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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Lefucoxib (乐福昔布)

CID 16730197.pngC3


Lefucoxib (乐福昔布)


1 [4- (methylsulfonyl) phenyl] -3-trifluoromethyl-5- (3,4-dimethylphenyl) – pyrazole

CAS 849048-84-6

Molecular Formula: C19H17F3N2O2S
Molecular Weight: 394.41069 g/mol


Prostaglandin G/H Synthase 2 (PTGS2; COX-2) Inhibitors

A COX-2 inhibitor potentially for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor

National Center of Biomedical Analysis

Example 1

1 [4- (methylsulfonyl) phenyl] -3-trifluoromethyl-5- (3,4-dimethylphenyl) – pyrazole (I1)

1- (3,4- two toluene-yl) -4,4,4-trifluoro-methyl – D-1,3-dione (IV1) of sodium metal was weighed 2.3g (0.1mol) was added 50ml of anhydrous toluene to prepare a sodium sand. After cooling, ethanol was added dropwise 12ml, and then heated at 60 ℃, complete reaction of sodium metal. After cooling to room temperature, was added 3,4-dimethylphenyl ethanone 23.8g (0.1mol) and trifluoroacetic ethyl acetate 20ml (0.2mol), reacted at 100 ℃ 5 hours. Toluene was distilled off under reduced pressure, a 10% aqueous hydrochloric acid was added, the pH was adjusted to 2-3, extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, dried over anhydrous MgSO4, ethyl acetate was distilled off under reduced pressure. Then under reduced pressure, distillation, collecting fractions 105-107 ℃ / 0.7mmHg, was 14.6g, 60% yield.

1- [4- (methylsulfonyl) phenyl] -3-trifluoromethyl-5- (3,4-dimethylphenyl) – pyrazole (I1) take the above-prepared substituted (IV1) 2.38g (0.01mol ), 15ml of ethanol, then added p-methanesulfonyl phenyl hydrazine salt alkoxide 2.3g (0.01ml). Was refluxed for 15 hours. Place the refrigerator overnight, the crystals were collected by filtration, recrystallized from ethanol, mp 129-31 ℃, to give 3.1 g.

Elemental analysis: C19H17F3N2O2S Calculated: C, 57.86; H, 4.34; N, 7.10 Found: C, 57.97; H, 4.29; N, 7.20MS (m / z): 395 (M + 1)



CN101497585B Jan 31, 2008 Jan 12, 2011 中国科学院理化技术研究所 Method for photocatalytic synthesis of 1,3,5-trisubstituted-2-pyrazole derivative

NS 398 is a COX-2 inhibitor used in the study of the function of cyclooxygenases.


NS 398


Taisho (Originator)


Taisho Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd


123653-11-2, 123653-43-0 (Ca salt), 123653-44-1 (Na salt)

Cerebrovascular Diseases, Treatment of, NEUROLOGIC DRUGS, Stroke, Treatment of, Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors

NS-398 is a COX-2 inhibitor used in the study of the function of cyclooxygenases.[2]

Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (IC50 values are 3.8 and > 100 μM for COX-2 and COX-1 respectively). Orally active. Anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, analgesic and non-ulcerogenic in vivo. Induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest

Cyclooxygenase (COX-2) has been recently suggested to play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. However, the exact pathway by which COX-2 affects the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not clear. This study investigated the effects of a specific COX-2 inhibitor, NS-398, on the cell proliferation and apoptosis of COX-2-expressing and non-expressing HCC cell lines.

In addition, the modulatory effect of NS-398 on apoptosis-regulating gene expression was examined. Semi-quantitative/quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot showed that Hep3B and HKCI-4 cells expressed COX-2 mRNA and protein, but HepG2 cells did not. NS-398 suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in the two COX-2-expressing cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, but not in HepG2 cells.

Fas ligand mRNA and protein expression were increased by the treatment with NS-398 (10 micro M) in COX-2-expressing cell lines. The expressions of Fas and Bcl-2 family genes (Bax, Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Bcl-xS) were not affected by NS-398 treatment in all three cell lines. In conclusion, specific COX-2 inhibitor suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HCC cell lines that express COX-2. Our finding suggests that COX-2 inhibition may offer a new approach for HCC chemoprevention.

CAS number 123653-11-2 Yes
PubChem 4553
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Molecular formula C13H18N2O5S
Molar mass 314.36 g mol−1
Appearance Off-white solid
Solubility in water Insoluble
Solubility in DMSO 5 mg/mL
S-phrases S22 S24/25


The condensation of 2-fluoronitrobenzene (I) with cyclohexanol (II) by means of NaH gives 2-(cyclohexyloxy)nitrobenzene (III), which is reduced with H2 over Pd/C in methanol yielding 2-(cyclohexyloxy)aniline (IV). The acylation of (IV) with methanesulfonyl chloride (V) in pyridine affords N-(2-cyclohexyloxy phenyl)methanesulfonamide (VI), which is finally nitrated with concentrated HNO3 in hot acetic acid.



EP 0317332

    Example 1

  • [0045]
    (1) To 40 ml of a dioxane suspension containing 0.92 g of 60% sodium hydride was added 2.5 ml of cyclo­hexanol at room temperature over a 15-minute period, and the mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 1 hour and then at 50°C for 3.5 hours. The temperature of the reaction solution was returned to room temperature, 10 ml of a dioxane containing 3.2 g of 2-fluoro­nitrobenzene was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. The dioxane was evaporated, the residue was extracted with chloroform, and the chloroform layer was washed, in turn, with water and a saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution and then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was evaporated to give an oil, which was then distilled under reduced pressure to give 3.8 g of 2-cyclohexyloxy­nitrobenzene.
    b.p. 130 – 134°C/0.5 – 0.7 mmHg
  • [0046]
    (2) Fifty ml of a methanol solution containing 3.7 g of 2-cyclohexyloxynitrobenzene and 0.2 g of 5% palladium on carbon was stirred at room temperature under a hydrogen atmosphere for catalytic reduction. The catalyst was removed by filtration, and the filtrate was evaporated off to give 2.9 g of 2-cyclo­hexyloxyaniline as pale brown crystals.
    m.p. 55 – 56°C
  • [0047]
    (3) To 20 ml of a pyridine solution containing 2.7 g of 2-cyclohexyloxyaniline was added dropwise 1.8 g of methanesulfonyl chloride under ice cooling with stir­ring. After completion of the addition, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction solution was poured into ice water and made acidic with dilute hydrochloric acid. The crystals which formed were collected by filtration, washed with water and dried to give 3.8 g of the crude crystals, which were then recrystallized from ethanol-n hexane to give 3.4 g of N-(2-cyclohexyloxyphenyl)methanesulfonamide.
    m.p. 113 – 115°C
  • [0048]
    (4) To 20 ml of an acetic acid solution containing 3.4 g of N-(2-cyclohexyloxyphenyl)methanesulfonamide was added dropwise 1.5 g of 61% nitric acid on heating at 110°C over a 30-minute period, and then the mixture was stirred for 1 hour. The reaction solution was poured into ice water and neutralized with a dilute aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. The crystals which formed were collected by filtration, washed with water and dried to give 4.5 g of the crude crystals, which were then recrystallized from ethanol-n-hexane to give 3.3 g of N-(2-cyclohexyloxy-4-nitrophenyl)methanesulfonamide.
    m.p. 136 – 137°C



EP0093591A1 * Apr 29, 1983 Nov 9, 1983 Eli Lilly And Company Selective sulfonation process
FR2244473A1 * Title not available
US3725451 * Apr 13, 1970 Apr 3, 1973 Riker Laboratories Inc Substituted benzoylhaloalkanesulfonanilides
US3840597 * Jul 3, 1972 Oct 8, 1974 Riker Laboratories Inc Substituted 2-phenoxy alkane-sulfonanilides
US3856859 * Jun 8, 1973 Dec 24, 1974 Riker Laboratories Inc Selective nitration process
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
EP1535614A2 * Aug 22, 1997 Jun 1, 2005 University OofFlorida Materials and methods for detection and treatment of immune system dysfunctions



The cortical collecting duct (CCD) is a major site of intrarenal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis. This study examines the expression and regulation of the prostaglandin synthesizing enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and -2 in the CCD. By indirect immunofluorescence using isoform-specific antibodies, COX-1 and -2 immunoreactivity was localized to all cell types of the murine M-1 CCD cell line. By immunohistochemistry, both COX-1 and COX-2 were localized to intercalated cells of the CCD on paraffin-embedded mouse kidney sections. When COX enzyme activity was measured in the M-1 cells, both indomethacin (COX-1 and -2 inhibitor) and the specific COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 effectively blocked PGE2 synthesis. These results demonstrate that COX-2 is the major contributor to the pool of PGE2synthesized by the CCD. By Western blot analysis, COX-2 expression was significantly upregulated by incubation with either indomethacin or NS-398. These drugs did not affect COX-1 protein expression. Evaluation of COX-2 mRNA expression by Northern blot analysis after NS-398 treatment demonstrated that the COX-2 protein upregulation occurred independently of any change in COX-2 mRNA expression. These studies have for the first time localized COX-2 to the CCD and provided evidence that the intercalated cells of the CCD express both COX-1 and COX-2. The results also demonstrate that constitutively expressed COX-2 is the major COX isoform contributing to PGE2synthesis by the M-1 CCD cell line. Inhibition of COX-2 activity in the M-1 cell line results in an upregulation of COX-2 protein expression.

NS398 inhibits the growth of OSCC cells by mechanisms that are dependent and independent of suppression of PGE2 synthesis. Molecular targeting of COX-2, PGE2 synthase, or PGE2 receptors may be useful as a chemopreventive or therapeutic strategy for oral cancer.



  1.  NS-398 at Sigma-Aldrich
  2.  Wei Shen, Yong Li, Ying Tang, James Cummins and Johnny Huard (2005). “NS-398, a Cyclooxygenase-2-Specific Inhibitor, Delays Skeletal Muscle Healing by Decreasing Regeneration and Promoting Fibrosis”. American Journal of Pathology 167 (4): 1105–1117.doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)61199-6. PMC 1603662. PMID 16192645.
  3. MORE References

    Futaki et al (1993) NS-398, a novel non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with potent analgesic and antipyretic effects, which causes minimal stomach lesions. Gen.Pharmacol. 24 105. PMID: 8482483.

    Futaki et al (1994) NS-398, a new anti-inflammatory agent, selectively inhibits prostaglandin G/H synthase/cyclooxygenase (COX-2) activity in vitro. Prostaglandins 47 55. PMID: 8140262.

    Elder et al (2002) The MEK/ERK pathway mediates COX-2-selective NSAID-induced apoptosis and induced COX-2 protein expression in colorectal carcinoma cells. Int.J.Cancer 99 323. PMID: 11992399.

Apricoxib, A COX-2 inhibitor.


A COX-2 inhibitor.

MF; C19H20N2O3S

Mol wt: 356.439

CAS: 197904-84-0

CS-701; TG01, R-109339, TG-01 ,TP-1001
TP-2001, Capoxigem, Kymena,  UNII-5X5HB3VZ3Z,

Benzenesulfonamide, 4-[2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-;


4-[2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide .


Daiichi Sankyo (innovator)Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd,

Current developer:  Tragara Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Apricoxib is an orally bioavailable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Apricoxib binds to and inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby inhibiting the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Apricoxib-mediated inhibition of COX-2 may induce tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. COX-related metabolic pathways may represent crucial regulators of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis.

Chemical structure for apricoxib

R-109339 is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor currently in phase II clinical development at Tragara Pharmaceuticals for the oral treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and for the treatment of inflammation. Additional phase II clinical trials are ongoing in combination with gemcitabine and erlotinib for the treatment of pancreas cancer. The company had been evaluating R-109339 for the treatment of colorectal cancer, but development for this indication was discontinued for undisclosed reasons. Daiichi Sankyo and Tragara Pharmaceuticals had been conducting phase II clinical trials with the drug candidate for the oral treatment of arthritis and for the treatment of breast cancer, respectively; however, no recent development for this indication has been reported.

COX catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane from arachidonic acid, which is derived from the cellular phospholipid bilayer by phospholipase A2. In addition to several other functions, prostaglandins act as messenger molecules in the process of inflammation. The compound is also designed to act against a well-defined cancer pathway that affects several routes of cancer pathogenesis. In preclinical cancer models, R-109339 demonstrated superiority to compounds with similar mechanisms of action and potential for use in combination with cisplatin. Furthermore, the compound demonstrated the ability to inhibit the cachexia and weight loss seen in mouse tumor models.

Apricoxib, (CS-706, 1) 2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-pyrrole, a small-molecule, orally active, selective COX-2 inhibitor was discovered by investigators at Daiichi Sankyo in 1996. Clinical studies demonstrated potent analgesic activity and preclinical studies demonstrated good pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and gastrointestinal tolerability. As an anticancer agent, preclinical studies demonstrated efficacy in biliary tract cancer models and colorectal carcinoma, and Recamp et al.

The original synthetic route is outlined below. Though the initial two steps were accomplished with decent yields, the final step of pyrrolidine formation followed by dehydration and dehydrocyanation produced only 3% of 1 as a brown powder. The yield in the last step of the synthesis of the 2-(4-methoxyphenyl) analog, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-pyrrole, was 6%, indicating that this synthesis route is problematic.

14   Kimura T, Noguchi Y, Nakao A, Suzuki K, Ushiyama S, Kawara A, Miyamoto M. 799823. EP. 1997:A1.


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Published online Aug 19, 2011. doi:  10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.08.050


An efficient synthesis of apricoxib (CS-706), a selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was developed using copper catalysed homoallylic ketone formation from methyl 4-ethoxybenzoate followed by ozonolysis to an aldehyde, and condensation with sulphanilamide. This method provided multi-gram access of aprocoxib in good yield. Apricoxib exhibited potency equal to celecoxib at inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis in two inflammatory breast cancer cell lines.


We envisioned that 7 could be prepared by ozonolysis of homoallylic ketone (8) (Route B). A recent development in the synthesis of homoallylic ketones by Dorr et al. via copper-catalyzed cascade addition of alkenylmagnesium bromide to an ester a24 was examined. Treatment of commercially available methyl 4-ethoxybenzoate with 1-propenylmagnesium bromide (4.0 equiv) in presence of CuCN (0.6 equiv) resulted in 95% yield of desired ketone8 after silica gel chromatography, along with a minor amount of unreacted ester).b25

Scheme 3
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Efficient synthesis of apricoxib (1):

The product was a mixture of cis/trans R/S stereoisomers, as detected in the 1H NMR spectrum, and was used directly in the next step without separation. Ozone was bubbled through a solution of 8 in MeOH/CH2Cl2 at −78°C, until all starting materials were consumed. The ozonide was then reduced to aldehyde 7 by treatment with Me2S overnight. Removal of volatiles and subsequent addition and evaporation of toluene gave the crude 1,4-dicarbonyl compound 7 which was sufficiently pure for the following condensation step. The 1H NMR signal at 9.78 ppm of the crude product confirmed the formation of the aldehyde. No attempt was made to characterize the enantiomeric ratio of 7 since the dehydration/aromatization reaction of the next step removes the chirality of the product. Treatment of 7 with sulfanilamide in 40% acetic acid-acetonitrile at 70°C for three hours resulted in a brown product. Purification by silica gel flash chromatography yielded 71% of pure 1 as a white solid.c26

a24. Dorr AA, Lubell WD. Can J Chem. 2007;85:1006.
b25. Synthesis of 1-(4-ethoxy-phenyl)-3-methyl-hex-4-en-1-one (8): To a stirred suspension of CuCN (1.8 g, 20.0 mmol) in 50 mL of dry THF at −78°C under argon, a solution of 1-propenylmagnesium bromide (133.2 mmol, 265 mL of 0.5 M solution in THF) was added dropwise. The slurry was stirred for an additional 30 min and then a solution of methyl 4-ethoxybenzoate (6.0 g, 33.3 mmol) in 60 mL of dry THF was added slowly. The stirred reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched with ice cold saturated aqueous NaH2PO4 (100mL) and the mixture was extracted with ether (4 × 100 mL). The combined ether extracts were washed with brine (2 × 100mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered, and evaporated to dryness. The crude homoallylic ketone was purified by silica gel flash chromatography using a gradient of ethyl acetate in hexane as the eluent to give 8 (7.4 g, 95%) as a colorless oil. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300.0 MHz) δ 1.04–1.07 (m, 3H), 1.44 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H), 1.6–1.64 (m, 3H), 2.8–2.96 (m, 2.5H), 3.2 (m, 0.5H), 4.1 (q, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H), 5.25 (m, 0.5 H), 5.34–5.46 (m, 1.5H), 6.92 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 7.92 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H). 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75.0 MHz) δ 12.9, 14.6, 17.9, 20.4, 21.0, 28.4, 33.0, 45.4, 45.5, 63.7, 114.1, 123.1, 123.4, 130.2, 130.3, 135.5, 136.0, 141.9, 162.7, 198.1. M+H Calcd: 233.1542; Found, 233.2482.
c26. Synthesis of Apricoxib (1): Homoallylic ketone (8) (5.0 g, 21.53 mmol) in 180 mL of CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:5) was treated with ozone bubbles at −78°C until a blue coloration persisted. The solution was purged with argon, 8.0 mL of dimethylsulphide (21.5 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture then warmed slowly to rt overnight. The solvent was evaporated under vacuum to give 7 which was then diluted with 100 mL of 40 % acetic acid in acetonitrile, (v/v) and sulphanilamide (4.0 g, 23.2 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed until complete consumption of 1,4-dicarbonyl compound was detected by TLC (ca 3 h). After cooling to room temperature, the product was concentrated under vacuum and diluted with 250 mL of ethyl acetate. The organic layer then washed with saturated Na2CO3 solution (3 × 50 mL) followed by brine (1 × 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), and evaporated to dryness. The crude brown material was purified by silica gel flash chromatography using a gradient of EtOAc in hexane to give apricoxib as white solid (5.5 g, 15.43 mmol, 71%).
m.p. 161–163°C (lit. 135–139°C14).
1H NMR (CDCl3, 300.0 MHz) δ 1.32 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H), 2.1 (s, 3H), 3.92 (q, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H), 4.95 (s, 2H), 6.14 (m, 1H), 6.63 (m, 1H), 6.69 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 6.94 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 7.13 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 7.74 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H).
13C NMR (CDCl3, 75.0 MHz) δ 11.7, 14.8, 63.4, 82.4, 113.2, 114.4, 121.0, 121.1, 124.9, 125.2, 127.4, 129.7, 133.6, 138.7, 144.2, 158.0
M+H Calcd: 357.1273; Found, 357.1252.



Click here to view.(2.1M, pdf)   DOWNLOAD TO GET NMR , 13C, COSY

Supplementary Material

1H, 13C, and COSY NMR spectra of compounds 1 and 8.






In one strategy, bromination of 4-ethoxyacetophenone (I) with Br2 yields 2-bromo-1-(4-ethoxyphenyl)ethanone (II) along with the byproduct 2-bromo-1-(3-bromo-4-ethoxyphenyl)ethanone, which are separated using HPLC. Alkylation of propionaldehyde N,Ndiisobutylenamine (III) with bromo ketone (II) and subsequent ketalization with neopentyl glycol (IV) using p-TsOH·H2O and, optionally, H2SO4 in MeCN gives monoprotected ketoaldehyde (V) (1). Finally, cyclization of ketoaldehyde derivative (V) with 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide (VI) in the presence of AcOH in PrOH/H2O at 90-100 °C furnishes apricoxib

Intermediate (V) can also be prepared by reaction of 1-(4- ethoxyphenyl)-2-buten-1-one (VII) with CH3NO2 in the presence of DBU in THF to produce nitro ketone (VIII). Subsequent treatment of nitroderivative (VIII) with neopentyl glycol (IV) and NaOMe and MeOH gives acetal (V) (2).In an alternativestrategy, condensation of 4-ethoxyacetaldehyde (IX) with 4-sulfamoylaniline (VI) in refluxing EtOH furnishesN-(4-ethoxybenzylidene)-

4-sulfamoylaniline (X), which then condenses with trimethylsilyl cyanide (XI) in the presence of ZnCl2 in THF yielding α- amino nitrile (XII). Cyclization of this compound with methacrolein (XIII) using LiHMDS in THF affords apricoxib

reference for above

  • Drugs of the Future 2011, 36(7): 503-509
  • Kojima, S., Ooyama, J. (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.). Process for production of brominated acetophenone. WO 2008020617.
  • Fujimoto, K., Takebayashi, T., Noguchi, Y., Saitou, T. (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.). Production of 4-methyl-1,2-diarylpyrrole and intermediate for synthesizing the same. JP 2000080078
  • Kimura, T., Noguchi, Y., Nakao, A., Suzuki, K., Ushiyama, S., Kawara, A., Miyamoto, M. (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.). 1,2-Diphenylpyrrole derivatives,their preparation and their therapeutic uses. CA 2201812, EP 0799823, JP 1997823971, US 5908858.



1. Bierbach, Ulrich. Platinum acridine anti-cancer compounds and methods thereof. PCT Int. Appl. (2010), 54pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2010048499 A1 20100429 CAN 152:517954 AN 2010:529827

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9. Rohatagi, Shashank; Kastrissios, Helen; Sasahara, Kunihiro; Truitt, Kenneth; Moberly, James B.; Wada, Russell; Salazar, Daniel E. Pain relief model for a COX-2 inhibitor in patients with postoperative dental pain. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2008), 66(1), 60-70.
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Method of using COX-2 inhibitors in the treatment and prevention of ocular COX-2 mediated disorders
1,2-diphenylpyrrole derivatives, their preparation and their therapeutic uses
Use of MEK inhibitors in treating abnormal cell growth
Therapeutic combinations comprising poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases inhibitor
Method for treating abnormal cell growth
Method of using a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor and sex steroids as a combination therapy for the treatment and prevention of dismenorrhea
Methods and compositions for treatment and prevention of tumors, tumor-related disorders and cachexia
Compositions of cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors and NMDA receptor antagonists for the treatment or prevention of neuropathic pain
Methods for treating estrogen-dependent disorders
Method of using a COX-2 inhibitor and an alkylating-type antineoplastic agent as a combination therapy in the treatment of neoplasia
Method of using cox-2 inhibitors in the treatment and prevention of ocular cox-2 mediated disorders
Method of using a COX-2 inhibitor and an aromatase inhibitor as a combination therapy
Methods and Compositions for the Treatment of Cancer, Tumors, and Tumor-Related Disorders
Use of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors for the treatment and prevention of tumours, tumour-related disorders and cachexia
Methods and compositions for the treatment and prevention of tumors, tumor-related disorders and cachexia
Human monoclonal antibodies to activin receptor-like kinase-1
Pharmaceutical Compositions Comprising an Amorphous Form of a Vegf-R-Inhibitor
Compositions for the Treatment of Inflammation and Pain Using a Combination of a Cox-2 Selective Inhibitor and a Ltb4 Receptor Antagonist
1,2-Diphenylpyrrole derivatives, their preparation and their therapeutic uses
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