost, safe and effective alternatives to brand name drugs approved through the agency’s abbreviated pathways.”

Admelog was approved through an abbreviated approval pathway under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, called the 505(b)(2) pathway. A new drug application submitted through this pathway may rely on the FDA’s finding that a previously approved drug is safe and effective or on published literature to support the safety and/or effectiveness of the proposed product, if such reliance is scientifically justified. The use of abbreviated pathways can reduce drug development costs so products can be offered at a lower price to patients. In the case of Admelog, the manufacturer submitted a 505(b)(2) application that relied, in part, on the FDA’s finding of safety and effectiveness for Humalog (insulin lispro injection) to support approval. The applicant demonstrated that reliance on the FDA’s finding of safety and effectiveness for Humalog was scientifically justified and provided Admelog-specific data to establish the drug’s safety and efficacy for its approved uses. The Admelog-specific data included two phase 3 clinical trials which enrolled approximately 500 patients in each.

Admelog is a short-acting insulin product, which can be used to help patients with diabetes control their blood sugar. Short-acting insulin products are generally, but not always, administered just before meals to help control blood sugar levels after eating. These types of insulin products can also be used in insulin pumps to meet both background insulin needs as well as mealtime insulin needs. This is in contrast to long-acting insulin products, like insulin glargine, insulin degludec and insulin detemir, which are generally used to provide a background level of insulin to control blood sugars between meals, and are administered once or twice a day. While both types of insulin products can play important roles in the treatment of types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, patients with type 1 diabetes require both types of insulin while patients with type 2 diabetes may never need a short-acting insulin product.

“With today’s approval, we are providing an important short-acting insulin option for patients that meets our standards for safety and effectiveness,” said Mary T. Thanh Hai, M.D., deputy director of the Office of New Drug Evaluation II in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research.

Admelog can be administered by injection under the skin (subcutaneous), subcutaneous infusion (i.e., via insulin pump), or intravenous infusion. Dosing of Admelog should be individualized based on the route of administration and the patient’s metabolic needs, blood glucose monitoring results and glycemic control goal.

The most common adverse reactions associated with Admelog in clinical trials was hypoglycemia, itching, and rash. Other adverse reactions that can occur with Admelog include allergic reactions, injection site reactions, and thickening or thinning of the fatty tissue at the injection site (lipodystrophy).

Admelog should not be used during episodes of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or in patients with hypersensitivity to insulin lispro or one of its ingredients. Admelog SoloStar prefilled pens or syringes must never be shared between patients, even if the needle is changed.

Patients or caregivers should monitor blood glucose in all patients treated with insulin products. Insulin regimens should be modified cautiously and only under medical supervision. Admelog may cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can be life-threatening. Patients should be monitored more closely with changes to insulin dosage, co-administration of other glucose-lowering medications, meal pattern, physical activity and in patients with renal impairment or hepatic impairment or hypoglycemia unawareness.

Accidental mix-ups between insulin products can occur. Patients should check insulin labels before injecting the insulin product.

Severe, life-threatening, generalized allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, may occur.

Health care providers should monitor potassium levels in patients at risk of hyperkalemia, a serious and potentially life-threatening condition in which the amount of potassium in the blood is too high.

Admelog received tentative approval from the FDA on Sept. 1, 2017 and is now being granted final approval.

The approval of Admelog was granted to Sanofi-Aventis U.S.

///////////////FDA2017,  Admelog, insulin,  diabetes, insulin lispro, Sanofi-Aventis

FDA approves new treatment Endari (L-glutamine oral powder) for sickle cell disease

Image result for sickle cell disease
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Endari (L-glutamine oral powder) for patients age five years and older with sickle cell disease to reduce severe complications associated with the blood disorder.

July 7, 2017


The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Endari (L-glutamine oral powder) for patients age five years and older with sickle cell disease to reduce severe complications associated with the blood disorder.

“Endari is the first treatment approved for patients with sickle cell disease in almost 20 years,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research and director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence. “Until now, only one other drug was approved for patients living with this serious, debilitating condition.”

Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder in which the red blood cells are abnormally shaped (in a crescent, or “sickle,” shape). This restricts the flow in blood vessels and limits oxygen delivery to the body’s tissues, leading to severe pain and organ damage. According to the National Institutes of Health, approximately 100,000 people in the United States have sickle cell disease. The disease occurs most often in African-Americans, Latinos and other minority groups. The average life expectancy for patients with sickle cell disease in the United States is approximately 40 to 60 years.

The safety and efficacy of Endari were studied in a randomized trial of patients ages five to 58 years old with sickle cell disease who had two or more painful crises within the 12 months prior to enrollment in the trial. Patients were assigned randomly to treatment with Endari or placebo, and the effect of treatment was evaluated over 48 weeks. Patients who were treated with Endari experienced fewer hospital visits for pain treated with a parenterally administered narcotic or ketorolac (sickle cell crises), on average, compared to patients who received a placebo (median 3 vs. median 4), fewer hospitalizations for sickle cell pain (median 2 vs. median 3), and fewer days in the hospital (median 6.5 days vs. median 11 days).  Patients who received Endari also had fewer occurrences of acute chest syndrome (a life-threatening complication of sickle cell disease) compared with patients who received a placebo (8.6 percent vs. 23.1 percent).

Common side effects of Endari include constipation, nausea, headache, abdominal pain, cough, pain in the extremities, back pain and chest pain.

Endari received Orphan Drug designation for this use, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.  In addition, development of this drug was in part supported by the FDA Orphan Products Grants Program, which provides grants for clinical studies on safety and/or effectiveness of products for use in rare diseases or conditions.

The FDA granted the approval of Endari to Emmaus Medical Inc.

Image result for Emmaus Medical Inc

Image result for sickle cell disease

/////////////FDA2017, Endari, Orphan Drug designation,  Emmaus Medical Inc., L-glutamine oral powder

Ribociclib, рибоциклиб , ريبوسيكليب , 瑞波西利




рибоциклиб ريبوسيكليب 瑞波西利

Ribociclib (LEE 011)
CAS: 1211441-98-3

Chemical Formula: C23H30N8O
Exact Mass: 434.25426

7-Cyclopentyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid dimethylamide


  • TK8ERE8P56

Current developer:    Novartis /Astex Pharmaceuticals.

Novartis Ag, Astex Therapeutics Ltd.


Ribociclib (LEE011) is an orally available, and highly specific CDK4/6 inhibitor. Phase 3.

(Cell-free assay)Product Ingredients

NOW FDA APPROVED 2017 since the blog post was written

Kisqali FDA 3/13/2017 To treat postmenopausal women with a type of advanced breast cancer
Drug Trials Snapshot

Image result for RIBOCICLIB

Ribociclib hydrochloride 63YF7YKW7E 1211443-80-9 JZRSIQPIKASMEV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Ribociclib succinate BG7HLX2919 1374639-75-4 NHANOMFABJQAAH-UHFFFAOYSA-N


ChemSpider 2D Image | Ribociclib succinate | C27H36N8O5






Ribociclib is in phase III clinical trials by Novatis for the treatment of postmenopausal women with advanced breast cancer.

Phase II clinical trials are also in development for the treatment of liposarcoma, ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer, peritoneum cancer, endometrial cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer.

Ribociclib, also known as LEE011, is an orally available cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor targeting cyclin D1/CDK4 and cyclin D3/CDK6 cell cycle pathway, with potential antineoplastic activity. CDK4/6 inhibitor LEE011 specifically inhibits CDK4 and 6, thereby inhibiting retinoblastoma (Rb) protein phosphorylation. Inhibition of Rb phosphorylation prevents CDK-mediated G1-S phase transition, thereby arresting the cell cycle in the G1 phase, suppressing DNA synthesis and inhibiting cancer cell growth. Overexpression of CDK4/6, as seen in certain types of cancer, causes cell cycle deregulation

Orally bioavailable CDK4/6-selective inhibitor that has been tested in Phase III clinical trials for treatment of advanced breast cancer.

CDK full name of cyclin-dependent kinases, there are many other subtypes CDK1-11, capable of binding to cell cycle proteins regulate the cell cycle. Pfizer Palbociclib been submitted for FDA review under phase II clinical data, Novartis Ribociclib (LEE011), Lilly Abemaciclib (LY2835219) the three CDK4 / 6 inhibitors have entered late stage development for the treatment of breast cancer




Example 74

7-Cyclopentyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid dimethylamide

Figure imgf000094_0002

Following Buchwald Method B, then General Procedure A, 2-chloro-7-cyclopentyl-7H- pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid dimethylamide (300 mg, 1.02 mmol) and 5-piperazin-1- yl-pyridin-2-ylamine (314 mg, 1.13 mmol) gave 7-cyclopentyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2- ylamino)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid dimethylamide (142 mg, 36%). MS(ESI) m/z 435.3 (M+H)+





Image result for RIBOCICLIB joygooo


PCT Int Appl, WO2012061156.

US Pat Appl Publ, US20120115878

PCT Int Appl, WO2011130232 5) Brain, Christopher Thomas et al; Preparation of pyrrolopyrimidine Derivatives for Use as CDK4 / 6 inhibitors;. PCT Int Appl, WO2011101409.

PCT Int Appl, WO2011101417. 7) Besong, Gilbert et al;.

PCT Int Appl, WO2010020675.

PCT Int Appl, WO2007140222.

Route 1

Reference:1. WO2012064805A1 / US20120115878A1.

2. WO2010020675A1 / US8415355B2.

3. WO2011130232A1 / US20130035336A1.

Clinical Trial Information( data from, updated on 2015-10-17)

NCT Number Recruitment Conditions Sponsor
Start Date Phases
NCT02571829 Not yet recruiting Liposarcoma|Soft Tissue Sarcoma Hadassah Medical Organization December 2015 Phase 2
NCT02524119 Not yet recruiting Hepatocellular Carcinoma University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center|Novartis  …more November 2015 Phase 2
NCT02494921 Recruiting Prostate Cancer Rahul Aggarwal|University of California, San Francisco September 2015 Phase 1|Phase 2
NCT02420691 Recruiting Gastrointestinal Cancer M.D. Anderson Cancer Center|Novartis August 2015 Phase 2
NCT02431481 Not yet recruiting Normal Renal Function|Impaired Renal Function Novartis Pharmaceuticals|Novartis August 2015 Phase 1

Protocols from literature

In vitro protocol::

Pharmacologic growth inhibition: Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 15;19(22):6173-82.

Cell-cycle analysis: Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 15;19(22):6173-82.

Senescence and apoptosis assays: Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 15;19(22):6173-82.

In vivo protocol:

Xenograft therapeutic trials: Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 15;19(22):6173-82

Immunohistochemistry of xenografted neuroblastomas.Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 15;19(22):6173-82

Ribociclib (LEE011) is a Me-Too version of palbociclib. Their structures are compared side-by-side as the following:

LEE011 and Palbociclib structure

Ribociclib (LEE011) is currently being developed by Novartis and Astex.  According its  Novartis’s website, LEE011 is a novel, orally available, selective inhibitor of CDK4/6 kinases, which induces complete dephosphorylation of Rb and G1 arrest in cancer cells. In preclinical in vitro and in vivo tumor models, LEE011 has been shown active in cancers harboring aberrations that increase CDK4/6 activity, including those directly linked to the kinases as well as activating alterations in the upstream regulators. First-in-human study of LEE011 in patients with solid tumors and lymphoma is currently ongoing. (source:

Treatment with LEE011 significantly reduced proliferation in 12 of 17 human neuroblastoma-derived cell lines by inducing cytostasis at nanomolar concentrations (mean IC50 = 307 ± 68 nmol/L in sensitive lines). LEE011 caused cell-cycle arrest and cellular senescence that was attributed to dose-dependent decreases in phosphorylated RB and FOXM1, respectively. In addition, responsiveness of neuroblastoma xenografts to LEE011 translated to the in vivo setting in that there was a direct correlation of in vitro IC50 values with degree of subcutaneous xenograft growth delay. Although our data indicate that neuroblastomas sensitive to LEE011 were more likely to contain genomic amplification of MYCN (P = 0.01), the identification of additional clinically accessible biomarkers is of high importance. LEE011 is active in a large subset of neuroblastoma cell line and xenograft models, and supports the clinical development of this CDK4/6 inhibitor as a therapy for patients with this disease. (Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 15;19(22):6173-82)



1. Rader J, Russell MR, Hart LS, Nakazawa MS, Belcastro LT, Martinez D, Li Y, Carpenter EL, Attiyeh EF, Diskin SJ, Kim S, Parasuraman S, Caponigro G, Schnepp RW, Wood AC, Pawel B, Cole KA, Maris JM. Dual CDK4/CDK6 inhibition induces cell-cycle arrest and senescence in neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Nov 15;19(22):6173-82. doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1675. Epub 2013 Sep 17. PubMed PMID: 24045179; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3844928.

2. Caponigro, Giordano; Stuart, Darrin; Kim, Sunkyu; Loo, Alice; Delach, Scott. Pharmaceutical combinations of a CDK4/6 inhibitor and a B-RAF inhibitor for treatment of proliferative diseases such as cancer. PCT Int. Appl. (2014), WO 2014018725 A1 20140130.

3. Kim, Sunkyu; Doshi, Shivang; Haas, Kristy; Kovats, Steven; Huang, Alan Xizhong; Chen, Yan. Combination therapy comprising a cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor and a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor for use in the treatment of cancer. PCT Int. Appl. (2013), WO 2013006532 A1 20130110

4. Kim, Sunkyu; Doshi, Shivang; Haas, Kristy; Kovats, Steven. Combination of cyclin dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) kinase inhibitor for the treatment of cancer. PCT Int. Appl. (2013), WO 2013006368 A1 20130110

5. Calienni, John Vincent; Chen, Guang-Pei; Gong, Baoqing; Kapa, Prasad Koteswara; Saxena, Vishal. Salt(s) of 7-cyclopentyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid dimethylamide and processes of making thereof. U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ. (2012), US 20120115878 A1 20120510.

6. Borland, Maria; Brain, Christopher Thomas; Doshi, Shivang; Kim, Sunkyu; Ma, Jianguo; Murtie, Josh; Zhang, Hong. Combination comprising a cyclin dependent kinase 4 or cyclin dependent kinase (cdk4/6) inhibitor and an Mtor inhibitor for treating cancer. PCT Int. Appl. (2011), WO 2011130232 A1 20111020

7. Besong, Gilbert; Brain, Christopher Thomas; Brooks, Clinton A.; Congreve, Miles Stuart; Dagostin, Claudio; He, Guo; Hou, Ying; Howard, Steven; Li, Yue; Lu, Yipin; et al. Preparation of pyrrolopyrimidine compounds as CDK inhibitors. PCT Int. Appl. (2010), WO 2010020675 A1 20100225.


Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (14 compounds) under clinical evaluation.

Molecules 19 14366 g002 1024

LEE-011 is one of the most selective inhibitors for CDK4 and CDK6 [59] and is being developed by Astex Pharmaceuticals™ and Novartis. In January 2014 this inhibitor entered phase III clinical trials for the treatment of breast cancer [60]. Due to encouraging results LEE-011 has now become the main competing drug-candidate with Pfizer’s PD0332991 (palbociclib), see Figure 3 [59].

Figure 3. Comparison of Astex/Novartis’ LEE-011 and Pfizer’s PD0332991 structures.

Upon comparison of the chemical structure of Novartis’ LEE-011 and Pfizer’s PD0332991, the similarity is evident. The major difference lies in the bicyclic core since LEE-011 possesses a pyrrolo-pyrimidine and PD0332991 a pyridopyrimidine. The “east” part of the structure is also modified. The structural similarities make their analogous CDKs inhibition profiles (high selectivity for CDK4 and CDK6) quite obvious Moreover, both derivatives are orally administered which is pretty advantageous compared with dinaciclib, which is also in phase III clinical trials but is administered intravenously.

  1. Kurt, S. LEE011 CDK Inhibitor Showing Early Promise in Drug-Resistant Cancers. Oncol. Times 2014, 36, 39–40. [Google Scholar]
  2. Macmillan Publishers Limited. CDK inhibitors speed ahead. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 2014, 13, 323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]



1)Rader, JulieAnn et al.;Dual CDK4/CDK6 Inhibition Induces Cell-Cycle Arrest and Senescence in Neuroblastoma;Clinical Cancer Research (2013), 19(22), 6173-6182

2)Tavares, Francis X. and Strum, Jay C.;Preparation of pyrazinopyrrolopyrimidine derivatives and analogs for use as CDK inhibitors;PCT Int. Appl., WO2012061156

3)Calienni, John Vincent et al.;Salt(s) of 7-cyclopentyl-2-(5-piperazin-1-yl-pyridin-2-ylamino)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxylic acid dimethylamide and processes of making thereof;U.S. Pat. Appl. Publ., US20120115878

4)Borland, Maria et al;Combination comprising a cyclin dependent kinase 4 or cyclin dependent kinase (cdk4/6) inhibitor and an Mtor inhibitor for treating cancer;PCT Int. Appl., WO2011130232

5)Brain, Christopher Thomas et al;Preparation of pyrrolopyrimidine derivatives for use as CDK4/6 inhibitors;PCT Int. Appl., WO2011101409

6)Brain, Christopher Thomas and Perez, Lawrence Blas; Preparation of deuterated pyrrolopyrimidine compounds as inhibitors of CDK4/6 for treating cancer; PCT Int. Appl., WO2011101417

7)Besong, Gilbert et al.;Preparation of pyrrolopyrimidine compounds as CDK inhibitors;PCT Int. Appl., WO2010020675

8)Brain, Christopher Thomas et al.;Preparation of pyrrolopyrimidine compounds as protein kinase inhibitors; PCT Int. Appl., WO2007140222

9)A Randomized Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Study of LEE011 in Combination With Letrozole for the Treatment of Postmenopausal Women With Hormone Receptor Positive, HER2 Negative, Advanced Breast Cancer Who Received no Prior Therapy for Advanced Disease; Identifier: NCT01958021

/////////Ribociclib, novartis, LEE011, astex, phase 3,  CDK inhibitors


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