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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Reldesemtiv


Reldesemtiv.png

Image result for Reldesemtiv

Reldesemtiv

CK-2127107

CAS 1345410-31-2

UNII-4S0HBYW6QE, 4S0HBYW6QE

MW 384.4 g/mol, MF C19H18F2N6O

1-[2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methyl}amino)pyrimidin-5-yl]-1H-pyrrole-3- carboxamide

1-[2-[[3-fluoro-1-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl]methylamino]pyrimidin-5-yl]pyrrole-3-carboxamide

Reldesemtiv, also known as CK-2127107, is a skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) and is a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue such as SMA, COPD, and ALS.

Cytokinetics , in collaboration with  Astellas , is developing reldesemtiv, the lead from a program of selective fast skeletal muscle troponin activators, in an oral suspension formulation, for the treatment of indications associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, including spinal muscular atrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  • Originator Cytokinetics
  • Developer Astellas Pharma; Cytokinetics
  • Class Pyridines; Pyrimidines; Pyrroles; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Troponin stimulants
  • Orphan Drug Status Yes – Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Phase II Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Spinal muscular atrophy
  • Suspended Muscle fatigue
  • No development reported Muscular atrophy
  • 05 May 2019 Safety and efficacy data from the phase II FORTITUDE-ALS trial in Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presented at the American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting (AAN-2019)
  • 07 Mar 2019 Cytokinetics completes the phase III FORTITUDE-ALS trial for Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in USA, Australia, Canada, Spain, Ireland and Netherlands (PO) (NCT03160898)
  • 22 Jan 2019 Cytokinetics plans a phase I trial in Healthy volunteers in the first quarter of 2019

Reldesemtiv, a next-generation, orally-available, highly specific small-molecule is being developed by Cytokinetics, in collaboration with Astellas Pharma, for the improvement of skeletal muscle function associated with neuromuscular dysfunction, muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigue in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The drug candidate is a fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) or troponin stimulant intended to slow the rate of calcium release from the regulatory troponin complex of fast skeletal muscle fibers. Clinical development for ALS, COPD and SMA is underway in the US, Australia, Canada, Ireland, Netherlands and Spain. No recent reports of development had been identified for phase I development for muscular atrophy in the US. Due to lack of of efficacy determined at interim analysis Cytokinetics suspended phase I trial in muscle fatigue in the elderly.

The cytoskeleton of skeletal and cardiac muscle cells is unique compared to that of all other cells. It consists of a nearly crystalline array of closely packed cytoskeletal proteins called the sarcomere. The sarcomere is elegantly organized as an interdigitating array of thin and thick filaments. The thick filaments are composed of myosin, the motor protein responsible for transducing the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis into force and directed movement. The thin filaments are composed of actin monomers arranged in a helical array. There are four regulatory proteins bound to the actin filaments, which allows the contraction to be modulated by calcium ions. An influx of intracellular calcium initiates muscle contraction; thick and thin filaments slide past each other driven by repetitive interactions of the myosin motor domains with the thin actin filaments.

[0003] Of the thirteen distinct classes of myosin in human cells, the myosin-II class is responsible for contraction of skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle. This class of myosin is significantly different in amino acid composition and in overall structure from myosin in the other twelve distinct classes. Myosin-II forms homo-dimers resulting in two globular head domains linked together by a long alpha-helical coiled-coiled tail to form the core of the sarcomere’s thick filament. The globular heads have a catalytic domain where the actin binding and ATPase functions of myosin take place. Once bound to an actin filament, the release of phosphate (cf. ADP-Pi to ADP) signals a change in structural conformation of the catalytic domain that in turn alters the orientation of the light-chain binding lever arm domain that extends from the globular head; this movement is termed the powerstroke. This change in orientation of the myosin head in relationship to actin causes the thick filament of which it is a part to move with respect to the thin actin filament to which it is bound. Un-binding of the globular head from the actin filament (Ca2+ regulated) coupled with return of the catalytic domain and light chain to their starting conformation/orientation completes the catalytic cycle, responsible for intracellular movement and muscle contraction.

Tropomyosin and troponin mediate the calcium effect on the interaction on actin and myosin. The troponin complex is comprised of three polypeptide chains: troponin C, which binds calcium ions; troponin I, which binds to actin; and troponin T, which binds to tropomyosin. The skeletal troponin-tropomyosin complex regulates the myosin binding sites extending over several actin units at once.

Troponin, a complex of the three polypeptides described above, is an accessory protein that is closely associated with actin filaments in vertebrate muscle. The troponin complex acts in conjunction with the muscle form of tropomyosin to mediate the

Ca2+ dependency of myosin ATPase activity and thereby regulate muscle contraction. The troponin polypeptides T, I, and C, are named for their tropomyosin binding, inhibitory, and calcium binding activities, respectively. Troponin T binds to tropomyosin and is believed to be responsible for positioning the troponin complex on the muscle thin filament. Troponin I binds to actin, and the complex formed by troponins I and T, and tropomyosin inhibits the interaction of actin and myosin. Skeletal troponin C is capable of binding up to four calcium molecules. Studies suggest that when the level of calcium in the muscle is raised, troponin C exposes a binding site for troponin I, recruiting it away from actin. This causes the tropomyosin molecule to shift its position as well, thereby exposing the myosin binding sites on actin and stimulating myosin ATPase activity.

U.S. Patent No. 8962632 discloses l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide, a next-generation fast skeletal muscle troponin activator (FSTA) as a potential treatment for people living with debilitating diseases and conditions associated with neuromuscular or non-neuromuscular dysfunction, muscular weakness, and/or muscle fatigue.

PATENT

WO 2011133888

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2011133888&recNum=202&docAn=US2011033614&queryString=&maxRec=57668

PATENT

WO2016039367 ,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016039367&tab=FULLTEXT

claiming the use of a similar compound for treating stress urinary incontinence.

Compound A is 1- [2-({[trans-3-fluoro-1- (3-fluoropyridin-2-yl) cyclobutyl] methyl} amino) pyrimidin-5-yl] -1H Pyrrole-3-carboxamide, which is the compound described in Example 14 of the aforementioned US Pat. The chemical structure is as shown below.
[Chemical formula 1]

PATENT

WO-2019133605

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019133605&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P11-JXY4C3-99085-1

Process for preparing reldesemtiv , a myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin C, troponin I, troponin T modulator, useful for treating neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication and metabolic syndrome.

Scheme 1

[0091] Scheme 1 illustrates a scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

Scheme 2

[0092] Scheme 2 illustrates an alternative scheme of synthesizing the compound of Formula (1C).

M

TFAA DS, toluene

Et

to


HCI, H20

50°C

Scheme 3

[0093] Scheme 3 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (1C) to the compound of Formula (II).

H2

Ni Raney

NH3

Scheme 4

[0094] Scheme 4 illustrates a scheme of converting the compound of Formula (II) to the compound of Formula (1).

Examples

[0095] To a flask was added N-methylpyrrolidone (30 mL), tert-butyl cyanoacetate (8.08 g) at room temperature. To a resulting solution was added potassium tert-butoxide (7.71 g), l,3-dibromo-2,2-dimethoxy propane (5.00 g) at 0 °C. To another flask, potassium iodide (158 mg), 2,6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (42 mg), N-methylpyrrolidone (25 mL) were added at room temperature and then resulting solution was heated to 165 °C. To this solution, previously prepared mixture was added dropwise at 140-165 °C, then stirred for 2 hours at 165 °C. To the reaction mixture, water (65 mL) was added. A resulting solution was extracted with toluene (40 mL, three times) and then combined organic layer was washed with water (20 mL, three times) and 1N NaOH aq. (20 mL). A resulting organic layer was concentrated below 50 °C under reduced pressure to give 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile (66% yield,

GC assay) as toluene solution. 1H MR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.93-2.84 (m, 1H), 2.63-2.57 (m, 2H), 2.52-2.45 (m, 2H).

Example 2 Synthesis of methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate

[0096] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. MeOH (339.00 kg), 3-oxocyclobutanecarboxylic acid (85.19 kg, 746.6 mol, 1.0 eq.), Amberlyst-l5 ion exchange resin (8.90 kg, 10% w/w), and

trimethoxymethane (196.00 kg, 1847.3 mol, 2.5 eq.) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 55±5°C and reacted for 6 hours to give methyl 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxylate solution in MeOH. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 3.70 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 3.15 (s, 3H), 2.94-2.85 (m, 1H), 2.47-2.36 (m, 4H).

Example 3 Synthesis of 3, 3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l -carboxamide

[0097] The methyl 3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carboxylate solution in MeOH prepared as described in Example 2 was cooled to below 25°C and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with MeOH(7.00 kg) and the filtrate was pumped to the reactor. The solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH

(139.40 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. MeOH (130.00 kg) was charged to the reactor and the solution was concentrated under vacuum below 55°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Half of the resulting solution was diluted with MeOH (435.00 kg) and cooled to below 30°C. NH3 gas (133.80 kg) was injected into the reactor below 35°C for

24 hours. The mixture was stirred at 40±5°C for 72 hours. The resulting solution was

concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes.

MTBE(l8l.OO kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting solution was concentrated under vacuum below 50°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. PE (318.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The resulting mixture was cooled to 5±5°C, stirred for 4 hours at 5±5°C, and centrifuged. The filter cake was washed with PE (42.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was put into a vacuum oven. The filter cake was dried at 30±5°C for at least 8 hours to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide as off-white solid (112.63 kg, 94.7% yield). 1H NMR (CDCf, 400 MHz) d 5.76 (bs, 1H), 5.64 (bs, 1H), 3.18 (s, 3H), 3.17 (s, 3H), 2.84-2.76 (m, 1H), 2.45-2.38 (m, 4H).

[0098] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Toluene (500.00 kg), 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carboxamide (112.54kg, 706.9 mol, 1.0 eq.), and TEA (158.00 kg, 1561.3 mol, 2.20 eq) were charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was cooled to 0+ 5°C. TFAA (164.00 kg, 781 mol, 1.10 eq.) was added dropwise at 0±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 hours at 20±5°C and cooled below 5±5°C. H20 (110.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 15 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 30 minutes and the water phase was separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with toluene (190.00 kg) twice. The organic phases were combined and washed with H20 (111.00 kg). H20 was removed by azeotrope until the water content was no more than 0.03%. The resulting solution was cooled to below 20°C to give 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene (492.00 kg with 17.83% assay content, 87.9% yield).

Example 5 Synthesis of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0099] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile solution in toluene prepared as described in Example 4 (246.00 kg of a 17.8% solution of 3,3-dimethoxycyclobutane-l-carbonitrile in toluene, 1.05 eq.) and 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine (39.17 kg, 297.9 mol, 1.00 eq.) were charged into the reactor. The reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. The mixture was slowly cooled to -20±5°C. NaHDMS (2M in THF) (165.71 kg, 1.20 eq) was added

dropwise at -20±5°C. The resulting mixture was stirred at -l5±5°C for 1 hour. The mixture was stirred until the content of 2-chloro-3-fluoropyridine is no more than 2% as measured by HPLC. Soft water (16.00 kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. The resulting solution was transferred to another reactor. Aq. NH4Cl (10% w/w, 88.60 Kg) was added dropwise at below 0°C while maintaining the reactor temperature. Soft water (112.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the aqueous phase was separated and collected. The aqueous phase was extracted with ethyl acetate (70.00 kg) and an organic phase was collected. The organic phase was washed with sat. NaCl (106.00 kg) and collected. The above steps were repeated to obtain another batch of organic phase. The two batches of organic phase were concentrated under vacuum below 70°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. The resulting solution was cooled to below 30°C to give a l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution. 1H NMR (CDC13, 400 MHz) d 8.42-8.38 (m, 1H), 7.50-7.45 (m, 1H), 7.38-7.33 (m, 1H), 3.28 (s, 3 H), 3.13 (s, 3H), 3.09-3.05 (m, 4H).

Example 6 Synthesis of I-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclohutanecarhonitrile

[0100] A reactor was vacuumed to 0.02 MPa and less and then inerted with nitrogen to atmosphere for three times. Water (603.00 kg) was added to the reactor and was stirred.

Concentrated HC1 (157.30 kg) was charged into the reactor at below 35°C. The l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxy cyclobutane- l-carbonitrile solution prepared as described in Example 5 (206.00 kg) was charged into the reactor and the resulting mixture was heated to 50±5°C and reacted for 3 hours at 50±5°C. The mixture was reacted until the content of 1-(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3, 3 -dimethoxycyclobutane- l-carbonitrile was no more than 2.0% as measured by HPLC. The reaction mixture was cooled to below 30°C and extracted with ethyl acetate (771.00 kg). An aqueous phase was collected and extracted with ethyl acetate (770.00 kg). The organic phases were combined and the combined organic phase was washed with soft water (290.00 kg) and brine (385.30 kg). The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below 60°C until the system had no more than 2 volumes. Propan-2-ol (218.00 kg) was charged into the reactor. The organic phase was concentrated under vacuum at below

60°C until the system had no more than 1 volume. PE (191.00 kg) was charged into the reactor at 40±5 °C and the resulting mixture was heated to 60±5 °C and stirred for 1 hour at 60±5 °C. The mixture was then slowly cooled to 5±5 °C and stirred for 5 hours at 5±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with PE (48.00 kg) and the wet filter cake was collected. Water (80.00 kg), concentrated HC1 (2.20 kg), propan-2-ol (65.00 kg), and the wet filter cake were charged in this order into a drum. The resulting mixture was stirred for 10 minutes at 20±5 °C. The mixture was centrifuged and the filter cake was washed with a mixture solution containing 18.00 kg of propan-2-ol, 22.50 kg of soft water, and 0.60 kg of concentrated HC1. The filter cake was put into a vacuum oven and dried at 30±5°C for at least 10 hours. The filter cake was dried until the weight did not change to give l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile as off-white solid (77.15 kg, 68.0% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) d 8.45-8.42 (m, 1H), 7.60-7.54 (m, 1H), 7.47-7.41 (m, 1H), 4.18-4.09 (m, 2H), 4.02-3.94 (m, 2H).

Example 7 Synthesis of I-(3-fhtoropyridin-2-yl)-3-hydroxycyclobulanecarbonilrile

[0101] To a solution of l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3-oxocyclobutanecarbonitrile (231 g,

1.22 mol) in a mixture ofDCM (2 L) and MeOH (200 mL) was added NaBH4 portionwise at -78° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78°C. for 1 hour and quenched with a mixture of methanol and water (1 : 1). The organic layer was washed with water (500 mL><3), dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (50% EtO Ac/hexanes) to provide the title compound as an amber oil (185.8 g, 77.5%). Low Resolution Mass

Spectrometry (LRMS) (M+H) m/z 193.2.

Example 8 Synthesis of (ls,3s)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane-l-carbonitrile

[0102] To a solution of 1 -(3 -fluoropyridin-2-yl)-3 -hydroxy cyclobutanecarbonitrile (185 g, 0.96 mol) in DCM (1 L) was added DAST portionwise at 0-10 °C. Upon the completion of addition, the reaction was refluxed for 6 hours. The reaction was cooled to rt and poured onto sat. NaHCCf solution. The mixture was separated and the organic layer was washed with water, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The residue was purified on silica gel (100% DCM) to provide the title compound as a brown oil (116g) in a 8: 1 transxis mixture. The above brown oil (107 g) was dissolved in toluene (110 mL) and hexanes (330mL) at 70 °C. The solution was cooled to 0 °C and stirred at 0 °C overnight. The precipitate was filtered and washed with hexanes to provide the trans isomer as a white solid (87.3 g). LRMS (M+H) m/z 195.1.

Example 9 Synthesis of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine

[0103] A mixture of ( 1.v,3.v)-3-fluoro- 1 -(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutane- 1 -carbonitrile (71 g, 0.37 mol) and Raney nickel (~7 g) in 7N ammonia in methanol (700 mL) was charged with hydrogen (60 psi) for 2 days. The reaction was filtered through a celite pad and washed with methanol. The filtrate was concentrated under high vacuum to provide the title compound as a light green oil (70 g, 97.6%). LRMS (M+H) m/z 199.2.

Example 10 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate

[0104] A mixture of ((lr,3r)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methanamine (37.6 g, 190 mmol), 5-bromo-2-fluoropyrimidine (32.0 g, 181 mmol), DIPEA (71 mL, 407 mmol), and NMP (200 mL) was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was then diluted with EtOAc (1500 mL) and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate (500 mL). The

organic layer was separated, dried over Na2S04, and concentrated. The resultant solid was dissolved in THF (600 mL), followed by the slow addition of DMAP (14 g, 90 mmol) and Boc20 (117.3 g, 542 mmol). The reaction was heated to 60° C. and stirred for 3 h. The reaction mixture was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography

(EtO Ac/hex) to give 59.7 g oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a white solid.

Example 11 Synthesis of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano- 1 H -pyrrol- 1 -yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((lrans)-3-fhtoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclohutyl)methyl)carhamate

[0105] To a solution oft-butyl 5-bromopyrimidin-2-yl((trans-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl) carbamate (1.0 g, 2.8 mmol) in 15 mL of toluene (degassed with nitrogen) was added copper iodide (100 mg, 0.6 mmol), potassium phosphate (1.31 g, 6.2 mmol), trans-N,N’-dimethylcyclohexane-l, 2-diamine (320 mg, 2.2 mmol), and 3-cyanopyrrole (310 mg, 3.6 mmol). The reaction was heated to 100 °C and stirred for 2 h. The reaction was then concentrated and purified by silica gel chromatography (EtOAc/hexanes) to afford 1.1 g of t-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate as a clear oil.

Example 12 Synthesis of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3-carboxamide

[0106] To a solution oft-butyl 5-(3-cyano-lH-pyrrol-l-yl)pyrimidin-2-yl(((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)carbamate (1.1 g, 3.1 mmol) in DMSO (10 mL) was added potassium carbonate (1.3 g, 9.3 mmol). The mixture was cooled to 0 °C and hydrogen peroxide (3 mL) was slowly added. The reaction was warmed to rt and stirred for 90 min. The reaction was diluted with EtO Ac (75 mL) and washed three times with brine (50 mL). The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was purified by silica gel chromatography (10% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to afford 1.07 g of a white solid compound. This compound was dissolved in 25% TFA/CH2CI2 and stirred for 1 hour. The reaction was then concentrated, dissolved in ethyl acetate (75 mL), and washed three times with saturated potassium carbonate solution. The organic layer was then dried over Na2S04, filtered, and concentrated to give a crude solid that was triturated with 75% ethyl acetate/hexanes. The resultant slurry was sonicated and filtered to give 500 mg of l-(2-((((trans)-3-fluoro-l-(3-fluoropyridin-2-yl)cyclobutyl)methyl)amino)pyrimidin-5-yl)-lH-pyrrole-3 -carboxamide as a white solid. LRMS (M+H=385).

REFERENCES

1: Andrews JA, Miller TM, Vijayakumar V, Stoltz R, James JK, Meng L, Wolff AA, Malik FI. CK-2127107 amplifies skeletal muscle response to nerve activation in humans. Muscle Nerve. 2018 May;57(5):729-734. doi: 10.1002/mus.26017. Epub 2017 Dec 11. PubMed PMID: 29150952.

2: Gross N. The COPD Pipeline XXXII. Chronic Obstr Pulm Dis. 2016 Jul 14;3(3):688-692. doi: 10.15326/jcopdf.3.3.2016.0150. PubMed PMID: 28848893; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5556764.

//////////////CK-2127107, CK 2127107, CK2127107, Reldesemtiv, Cytokinetics,   Astellas, neuromuscular disorders, muscle wasting, claudication, metabolic syndrome, spinal muscular atrophy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Orphan Drug Status, Spinal muscular atrophy, Phase II

C1C(CC1(CNC2=NC=C(C=N2)N3C=CC(=C3)C(=O)N)C4=C(C=CC=N4)F)F

Astellas Pharma Inc. new Glucokinase Activator, ASP ? for Type 2 Diabetes


str1

ASP ?

(2R)-2-(4-cyclopropanesulfonyl-3-cyclopropylphenyl)-N-[5-(hydroxymethyl)pyrazin-2-yl]-3-[(R)-3-oxocyclopentyl]propanamide

CAS 1174229-89-0
MW C25 H29 N3 O5 S
Benzeneacetamide, 3-cyclopropyl-4-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-N-[5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-pyrazinyl]-α-[[(1R)-3-oxocyclopentyl]methyl]-, (αR)-
Molecular Weight, 483.58
[α]D20 −128.7 (c 1.00, MeOH);
1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 11.07 (s, 1H), 9.20 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 8.41 (d, J = 1.4 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.41 (dd, J = 8.2, 1.8 Hz, 1H), 7.15 (d, J = 1.8 Hz, 1H), 5.52 (t, J = 5.7 Hz, 1H), 4.56 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 2H), 4.04 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 1H), 3.03–2.97 (m, 1H), 2.79 (tt, J = 8.4, 5.1 Hz, 1H), 2.25–1.81 (m, 8H), 1.53–1.47 (m, 1H), 1.17–1.12 (m, 2H), 1.08–1.02 (m, 4H), 0.89–0.84 (m, 2H);
13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 101 MHz) δ 218.5, 171.8, 152.1, 147.3, 145.7, 143.2, 140.3, 138.2, 134.8, 129.0, 125.3, 125.1, 62.5, 49.9, 44.4, 38.4, 38.2, 34.8, 32.1, 29.1, 12.4, 10.8, 10.7, 5.8;
FTIR (ATR, cm–1) 3544, 3257, 1727, 1692, 1546, 1507, 1363, 1285, 1149, 719;
HRMS (ESI) m/z [M + Na]+ calcd for C25H29N3O5S 506.1726, found 506.1747.
Anal. Calcd for C25H29N3O5S: C, 62.09; H, 6.04; N, 8.69. Found: C, 61.79; H, 6.19; N, 8.62.

To Astellas Pharma,Inc.

Inventors Masahiko Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Kido, Takahiro Nigawara, Mitsuaki Okumura, Akira Kanai, Keisuke Maki, Nobuaki Amino
Applicant Astellas Pharma Inc.

Image result for Process Chemistry Labs., Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan

Synthesis

contd…………………………..

PATENT

WO2009091014

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf;jsessionid=56E9927692EF5105140FE1CD1FD14A5D.wapp1nC?docId=WO2009091014&recNum=114&maxRec=374&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=FP%3A%28astellas+pharma%29&tab=FullText

str1

PAPER

A Practical and Scalable Synthesis of a Glucokinase Activator via Diastereomeric Resolution and Palladium-Catalyzed C–N Coupling Reaction

Process Chemistry Labs., Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan
Astellas Research Technologies Co., Ltd., 21 Miyukigaoka, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305-8585, Japan
§ Department of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inageku, Chiba 263-8522, Japan
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00415
 Abstract Image

Here we describe the research and development of a process for the practical synthesis of glucokinase activator (R)-1 as a potential drug for treating type-2 diabetes. The key intermediate, chiral α-arylpropionic acid (R)-2, was synthesized in high diastereomeric excess through the diasteromeric resolution of 7 without the need for a chiral resolving agent. The counterpart 2-aminopyrazine derivative 3 was synthesized using a palladium-catalyzed C–N coupling reaction. This efficient process was demonstrated at the pilot scale and yielded 19.0 kg of (R)-1. Moreover, an epimerization process to obtain (R)-7 from the undesired (S)-7 was developed.

Hayakawa, M.; Kido, Y.; Nigawara, T.; Okumura, M.; Kanai, A.; Maki, K.; Amino, N. PCT Int. Appl. WO/2009/091014 A1 20090723,2009.

https://www.astellas.com/en/ir/library/pdf/3q2017_rd_en.pdf

///////////1174229-89-0, ASTELLAS, Glucokinase Activator, TYPE 2 DIABETES, PRECLINICAL, ASP ?, WO 2009091014Masahiko Hayakawa, Yoshiyuki Kido, Takahiro Nigawara, Mitsuaki Okumura, Akira Kanai, Keisuke Maki, Nobuaki AminoWO2009091014,

O=C(Nc1cnc(cn1)CO)[C@H](C[C@@H]2CC(=O)CC2)c3ccc(c(c3)C4CC4)S(=O)(=O)C5CC5

Roxadustat, ASP 1517, FG 4592


STR1

ROXADUSTAT

ASP1517; ASP 1517; ASP-1517; FG-4592; FG 4592; FG4592; Roxadustat.

CAS 808118-40-3
Chemical Formula: C19H16N2O5
Exact Mass: 352.10592

Fibrogen, Inc.

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM, Treatment of anemia

Roxadustat nonproprietary drug name

CHEMICAL NAMES

(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycine

1. Glycine, N-[(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-isoquinolinyl)carbonyl]-

2. N-[(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinolin-3-yl)carbonyl]glycine

MF C19H16N2O5
MW  352.3
SPONSOR FibroGen
CODE FG-4592; ASP1517
CAS 808118-40-3
WHO NUMBER 9717

Roxadustat, also known as ASP1517 and FG-4592, is an HIF α prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in a cell-free assay. It stabilizes HIF-2 and induces EPO production and stimulates erythropoiesis. Roxadustat transiently and moderately increased endogenous erythropoietin and reduced hepcidin

FG-4592 (also known as ASP1517), 2-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido)acetic acid,
 is a potent small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH),
an enzyme up-regulating the expression of endogenous human erythropoietin (Epo).
It is currently being investigated as an oral treatment for anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Unlike other anemia treating agents, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs),
FG-4592 inhibits HIF, through a distinctive mechanism, by stabilization of HIF. According to previous studies,
FG-4592 is capable of correcting and maintaining hemoglobin levels in CKD patients not
receiving dialysis and in patients of end-stage renal disease
who receives dialysis but do not need intravenous iron supplement.
Reference
1. Luis Borges. Different modalities of erythropoiesis stimulating agents.
 Port J Nephrol Hypert 2010; 24(2): 137-145
2. “FibroGen and Astellas announce initiation of phase 3 trial of FG-4592/ASP1517 for treatment 
of anemia of chronic kidney disease” Fibrogen Press Release. Dec 11 2012
3. “FibroGen announces initiation of phase 2b studies of FG-4592, 
an oral HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, for treatment of anemia”
  • Originator FibroGen
  • Developer Astellas Pharma; AstraZeneca; FibroGen
  • Class Amides; Antianaemics; Carboxylic acids; Isoquinolines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Basic helix loop helix transcription factor modulators; Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase inhibitors
  • Phase III Anaemia
  • Discontinued Sickle cell anaemia

Most Recent Events

  • 09 Jun 2016 Phase-III clinical trials in Anaemia in Japan (PO)
  • 20 May 2016 In collaboration with FibroGen, Astellas Pharma plans a phase III trial for Anaemia (In chronic kidney disease patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis) in Japan (PO) (NCT02780726)
  • 19 May 2016 In collaboration with FibroGen, Astellas Pharma plans a phase III trial for Anaemia (In erythropoiesis stimulating agent-naive, chronic kidney disease patients undergoing haemodialysis) in Japan (PO) (NCT02780141)

Roxadustat (FG-4592) is a novel new-generation oral hypoxia-induciblefactor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI) for the treatment of ane-mia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). HIF is a cytosolic tran-scription factor that induces the natural physiological response to lowoxygen conditions, by stimulating erythropoiesis and other protectivepathways. Roxadustat has been shown to stabilize HIF and induce ery-thropoiesis. Consequently, it corrects anemia and maintains hemoglo-bin levels without the need for intravenous iron supplementation in CKDpatients not yet receiving dialysis and in end-stage renal disease pa-tients receiving dialysis. There are many concerns about the use of ery-thropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) to treat anemia as they causesupra-physiologic circulating erythropoietin (EPO) levels and are asso-ciated with adverse cardiovascular effects and mortality. Available clin-ical data show that modest and transient increases of endogenous EPOinduced by HIF-PHI (10- to 40-fold lower than ESA levels) are sufficientto mediate erythropoiesis in CKD patients. Evidence suggests that rox-adustat is well tolerated and, to date, no increased risk of cardiovascu-lar events has been found. This suggests that roxadustat provides adistinct pharmacological and clinical profile that may provide a saferand more convenient treatment of CKD anemia

FG-4592 is a new-generation hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in early clinical trials at FibroGen for the oral treatment of iron deficiency anemia and renal failure anemia. Preclinical studies are ongoing for the treatment of sickle cell anemia.

The investigational therapy is designed to restore balance to the body’s natural process of erythropoiesis through mechanisms including: natural EPO production, suppression of the effects of inflammation, downregulation of the iron sequestration hormone hepcidin, and an upregulation of other iron genes, ensuring efficient mobilization and utilization of the body’s own iron stores. In April 2006, FG-4592 was licensed to Astellas Pharma by originator FibroGen in Asia, Europe and South Africa for the treatment of anemia. FibroGen retains rights in the rest of the world. In 2007, the FDA put the trial on clinical hold due to one case of death by fulminant hepatitis during a phase II clinical trial for patients with anemia associated with chronic kidney disease and not requiring dialysis. However, in 2008, the FDA informed the company that clinical trials could be resumed. Phase II/III clinical trials for this indication resumed in 2012. In 2013, the compound was licensed to AstraZeneca by FibroGen for development and marketing in US, CN and all major markets excluding JP, Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Middle East and South Africa, for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
PATENTS
WO 2004108681
WO 2008042800
WO 2009058403
WO 2009075822
WO 2009075824
WO 2012037212
WO 2013013609
WO 2013070908

STR1

PATENT

CN 104892509

MACHINE TRANSLATED

Connaught orlistat (Roxadustat) by the US company Phibro root (FibroGen) R & D, Astellas AstraZeneca and licensed by a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase small molecule inhibitors, codenamed FG-4592.As a first new oral drug, FG-4592 is currently in Phase III clinical testing stage, for the treatment of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease related anemia. Because the drug does not have a standard Chinese translation, so the applicant where it is transliterated as “Connaught Secretary him.”

Connaught orlistat (Roxadustat, I) the chemical name: N_ [(4- hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-isoquinolinyl) carbonyl] glycine, its structural formula is:

Figure CN104892509AD00031

The original research company’s international patent W02004108681 Division provides a promise he was prepared from the intermediate and intermediate Connaught Secretary for his synthetic route:

Figure CN104892509AD00032

 Zhejiang Beida company’s international patent W02013013609 preparation and acylation of core intermediate was further optimized synthesis route is:

Figure CN104892509AD00041

n PhO. eight XOOH

 original research company’s international patent W02014014834 and W02014014835 also provides another synthetic route he Connaught Secretary prepared:

Figure CN104892509AD00042

Analysis of the above synthetic route, although he continued to Connaught Division to improve and optimize the synthesis, but its essence rings manner that different form quinoline ring is basically the same mother. Especially methyl isoquinoline replaced either by way of introducing the Suzuki reaction catalyzed by a noble metal element, either through amine reduction achieved. Moreover, the above reaction scheme revelation raw materials are readily available, many times during the reaction need to be protected and then deprotected. Clearly, the preparation process is relatively complicated, high cost, industrial production has brought some difficulties.

Figure CN104892509AD00052

Example One:

tyrosine was added to the reaction flask and dried (18. lg, 0.1 mmol) and methanol 250mL, cooling to ice bath 0_5 ° C, was added dropwise over 1 hour a percentage by weight of 98% concentrated sulfuric acid 10g. Drops Albert, heating to reflux. The reaction was stirred for 16-20 hours, TLC the reaction was complete. Concentrated under atmosphere pressure, the residue was added water 100mL, using 10% by weight sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH to 6. 5-7.0, precipitated solid was filtered, washed with methanol and water chloro cake (I: 1) and dried in vacuo tyrosine methyl ester as a white solid (11) 15.38, yield 78.5% out 1–] \ ^ 111/2: 196 [] \ 1 + 1] +!.

Example Two:

[0041] a nitrogen atmosphere and ice bath, was added to the reaction flask tyrosine methyl ester (II) (9. 8g, 50mmol), potassium methoxide (3. 5g, 50mmol) and methanol 50mL, until no gas generation after, was heated to reflux, the reaction was stirred for 2 hours. Concentrated under atmosphere pressure to remove the solvent, the residue was added dimethylsulfoxide 25mL, freshly prepared copper powder (0.2g, 3. Lmmol), was slowly warmed to 150-155 ° C, for about half an hour later, a solution of bromobenzene ( 7. 9g, 50mmol), continue to heat up to 170-175 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 3 hours, TLC detection of the end of the reaction. Was cooled to 60 ° C, and methanol was added to keep micro-boiling, filtered while hot, the filter cake washed three times with hot ethanol, and the combined organic phases, was cooled to square ° C, filtered, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid of 2-amino-3- ( 4-phenoxyphenyl) propanoate (111) 8 11.5, yield 84.9% as 1 -] \ ^ 111/2:! 272 [] \ 1 + 1] +.

 Example Three:

 in the reaction flask was added 2-amino-3- (4-phenoxyphenyl) propionic acid methyl ester (III) (10. 8g, 40mmol), 40% by weight acetaldehyde (20g, 0. 2mol ) and the percentage by weight of 35% concentrated hydrochloric acid 50mL, refluxed for 1 hour. Continue 40% by weight was added acetaldehyde (10g, 0.1mol), and the percentage by weight of 35% concentrated hydrochloric acid 25mL, and then the reaction was refluxed for 3-5 hours. Was cooled to 4-7 ° C, ethyl acetate was added, and extracted layers were separated. The aqueous layer was adjusted with sodium hydroxide solution to pH 11-12, extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a white solid of 1-methyl-3-carboxylate -7- phenoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (IV) 8 4g, 70.7% yield; Mass spectrum (EI): EI-MS m / z: 298 [M + H] + .

 Example Four:

Under ice bath, the reaction flask was added methyl 3-carboxylate I- -7- phenoxy-1,2, 3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline (IV) (5. 9g, 20mmol) and dichloromethane 100mL, 0 ° C and under stirring added potassium carbonate (13. 8g, 0. lmol), p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (11. 4g, 60mmol), the addition was completed, the ice bath was removed and stirred at room temperature 3 hour. Water was added 30mL, after stirring standing layer, the organic phase was washed with dilute hydrochloric acid, water and saturated brine, and concentrated, the resulting product was added a 30% by weight sodium hydroxide solution (8. 0g, 60mmol) and dimethyl sulfoxide 60mL, gradually warming to 120-130 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 2-4 hours to complete the reaction by TLC. Cooled to room temperature, water was added lOOmL, extracted three times with ethyl acetate, the combined organic phase was successively washed with water and saturated brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and concentrated, the resulting oil was treated with ethyl acetate and n-hexane (1: 3) recrystallization, vacuum dried to give an off-white solid 1-methyl-3-carboxylate 7-phenoxyheptanoic isoquinoline (V) 5. 25g, yield 89. 6%; EI-MS m / z: 294 [M + H] VH NMR (DMS0-d6) δ 2. 85 (s, 3H), 3 · 97 (s, 3H), 7 · 16-7. 24 (m, 3H), 7 · 49-7. 60 (m, 4Η), 8 · 35 (d, J = 9 · 0,1Η), 8 · 94 (s, 1Η).

Example five:

[0047] added 1-methyl-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester 7-phenoxyheptanoic isoquinoline (V) (2. 93g, IOmmol) and glacial acetic acid 50mL reaction flask, stirring solution of 30% by weight hydrogen peroxide 5mL, warmed to 60-70 ° C, was slowly added dropwise within 10 hours the percentage by weight of a mixture of 30% hydrogen peroxide 2mL and 12mL of glacial acetic acid, a dropping was completed, the reaction was continued for 20-24 hours. Concentrated under reduced pressure, ethanol was added, distillation is continued to be divisible remaining glacial acetic acid. The residue was dissolved with dichloromethane, washed with 5% by weight of sodium bicarbonate, the organic phase was separated, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filtered and the resulting solution was added p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (3. 8g, 20mmol), was heated to reflux, the reaction was stirred for 3-4 hours, TLC detection completion of the reaction. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure, cooled to room temperature, methanol was added, the precipitated solid, cooled to square ° C, allowed to stand overnight. Filtered, the filter cake washed twice with cold methanol and vacuum dried to give an off-white solid 1- methyl-3-methyl-4-hydroxy-phenoxy-isoquinoline -7- (VI) I. 86g, yield 60.2 %; EI-MS m / z:.. 310 [M + H] +, 1H NMR (DMS0-d6) δ 2.90 (s, 3H), 4.05 (s, 3H), 7 17-7 26 (m, 3H ), 7. 49-7. 61 (m, 4H), 8. 38 (d, J = 9. 0,1H), 11. 7 (s, 1H) 〇

 Example VI:

 in the reaction flask with magnetic stirring and pressure to join I- methyl-3-methyl-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoate isoquinoline (VI) (1.55g, 5mmol), glycine (I. 13g, 15mmol) and sodium methoxide (3. 25g, 6mmol) in methanol (30mL).Sealed, slowly heated to 120 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 8-10 hours to complete the reaction by TLC. Cooled to room temperature, solid precipitated. Filtration, and the resulting solid was recrystallized from methanol, acetone and then beating the resulting solid was dried under vacuum to give a white solid Connaught orlistat 1.40g, yield 79.5%;

EI-MS m / z: 353 [M + H] +,

1H NMR (DMS0-d6) S2.72 (s, 3H), 3 · 99 (d, J = 6 · 0, 2H), 7 · 18-7. 28 (m, 3H), 7 · 49-7. 63 (m, 4H), 8 · 31 (d, J = 8 · 8,1H), 9 · 08 (s, lH), 13.41 (brs, lH).

PATENT

WO 2014014835

Example 10. Preparation of Compound A

a) 5-Phenoxyphthalide

Figure imgf000056_0001

[0200] A reactor was charged with DMF (68 Kg), and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with phenol (51 Kg), acetylacetone (8 Kg), 5-bromophthalide (85 Kg), copper bromide (9 Kg), and potassium carbonate (77 Kg). The mixture was heated above 85 °C and maintained until reaction completion and then cooled. Water was added. Solid was filtered and washed with water. Solid was dissolved in dichloromethane, and washed with aqueous HCl and then with water. Solvent was removed under pressure and methanol was added. The mixture was stirred and filtered. Solid was washed with methanol and dried in an oven giving 5- phenoxyphthalide (Yield: 72%, HPLC: 99.6%). b) 2-Chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester

Figure imgf000056_0002

[0201] A reactor was charged with toluene (24 Kg), and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with 5-phenoxyphthalide (56 Kg), thionyl chloride (41 Kg), trimethyl borate (1

Kg), dichlorotriphenylphosphorane (2.5 Kg), and potassium carbonate (77 Kg). The mixture was heated to reflux until reaction completion and solvent was removed leaving 2-chloromethyl-4- phenoxybenzoyl chloride. Methanol was charged and the mixture was heated above 50 °C until reaction completion. Solvent was removed and replaced with DMF. This solution of the product methyl 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester in DMF was used directly in the next step (HPLC: 85%). c) 4-Hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (la)

Figure imgf000057_0001

[0202] A reactor was charged with a solution of 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester (~68 Kg) in DMF, and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with p- toluenesulfonylglycine methyl ester (66 Kg), potassium carbonate (60 Kg), and sodium iodide (4 Kg). The mixture was heated to at least 50 °C until reaction completion. The mixture was cooled. Sodium methoxide in methanol was charged and the mixture was stirred until reaction completion. Acetic acid and water were added, and the mixture was stirred, filtered and washed with water. Solid was purified by acetone trituration and dried in an oven giving la (Yield from step b): 58%; HPLC: 99.4%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.60 (s, 1 H), 8.74 (s, 1H),

8.32 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.60 (dd, J = 2.3 & 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.24 (m, 3 H), 3.96 (s, 3 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 296.09 d) Methyl l-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate

(lb)

Figure imgf000057_0002

[0203] A flask was charged with la (29.5 g) and acetic acid (44.3 g ± 5%), and then stirred. Bis-dimethylaminomethane (12.8 g ± 2%) was slowly added. The mixture was heated to 55 ± 5 °C and maintained until reaction completion. The reaction product was evaluated by MS, HPLC and 1H NMR. 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.7 (s, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.61 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.21 (m, 3 H), 5.34 (s, 2 H), 3.97 (s, 3 H), 1.98 (s, 3 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 368.12. e) Methyl l-((acetoxy)methyl)-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (lc)

Figure imgf000058_0001

[0204] The solution of lb from a) above was cooled below 25 °C, at which time acetic anhydride (28.6 g ± 3.5 %) was added to maintain temperature below 50 °C. The resulting mixture was heated to 100 ± 5 °C until reaction completion.

[0205] The solution of lc and Id from above was cooled to less than 65 ± 5 °C. Water (250 mL) was slowly added. The mixture was then cooled to below 20 ± 5 °C and filtered. The wet cake was washed with water (3 x 50 mL) and added to a new flask. Dichloromethane (90 mL) and water (30 mL) were added, and the resulting mixture was stirred. The dichloromethane layer was separated and evaluated by HPLC.

[0206] The organic layer was added to a flask and cooled 5 ± 5 °C. Morpholine was added and the mixture was stirred until reaction completion. Solvent was replaced with acetone/methanol mixture. After cooling, compound lc precipitated and was filtered, washed and dried in an oven (Yield: 81%, HPLC: >99.7%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.6 (S, 1 H), 8.31 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.87 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.24 (m, 3 H), 3.95 (s, 3 H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 2.08 (s, 6 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 357.17. f) Methyl 4-hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (le)

Figure imgf000058_0002

[0207] A reactor was charged with lc (16.0 g), Pd/C (2.08 g), anhydrous Na2C03 (2.56 g) and ethyl acetate (120 mL). The flask was vacuum-purged with nitrogen (3X) and vacuum-purged with hydrogen (3X). The flask was then pressurized with hydrogen and stirred at about 60 °C until completion of reaction. The flask was cooled to 20-25 °C, the pressure released to ambient, the head space purged with nitrogen three times and mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated. Methanol was added. The mixture was stirred and then cooled. Product precipitated and was filtered and dried in an oven (Yield: 90%, HPLC: 99.7%). g) [(4-Hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxy-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid

(Compound A)

Figure imgf000059_0001

[0208] A pressure flask was charged with le (30.92 g), glycine (22.52 g), methanol (155 mL), sodium methoxide solution (64.81 g) and sealed (as an alternative, sodium glycinate was used in place of glycine and sodium methoxide). The reaction was heated to about 110 °C until reaction was complete. The mixture was cooled, filtered, washed with methanol, dried under vacuum, dissolved in water and washed with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate was removed and to the resulting aqueous layer an acetic acid (18.0 g) solution was added. The suspension was stirred at room temperature, filtered, and the solid washed with water (3 x 30 mL), cold acetone (5-10 °C, 2 x 20 mL), and dried under vacuum to obtain Compound A (Yield: 86.1%, HPLC: 99.8%). Example 11. Biological Testing

[0209] The solid forms provided herein can be used for inhibiting HIF hydroxylase activity, thereby increasing the stability and/or activity of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), and can be used to treat and prevent HIF-associated conditions and disorders (see, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 7,323,475, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0004627, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2006/0276477, and U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0259960, incorporated by reference herein).

SYNTHESIS……..

http://zliming2004.lofter.com/post/1cc9dc55_79ad5d8

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Condensation of 5-bromophthalide (I) with phenol (II) in the presence of K2CO3, CuBr and acetylacetone in DMF gives 5-phenoxyphthalide (III), which upon lactone ring opening using SOCl2, Ph3PCl2, B(OMe)3 and K2CO3 in refluxing toluene yields 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoyl chloride (IV). Esterification of acid chloride (IV) with MeOH at 50 °C furnishes the methyl ester (V), which is then condensed with methyl N-tosylglycinate (VI) in the presence of K2CO3 and NaI in DMF at 50 °C to afford N-substituted aminoester (VII). Cyclization of the intermediate diester (VII) using NaOMe in MeOH leads to methyl 4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (VIII), which is submitted to Mannich reaction with bis-dimethylaminomethane (IX) in the presence of AcOH at 57 °C to provide the dimethylaminomethyl compound (X). Treatment of amine (X) with Ac2O at 103 °C, followed by selective hydrolysis of the phenolic acetate with morpholine leads to methyl 1-acetoxymethyl-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (XI). Hydrogenolysis of the benzylic acetate (XII) in the presence of Pd/C and Na2CO3 in EtOAc yields methyl 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboylate (XII), which finally couples with glycine (XIII) in the presence of NaOMe in MeOH at 110 °C to afford the target roxadustat (1-3).

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Cyclization of 4-phenoxyphthalic acid (I) with glycine (II) at 215 °C gives the phthalimide (III), which upon esterification with MeOH and H2SO4 at reflux yields methyl ester (IV). Subsequent rearrangement of phthalimidoacetate (IV) by means of Na in BuOH at 97 °C, followed by flash chromatography provides the isoquinoline-2-carboxylate (V). Bromination of intermediate (V) using POBr3 and NaHCO3 in acetonitrile leads to butyl 8-bromo-3-hydroxy-6-phenoxy-isoquinoline-2-carboxylate (VI), which upon hydrolysis with NaOH in refluxing H2O/EtOH furnishes carboxylic acid (VII). Substitution of bromine in intermediate (VII) using MeI and BuLi in THF at -78 °C, followed by alkylation with PhCH2Br in the presence of K2CO3 in refluxing acetone affords the 2-methyl isoquinoline (VIII). Ester hydrolysis in intermediate (VIII) using KOH in MeOH gives the corresponding carboxylic acid (IX), which is then activated with i-BuOCOCl and Et3N in CH2Cl2, followed by coupling with benzyl glycinate hydrochloride (X) to yield benzylated roxadustat (XI). Finally, debenzylation of intermediate (XI) with H2 over Pd/C in EtOAc/MeOH provides the title compound (1).

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Condensation of 4-nitro-ortho-phthalonitrile (I) with phenol (II) in the presence of K2CO3 in DMSO gives 4-phenoxy-ortho-phthalonitrile (III) (1), which upon hydrolysis with NaOH (1) or KOH (2) in refluxing MeOH yields 4-phenoxyphthalic acid (IV) (1,2). Dehydration of dicarboxylic acid (IV) using Ac2O and AcOH at reflux furnishes the phthalic anhydride (V), which is then condensed with methyl 2-isocyanoacetate (VI) using DBU in THF to provide oxazole derivative (VII). Rearrangement of intermediate (VII) with HCl in MeOH at 60 °C leads to isoquinoline derivative (VIII), which is partially chlorinated by means of POCl3 at 70 °C to afford 1-chloro-isoquinoline derivative (IX). Substitution of chlorine in intermediate (IX) using Me3B, Pd(PPh3)4 and K2CO3 in refluxing dioxane gives methyl 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-carboxylate (X), which is then hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH in refluxing EtOH to yield the carboxylic acid (XI). Coupling of carboxylic acid (XI) with methyl glycinate hydrochloride (XII) by means of PyBOP, (i-Pr)2NH and Et3N in CH2Cl2 yields roxadustat methyl ester (XII), which is finally hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH in THF to afford the target roxadustat (1).

CLIPS

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov 12, 2013 (BUSINESS WIRE) — FibroGen, Inc. (FibroGen), today announced that data from a China-based Phase 2 study of roxadustat (FG-4592), a first-in-class oral compound in late stage development for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), were presented in an oral session at the 2013 American Society of Nephrology (ASN) Kidney Week in Atlanta, Georgia.
Roxadustat is an orally administered, small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase. HIF is a protein that responds to oxygen changes in the cellular environment and meets the body’s demands for oxygen by inducing erythropoiesis, the process by which red blood cells are produced and iron is incorporated into hemoglobin (Hb).
The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of roxadustat in the correction of anemia in patients (N=91) with chronic kidney disease who had not received dialysis treatment, were not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), and had Hb levels less than 10 g/dL. The correction study randomized patients 2:1 between roxadustat and placebo for 8 weeks of dosing, and included a low-dose cohort (n=30) and high-dose cohort (n=31). Intravenous (IV) iron was not allowed. The study also evaluated iron utilization, changes in serum lipids, and other biomarkers during treatment with roxadustat.
Data from this study suggest that roxadustat effectively corrected hemoglobin levels in anemic CKD patients in a dose-dependent manner as compared to placebo, and did so in the absence of IV iron supplementation regardless of degree of iron repletion at baseline. At the end of the 8-week treatment period, subjects showed mean maximum Hb increases from baseline of 2.6 g/dL in the high dose cohort and 1.8 g/dL in the low dose cohort, as compared to 0.7 g/dL in the placebo group (p < 0.0001) from mean baseline Hb of 8.8 g/dL, 8.8 g/dL, and 8.9 g/dL in the high dose, low dose, and placebo groups, respectively. 87% of patients in the high-dose cohort, 80% of patients in the low-dose cohort, and 23% of patients in the placebo group experienced a hemoglobin increase of 1 g/dL or greater from baseline (p < 0.0001). Similarly, 71% of patients in the high-dose cohort, 50% of patients in the low-dose cohort, and 3% of patients in the placebo group achieved target hemoglobin of 11 g/dL or greater (p < 0.0001). Serum iron levels remained stable in subjects randomized to roxadustat while the subjects underwent brisk erythropoiesis.
Study data also suggest that roxadustat may lower cholesterol. Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease patients and a major cardiovascular risk factor in this population. Patients treated with roxadustat experienced a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol (p <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p <0.0001) at the end of the treatment period. The relative proportion of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to LDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.02). Overall LDL cholesterol levels declined by a mean of 26% and median of 23% from a mean baseline value of 103 mg/dL.
Roxadustat was well tolerated by patients in the study with incidence of adverse events similar across all groups. In contrast to the exacerbation of hypertension observed in studies in which patients received currently available ESA therapies, subjects who received roxadustat in the present study showed small decreases in blood pressure that were similar to blood pressure changes in the placebo group. No cardiovascular serious adverse events were reported in patients treated with roxadustat.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat are currently being investigated in a global pivotal Phase 3 development program.
“There is a global need for effective, safe, and accessible anemia therapies,” said Thomas B. Neff, Chief Executive Officer of FibroGen. “Side effects associated with current treatments include exposure to supra-physiological levels of erythropoietin and depletion of iron stores. Preliminary clinical findings show that oral administration of roxadustat (FG-4592) is able to correct anemia and maintain hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease, to do so with peak erythropoietin levels within physiological range, and to achieve these effects without the administration of intravenous iron. These results suggest roxadustat, as an oral agent, has the potential to overcome the treatment barriers and inconveniences of current ESA therapies, including administration by injection and IV iron supplementation, in treating anemia in CKD patients.”
About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Anemia
Diabetes, high blood pressure, and other conditions can cause significant damage to the kidneys. If left untreated, those can result in chronic kidney disease and progress to kidney failure. Such deterioration can lead to patients needing a kidney transplant or being placed on dialysis to remove excess fluid and toxins that build up in the body. The progression of CKD also increases the prevalence of anemia, a condition associated with having fewer of the red blood cells that carry oxygen through the body, and/or lower levels of hemoglobin, the protein that enables red blood cells to carry oxygen. As hemoglobin falls, the lower oxygen-carrying capacity of an anemic patients’ blood results in various symptoms including fatigue, loss of energy, breathlessness, and angina. Anemia in CKD patients has been associated with increased hospitalization rates, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life.
Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide critical healthcare problem that affects millions of people and drives significant healthcare cost. In the US, prevalence of CKD has increased dramatically in the past 20 years, from 10 percent of the adult population (or approximately 20 million U.S. adults) as stated in the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994, to 15 percent (or approximately 30 million U.S. adults) in NHANES 2003-2006. In 2009, total Medicare costs for CKD patients were $34 billion. China has an estimated 145 million CKD patients, or approximately five times the number of CKD patients in the U.S. (Lancet April 2012).
About Roxadustat / FG-4592
Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an orally administered small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase activity, in development for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). HIF is a protein transcription factor that induces the natural physiological response to conditions of low oxygen, “turning on” erythropoiesis (the process by which red blood cells are produced) and other protective pathways. Roxadustat has been shown to correct anemia and maintain hemoglobin levels without the need for supplementation with intravenous iron in CKD patients not yet receiving dialysis and in end-stage renal disease patients receiving dialysis. An Independent Data Monitoring Committee has found no signals or trends to date to suggest that treatment with roxadustat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, thrombosis, or increases in blood pressure requiring initiation or intensification of antihypertensive medications.
About FibroGen
FibroGen is a privately-held biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of therapeutic agents for treatment of fibrosis, anemia, cancer, and other serious unmet medical needs. FibroGen’s FG-3019 monoclonal antibody is in clinical development for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other proliferative diseases, including pancreatic cancer and liver fibrosis. Roxadustat (FG-4592), FibroGen’s small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of anemia. FibroGen is also currently pursuing the use of proprietary recombinant human type III collagens in synthetic corneas for treatment of corneal blindness. For more information please visit: www.fibrogen.com .

References

1: Besarab A, Provenzano R, Hertel J, Zabaneh R, Klaus SJ, Lee T, Leong R, Hemmerich S, Yu KH, Neff TB. Randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging and pharmacodynamics study of roxadustat (FG-4592) to treat anemia in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Oct;30(10):1665-73. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv302. Epub 2015 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 26238121; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4569392.

2: Forristal CE, Levesque JP. Targeting the hypoxia-sensing pathway in clinical hematology. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Feb;3(2):135-40. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2013-0134. Epub 2013 Dec 26. PubMed PMID: 24371328; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3925058.

3: Bouchie A. First-in-class anemia drug takes aim at Amgen’s dominion. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Nov;31(11):948-9. doi: 10.1038/nbt1113-948b. PubMed PMID: 24213751.

4: Flight MH. Deal watch: AstraZeneca bets on FibroGen’s anaemia drug. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013 Oct;12(10):730. doi: 10.1038/nrd4135. PubMed PMID: 24080688.

5: Beuck S, Schänzer W, Thevis M. Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizers and other small-molecule erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in current and preventive doping analysis. Drug Test Anal. 2012 Nov;4(11):830-45. doi: 10.1002/dta.390. Epub 2012 Feb 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 22362605.

6: Cases A. The latest advances in kidney diseases and related disorders. Drug News Perspect. 2007 Dec;20(10):647-54. PubMed PMID: 18301799.

//////////ASP1517,  ASP 1517,  ASP-1517,  FG-4592,  FG 4592,  FG4592,  Roxadustat, PHASE 3, ASTELLAS, FibroGen, 808118-40-3
O=C(O)CNC(C1=C(O)C2=C(C(C)=N1)C=C(OC3=CC=CC=C3)C=C2)=O

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http://zliming2004.lofter.com/post/1cc9dc55_79ad5d8

FG-4592

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

FG-4592 is a new-generation hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in early clinical trials at FibroGen for the oral treatment of iron deficiency anemia and renal failure anemia. Preclinical studies are ongoing for the treatment of sickle cell anemia.

The investigational therapy is designed to restore balance to the body’s natural process of erythropoiesis through mechanisms including: natural EPO production, suppression of the effects of inflammation, downregulation of the iron sequestration hormone hepcidin, and an upregulation of other iron genes, ensuring efficient mobilization and utilization of the body’s own iron stores. In April 2006, FG-4592 was licensed to Astellas Pharma by originator FibroGen in Asia, Europe and South Africa for the treatment of anemia. FibroGen retains rights in the rest of the world. In 2007, the FDA put the trial on clinical hold due to one case of death by fulminant hepatitis during a phase II clinical trial for patients with anemia associated with chronic kidney disease and not requiring dialysis. However, in 2008, the FDA informed the company that clinical trials could be resumed. Phase II/III clinical trials for this indication resumed in 2012. In 2013, the compound was licensed to AstraZeneca by FibroGen for development and marketing in US, CN and all major markets excluding JP, Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Middle East and South Africa, for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).

Phase Organization ConditionPhase IIIAstellas Pharma
AstraZeneca
FibroGenAnemia, renal failure

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Condensation of 5-bromophthalide (I) with phenol (II) in the presence of K2CO3, CuBr and acetylacetone in DMF gives 5-phenoxyphthalide (III), which upon lactone ring opening using SOCl2, Ph3PCl2, B(OMe)3 and K2CO3 in refluxing toluene yields 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoyl chloride (IV). Esterification of acid chloride (IV) with MeOH at 50 °C furnishes the methyl ester (V), which is then condensed with methyl N-tosylglycinate (VI) in the presence of K2CO3 and NaI in DMF at 50 °C to afford N-substituted aminoester (VII). Cyclization of the intermediate diester (VII) using NaOMe in MeOH leads to methyl 4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (VIII), which is submitted to Mannich reaction with bis-dimethylaminomethane (IX) in the presence of AcOH at 57 °C to provide the dimethylaminomethyl compound (X). Treatment of amine (X) with Ac2O at 103 °C, followed by selective hydrolysis of the phenolic acetate with morpholine leads to methyl 1-acetoxymethyl-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (XI). Hydrogenolysis of the benzylic acetate (XII) in the presence of Pd/C and Na2CO3 in EtOAc yields methyl 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboylate (XII), which finally couples with glycine (XIII) in the presence of NaOMe in MeOH at 110 °C to afford the target roxadustat (1-3).

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Cyclization of 4-phenoxyphthalic acid (I) with glycine (II) at 215 °C gives the phthalimide (III), which upon esterification with MeOH and H2SO4 at reflux yields methyl ester (IV). Subsequent rearrangement of phthalimidoacetate (IV) by means of Na in BuOH at 97 °C, followed by flash chromatography provides the isoquinoline-2-carboxylate (V). Bromination of intermediate (V) using POBr3 and NaHCO3 in acetonitrile leads to butyl 8-bromo-3-hydroxy-6-phenoxy-isoquinoline-2-carboxylate (VI), which upon hydrolysis with NaOH in refluxing H2O/EtOH furnishes carboxylic acid (VII). Substitution of bromine in intermediate (VII) using MeI and BuLi in THF at -78 °C, followed by alkylation with PhCH2Br in the presence of K2CO3 in refluxing acetone affords the 2-methyl isoquinoline (VIII). Ester hydrolysis in intermediate (VIII) using KOH in MeOH gives the corresponding carboxylic acid (IX), which is then activated with i-BuOCOCl and Et3N in CH2Cl2, followed by coupling with benzyl glycinate hydrochloride (X) to yield benzylated roxadustat (XI). Finally, debenzylation of intermediate (XI) with H2 over Pd/C in EtOAc/MeOH provides the title compound (1).

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Condensation of 4-nitro-ortho-phthalonitrile (I) with phenol (II) in the presence of K2CO3 in DMSO gives 4-phenoxy-ortho-phthalonitrile (III) (1), which upon hydrolysis with NaOH (1) or KOH (2) in refluxing MeOH yields 4-phenoxyphthalic acid (IV) (1,2). Dehydration of dicarboxylic acid (IV) using Ac2O and AcOH at reflux furnishes the phthalic anhydride (V), which is then condensed with methyl 2-isocyanoacetate (VI) using DBU in THF to provide oxazole derivative (VII). Rearrangement of intermediate (VII) with HCl in MeOH at 60 °C leads to isoquinoline derivative (VIII), which is partially chlorinated by means of POCl3 at 70 °C to afford 1-chloro-isoquinoline derivative (IX). Substitution of chlorine in intermediate (IX) using Me3B, Pd(PPh3)4 and K2CO3 in refluxing dioxane gives methyl 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-carboxylate (X), which is then hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH in refluxing EtOH to yield the carboxylic acid (XI). Coupling of carboxylic acid (XI) with methyl glycinate hydrochloride (XII) by means of PyBOP, (i-Pr)2NH and Et3N in CH2Cl2 yields roxadustat methyl ester (XII), which is finally hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH in THF to afford the target roxadustat (1).

EP 1644336
US 8278325
JP 2006527200
JP 2010111697
CN 102977015
US 2014343094
CN 102977016
US 7323475
US 8765956
US 2013310565
CN 103145616
US 2013178417
CN 102718708
WO 2004108681
US 2004254215
JP 2011148810
EP 2357175
US 8017625
US 2012029011
US 8916585

Drug Substances
WO 2013013609
EP 2734504
CN 104024227
US 2015031721
FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Polymorphs
Drug Substances
WO 2014014834
CN 103435546

Synthesis
Synthesis Intermediates
CN 103539735
US 2014024676
WO 2014014835
US 2014303202
US 2015038529
EP 2872488

Drug Substances
Polymorphs
US 2014024675
US 8883823
KR 2015058147
US 2015175550

Polymorphs
Drug Substances
EP 1644336
US 8278325
JP 2006527200
JP 2010111697
CN 102977015
US 2014343094
CN 102977016
US 7323475
US 8765956
US 2013310565
CN 103145616
US 2013178417
CN 102718708
WO 2004108681
US 2004254215
JP 2011148810
EP 2357175
US 8017625
US 2012029011
US 8916585

Product patent

WO 2004108681

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2004108681A1/pt

WO 2013013609

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2013013609A1

polymorph scan

[(4-Hydroxy- 1 -methyl-7-phenoxy-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino] -acetic acid (hereinafter, Compound A) is a potent inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase, as described in U.S. Patent No. 7,323,475. HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors are useful for increasing the stability and/or activity of HIF, and useful for, inter alia, treating and preventing disorders associated with HIF, including anemia, ischemia, and hypoxia.

Innovator

WO2004108681

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2004108681

Example D-81
e) [(4-Hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxy-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid

[0604] Synthesized from [(4-benzyloxy- l-methyl-7-phenoxy-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid benzyl ester in analogy to Example D-78 d); MS-(-)-ion: M-l = 351.1.

Example D-78
d) [(4-Hydroxy-l-methoxymethyl-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid [0590] A mixture of [(4-benzyloxy- 1 -methoxymethyl-isoquinoline-3 -carbonyl)-amino] -acetic acid benzyl ester (134 mg, 0.285 mmol), Pd/C (100 mg, 10 wt% Pd), EtOAc (10 ml) and MeOH (50 ml) was stirred under a Hj-atmosphere at ambient pressure and temperature for 18 h. Then the mixture was filtered through a pad of celite. Celite and filter cake were washed thoroughly with EtOAc and the combined organic phases were concentrated in vacuo to give the title compound as a tan solid (74 mg); MS-(-)-ion: M-l = 289.2

WO 2014014835

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2014014835A2

Fibrogen, Inc.

Figure imgf000009_0001

Compound A.

In one embodiment, the pharmaceutical composition comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of: Compound A Form A, Compound A Form B, Compound A Form C, Compound A Form D, Compound A sodium salt, Compound A L-arginine salt, Compound A L-lysine salt, Compound A ethanolamine salt, Compound A diethanolamine salt, Compound A tromethamine salt, amorphous Compound A, and Compound A potassium salt, as described generally above, and at least one pharmaceutically acceptable excipient.

Solid Forms of Compound A

[0073] As described generally above, the present disclosure provides solid forms of [(4- hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxy-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino] -acetic acid (Compound A).

[0074] Compound A Form A is characterized by its X-ray powder diffractogram that comprises peaks at 8.5, 16.2, and 27.4 °2Θ ± 0.2 °2Θ. The diffractogram comprises additional peaks at 12.8, 21.6, and 22.9 °2Θ ± 0.2 °2Θ. Form A also is characterized by its full X-ray powder diffractogram as substantially shown in Figure 1.

[0075] In some embodiments, Form A is characterized by its differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve that comprises an endotherm at about 223 °C. Form A also is characterized by its full DSC curve as substantially as shown in Figure 2.

[0076] Compound A Form B is characterized by its X-ray powder diffractogram that comprises peaks at 4.2, 8.3, and 16.6 °2Θ ± 0.2 °2Θ. The diffractogram comprises additional peaks at 12.5, 14.1, and 17.4 °2Θ ± 0.2 °2Θ. Form B also is characterized by its full X-ray powder

diffractogram as substantially shown in Figure 3.

[0077] In some embodiments, Form B is characterized by its differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve that comprises an endotherm at about 222 °C. Form B also is characterized by its full DSC curve as substantially as shown in Figure 4.

[0078] Compound A Form C is characterized by its X-ray powder diffractogram that comprises peaks at 4.5, 13.7, and 16.4 °2Θ ± 0.2 °2Θ. The diffractogram comprises additional peaks at 15.4, 15.5, and 20.6 °2Θ ± 0.2 °2Θ. Form C also is characterized by its full X-ray powder diffractogram as substantially shown in Figure 5.

[0079] In some embodiments, Form C is characterized by its differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve that comprises an endotherm at about 222 °C. Form C also is characterized by its full DSC curve as substantially as shown in Figure 6.

[0080] Compound A Form D is characterized by its X-ray powder diffractogram that comprises peaks at 8.4, 8.5, and 16.8 °2Θ ± 0.2 °2Θ. The diffractogram comprises additional peaks at 4.2, 12.6, and 28.4 °2Θ ± 0.2 °2Θ. Form D also is characterized by its full X-ray powder diffractogram as substantially shown in Figure 7. [0081] In some embodiments, Form D is characterized by its differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curve that comprises an endotherm at about 222 °C. Form D also is characterized by its full DSC curve as substantially as shown in Figure 8.

Example 10. Preparation of Compound A

a) 5-Phenoxyphthalide

Figure imgf000056_0001

[0200] A reactor was charged with DMF (68 Kg), and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with phenol (51 Kg), acetylacetone (8 Kg), 5-bromophthalide (85 Kg), copper bromide (9 Kg), and potassium carbonate (77 Kg). The mixture was heated above 85 °C and maintained until reaction completion and then cooled. Water was added. Solid was filtered and washed with water. Solid was dissolved in dichloromethane, and washed with aqueous HCl and then with water. Solvent was removed under pressure and methanol was added. The mixture was stirred and filtered. Solid was washed with methanol and dried in an oven giving 5- phenoxyphthalide (Yield: 72%, HPLC: 99.6%). b) 2-Chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester

Figure imgf000056_0002

[0201] A reactor was charged with toluene (24 Kg), and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with 5-phenoxyphthalide (56 Kg), thionyl chloride (41 Kg), trimethyl borate (1

Kg), dichlorotriphenylphosphorane (2.5 Kg), and potassium carbonate (77 Kg). The mixture was heated to reflux until reaction completion and solvent was removed leaving 2-chloromethyl-4- phenoxybenzoyl chloride. Methanol was charged and the mixture was heated above 50 °C until reaction completion. Solvent was removed and replaced with DMF. This solution of the product methyl 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester in DMF was used directly in the next step (HPLC: 85%). c) 4-Hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (la)

Figure imgf000057_0001

[0202] A reactor was charged with a solution of 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester (~68 Kg) in DMF, and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with p- toluenesulfonylglycine methyl ester (66 Kg), potassium carbonate (60 Kg), and sodium iodide (4 Kg). The mixture was heated to at least 50 °C until reaction completion. The mixture was cooled. Sodium methoxide in methanol was charged and the mixture was stirred until reaction completion. Acetic acid and water were added, and the mixture was stirred, filtered and washed with water. Solid was purified by acetone trituration and dried in an oven giving la (Yield from step b): 58%; HPLC: 99.4%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.60 (s, 1 H), 8.74 (s, 1H),

8.32 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.60 (dd, J = 2.3 & 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.24 (m, 3 H), 3.96 (s, 3 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 296.09 d) Methyl l-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate

(lb)

Figure imgf000057_0002

[0203] A flask was charged with la (29.5 g) and acetic acid (44.3 g ± 5%), and then stirred. Bis-dimethylaminomethane (12.8 g ± 2%) was slowly added. The mixture was heated to 55 ± 5 °C and maintained until reaction completion. The reaction product was evaluated by MS, HPLC and 1H NMR. 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.7 (s, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.61 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.21 (m, 3 H), 5.34 (s, 2 H), 3.97 (s, 3 H), 1.98 (s, 3 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 368.12. e) Methyl l-((acetoxy)methyl)-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (lc)

Figure imgf000058_0001

[0204] The solution of lb from a) above was cooled below 25 °C, at which time acetic anhydride (28.6 g ± 3.5 %) was added to maintain temperature below 50 °C. The resulting mixture was heated to 100 ± 5 °C until reaction completion.

[0205] The solution of lc and Id from above was cooled to less than 65 ± 5 °C. Water (250 mL) was slowly added. The mixture was then cooled to below 20 ± 5 °C and filtered. The wet cake was washed with water (3 x 50 mL) and added to a new flask. Dichloromethane (90 mL) and water (30 mL) were added, and the resulting mixture was stirred. The dichloromethane layer was separated and evaluated by HPLC.

[0206] The organic layer was added to a flask and cooled 5 ± 5 °C. Morpholine was added and the mixture was stirred until reaction completion. Solvent was replaced with acetone/methanol mixture. After cooling, compound lc precipitated and was filtered, washed and dried in an oven (Yield: 81%, HPLC: >99.7%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.6 (S, 1 H), 8.31 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.87 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.24 (m, 3 H), 3.95 (s, 3 H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 2.08 (s, 6 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 357.17. f) Methyl 4-hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (le)

Figure imgf000058_0002

[0207] A reactor was charged with lc (16.0 g), Pd/C (2.08 g), anhydrous Na2C03(2.56 g) and ethyl acetate (120 mL). The flask was vacuum-purged with nitrogen (3X) and vacuum-purged with hydrogen (3X). The flask was then pressurized with hydrogen and stirred at about 60 °C until completion of reaction. The flask was cooled to 20-25 °C, the pressure released to ambient, the head space purged with nitrogen three times and mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated. Methanol was added. The mixture was stirred and then cooled. Product precipitated and was filtered and dried in an oven (Yield: 90%, HPLC: 99.7%). g) [(4-Hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxy-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid

(Compound A)

Figure imgf000059_0001

[0208] A pressure flask was charged with le (30.92 g), glycine (22.52 g), methanol (155 mL), sodium methoxide solution (64.81 g) and sealed (as an alternative, sodium glycinate was used in place of glycine and sodium methoxide). The reaction was heated to about 110 °C until reaction was complete. The mixture was cooled, filtered, washed with methanol, dried under vacuum, dissolved in water and washed with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate was removed and to the resulting aqueous layer an acetic acid (18.0 g) solution was added. The suspension was stirred at room temperature, filtered, and the solid washed with water (3 x 30 mL), cold acetone (5-10 °C, 2 x 20 mL), and dried under vacuum to obtain Compound A (Yield: 86.1%, HPLC: 99.8%). Example 11. Biological Testing

[0209] The solid forms provided herein can be used for inhibiting HIF hydroxylase activity, thereby increasing the stability and/or activity of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), and can be used to treat and prevent HIF-associated conditions and disorders (see, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 7,323,475, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0004627, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2006/0276477, and U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0259960, incorporated by reference herein).

[0210] The biological activity of the solid forms provided herein may be assessed using any conventionally known method. In particular embodiments, cells derived from animal tissues, preferably human tissues, capable of expressing erythropoietin when stimulated by compounds of the invention are cultured for the in vitro production of endogenous proteins. Cells contemplated for use in such methods include, but are not limited to, cells derived from hepatic, hematopoietic, renal, and neural tissues.

[0211] Cell culture techniques are generally available in the art and include any method that maintains cell viability and facilitates expression of endogenous proteins. Cells are typically cultured in a growth medium optimized for cell growth, viability, and protein production. Cells may be in suspension or attached to a substrate, and medium may be supplied in batch feed or continuous flow-through regimens. Compounds of the invention are added to the culture medium at levels that stimulate erythropoietin production without compromising cell viability. Erythropoietin produced by the cells is secreted into the culture medium. The medium is then collected and the erythropoietin is purified using methods known to those of skill in the art. (See, e.g., Lai et al. (1987) U.S. Pat. No. 4,667,016; and Egrie (1985) U.S. Pat. No. 4,558,006.)

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/CN104892509A/en

Connaught orlistat (Roxadustat, I) has the chemical name: N_ [(4- hydroxy-l-methyl-3-isoquinolinyl) carbonyl] glycine, having the formula:

[0004]

Figure CN104892509AD00031

[0005] The originator’s International Patent W02004108681 provides a Connaught orlistat prepared from the intermediates and orlistat Connaught intermediate synthetic route:

[0006]

Figure CN104892509AD00032

[0007] Zhejiang International Patent W02013013609 Beida’s preparation and acylation of the intermediate core is further optimized, which is a synthetic route:

[0008]

Figure CN104892509AD00041

n PhO. eight XOOH

[0009] The originator’s International Patent W02014014834 and W02014014835 also provides another synthetic route Division Connaught his prepared:

[0010]

Figure CN104892509AD00042

[0011] 

Figure CN104892509AD00052

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9617218B2/en

PATENT

WO 2013013609

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2013013609A1

Zhejiang Beta Pharma Incorporation

The present invention relates to approximately pure crystalline polymorphs, wherein these polymorphs are the polymorphs of the compound of Formula I, and/or a hydrate thereof, and/or a solvate thereof.

Figure imgf000003_0001

Formula I .

The compound of Formula I of the present invention exists in one or more crystal forms. The inventors designated these crystal forms Form I, Form II, Form III, Form IV, Form V, Form VI and Form VII.

Figure imgf000028_0001

8,                                                                                  9,                                                                                                                  10

Synthesis of Compound 1

Under inert gas (N?), 4~Mtro~o~phth.ak>nitrile (9.2 g), phenol (5.0 g), .2CO3 (7.3 g) and DMSO (40 mL) were added into a flask, and were stirred and reacted at room temperature for 48 hrs., then heated to 60 °C and reacted for 2 hrs. After cooled down, the reaction mixture was filtered and the resulted yellow solid was dried to obtain 11.6 g of Compound 1.

Synthesis of Compound 2

50 % of NaOH solution (25 mL) was added into the methanol solution of Compound 1 (11.3 g). The solution was heated to reflux for 48 hr until the reaction was complete. Concentrated HCl was then added to adjust the pH value to 3. The precipitate was filtered and dried to obtain 10.5 g of Compound 2.

Synthesis of Compound 3

Compound 2 (6.0 g) was dissolved in glacial acetic acid (60 mL) and acetic anhydride (60 mL) and heated to reflux for 3 hrs. The solvent was removed on a rotary evaporator to obtain Compound

3.

Synthesis of Compound 4

Compounds 3 (6.0 g) and methyl isocyanoacetate (2.65 g) were dissolved in THF (60 mL). 3.54 g of DBU (CAS No. 6674-22-2) was added in drop-wise at room temperature and stirred for 1 hr. at room temperature. After extracted with ethyl acetate under alkaline conditions to remove the impurities, the pH value of the aqueous phase was adjusted to 3 with diluted HCL Extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water and dried with anhydrous Na2S04 and fi ltered, the resulting organic phase was distilled on a rotary evaporator to obtain 9.0g of Compound 4. Synthesis of Compound 5

Compound 4 (9.0 g) in CH3OH was added in concentrated HC1 and heated to 60 °C for 4 hrs. The resulted precipitation was filtered to obtain 5.8 g of crude product. The product was further purified by chromatography to obtain 1.85 g of Compound 5.

Synthesis of Compound 6

Compound 5 (1.77 g) in POCI3 (10 mL) was heated to about 70 and reacted for 3 hrs., then cooled dow and poured into ice. After POCU was completely decomposed, the resulting precipitate was filtered and washed with water, to obtain 1.45 g of Compound 6.

Synthesis of Compound 7

Under N2 atmosphere, Compound 6 (1 .41 g), dioxane (20 mL), rdj Pii ).Π )φ (0.49 g), .2CO3 (1.78 g) and trimethyl borane (0.54 g) were stirred mixed and heated to reflux for 3 hrs., then stirred at room temperature for 48 hrs. After concentration, the resulting mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, dried and filtered, then distilled on a rotary evaporator, followed by further purification through chromatography, to obtain 0.42 g of Compound 7.

Synthesis of Compound 8

Compound 7 (1.02 g) was added into the mixture of etiianol (10 mL) and 2N of NaOH (10 mL), and refluxed for 1.5 hrs. After removing the impurities by filtration, the resulting mixture was distilled to remove ethanol on a rotary evaporator. The resulting pale yellow precipitate was then filtered, washed with water, and dried to obtain 0.5 g of Compound 8.

Synthesis of Compound 9

Compound 8 (0.37 g), glycine methyl ester hydrochloride (0.44 g) and 1.00 g of PyBOP (CAS No. 128625-52-5) were added into dichloromethane (15 mL). and then added triethyiamine (0.74 mL) and bis(isopropyl)eth.y I amine ( 1.0 mL), stirred and reacted at room temperature for 3 hrs. After filtration, the organic phase was washed with water, dried and filtered, followed by a rotary evaporation, and further purification by a silica gel column, to obtain 0.29 g of Compound 9.

Synthesis of Compound 10, the compound of Formula I

Compound 9 (0.28 g) in THF was added in 1 NaOH (5 mL) and stirred and reacted for 1 hr. at room temperature. After remo ving THF by a rotary evaporation, the pFi value of the residue was adjusted to about 3 by diluted HQ, washed further by ethyl acetate, filtered and dried, to obtain 0.21 g of Compound 10, the compound of Formula I. Example 2

Preparation of Crystalline Form I of the compound of Formula I

The compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was dissolved in the mixed solvent of methanol/MTBE (methyl tertbutyl ether) at room temperature, followed by a spontaneous precipitation to obtain the desired Polymorph Form I, with the melting point of 174-177 °C.

 Example 2

Preparation of Crystalline Form I of the compound of Formula I

The compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was dissolved in the mixed solvent of methanol/MTBE (methyl tertbutyl ether) at room temperature, followed by a spontaneous precipitation to obtain the desired Polymorph Form I, with the melting point of 174-177 °C.

Example 3

Preparation of Crystalline Form II of the compound of Formula I

A slurry suspension of excess amount of the compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was stirred in the mixed solvent of H20/acetonitrile (3: 1) or H20/ethanol at room temperature or 50°C at least 48 hrs., or in the mixed solvent of methanol/H20 at room temperature over 48 hr, to obtain the desired Crystalline Form II, with the melting point of 209-212 °C .

Example 4

Preparation of Crystalline Form III of the compound of Formula I

The compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was dissolved in the mixed solvent of methanol/acetonitrile at room temperature, followed by a spontaneous precipitation to obtain the desired Crystalline Form III.

Or, a slurry suspension of excess amount of the compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was stirred in H20, CH2C12, isopropyl acetate (IPAc), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), or the mixed solvent of IPAc/heptane or H20/acetone at 50 °C over 48 hrs., to obtain the desired Crystalline Form III, with the melting point of 198-200 °C ..

Example 5

Preparation of Crystalline Form IV of the compound of Formula I

A slurry suspension of excess amount of the compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was stirred in MTBE, or the mixed solvent of MTBE/heptane, IPAc/heptane, ethyl acetate/heptane or H20/acetone at room temperature over 48 hrs., to obtain the desired Crystalline Form IV.

Or, a slurry suspension of excess amount of the compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was stirred in the mixed solvent of ethyl acetate/heptane at 50 °C over 48 hrs., to obtain the desired Ciystalline Form IV.

Or, a slurry suspension of excess amount of the Crystalline Form III as prepared in Example 4 was stirred in the mixed solvent of FFiO/acetone at 50°C for 12-14 days, to obtain the desired Crystalline Form IV, with the melting point of 204-207 °C .

Example 6

Preparation of Crystalline Form V of the compound of Formula I

A slurry suspension of excess amount of the compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was stirred in the mixed solvent of MTBE/heptane at 50 C over 48 hr, to obtain she desired Crystalline Form V; or, water was added as anti-solvent into the methanol solution of the compound of Formula I, to obtain the desired Ciystalline Form V, with the melting point of 190-193 °C .

Example 7

Preparation of Crystalline Form VI of the compound of Formula I

A slurry suspension of excess amount of the compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was stirred in the mixed solvent of acetonitrile/FFiO (1 : 1) or THF/H2O at room temperature over 48 hrs, to obtain she desired Crystalline Form VI.

Or, the compound of Formula I prepared from the method disclosed in Example 1 above, was dissolved in the mixed solvent of methanol/ethy! acetate at room temperature, followed by a spontaneous precipitation using Ciystalline Form IV as prepared in Example 5 as crystal seeds to obtain the desired Crystalline Form VI, with the melting point of 200-203 °C =

Example 8

Preparation of Crystalline Form VH of the compound of Formula I

Ciystalline Form V prepared from the method of Example 6 was heated to 180 °C, to obtain the desired Crystalline Form VH.

PATENT

IN 201641016266

REDDYS AMORPHOUS FORM

The US patent number 7323475 B2, Example D-81 (e), by referring Example D-78 (d), discloses a process for isolation of roxadustat by concentration of organic phases (EtOAc/Methanol) in vacuo.

The US patent number 8883823 B2 discloses amorphous, different polymorphic Forms, solvates and salts of roxadustat.

The US patent number 9206134 B2 discloses different crystalline Forms of roxadustat.

PATENT

CN 106187888

PATENT

US 2014024675

PATENT

https://patents.google.com/patent/US9206134B2/en

BEIJING BETTA PHARMACEUTICALS CO. 

The present invention relates to approximately pure crystalline polymorphs, wherein these polymorphs are the polymorphs of the compound of Formula and/or a hydrate thereof, and/or a solvate thereof.

Figure US09206134-20151208-C00002

The compound of Formula I of the present invention exists in one or more crystal forms. The inventors designated these crystal forms Form I, Form II, Form III, Form IV, Form V, Form VI and Form VII.

CN104892509A *2015-06-042015-09-09苏州明锐医药科技有限公司Preparation method of Roxadustat
US9340511B22012-07-162016-05-17Fibrogen, Inc.Process for making isoquinoline compounds
US9617218B22012-07-162017-04-11Fibrogen, Inc.Crystalline forms of a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor
Family To Family Citations
CN102272117B2008-11-142015-06-17菲布罗根有限公司Thiochromene derivatives as hip hydroxylase inhibitors
WO2012106472A12011-02-022012-08-09Fibrogen, Inc.Naphthyridine derivatives as inhibitors of hypoxia inducible factor (hif) hydroxylase
US8883823B22012-07-162014-11-11Fibrogen, Inc.Crystalline forms of a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor
CN103694172A *2013-12-262014-04-02辽宁亿灵科创生物医药科技有限公司Derivative of aza-aryl compound
WO2017143131A1 *2016-02-192017-08-24Cornell UniversityHif-stabilization and prevention of hyperoxia-induced neonatal lung disease
CN106187888A *2016-07-182016-12-07江苏德源药业股份有限公司FG-4592 single crystal and preparation method thereof

////////////

Roxadustat


STR1

ROXADUSTAT

ASP1517; ASP 1517; ASP-1517; FG-4592; FG 4592; FG4592; Roxadustat.

Fibrogen, Inc.

CAS 808118-40-3
Chemical Formula: C19H16N2O5
Exact Mass: 352.10592

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM
Treatment of anemia

Roxadustat nonproprietary drug name

CHEMICAL NAMES

(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carbonyl)glycine

1. Glycine, N-[(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-isoquinolinyl)carbonyl]-

2. N-[(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinolin-3-yl)carbonyl]glycine

MF C19H16N2O5
MW 352.3
SPONSOR FibroGen
CODE FG-4592; ASP1517
CAS  808118-40-3
WHO NUMBER 9717

Roxadustat, also known as ASP1517 and FG-4592, is an HIF α prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in a cell-free assay. It stabilizes HIF-2 and induces EPO production and stimulates erythropoiesis. Roxadustat transiently and moderately increased endogenous erythropoietin and reduced hepcidin

FG-4592 (also known as ASP1517), 2-(4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxamido)acetic acid,
 is a potent small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH),
an enzyme up-regulating the expression of endogenous human erythropoietin (Epo).
It is currently being investigated as an oral treatment for anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
Unlike other anemia treating agents, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs),
FG-4592 inhibits HIF, through a distinctive mechanism, by stabilization of HIF. According to previous studies,
FG-4592 is capable of correcting and maintaining hemoglobin levels in CKD patients not
receiving dialysis and in patients of end-stage renal disease
who receives dialysis but do not need intravenous iron supplement.
Reference
1. Luis Borges. Different modalities of erythropoiesis stimulating agents.
 Port J Nephrol Hypert 2010; 24(2): 137-145
2. “FibroGen and Astellas announce initiation of phase 3 trial of FG-4592/ASP1517 for treatment 
of anemia of chronic kidney disease” Fibrogen Press Release. Dec 11 2012
3. “FibroGen announces initiation of phase 2b studies of FG-4592, 
an oral HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, for treatment of anemia”
  • Originator FibroGen
  • Developer Astellas Pharma; AstraZeneca; FibroGen
  • Class Amides; Antianaemics; Carboxylic acids; Isoquinolines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Basic helix loop helix transcription factor modulators; Hypoxia-inducible factor-proline dioxygenase inhibitors
  • Phase III Anaemia
  • Discontinued Sickle cell anaemia

Most Recent Events

  • 09 Jun 2016 Phase-III clinical trials in Anaemia in Japan (PO)
  • 20 May 2016 In collaboration with FibroGen, Astellas Pharma plans a phase III trial for Anaemia (In chronic kidney disease patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis) in Japan (PO) (NCT02780726)
  • 19 May 2016 In collaboration with FibroGen, Astellas Pharma plans a phase III trial for Anaemia (In erythropoiesis stimulating agent-naive, chronic kidney disease patients undergoing haemodialysis) in Japan (PO) (NCT02780141)

 

Roxadustat (FG-4592) is a novel new-generation oral hypoxia-induciblefactor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (PHI) for the treatment of ane-mia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). HIF is a cytosolic tran-scription factor that induces the natural physiological response to lowoxygen conditions, by stimulating erythropoiesis and other protectivepathways. Roxadustat has been shown to stabilize HIF and induce ery-thropoiesis. Consequently, it corrects anemia and maintains hemoglo-bin levels without the need for intravenous iron supplementation in CKDpatients not yet receiving dialysis and in end-stage renal disease pa-tients receiving dialysis. There are many concerns about the use of ery-thropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) to treat anemia as they causesupra-physiologic circulating erythropoietin (EPO) levels and are asso-ciated with adverse cardiovascular effects and mortality. Available clin-ical data show that modest and transient increases of endogenous EPOinduced by HIF-PHI (10- to 40-fold lower than ESA levels) are sufficientto mediate erythropoiesis in CKD patients. Evidence suggests that rox-adustat is well tolerated and, to date, no increased risk of cardiovascu-lar events has been found. This suggests that roxadustat provides adistinct pharmacological and clinical profile that may provide a saferand more convenient treatment of CKD anemia

 

FG-4592 is a new-generation hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor in early clinical trials at FibroGen for the oral treatment of iron deficiency anemia and renal failure anemia. Preclinical studies are ongoing for the treatment of sickle cell anemia.

The investigational therapy is designed to restore balance to the body’s natural process of erythropoiesis through mechanisms including: natural EPO production, suppression of the effects of inflammation, downregulation of the iron sequestration hormone hepcidin, and an upregulation of other iron genes, ensuring efficient mobilization and utilization of the body’s own iron stores. In April 2006, FG-4592 was licensed to Astellas Pharma by originator FibroGen in Asia, Europe and South Africa for the treatment of anemia. FibroGen retains rights in the rest of the world. In 2007, the FDA put the trial on clinical hold due to one case of death by fulminant hepatitis during a phase II clinical trial for patients with anemia associated with chronic kidney disease and not requiring dialysis. However, in 2008, the FDA informed the company that clinical trials could be resumed. Phase II/III clinical trials for this indication resumed in 2012. In 2013, the compound was licensed to AstraZeneca by FibroGen for development and marketing in US, CN and all major markets excluding JP, Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Middle East and South Africa, for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
PATENTS
WO 2004108681
WO 2008042800
WO 2009058403
WO 2009075822
WO 2009075824
WO 2012037212
WO 2013013609
WO 2013070908

STR1

PATENT

CN 104892509

MACHINE TRANSLATED

Connaught orlistat (Roxadustat) by the US company Phibro root (FibroGen) R & D, Astellas AstraZeneca and licensed by a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase small molecule inhibitors, codenamed FG-4592.As a first new oral drug, FG-4592 is currently in Phase III clinical testing stage, for the treatment of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease related anemia. Because the drug does not have a standard Chinese translation, so the applicant where it is transliterated as “Connaught Secretary him.”

Connaught orlistat (Roxadustat, I) the chemical name: N_ [(4- hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-isoquinolinyl) carbonyl] glycine, its structural formula is:

Figure CN104892509AD00031

The original research company’s international patent W02004108681 Division provides a promise he was prepared from the intermediate and intermediate Connaught Secretary for his synthetic route:

Figure CN104892509AD00032

 Zhejiang Beida company’s international patent W02013013609 preparation and acylation of core intermediate was further optimized synthesis route is:

Figure CN104892509AD00041

n PhO. eight XOOH

 original research company’s international patent W02014014834 and W02014014835 also provides another synthetic route he Connaught Secretary prepared:

Figure CN104892509AD00042

Analysis of the above synthetic route, although he continued to Connaught Division to improve and optimize the synthesis, but its essence rings manner that different form quinoline ring is basically the same mother. Especially methyl isoquinoline replaced either by way of introducing the Suzuki reaction catalyzed by a noble metal element, either through amine reduction achieved. Moreover, the above reaction scheme revelation raw materials are readily available, many times during the reaction need to be protected and then deprotected. Clearly, the preparation process is relatively complicated, high cost, industrial production has brought some difficulties.

Figure CN104892509AD00052

Example One:

tyrosine was added to the reaction flask and dried (18. lg, 0.1 mmol) and methanol 250mL, cooling to ice bath 0_5 ° C, was added dropwise over 1 hour a percentage by weight of 98% concentrated sulfuric acid 10g. Drops Albert, heating to reflux. The reaction was stirred for 16-20 hours, TLC the reaction was complete. Concentrated under atmosphere pressure, the residue was added water 100mL, using 10% by weight sodium hydroxide to adjust the pH to 6. 5-7.0, precipitated solid was filtered, washed with methanol and water chloro cake (I: 1) and dried in vacuo tyrosine methyl ester as a white solid (11) 15.38, yield 78.5% out 1–] \ ^ 111/2: 196 [] \ 1 + 1] +!.

Example Two:

[0041] a nitrogen atmosphere and ice bath, was added to the reaction flask tyrosine methyl ester (II) (9. 8g, 50mmol), potassium methoxide (3. 5g, 50mmol) and methanol 50mL, until no gas generation after, was heated to reflux, the reaction was stirred for 2 hours. Concentrated under atmosphere pressure to remove the solvent, the residue was added dimethylsulfoxide 25mL, freshly prepared copper powder (0.2g, 3. Lmmol), was slowly warmed to 150-155 ° C, for about half an hour later, a solution of bromobenzene ( 7. 9g, 50mmol), continue to heat up to 170-175 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 3 hours, TLC detection of the end of the reaction. Was cooled to 60 ° C, and methanol was added to keep micro-boiling, filtered while hot, the filter cake washed three times with hot ethanol, and the combined organic phases, was cooled to square ° C, filtered, and dried in vacuo to give a white solid of 2-amino-3- ( 4-phenoxyphenyl) propanoate (111) 8 11.5, yield 84.9% as 1 -] \ ^ 111/2:! 272 [] \ 1 + 1] +.

 Example Three:

 in the reaction flask was added 2-amino-3- (4-phenoxyphenyl) propionic acid methyl ester (III) (10. 8g, 40mmol), 40% by weight acetaldehyde (20g, 0. 2mol ) and the percentage by weight of 35% concentrated hydrochloric acid 50mL, refluxed for 1 hour. Continue 40% by weight was added acetaldehyde (10g, 0.1mol), and the percentage by weight of 35% concentrated hydrochloric acid 25mL, and then the reaction was refluxed for 3-5 hours. Was cooled to 4-7 ° C, ethyl acetate was added, and extracted layers were separated. The aqueous layer was adjusted with sodium hydroxide solution to pH 11-12, extracted three times with ethyl acetate. The combined organic phase was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a white solid of 1-methyl-3-carboxylate -7- phenoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (IV) 8 4g, 70.7% yield; Mass spectrum (EI): EI-MS m / z: 298 [M + H] + .

 Example Four:

Under ice bath, the reaction flask was added methyl 3-carboxylate I- -7- phenoxy-1,2, 3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline (IV) (5. 9g, 20mmol) and dichloromethane 100mL, 0 ° C and under stirring added potassium carbonate (13. 8g, 0. lmol), p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (11. 4g, 60mmol), the addition was completed, the ice bath was removed and stirred at room temperature 3 hour. Water was added 30mL, after stirring standing layer, the organic phase was washed with dilute hydrochloric acid, water and saturated brine, and concentrated, the resulting product was added a 30% by weight sodium hydroxide solution (8. 0g, 60mmol) and dimethyl sulfoxide 60mL, gradually warming to 120-130 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 2-4 hours to complete the reaction by TLC. Cooled to room temperature, water was added lOOmL, extracted three times with ethyl acetate, the combined organic phase was successively washed with water and saturated brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and concentrated, the resulting oil was treated with ethyl acetate and n-hexane (1: 3) recrystallization, vacuum dried to give an off-white solid 1-methyl-3-carboxylate 7-phenoxyheptanoic isoquinoline (V) 5. 25g, yield 89. 6%; EI-MS m / z: 294 [M + H] VH NMR (DMS0-d6) δ 2. 85 (s, 3H), 3 · 97 (s, 3H), 7 · 16-7. 24 (m, 3H), 7 · 49-7. 60 (m, 4Η), 8 · 35 (d, J = 9 · 0,1Η), 8 · 94 (s, 1Η).

Example five:

[0047] added 1-methyl-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester 7-phenoxyheptanoic isoquinoline (V) (2. 93g, IOmmol) and glacial acetic acid 50mL reaction flask, stirring solution of 30% by weight hydrogen peroxide 5mL, warmed to 60-70 ° C, was slowly added dropwise within 10 hours the percentage by weight of a mixture of 30% hydrogen peroxide 2mL and 12mL of glacial acetic acid, a dropping was completed, the reaction was continued for 20-24 hours. Concentrated under reduced pressure, ethanol was added, distillation is continued to be divisible remaining glacial acetic acid. The residue was dissolved with dichloromethane, washed with 5% by weight of sodium bicarbonate, the organic phase was separated, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. Filtered and the resulting solution was added p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (3. 8g, 20mmol), was heated to reflux, the reaction was stirred for 3-4 hours, TLC detection completion of the reaction. The solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure, cooled to room temperature, methanol was added, the precipitated solid, cooled to square ° C, allowed to stand overnight. Filtered, the filter cake washed twice with cold methanol and vacuum dried to give an off-white solid 1- methyl-3-methyl-4-hydroxy-phenoxy-isoquinoline -7- (VI) I. 86g, yield 60.2 %; EI-MS m / z:.. 310 [M + H] +, 1H NMR (DMS0-d6) δ 2.90 (s, 3H), 4.05 (s, 3H), 7 17-7 26 (m, 3H ), 7. 49-7. 61 (m, 4H), 8. 38 (d, J = 9. 0,1H), 11. 7 (s, 1H) 〇

 Example VI:

 in the reaction flask with magnetic stirring and pressure to join I- methyl-3-methyl-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyheptanoate isoquinoline (VI) (1.55g, 5mmol), glycine (I. 13g, 15mmol) and sodium methoxide (3. 25g, 6mmol) in methanol (30mL).Sealed, slowly heated to 120 ° C, the reaction was stirred for 8-10 hours to complete the reaction by TLC. Cooled to room temperature, solid precipitated. Filtration, and the resulting solid was recrystallized from methanol, acetone and then beating the resulting solid was dried under vacuum to give a white solid Connaught orlistat 1.40g, yield 79.5%;

EI-MS m / z: 353 [M + H] +,

1H NMR (DMS0-d6) S2.72 (s, 3H), 3 · 99 (d, J = 6 · 0, 2H), 7 · 18-7. 28 (m, 3H), 7 · 49-7. 63 (m, 4H), 8 · 31 (d, J = 8 · 8,1H), 9 · 08 (s, lH), 13.41 (brs, lH).

PATENT

WO 2014014835

Example 10. Preparation of Compound A

a) 5-Phenoxyphthalide

Figure imgf000056_0001

[0200] A reactor was charged with DMF (68 Kg), and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with phenol (51 Kg), acetylacetone (8 Kg), 5-bromophthalide (85 Kg), copper bromide (9 Kg), and potassium carbonate (77 Kg). The mixture was heated above 85 °C and maintained until reaction completion and then cooled. Water was added. Solid was filtered and washed with water. Solid was dissolved in dichloromethane, and washed with aqueous HCl and then with water. Solvent was removed under pressure and methanol was added. The mixture was stirred and filtered. Solid was washed with methanol and dried in an oven giving 5- phenoxyphthalide (Yield: 72%, HPLC: 99.6%). b) 2-Chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester

Figure imgf000056_0002

[0201] A reactor was charged with toluene (24 Kg), and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with 5-phenoxyphthalide (56 Kg), thionyl chloride (41 Kg), trimethyl borate (1

Kg), dichlorotriphenylphosphorane (2.5 Kg), and potassium carbonate (77 Kg). The mixture was heated to reflux until reaction completion and solvent was removed leaving 2-chloromethyl-4- phenoxybenzoyl chloride. Methanol was charged and the mixture was heated above 50 °C until reaction completion. Solvent was removed and replaced with DMF. This solution of the product methyl 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester in DMF was used directly in the next step (HPLC: 85%). c) 4-Hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid methyl ester (la)

Figure imgf000057_0001

[0202] A reactor was charged with a solution of 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoic acid methyl ester (~68 Kg) in DMF, and stirring was initiated. The reactor was then charged with p- toluenesulfonylglycine methyl ester (66 Kg), potassium carbonate (60 Kg), and sodium iodide (4 Kg). The mixture was heated to at least 50 °C until reaction completion. The mixture was cooled. Sodium methoxide in methanol was charged and the mixture was stirred until reaction completion. Acetic acid and water were added, and the mixture was stirred, filtered and washed with water. Solid was purified by acetone trituration and dried in an oven giving la (Yield from step b): 58%; HPLC: 99.4%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.60 (s, 1 H), 8.74 (s, 1H),

8.32 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.60 (dd, J = 2.3 & 9.0 Hz, 1H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.24 (m, 3 H), 3.96 (s, 3 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 296.09 d) Methyl l-((dimethylamino)methyl)-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate

(lb)

Figure imgf000057_0002

[0203] A flask was charged with la (29.5 g) and acetic acid (44.3 g ± 5%), and then stirred. Bis-dimethylaminomethane (12.8 g ± 2%) was slowly added. The mixture was heated to 55 ± 5 °C and maintained until reaction completion. The reaction product was evaluated by MS, HPLC and 1H NMR. 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.7 (s, 1 H), 8.38 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.61 (dd, J = 9.0, 2.7 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.21 (m, 3 H), 5.34 (s, 2 H), 3.97 (s, 3 H), 1.98 (s, 3 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 368.12. e) Methyl l-((acetoxy)methyl)-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (lc)

Figure imgf000058_0001

[0204] The solution of lb from a) above was cooled below 25 °C, at which time acetic anhydride (28.6 g ± 3.5 %) was added to maintain temperature below 50 °C. The resulting mixture was heated to 100 ± 5 °C until reaction completion.

[0205] The solution of lc and Id from above was cooled to less than 65 ± 5 °C. Water (250 mL) was slowly added. The mixture was then cooled to below 20 ± 5 °C and filtered. The wet cake was washed with water (3 x 50 mL) and added to a new flask. Dichloromethane (90 mL) and water (30 mL) were added, and the resulting mixture was stirred. The dichloromethane layer was separated and evaluated by HPLC.

[0206] The organic layer was added to a flask and cooled 5 ± 5 °C. Morpholine was added and the mixture was stirred until reaction completion. Solvent was replaced with acetone/methanol mixture. After cooling, compound lc precipitated and was filtered, washed and dried in an oven (Yield: 81%, HPLC: >99.7%). 1H NMR (200 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 11.6 (S, 1 H), 8.31 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 1 H), 7.87 (d, J = 2.3 Hz, 1 H), 7.49 (m, 3 H), 7.24 (m, 3 H), 3.95 (s, 3 H), 3.68 (s, 2H), 2.08 (s, 6 H); MS-(+)-ion M+l = 357.17. f) Methyl 4-hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (le)

Figure imgf000058_0002

[0207] A reactor was charged with lc (16.0 g), Pd/C (2.08 g), anhydrous Na2C03 (2.56 g) and ethyl acetate (120 mL). The flask was vacuum-purged with nitrogen (3X) and vacuum-purged with hydrogen (3X). The flask was then pressurized with hydrogen and stirred at about 60 °C until completion of reaction. The flask was cooled to 20-25 °C, the pressure released to ambient, the head space purged with nitrogen three times and mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated. Methanol was added. The mixture was stirred and then cooled. Product precipitated and was filtered and dried in an oven (Yield: 90%, HPLC: 99.7%). g) [(4-Hydroxy-l-methyl-7-phenoxy-isoquinoline-3-carbonyl)-amino]-acetic acid

(Compound A)

Figure imgf000059_0001

[0208] A pressure flask was charged with le (30.92 g), glycine (22.52 g), methanol (155 mL), sodium methoxide solution (64.81 g) and sealed (as an alternative, sodium glycinate was used in place of glycine and sodium methoxide). The reaction was heated to about 110 °C until reaction was complete. The mixture was cooled, filtered, washed with methanol, dried under vacuum, dissolved in water and washed with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate was removed and to the resulting aqueous layer an acetic acid (18.0 g) solution was added. The suspension was stirred at room temperature, filtered, and the solid washed with water (3 x 30 mL), cold acetone (5-10 °C, 2 x 20 mL), and dried under vacuum to obtain Compound A (Yield: 86.1%, HPLC: 99.8%). Example 11. Biological Testing

[0209] The solid forms provided herein can be used for inhibiting HIF hydroxylase activity, thereby increasing the stability and/or activity of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF), and can be used to treat and prevent HIF-associated conditions and disorders (see, e.g., U.S. Patent No. 7,323,475, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0004627, U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2006/0276477, and U.S. Patent Application Publication No. 2007/0259960, incorporated by reference herein).

SYNTHESIS……..http://zliming2004.lofter.com/post/1cc9dc55_79ad5d8

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Condensation of 5-bromophthalide (I) with phenol (II) in the presence of K2CO3, CuBr and acetylacetone in DMF gives 5-phenoxyphthalide (III), which upon lactone ring opening using SOCl2, Ph3PCl2, B(OMe)3 and K2CO3 in refluxing toluene yields 2-chloromethyl-4-phenoxybenzoyl chloride (IV). Esterification of acid chloride (IV) with MeOH at 50 °C furnishes the methyl ester (V), which is then condensed with methyl N-tosylglycinate (VI) in the presence of K2CO3 and NaI in DMF at 50 °C to afford N-substituted aminoester (VII). Cyclization of the intermediate diester (VII) using NaOMe in MeOH leads to methyl 4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (VIII), which is submitted to Mannich reaction with bis-dimethylaminomethane (IX) in the presence of AcOH at 57 °C to provide the dimethylaminomethyl compound (X). Treatment of amine (X) with Ac2O at 103 °C, followed by selective hydrolysis of the phenolic acetate with morpholine leads to methyl 1-acetoxymethyl-4-hydroxy-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboxylate (XI). Hydrogenolysis of the benzylic acetate (XII) in the presence of Pd/C and Na2CO3 in EtOAc yields methyl 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxyisoquinoline-3-carboylate (XII), which finally couples with glycine (XIII) in the presence of NaOMe in MeOH at 110 °C to afford the target roxadustat (1-3).

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Cyclization of 4-phenoxyphthalic acid (I) with glycine (II) at 215 °C gives the phthalimide (III), which upon esterification with MeOH and H2SO4 at reflux yields methyl ester (IV). Subsequent rearrangement of phthalimidoacetate (IV) by means of Na in BuOH at 97 °C, followed by flash chromatography provides the isoquinoline-2-carboxylate (V). Bromination of intermediate (V) using POBr3 and NaHCO3 in acetonitrile leads to butyl 8-bromo-3-hydroxy-6-phenoxy-isoquinoline-2-carboxylate (VI), which upon hydrolysis with NaOH in refluxing H2O/EtOH furnishes carboxylic acid (VII). Substitution of bromine in intermediate (VII) using MeI and BuLi in THF at -78 °C, followed by alkylation with PhCH2Br in the presence of K2CO3 in refluxing acetone affords the 2-methyl isoquinoline (VIII). Ester hydrolysis in intermediate (VIII) using KOH in MeOH gives the corresponding carboxylic acid (IX), which is then activated with i-BuOCOCl and Et3N in CH2Cl2, followed by coupling with benzyl glycinate hydrochloride (X) to yield benzylated roxadustat (XI). Finally, debenzylation of intermediate (XI) with H2 over Pd/C in EtOAc/MeOH provides the title compound (1).

FG-4592 - zliming2004 - zliming2004的博客

Condensation of 4-nitro-ortho-phthalonitrile (I) with phenol (II) in the presence of K2CO3 in DMSO gives 4-phenoxy-ortho-phthalonitrile (III) (1), which upon hydrolysis with NaOH (1) or KOH (2) in refluxing MeOH yields 4-phenoxyphthalic acid (IV) (1,2). Dehydration of dicarboxylic acid (IV) using Ac2O and AcOH at reflux furnishes the phthalic anhydride (V), which is then condensed with methyl 2-isocyanoacetate (VI) using DBU in THF to provide oxazole derivative (VII). Rearrangement of intermediate (VII) with HCl in MeOH at 60 °C leads to isoquinoline derivative (VIII), which is partially chlorinated by means of POCl3 at 70 °C to afford 1-chloro-isoquinoline derivative (IX). Substitution of chlorine in intermediate (IX) using Me3B, Pd(PPh3)4 and K2CO3 in refluxing dioxane gives methyl 4-hydroxy-1-methyl-7-phenoxy-3-carboxylate (X), which is then hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH in refluxing EtOH to yield the carboxylic acid (XI). Coupling of carboxylic acid (XI) with methyl glycinate hydrochloride (XII) by means of PyBOP, (i-Pr)2NH and Et3N in CH2Cl2 yields roxadustat methyl ester (XII), which is finally hydrolyzed with aqueous NaOH in THF to afford the target roxadustat (1).

CLIPS

SAN FRANCISCO, Nov 12, 2013 (BUSINESS WIRE) — FibroGen, Inc. (FibroGen), today announced that data from a China-based Phase 2 study of roxadustat (FG-4592), a first-in-class oral compound in late stage development for the treatment of anemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), were presented in an oral session at the 2013 American Society of Nephrology (ASN) Kidney Week in Atlanta, Georgia.
Roxadustat is an orally administered, small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase. HIF is a protein that responds to oxygen changes in the cellular environment and meets the body’s demands for oxygen by inducing erythropoiesis, the process by which red blood cells are produced and iron is incorporated into hemoglobin (Hb).
The randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of roxadustat in the correction of anemia in patients (N=91) with chronic kidney disease who had not received dialysis treatment, were not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs), and had Hb levels less than 10 g/dL. The correction study randomized patients 2:1 between roxadustat and placebo for 8 weeks of dosing, and included a low-dose cohort (n=30) and high-dose cohort (n=31). Intravenous (IV) iron was not allowed. The study also evaluated iron utilization, changes in serum lipids, and other biomarkers during treatment with roxadustat.
Data from this study suggest that roxadustat effectively corrected hemoglobin levels in anemic CKD patients in a dose-dependent manner as compared to placebo, and did so in the absence of IV iron supplementation regardless of degree of iron repletion at baseline. At the end of the 8-week treatment period, subjects showed mean maximum Hb increases from baseline of 2.6 g/dL in the high dose cohort and 1.8 g/dL in the low dose cohort, as compared to 0.7 g/dL in the placebo group (p < 0.0001) from mean baseline Hb of 8.8 g/dL, 8.8 g/dL, and 8.9 g/dL in the high dose, low dose, and placebo groups, respectively. 87% of patients in the high-dose cohort, 80% of patients in the low-dose cohort, and 23% of patients in the placebo group experienced a hemoglobin increase of 1 g/dL or greater from baseline (p < 0.0001). Similarly, 71% of patients in the high-dose cohort, 50% of patients in the low-dose cohort, and 3% of patients in the placebo group achieved target hemoglobin of 11 g/dL or greater (p < 0.0001). Serum iron levels remained stable in subjects randomized to roxadustat while the subjects underwent brisk erythropoiesis.
Study data also suggest that roxadustat may lower cholesterol. Dyslipidemia is highly prevalent in chronic kidney disease patients and a major cardiovascular risk factor in this population. Patients treated with roxadustat experienced a statistically significant reduction in total cholesterol (p <0.0001) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p <0.0001) at the end of the treatment period. The relative proportion of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol to LDL cholesterol increased significantly (p <0.02). Overall LDL cholesterol levels declined by a mean of 26% and median of 23% from a mean baseline value of 103 mg/dL.
Roxadustat was well tolerated by patients in the study with incidence of adverse events similar across all groups. In contrast to the exacerbation of hypertension observed in studies in which patients received currently available ESA therapies, subjects who received roxadustat in the present study showed small decreases in blood pressure that were similar to blood pressure changes in the placebo group. No cardiovascular serious adverse events were reported in patients treated with roxadustat.
The efficacy and safety of roxadustat are currently being investigated in a global pivotal Phase 3 development program.
“There is a global need for effective, safe, and accessible anemia therapies,” said Thomas B. Neff, Chief Executive Officer of FibroGen. “Side effects associated with current treatments include exposure to supra-physiological levels of erythropoietin and depletion of iron stores. Preliminary clinical findings show that oral administration of roxadustat (FG-4592) is able to correct anemia and maintain hemoglobin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease, to do so with peak erythropoietin levels within physiological range, and to achieve these effects without the administration of intravenous iron. These results suggest roxadustat, as an oral agent, has the potential to overcome the treatment barriers and inconveniences of current ESA therapies, including administration by injection and IV iron supplementation, in treating anemia in CKD patients.”
About Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Anemia
Diabetes, high blood pressure, and other conditions can cause significant damage to the kidneys. If left untreated, those can result in chronic kidney disease and progress to kidney failure. Such deterioration can lead to patients needing a kidney transplant or being placed on dialysis to remove excess fluid and toxins that build up in the body. The progression of CKD also increases the prevalence of anemia, a condition associated with having fewer of the red blood cells that carry oxygen through the body, and/or lower levels of hemoglobin, the protein that enables red blood cells to carry oxygen. As hemoglobin falls, the lower oxygen-carrying capacity of an anemic patients’ blood results in various symptoms including fatigue, loss of energy, breathlessness, and angina. Anemia in CKD patients has been associated with increased hospitalization rates, increased mortality, and reduced quality of life.
Chronic kidney disease is a worldwide critical healthcare problem that affects millions of people and drives significant healthcare cost. In the US, prevalence of CKD has increased dramatically in the past 20 years, from 10 percent of the adult population (or approximately 20 million U.S. adults) as stated in the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994, to 15 percent (or approximately 30 million U.S. adults) in NHANES 2003-2006. In 2009, total Medicare costs for CKD patients were $34 billion. China has an estimated 145 million CKD patients, or approximately five times the number of CKD patients in the U.S. (Lancet April 2012).
About Roxadustat / FG-4592
Roxadustat (FG-4592) is an orally administered small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase activity, in development for the treatment of anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). HIF is a protein transcription factor that induces the natural physiological response to conditions of low oxygen, “turning on” erythropoiesis (the process by which red blood cells are produced) and other protective pathways. Roxadustat has been shown to correct anemia and maintain hemoglobin levels without the need for supplementation with intravenous iron in CKD patients not yet receiving dialysis and in end-stage renal disease patients receiving dialysis. An Independent Data Monitoring Committee has found no signals or trends to date to suggest that treatment with roxadustat is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events, thrombosis, or increases in blood pressure requiring initiation or intensification of antihypertensive medications.
About FibroGen
FibroGen is a privately-held biotechnology company focused on the discovery, development, and commercialization of therapeutic agents for treatment of fibrosis, anemia, cancer, and other serious unmet medical needs. FibroGen’s FG-3019 monoclonal antibody is in clinical development for treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other proliferative diseases, including pancreatic cancer and liver fibrosis. Roxadustat (FG-4592), FibroGen’s small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase, is currently in clinical development for the treatment of anemia. FibroGen is also currently pursuing the use of proprietary recombinant human type III collagens in synthetic corneas for treatment of corneal blindness. For more information please visit: www.fibrogen.com .

References

1: Besarab A, Provenzano R, Hertel J, Zabaneh R, Klaus SJ, Lee T, Leong R, Hemmerich S, Yu KH, Neff TB. Randomized placebo-controlled dose-ranging and pharmacodynamics study of roxadustat (FG-4592) to treat anemia in nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD) patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2015 Oct;30(10):1665-73. doi: 10.1093/ndt/gfv302. Epub 2015 Aug 3. PubMed PMID: 26238121; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4569392.

2: Forristal CE, Levesque JP. Targeting the hypoxia-sensing pathway in clinical hematology. Stem Cells Transl Med. 2014 Feb;3(2):135-40. doi: 10.5966/sctm.2013-0134. Epub 2013 Dec 26. PubMed PMID: 24371328; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3925058.

3: Bouchie A. First-in-class anemia drug takes aim at Amgen’s dominion. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Nov;31(11):948-9. doi: 10.1038/nbt1113-948b. PubMed PMID: 24213751.

4: Flight MH. Deal watch: AstraZeneca bets on FibroGen’s anaemia drug. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2013 Oct;12(10):730. doi: 10.1038/nrd4135. PubMed PMID: 24080688.

5: Beuck S, Schänzer W, Thevis M. Hypoxia-inducible factor stabilizers and other small-molecule erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in current and preventive doping analysis. Drug Test Anal. 2012 Nov;4(11):830-45. doi: 10.1002/dta.390. Epub 2012 Feb 24. Review. PubMed PMID: 22362605.

6: Cases A. The latest advances in kidney diseases and related disorders. Drug News Perspect. 2007 Dec;20(10):647-54. PubMed PMID: 18301799.

//////////ASP1517,  ASP 1517,  ASP-1517,  FG-4592,  FG 4592,  FG4592,  Roxadustat, PHASE 3, ASTELLAS, FibroGen, 808118-40-3
O=C(O)CNC(C1=C(O)C2=C(C(C)=N1)C=C(OC3=CC=CC=C3)C=C2)=O

ASP 3026


ASP3026

ASP3026;

CAS 1097917-15-1; ASP-3026; ASP 3026; UNII-HP4L6MXF10;

N2-[2-Methoxy-4-[4-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-1-piperidinyl]phenyl]-N4-[2-[(1-methylethyl)sulfonyl]phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine;

2-N-[2-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]phenyl]-4-N-(2-propan-2-ylsulfonylphenyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine

(N-{2-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]phenyl}-N′-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine)  was developed as a novel selective inhibitor of the fusion protein EML4-ALK.

1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz) (ppm) = 1.31 (d, 6H, J = 6.8 Hz), 1.58–1.80 (m, 4H), 1.90–2.04 (m, 2H), 2.16–2.84 (m, 12H), 3.18–3.32 (m, 1H), 3.66–3.76 (m, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 6.48–6.60 (m, 2H), 7.18–7.26 (m, 1H), 7.50–7.72 (m, 2H), 7.86–7.92 (dd, 1H, J = 1.2 Hz, J = 7.6 Hz), 8.06–8.16 (m, 1H), 8.28–8.48 (m, 1H), 8.48–8.62 (m, 1H), 9.28 (s, 1H).

Molecular Formula: C29H40N8O3S
Molecular Weight: 580.7447 g/mol

ASP3026 is a novel and selective inhibitor for the ALK kinase. ASP3026 potently inhibited ALK kinase activity and was more selective than crizotinib in a Tyr-kinase panel. In an anchorage independent in vitro cell growth assay, ASP3026 inhibited the growth of NCI-H2228, a human NSCLC tumor cell line endogenously expressing EML4-ALK variant 3 and that of 3T3 cells expressing EML4-ALK variant 1, 2 and 3. The plasma and tumor concentrations of ASP3026 in mice xenografted with NCI-H2228 tumor were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant tumor penetration was observed. The antitumor activities were evaluated using mice bearing subcutaneous NCI-H2228 tumor xenografts.

ASP-3026 was studied in P1 clinical trials at Astellas Pharma for the oral treatment of advanced solid tumors and advanced B-cell lymphoma. In 2014 the product was discontinued by Astellas due to strategic reasons

JP 2012153674

WO 2012102393

WO 2011145548

WO 2009008371

PATENT

WO2012102393

The compound of the formula (1) has an excellent EML4-ALK fusion protein and inhibitory activity of the kinase of the mutant EGFR protein, we are already reported to be useful as an active ingredient of a pharmaceutical composition for cancer treatment (Patent Document 1). Further, it is the compound of formula (1) there are five polymorphs shown as A01 ~ A05 type, among others A04 type crystal is in finding reported that the most stable type crystals (Japanese Patent Document 2).
[Formula 1]  a compound of formula (1) described in Patent Document 1 production method of (Patent Document 1 of Example 23), referring to Production Examples and Examples described in this document, the reaction formula (I) It is shown in. That is, 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine (hereinafter, may be referred to as “compound of formula (15)”.), 2- (isopropylsulfonyl) aniline (hereinafter, “the formula (8) sometimes referred to compound “.) using, by reacting according to the method described in production example 7 of this document, to give compounds of formula (14) to (production example 22 of Patent Document 1), then , the resulting compound of formula (14), a known method (e.g., International Publication No. 2005/016894 pamphlet reference) was prepared by 2-methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1- yl) piperidin-1-yl] aniline (hereinafter, may be referred to as “formula (13) compounds of.”) is used to react according to the method described in example 1 of the document, and the target it is a method for producing a compound of formula (1) to.
[Formula 2]

Patent Document 1: International Publication No. 2009/008371 pamphlet
Patent Document 2: WO 2011/145548 pamphlet

Example 1
The first step 4,4-dimethoxy-1- (3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl) piperidine (R 1 and R 2 Synthesis of methyl Any compound of formula (10))
 4,4 – N and dimethoxy piperidine monohydrochloride (35.9 g), N-dimethylformamide and (75 mL) were mixed, and the mixed solution of 1,8-diazabicyclo [5.4.0] undec-7-ene (57.5 mL) was added It was. It was separately prepared here 5-fluoro-2-nitroanisole (30.0 g) and N, N-dimethylformamide (30 mL) was stirred for 5 hours at room temperature. Water (120 mL) was added at room temperature to the reaction mixture, after stirring for 4 hours, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The resulting crystals N, N-dimethylformamide and a mixed solution of water (1: 1) (60mL) , water (60 mL), was further washed sequentially with water (60 mL), and dried under reduced pressure at 40 ° C. to give 4,4-dimethoxy-1- (3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl) piperidine (49.9 g, 96.1% yield) as crystals.
D2: 1.72-1.80 (4H, m) , 3.14 (6H, s), 3.44-3.50 (4H, m), 3.91 (3H, m), 6.52 (1H, d, J = 2.4Hz), 6.60 (1H, dd, J = 2.4,9.2Hz), 7.88 (1H, D, J = 9.2Hz)
ESI Tasu: 297

The second step 4- (R (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyaniline 1 and R 2 is methyl none has the formula (Compound 6)) Synthesis of

 4,4-dimethoxy – 1- (3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl) piperidine and (45.0 g) in tetrahydrofuran and a (225 mL) were mixed, 5% palladium carbon (about 50% wet product, 4.5 g) to this mixed solution was added at room temperature, under a hydrogen atmosphere (2.4821×10 5 Pa), and the mixture was stirred for 5 hours and a half at room temperature. Then filtered off and palladium-carbon, washed with tetrahydrofuran (90mL), was concentrated under reduced pressure filtrate until total volume of about 90mL obtain a slurry. After the slurry was stirred for 1 hour at 40 ° C., n- heptane (135 mL) was added and after stirring for 1 hour at 40 ° C., cooled to 0 ° C., was added n- heptane (405 mL), precipitated crystals It was collected by filtration.The obtained crystals were washed with a mixed solution of tetrahydrofuran (9 mL) and n- heptane (54 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ℃, 4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxy to give aniline (37.9g, 93.7% yield) as crystals.
D2: 1.72-1.80 (4H, m) , 2.90-2.97 (4H, m), 3.11 (6H, s), 3.73 (3H, m), 4.21 (1H, br), 6.30 (1H, d, J = 2.4 , 8.4Hz), 6.46_6.56 (2H, M)
ESI Tasu: 267

The third step 4,6-dichloro-N- [2-(propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (Lv is Cl any, compounds of formula (7) synthesis of)

 cyanuric chloride (25.0 g), sodium bicarbonate (13.7 g), were mixed 2- (isopropylsulfonyl) aniline (29.7 g) and acetone (200 mL), and stirred at room temperature for 25 hours. After adding water (200 mL) at room temperature the reaction mixture was stirred for 19 hours, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The resulting crystals acetone and a mixed solution of water (1: 1) was washed with (100 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ° C., 4,6-dichloro-N- [2-(propane-2-sulfonyl) to give phenyl] -1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (45.1g, 95.8% yield) as crystals.
D1: 1.32 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 3.22 (1H, sept, J = 6.8Hz), 7.37 (1H, m), 7.74 (1H, m), 7.93 (1H, m), 8.44 (1H , M), 10.02 (1H, Br)
ESI-: 345, 347
Fourth step 6-chloro -N- [4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxy-phenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3 , (a Lv is Cl, R 5- triazine-2,4-diamine 1and R 2 none is methyl, the formula (compound 5)) synthesis of
4,6-dichloro-N- [2-( propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (40.0 g) was mixed with tetrahydrofuran (400 mL), to this mixed solution 4- (4,4-dimethoxy-piperidin-1 yl) -2-methoxyaniline (32.2 g) and N, N- diisopropylethylamine (16.38g) was stirred for 4 hours at room temperature.Thereafter, isopropyl acetate (40 mL), then extracted by adding a mixed solution of potassium carbonate (2.0 g) and water (40 mL). The obtained organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure until the total volume of about 200 mL, as a seed crystal, 6-chloro -N- [4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- inoculated with [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-crystalline diamine (4 mg), to give a slurry and stirred for about 15 minutes. The slurry n- heptane (200 mL) was added and filtered off cooled to 18 hours with stirring to precipitate crystals to 0 ° C.. The resulting crystals were washed with a mixed solution of tetrahydrofuran (40 mL) and n- heptane (40 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ° C., 6- Chloro -N- [4- (4,4- dimethoxy-piperidine – 1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (the propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (61.4 g, 92.4% yield) It was obtained as a crystal.
D1: 1.30 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 1.88-1.92 (4H, m), 3.18-3.26 (1H, m), 3.23 (3H, s), 3.87 (1H, br), 6.53 (2H, br), 7.21-7.23 (1H, m ), 7.62 (1H, br), 7.88 (1H, d, J = 7.9Hz), 8.05 (1H, br), 8.48 (1H, br), 9.41 (1H, br )
ESI-: 575,577
The fourth alternative process (e.g. without using a seed crystal) 6-Chloro-N- [4- (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane 2-sulfonyl) phenyl] (a Lv is Cl, R-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine 1 and R 2 none is methyl, the formula (5) synthesis of compound of)
4 , and mixed 6-dichloro -N- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (23.0 g) in tetrahydrofuran (230 mL), to this mixed solution 4- (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyaniline (18.5 g) and N, N- diisopropylethylamine (12.7 mL) was stirred for 2 hours at room temperature. Thereafter, isopropyl acetate (57.5 mL), then extracted by adding potassium carbonate (5.75 g) and a mixed solution of water (115 mL). The resulting organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting residue is added and stirred in tetrahydrofuran (50mL) to obtain a slurry. After stirring for 1 hour at the slurry was added tetrahydrofuran (75 mL) and n- heptane (75mL) 40 ℃, cooled to 0 ° C., and stirred for a further 18 hours.Thereafter, n- heptane (50 mL) was added, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The resulting crystals tetrahydrofuran and n- heptane mixed solution (5: 7) After washing with (24 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ° C., 6- chloro-N- [4- (4,4-dimethoxy piperidin-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (30.6g, 80.0% yield ) was obtained as a crystal.
D1: 1.30 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 1.88-1.92 (4H, m), 3.18-3.26 (1H, m), 3.23 (3H, s), 3.87 (1H, br), 6.53 (2H, br), 7.21-7.23 (1H, m ), 7.62 (1H, br), 7.88 (1H, d, J = 7.9Hz), 8.05 (1H, br), 8.48 (1H, br), 9.41 (1H, br )
ESI-: 575,577
The fifth step and the sixth step (continuous process) 1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5-triazin-2-yl} amino ) phenyl] piperidin-4-one synthesis of compound) (formula (3)
6-chloro-N- [4- (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [ 2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (60.0 g), tetrahydrofuran (540 mL) and 10% palladium carbon (about 50% wet product, 10.7 g) and mixed, N to the mixture, added to N- diisopropylethylamine (16.11g) and 2-propanol (60 mL), under a hydrogen atmosphere (2.4131X10 5 of 5 Pa), and stirred for 7 hours at 40 ° C.. Filtration of the palladium-carbon, and washed with tetrahydrofuran (120 mL), the resulting filtrate activated carbon (12.0 g) was added to, and stirred at room temperature overnight. Then filtered off and the activated carbon, and washed with tetrahydrofuran (120mL), N- [4- ( 4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane – to obtain a solution containing 2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine. To this solution was added a mixed solution of 35% hydrochloric acid (21.7 g) and water (120 mL), and stirred for 21 hours at room temperature. To the reaction mixture, it was added a mixed solution of potassium carbonate (35.9 g) and water (120 mL), and extracted. Activated carbon (12.0 g) was added to the obtained organic layer was stirred for 16 h, filtered, washed with activated carbon in tetrahydrofuran (120 mL). The filtrate obtained total amount was concentrated under reduced pressure to approximately 120 mL. After addition of acetone (180 mL) to the resulting mixture, as a seed crystal, 1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5 after stirring for 1 hour and inoculated triazin-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one crystals (60 mg), water (480 mL) was stirred for 20 hours was added, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration . The obtained crystals were washed with a mixed solution of acetone (36 mL) and water (96 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ℃, 1- [3- methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane -2 – was obtained sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5-triazine-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidine-4-one (45.8g, 88.7% yield (yield in a continuous two steps)) as crystals .
D2,343K: 1.17 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 2.46-2.50 (4H, m), 3.40 (1H, sept, J = 6.8Hz), 3.61 (4H, dd, J = 6.1,6.2Hz) , 3.79 (3H, s), 6.57 (1H, dd, J = 2.6,8.7Hz), 6.70 (1H, d, J = 2.6Hz), 7.25-7.29 (1H, m), 7.38 (1H, d, J 8.7 Hz =), 7.61 (1H, br), 7.77-7.80 (1H, yd), 8.28 (1H, s), 8.50 (1H, br), 8.66 (1H, br), 9.25 (1H, br)
ESI +: 497
Fifth Step N- [4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine 2,4-diamine (R 1 and R 2 is methyl any formula (4) of compound) synthesis of
6-chloro-N- [4- (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) – 2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (5.0 g), tetrahydrofuran (45 mL), 2-propanol (5mL ), 10% palladium-carbon (about 50% wet product, 1.0 g) were mixed, added N, N- diisopropylethylamine (1.81 mL) to this mixed solution, under a hydrogen atmosphere (2.4821X10 5 of 5 Pa), 40 ° C. in and the mixture was stirred for 5 hours and a half. Filtration of the palladium-carbon was washed with tetrahydrofuran (10 mL), and extraction was performed with 10% brine (20 mL). The resulting organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure. Acetone to the concentrated residue (10 mL), was added diisopropyl ether (40 mL), it was collected by filtration stirred precipitated crystals 30 minutes. The obtained crystals were washed with diisopropyl ether (20 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ℃, N- [4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl]-N’- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (4.31 g, 91.6% yield) as crystals.
D2,343K: 1.17 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 1.80 (4H, dd, J = 5.5,5.7Hz), 3.15 (6H, s), 3.21 (4H, dd, J = 5.5,5.7Hz) , 3.77 (3H, s), 6.50 (1H, dd, J = 2.5,8.7Hz), 6.62 (1H, d, J = 2.5Hz), 7.25-7.28 (1H, m), 7.34 (1H, d, J 8.7 Hz =), 7.58 (1H, br), 7.77-7.79 (1H, yd), 8.28 (1H, s), 8.49 (1H, br), 8.63 (1H, br), 9.25 (1H, br)
ESI +: 543
Sixth Step 1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5-triazin-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one (equation (3) a compound of) synthesis of
N- [4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] – 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (4.0 g), and tetrahydrofuran (36 mL) and 2-propanol (4 mL) solution of 35% hydrochloric acid containing (1.44 g) a mixture of water (4 mL) was added on, and the mixture was stirred for 17 hours at room temperature. To the reaction mixture, it was added a mixed solution of potassium carbonate (2.4 g) and water (4 mL), and extracted.The resulting organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure. After stirring for 30 minutes by addition of acetone (12 mL) and water (4 mL) to the concentrated residue, add water (28 mL) was stirred for 1 hour, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The obtained crystals were washed with a mixed solution of acetone (8 mL) and tetrahydrofuran (3 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ℃, 1- [3- methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane -2 – give sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5-triazin-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one (3.42g, 99.2% yield) as crystals.
D2,343K: 1.17 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 2.46-2.50 (4H, m), 3.40 (1H, sept, J = 6.8Hz), 3.61 (4H, dd, J = 6.1,6.2Hz) , 3.79 (3H, s), 6.57 (1H, dd, J = 2.6,8.7Hz), 6.70 (1H, d, J = 2.6Hz), 7.25-7.29 (1H, m), 7.38 (1H, d, J 8.7 Hz =), 7.61 (1H, br), 7.77-7.80 (1H, yd), 8.28 (1H, s), 8.50 (1H, br), 8.66 (1H, br), 9.25 (1H, br)
ESI +: 497
Seventh Step N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] – 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (formula (1) compounds) synthesis
of 1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) anilino] -1 , 3,5-triazin-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one (20.0 g), methyl piperazine (8.07 g), were mixed in toluene (200 mL) and acetic acid (9.0 mL), 1 hour at room temperature It stirred. To this mixture solution was added sodium triacetoxyborohydride (17.06 g), and stirred at room temperature for 20 hours. To the reaction mixture, water (60 mL) and methanol (20 mL) was added, extraction to give an organic layer and an aqueous layer 1. This organic layer, water (20 mL) and re-extracted to give a water layer 2. After mixing the aqueous layer 1 and aqueous layer 2 was extracted by adding isopropyl acetate (200 mL). Methanol (220 mL) to the resulting aqueous layer, a mixed solution of sodium hydroxide (9.68 g) and water (48 mL) was added, as a seed crystal, N-{2-methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin- 1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-crystal of diamine (2.0mg) inoculated, after stirring at room temperature for 1.5 hours, add water (220 mL), further stirred for 2 hours at room temperature, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The resulting crystals were washed with a mixed solution of methanol (40mL) and water (40mL), and then dried under reduced pressure at 50 ℃, N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methyl-piperazine -1 – yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (20.15g, 86.1% yield) It was obtained as A06-form crystals.
D1: 1.31 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 1.59-1.78 (2H, m), 1.90-2.01 (2H, m), 2.24-2.80 (11H, m), 2.30 (3H, s), 3.19- 3.32 (1H, m), 3.65-3.75 (2H, m), 3.88 (3H, s), 6.50-6.59 (2H, m), 7.18-7.30 (1H, m), 7.53-7.70 (2H, m), 7.88 (1H, dd, J = 1.5,8.3Hz), 8.10 (1H, br), 8.37 (1H, br), 8.53 (1H, br), 9.29 (1H, s)
ESI +: 581

Alternatively 1 (Example not using seed crystals) N-{2-methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N seventh step ‘- [ 2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (compound of formula (1))

 1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2 – (propane-2-sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5-triazin-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one (5.0 g), methyl piperazine (2.02 g), toluene (50 mL) and acetic acid (1.5 mL) were mixed and stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. To this mixture solution was added sodium triacetoxyborohydride (4.72 g), and stirred at room temperature for 18 hours. To the reaction mixture, water (15 mL) and methanol (5 mL) was added, extraction to give an organic layer and an aqueous layer 1. This organic layer, water (5 mL) and re-extracted to give a water layer 2. After mixing the aqueous layer 1 and aqueous layer 2 was extracted by adding isopropyl acetate (50 mL). The resulting aqueous layer methanol (55 mL), a mixed solution was added sodium hydroxide (2.0 g) and water (10 mL), was stirred for 62 hours at room temperature, add water (55 mL), at room temperature for a further 2 hours stirring, the formed crystals were separated by filtration. The obtained crystals were washed with a mixed solution of methanol (5 mL) and water (5 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ℃, N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin–1 – yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (4.56g, 78.0% yield) It was obtained as A06-form crystals.
D1: 1.31 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 1.59-1.78 (2H, m), 1.90-2.01 (2H, m), 2.24-2.80 (11H, m), 2.30 (3H, s), 3.19- 3.32 (1H, m), 3.65-3.75 (2H, m), 3.88 (3H, s), 6.50-6.59 (2H, m), 7.18-7.30 (1H, m), 7.53-7.70 (2H, m), 7.88 (1H, dd, J = 1.5,8.3Hz), 8.10 (1H, br), 8.37 (1H, br), 8.53 (1H, br), 9.29 (1H, s)
ESI +: 581
alternative seventh step 2 (example using reducing catalyst) N-{2-methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane -2 – sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine synthesis of compounds of formula (1)
1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propan-2 sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5-triazin-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one (5.0 g), tetrahydrofuran (30 mL), methylpiperazine (1.81 g) and 10% palladium carbon (about 50 % wet product, were mixed 0.8 g), under a hydrogen atmosphere (2.4821X10 5 of 5Pa), and stirred for 7 hours at 40 ° C.. Filtration of the palladium-carbon, and washed with tetrahydrofuran (10 mL), the resulting filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure. To the concentrated residue 2-butanone (9 mL) was added, followed by stirring at 60 ° C. 30 minutes, cooled slowly, at 30 ° C. n-heptane (9 mL) was added, and stirred for 19 hours at room temperature, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration did.The resulting crystals of 2-butanone and (1 mL) was washed with a mixture of n- heptane (1 mL), and dried in vacuo at 40 ℃, N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methyl piperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (3.09 g, yield: 88.0%) was obtained.
D1: 1.31 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 1.59-1.78 (2H, m), 1.90-2.01 (2H, m), 2.24-2.80 (11H, m), 2.30 (3H, s), 3.19- 3.32 (1H, m), 3.65-3.75 (2H, m), 3.88 (3H, s), 6.50-6.59 (2H, m), 7.18-7.30 (1H, m), 7.53-7.70 (2H, m), 7.88 (1H, dd, J = 1.5,8.3Hz), 8.10 (1H, br), 8.37 (1H, br), 8.53 (1H, br), 9.29 (1H, s)
ESI +: 581
 N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3 , 5-triazine-2,4-diamine by recrystallization purification steps (formula (1 compound of))
(the a method) N-{2-methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (8.80 g), 2-butanone (211 mL) after mixing and confirmation of dissolution and stirring at 65 ° C. 30 minutes for clarifying filtration. After filtrate was total volume concentrated normal pressure to approximately 70 mL, and cooled to 70 ° C., as a seed crystal N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidine-1 yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- inoculated with (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-crystalline diamine (0.9 mg), and stirred for about 10 minutes to obtain a slurry. After stirring for 3 hours at 70 ° C., cooled to 5 ℃ at a rate of 20 ° C. / h and stirred for 17 hours, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The resulting crystals were washed with 2-butanone were cooled with ice water (35.2 mL), and dried in vacuo at 50 ℃, N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1- yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (7.88 g, 89.5% yield, purity 99.4%) was obtained as a A04 type crystal (A04 type ratio 98.9%).
(B method): N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl ] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (8.80g), was mixed activated carbon (0.88 g) and 2-butanone (211 mL), after stirring for 1 hour at 75 ° C., was subjected to activated carbon filtration .The filtrate activated carbon (0.88g) in addition to, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 75 ℃, was activated carbon filtration. The filtrate activated carbon (0.88g) in addition to, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 75 ℃, was activated carbon filtration. After filtrate was total volume concentrated normal pressure to approximately 70 mL, and cooled to 70 ° C., as a seed crystal N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidine-1 yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- inoculated with (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-crystalline diamine (0.9 mg), and stirred for about 10 minutes to obtain a slurry. After stirring for 3 hours at 70 ° C., cooled to 5 ℃ at a rate of 20 ° C. / h and stirred for 16 hours, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The resulting crystals were washed with 2-butanone were cooled with ice water (35.2 mL), and dried in vacuo at 50 ℃, N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1- yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (6.60 g, 75.0% yield, purity 99.3%) was obtained as A04 type crystal (A04 type ratio 100%).
Example 2
The first step 4,4-dimethoxy-1- (3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl) piperidine (R 1 and R 2 is methyl Any formula (Compound 10)) Synthesis of
4,4 – dimethoxy piperidine monohydrochloride (69.9kg) and N, N-dimethylformamide (125.7kg) was mixed, to this mixed solution 1,8-diazabicyclo [5.4.0] undec-7-ene and (117.3kg) N It was added N- dimethylformamide (17.0kg). N of separately prepared here 5-fluoro-2-nitroanisole (60.0kg), the N- dimethylformamide (57.0kg) was added at room temperature, N, N- dimethylformamide (29.0 kg) solution was added 5 hours It stirred. At room temperature with a seed crystal of 4,4-dimethoxy-1- (3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl) piperidine (about 6 g) was added to the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 14 hours. Water (240 kg) was added at room temperature to the reaction mixture, after stirring for 22 hours, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The obtained crystals N, washed with a mixed solution of N- dimethylformamide (56.9kg) and water (60kg), washed twice with water (120 kg), and dried in vacuo at 50 ° C., 4, 4 – to give dimethoxy-1- (3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl) piperidine (99.7kg, 96.0% yield) as crystals.
D2: 1.72-1.80 (4H, m) , 3.14 (6H, s), 3.44-3.50 (4H, m), 3.91 (3H, m), 6.52 (1H, d, J = 2.4Hz), 6.60 (1H, dd, J = 2.4,9.2Hz), 7.88 (1H, D, J = 9.2Hz)
ESI Tasu: 297
The second step 4- (R (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyaniline 1 and R 2 is methyl none has the formula (Compound 6)) Synthesis of
4,4-dimethoxy – 1- (3-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl) piperidine (99.0kg), 5% palladium carbon (about 50% wet product, 10.5 kg), were mixed at room temperature in tetrahydrofuran (440 kg), under a hydrogen atmosphere (200 ~ 300 kPa ), and stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. Then filtered off and palladium-carbon, tetrahydrofuran and washed with (180.5Kg), the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure until the total volume of about 220L, as a seed crystal 4- (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) – crystals of 2-methoxyaniline was inoculated (approximately 10g). To the resulting slurry n- heptane (205.4kg) was added at 40 ° C., after stirring for 1 h, was stirred and cooled to 0 ° C. 16 hours. To this slurry was added n- heptane (613.5kg), After stirring for 2 hours, the crystals were collected by filtration. The obtained crystals were washed with a mixed solution of tetrahydrofuran (17.8 kg) and n- heptane (81.5kg), and dried in vacuo at 50 ℃, 4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2 – give methoxyaniline (84.1kg, 94.5% yield) as crystals.
D2: 1.72-1.80 (4H, m) , 2.90-2.97 (4H, m), 3.11 (6H, s), 3.73 (3H, m), 4.21 (1H, br), 6.30 (1H, d, J = 2.4 , 8.4Hz), 6.46_6.56 (2H, M)
ESI Tasu: 267
The third step 4,6-dichloro-N- [2-(propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (Lv is Cl any, compounds of formula (7) synthesis of)
 cyanuric acid chloride (40.0kg) and acetone (249.2kg) was mixed at a 17 ℃. Sodium hydrogen carbonate in the mixed solution (21.9 kg), 2-a (isopropylsulfonyl) aniline (47.5Kg) was added, and stirred at room temperature for 23 hours. After adding to the reaction mixture water (320 kg) at room temperature, and stirred for 3.5 hours, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. After washing the obtained crystals with a mixed solution of acetone (63.0kg) and water (80 kg), and dried in vacuo at 50 ° C., 4,6-dichloro -N- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl ] -1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (71.6kg, 95.1% yield) was obtained as crystals.
D1: 1.32 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 3.22 (1H, sept, J = 6.8Hz), 7.37 (1H, m), 7.74 (1H, m), 7.93 (1H, m), 8.44 (1H , M), 10.02 (1H, Br)
ESI-: 345, 347
Fourth step 6-chloro -N- [4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxy-phenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3 , (a Lv is Cl, R 5- triazine-2,4-diamine 1and R 2 none is methyl, the formula (compound 5)) synthesis of
4,6-dichloro-N- [2-( propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazin-2-amine (70.9 kg) in tetrahydrofuran (611.1kg) was mixed at room temperature, to this mixed solution 4- (4,4-dimethoxy-piperidine 1-yl) -2-methoxyaniline (57.1kg), N, N- diisopropylethylamine (29.1 kg) was stirred for 4 hours at room temperature. Thereafter, isopropyl acetate (61.0kg), then extracted by adding potassium carbonate (3.6 kg) and a mixed solution of water (71 kg).The resulting organic layer total amount was concentrated under reduced pressure at an external temperature of about 40 ° C. to approximately 360 L, as a seed crystal, 6-chloro -N- [4- (4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2 – methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- was inoculated with (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-crystalline diamine (approximately 7 g) to give a slurry. To this slurry of 2-propanol (111.0kg), n- heptane (243.1kg) was added and after cooling for 2 hours at room temperature, was collected by filtration stirred precipitated crystals were cooled to 0 ℃ 18 hours. The resulting crystals tetrahydrofuran (74.9kg), 2- propanol (44.6kg), was washed with a mixed solution of n- heptane (97.6kg), and then dried under reduced pressure at 50 ℃, 6- chloro -N- [ 4- (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine It was obtained (108.9kg, 92.4% yield) as crystals.
D1: 1.30 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 1.88-1.92 (4H, m), 3.18-3.26 (1H, m), 3.23 (3H, s), 3.87 (1H, br), 6.53 (2H, br), 7.21-7.23 (1H, m ), 7.62 (1H, br), 7.88 (1H, d, J = 7.9Hz), 8.05 (1H, br), 8.48 (1H, br), 9.41 (1H, br )
ESI -: 575,577
fifth step and the sixth step (continuous process) 1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5-triazine – 2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one synthesis of compound) (formula (3)
6-chloro-N- [4- (4,4-dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (108.2kg), tetrahydrofuran (866.0kg), 10% palladium carbon (about 50% wet goods, 23.3 kg) were mixed, N to this mixed solution was added to N- diisopropylethylamine (28.9 kg) and 2-propanol (85.5kg), under a hydrogen atmosphere (100 ~ 300kPa), 4 hours at 40 ° C. did. Filtration of the palladium-carbon was washed with tetrahydrofuran (193.3kg), N- [4- ( 4,4- dimethoxy-1-yl) -2-methoxyphenyl] -N ‘- [2- (propane -2 – to obtain a solution containing a sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine. To this solution was added 35% hydrochloric acid (39.1 kg) of mixed solution of water (217kg), and stirred for 15 hours at room temperature. To the reaction mixture, added potassium carbonate (64.8kg) and a mixed solution of water (217kg), and extracted. Activated carbon (10.8 kg) was added to the obtained organic layer and stirred for 17 hours at room temperature, filtered and washed activated carbon with tetrahydrofuran (96.0kg). The resulting filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure until the total volume of about 380L at 40 ° C.. After the resultant mixture was added acetone (257.1Kg), as a seed crystal, 1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) anilino] 1,3,5 – after stirring for 1 hour was inoculated triazin-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one crystals (approximately 11g), the addition of water (865Kg) was stirred for 15 hours, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration did. The obtained crystals were washed with a mixed solution of acetone (50.9kg) and Tsunemizu (173 kg), and dried in vacuo at 50 ℃, 1- [3- methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane 2-sulfonyl) anilino] -1,3,5-triazine-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidine-4-one (82.9kg, 89.0% yield (yield in a continuous two steps)) as crystals Obtained.
D2,343K: 1.17 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 2.46-2.50 (4H, m), 3.40 (1H, sept, J = 6.8Hz), 3.61 (4H, dd, J = 6.1,6.2Hz) , 3.79 (3H, s), 6.57 (1H, dd, J = 2.6,8.7Hz), 6.70 (1H, d, J = 2.6Hz), 7.25-7.29 (1H, m), 7.38 (1H, d, J 8.7 Hz =), 7.61 (1H, br), 7.77-7.80 (1H, yd), 8.28 (1H, s), 8.50 (1H, br), 8.66 (1H, br), 9.25 (1H, br)
ESI +: 497
Seventh Step N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] – 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (formula (1) compounds) synthesis
of 1- [3-methoxy-4 – ({4- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) anilino] -1 , 3,5-triazin-2-yl} amino) phenyl] piperidin-4-one (60.1kg), methylpiperazine (24.2kg), was mixed with toluene (500 kg) and acetic acid (28.4kg), 1 hour at room temperature It stirred. To this mixture solution was added sodium triacetoxyborohydride (51.4kg), and stirred at room temperature for 17 hours. To the reaction mixture, methanol (47.5kg) and water (180.1kg) was added, extraction to give an organic layer and an aqueous layer 1. The organic layer was re-extracted by adding water (60.0kg), to obtain an aqueous layer 2. After mixing the aqueous layer 1 and aqueous layer 2 was extracted by adding isopropyl acetate (523.4kg). The resulting aqueous layer methanol (522.3kg), a mixed solution of 48% sodium hydroxide (60.6kg) and water (112.7kg) was added, as a seed crystal N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4 – methyl-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-crystal of diamine (about 6 g) were inoculated, after stirring at room temperature for 2 hours, added water (660.2kg), further stirred for 3.5 hours at room temperature, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. The obtained crystals were washed with a mixed solution of methanol (104.4kg) and water (132.0kg), and dried in vacuo at 50 ℃, N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin- 1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (54.2kg, yield: 77.1 %) was obtained as A06-form crystals.
D1: 1.31 (6H, d, J = 6.8Hz), 1.59-1.78 (2H, m), 1.90-2.01 (2H, m), 2.24-2.80 (11H, m), 2.30 (3H, s), 3.19- 3.32 (1H, m), 3.65-3.75 (2H, m), 3.88 (3H, s), 6.50-6.59 (2H, m), 7.18-7.30 (1H, m), 7.53-7.70 (2H, m), 7.88 (1H, dd, J = 1.5,8.3Hz), 8.10 (1H, br), 8.37 (1H, br), 8.53 (1H, br), 9.29 (1H, s)
ESI +: 581
 N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3 , purification step by recrystallization 5-triazine-2,4-diamine (compound of formula (1))
N-{2-methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidine-1 yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (54.3kg), activated charcoal (5.4 kg), 2-butanone (1046.1 kg) were mixed, stirred for 1 hour at 75 ° C., was subjected to active carbon filtration. The filtrate activated carbon (5.4kg) in addition to, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 75 ℃, was activated carbon filtration. The filtrate activated carbon (5.4kg) in addition to, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour at 75 ℃, was activated carbon filtration. After filtrate was total volume approximately until 430L normal pressure concentrated and cooled to 70 ° C., as a seed crystal N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) piperidine-1 yl] phenyl} -N ‘- inoculated with [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-crystalline diamine (approximately 5 g), after stirring for 3 hours, It was cooled to 5 ℃ at a rate of 20 ℃ / h, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. After washing with the resulting crystals were cooled in 5 of 5 ° C. 2-butanone (220L), and dried in vacuo at 50 ℃, N- {2- methoxy-4- [4- (4-methylpiperazin-1- yl) piperidin-1-yl] phenyl} -N ‘- [2- (propane-2-sulfonyl) phenyl] -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine (42.6kg, 78.5% yield, purity 99.5%) was obtained as A04-form crystals (A04 type ratio 100%).
Ken Jones, president and chief executive officer, Astellas Pharma Europe

Paper

Organic Process Research & Development (2015), 19(12), 1966-1972

Strategy for Controlling Polymorphism of Di(Arylamino) Aryl Compound ASP3026 and Monitoring Solution Structures via Raman Spectroscopy

Technology Process Chemistry Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi, Ibaraki 318-0001,Japan
Astellas Pharma Tech Co., Ltd., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan
§ Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2015, 19 (12), pp 1966–1972
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.5b00208
Publication Date (Web): October 23, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society
*E-mail:kazuhiro.takeguchi@astellas.com. Tel.: +81-293-23-5459. Fax: +81-293-23-5993.

Abstract

Abstract Image

ASP3026(N-{2-Methoxy-4-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]phenyl}-N′-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) was developed as a novel and selective inhibitor of the fusion protein EML4-ALK. Five polymorphs of ASP3026 (A01, A02, A03, A04, and A05) as well as a hydrate have been identified to date, and the most stable polymorph (A04) was selected for designing solid formulations. The influence of crystallization process parameters on nucleation of A03 and A04 was clarified for process development. A04 was obtained at relatively high temperatures and A03 at relatively low temperatures, regardless of the superaturation ratio. A03 and A04 were therefore able to be selectively obtained via temperature control, possibly due to temperature-dependent variations in the concentrations of conformers in solution. The relationship between polymorphs and solution structures before nucleation was investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy. The relationship with the intensity ratios of nine Raman bands of both polymorphs and ASP3026 solution structures was investigated in detail. Our findings suggest that the solution structure shifted from a structure similar to that of A04 to one similar to that of A03 with decreasing temperature.

Chairman of Astellas Pharma Inc. Mr. Masafumi Nogimori is conferred with Netherlands Honor – ‘Officer in the Order of Oranje-Nassau’

PAPER

Effect of Temperature and Solvent of Solvent-Mediated Polymorph Transformation on ASP3026 Polymorphs and Scale-up

Technology Process Chemistry Laboratories, Astellas Pharma Inc., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi, Ibaraki 318-0001,Japan
Astellas Pharma Tech Co., Ltd., 160-2 Akahama, Takahagi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan
§ Department of Chemical Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16, Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588, Japan
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00068
Publication Date (Web): April 28, 2016
Copyright © 2016 American Chemical Society
*Telephone: +81-293-23-5459. Fax: +81-293-23-5993; e-mail:kazuhiro.takeguchi@astellas.com.

Abstract

Abstract Image

ASP3026 (N-{2-methoxy-4-[4-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)piperidin-1-yl]phenyl}-N′-[2-(propane-2-sulfonyl)phenyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine) was developed as a novel and selective inhibitor of the fusion protein EML4-ALK. Five polymorphs of ASP3026 (A01, A02, A03, A04, and A05) as well as a hydrate have been identified to date. Process development was conducted for large-scale pilot plant manufacturing, and obtaining the desired polymorph A04 was key after a synthetic route of ASP3026 was selected for scale-up. The effects of temperature and solvent species on induction time of polymorph transformation were investigated using in situ Raman spectroscopy, and selective transformation conditions of A02 to A03 and A04 were examined in detail. A04 was obtained at high temperatures using highly polar non-hydrogen-bond-donating solvents, while A03 was obtained at low temperatures using low-polarity or hydrogen-bond-donating solvents. Further, the desired polymorph A04 was successfully obtained in high purity in first stage scale-up manufacturing. Given these findings, this method of solvent-mediated polymorph transformation may aid in process development for obtaining desired polymorphs.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/acs.oprd.6b00068

REFERENCES

1: Awad MM, Shaw AT. ALK Inhibitors in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Crizotinib and Beyond. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2014 Jul;12(7):429-39. PubMed PMID: 25322323.

2: George SK, Vishwamitra D, Manshouri R, Shi P, Amin HM. The ALK inhibitor ASP3026 eradicates NPM-ALK⁺ T-cell anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in vitro and in a systemic xenograft lymphoma model. Oncotarget. 2014 Jul 30;5(14):5750-63. PubMed PMID: 25026277; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4170597.

3: Mori M, Ueno Y, Konagai S, Fushiki H, Shimada I, Kondoh Y, Saito R, Mori K, Shindou N, Soga T, Sakagami H, Furutani T, Doihara H, Kudoh M, Kuromitsu S. The selective anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor ASP3026 induces tumor regression and prolongs survival in non-small cell lung cancer model mice. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Feb;13(2):329-40. doi: 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-13-0395. Epub 2014 Jan 13. PubMed PMID: 24419060.

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015150850 2015-06-04 TREATING CANCER WITH HSP90 INHIBITORY COMPOUNDS
US8906885 2014-12-09 Treating cancer with HSP90 inhibitory compounds
US2013338358 2013-12-19 METHOD FOR PRODUCING DI(ARYLAMINO)ARYL COMPOUND AND SYNTHETIC INTERMEDIATE THEREFOR
US2013096100 2013-04-18 DI(ARYLAMINO)ARYL COMPOUND
US2013059855 2013-03-07 CRYSTAL OF DI(ARYLAMINO)ARYL COMPOUND
US2010099658 2010-04-22 DI(ARYLAMINO)ARYL COMPOUND

////ASP3026, EML4-ALK, ASP 3026, ASTELLAS

CC(C)S(=O)(=O)C1=CC=CC=C1NC2=NC=NC(=N2)NC3=C(C=C(C=C3)N4CCC(CC4)N5CCN(CC5)C)OC

Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) is a validated therapeutic target for treating echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). ASP3026 (1) is a potent and selective ALK inhibitor that Astellas designed and synthesized through detailed structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies
Figure
Abstract Image

Our effort toward the process improvement of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor ASP3026 (1) is described. A cost-effective and practical synthesis of 1 was accomplished as a result of the change of starting material from 2,4-dichloro-1,3,5-triazine (6) to cyanuric chloride (9) and late-stage introduction of a highly reactive N-methyl piperazine moiety by reductive amination of intermediate ketone 13. The modified process avoided the challenges with the original synthesis and furnished the several hundred kilograms of high-quality API with high economic efficiency, operability, and reproducibility. Furthermore, a sequence of investigation of polymorphic control in the second-generation synthetic route to obtain the thermodynamically desired, most stable polymorph Form A04 is also discussed.

Improved Manufacturing Route and Polymorphic Control of a Potent and Selective Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) Inhibitor ASP3026

Process Chemistry LaboratoriesAstellas Pharma Inc.160-2 Akahama, Takahagi-shi, Ibaraki 318-0001, Japan
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00427
This article is part of the Japanese Society for Process Chemistry special issue.

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.oprd.8b00427

crude 1 (25.0 kg, 43.0 mol, 48% yield) as a pale yellow solid in Form A02. HPLC purity: 97.9A%. 1H NMR (600 MHz, chloroform-d) δ 9.28 (s, 1H), 8.47–8.61 (bs, 1H), 8.30–8.48 (m, 1H), 8.10 (bs, 1H), 7.88 (d, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.49–7.72 (m, 2H), 7.23 (t, J = 8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.45–6.60 (m, 2H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 3.63–3.75 (m, 2H), 3.18–3.32 (m, 1H), 2.31–2.78 (m, 11H), 2.30 (s, 3H), 1.92–2.01 (m, 2H), 1.65–1.79 (m, 2H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.9 Hz, 6H). 13C NMR (150 MHz, chloroform-d) δ (ppm) 166.3, 163.6, 149.6, 148.6, 138.4, 134.5, 131.1, 124.4, 123.6, 123.0, 122.1, 121.4, 119.6, 108.0, 100.4, 61.6, 55.6, 55.5, 55.4, 50.0, 49.0, 46.0, 28.1, 15.3. LC–MS (ESI): calcd for C29H41N8O3S ([M + H]+) 581.3; found 581.2.

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Acotiamide


Acotiamide.png

 

 

img

Acotiamide hydrochloride trihydrate
CAS#: 773092-05-0 (Acotiamide HCl hydrate, 1:1:3); 185104-11-4(Acotiamide HCl, 1:1); 185106-16-5 (Acotiamide free base)
Chemical Formula: C21H37ClN4O8S

Molecular Weight: 541.06
Elemental Analysis: C, 46.62; H, 6.89; Cl, 6.55; N, 10.36; O, 23.66; S, 5.93

Acotiamide, also known as YM-443 and Z-338, is a drug approved in Japan for the treatment of postprandial fullness, upper abdominal bloating, and early satiation due to functional dyspepsia. It acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Note: The Approved drug API is a cotiamide HCl trihydrate (1:1:3)

N-(2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl)-2-(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzamido)thiazole-4-carboxamide hydrochloride trihydrate.

YM443; YM-443; YM 443; Z338; Z-338; Z 338; Acotiamide; Acotiamide hydrochloride trihydrate; Brand name: Acofide.

A peripheral acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor used to treat functional dyspepsia.

Acotiamide (YM-443, Z-338) is a drug approved in Japan for the treatment of postprandial fullness, upper abdominal bloating, and early satiation due to functional dyspepsia.[1] It acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.

Acotiamide hydrochloride (acotiamide; N-[2-[bis(1-methylethyl) amino]ethyl]-2-[(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] thiazole-4-carboxamide monohydrochloride trihydrate, Z-338) has been reported to improve meal-related symptoms of functional dyspepsia in clinical studies.

Acotiamide (Acofide(®)), an oral first-in-class prokinetic drug, is under global development by Zeria Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd and Astellas Pharma Inc. for the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia. The drug modulates upper gastrointestinal motility to alleviate abdominal symptoms resulting from hypomotility and delayed gastric emptying. It exerts its activity in the stomach via muscarinic receptor inhibition, resulting in enhanced acetylcholine release and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Unlike other prokinetic drugs that are utilized in the management of functional dyspepsia, acotiamide shows little/no affinity for serotonin or dopamine D2 receptors. Acotiamide is the world’s first approved treatment for functional dyspepsia diagnosed by Rome III criteria, with its first approval occurring in Japan. Phase III trials in this patient population are in preparation in Europe, with phase II trials completed in the USA and Europe.

 

STR1

SYNTHESIS

 

 

EP 0870765; US 5981557; WO 9636619

Acylation of 2-aminothiazole-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester (I) with 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl chloride (II) produced the corresponding amide (III). The 2-methoxy group of (III) was then selectively cleaved by treatment with pyridine hydrochloride, yielding the 2-hydroxybenzamide (IV). Finally, displacement of the ethyl ester group of (IV) by N,N-diisopropyl ethanediamine (V) upon heating at 120 C furnished the target compound, which was isolated as the corresponding hydrochloride salt.

 

 

EP 0994108; WO 9858918

In a closely related procedure, acid chloride (II), prepared by treatment of 2,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic acid (VI) with SOCl2 in hot toluene, was condensed with aminothiazole (I), yielding amide (III). Displacement of the ethyl ester group of (III) by N,N-diisopropyl ethanediamine (V) furnished diamide (VII). Finally, upon formation of the hydrochloride salt of (VII) in isopropanol, the 2-methoxy group was simultaneously cleaved, directly leading to the title compound.

 

CN103709191A

Acotiamide hydrochloride, chemical name: N_ [2_ (diisopropylamino) ethyl] -2- [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino ] thiazole-4-carboxamide hydrochloride, the following structure:

Figure CN103709191AD00041

  A test for the amine hydrochloride Japan Zeria Pharmaceutical Company and Astellas jointly developed acetylcholinesterase inhibitor class of prokinetic drugs, namely the treatment of functional dyspepsia drugs, is the world’s first approved specifically for the treatment of FD drugs, in June 2013 for the first time launched in Japan, under the trade name Acofide. Functional dyspepsia (Functional dyspepsia, FD) is a group of common symptoms include bloating, early satiety, burning sensation, belching, nausea, vomiting and abdominal discomfort and so difficult to describe, and no exact organic disease. Organic diseases because of lack of basic, functional dyspepsia harm to patients focus on the performance of gastrointestinal symptoms caused discomfort and possible impact on the quality of life in. Because some patients with functional dyspepsia symptoms caused by eating less, digestion and absorption efficiency is reduced, resulting in varying degrees of malnutrition (including nutrients are not full). With the people’s demands and improve the quality of life for functional dyspepsia know, the number of visits of the disease gradually increased, to become one of the most common disease of Gastroenterology partner waiting group. Such a high prevalence of functional dyspepsia treatment provides a huge market.

  The present synthesis method has been reported in less divided into four methods are described below:

  1, reference CN1084739C, synthetic route as shown below. Disadvantage of this patent is that: (I) using thionyl chloride and dichloroethane toxic, environmentally damaging substances; (2) demethylation low yield (64.6% to 86 reported in the literature %). Examples reported in this patent first and second step total yield was 84.6% and the total yield of the third-step reaction and recrystallization of 61%, the total yield of 51.6%.

Figure CN103709191AD00051

  The method, reported in the patent CN1063442C preparation A (page 25) reports (without reference to examples I and 6, referring to its general method). Patent CN102030654B (page 3) above: Step demethylation reaction generates a lot of by-products, it is difficult to take off only a selective protection of hydroxy groups, poor selectivity. Specific synthetic examples are shown below:

Figure CN103709191AD00052

  Preparation Method B 3 mentioned patent CN1063442C (prepared unprotected, p. 25), where the yield is very low two-step reaction. A test method for the preparation of amines referenced above example (Example 38) A test for specific preparation yield amine not mentioned in the text, but if you use the above method starting materials primary amino side reactions occur. Synthesis of solid concrete

Following is an example:

Figure CN103709191AD00061

reported that patent CN101006040B in Method 4. The first step demethylation can also use titanium tetrachloride and aluminum chloride; the second reaction can also be used phenol / thionyl chloride. Synthetic route are higher yield and purity (total yield 73%).

Figure CN103709191AD00062

  The method of synthesis of the above methods 3 patent CN1063442C reported, though not suitable for the synthesis of amine A test, but may be modified on this basis.

the above patents, CN1084739 reagents using dichloroethane, toxic, environmentally destructive, and the total yield is low, is not conducive to industrial production; patent CN102030654B mentioned Step demethylation The reaction produces a lot of by-products, it is difficult to take off only selective hydroxy protecting group, the reaction selectivity, more side effects.

Figure CN103709191AD00071

Example 4

[Amino-N- (2- tert-butoxycarbonyl group -4,5_ dimethoxybenzoyl)] _4_ Preparation of 2-methoxycarbonyl-1,3-thiazole: [0062] Step 1

  2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy-benzoic acid (100 g) was dissolved in dry toluene (400 ml) was added Boc20 (132 g) was stirred at rt for 3 hours at room temperature, was added a 10% aqueous citric acid (100 ml) and washed three times with purified water until neutral, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate was added (20 g) and dried 8 hours, filtered, and the filtrate was added thionyl chloride (64 g) and N, N-dimethyl- carboxamide (0.19 ml), followed by stirring 80 ° C for 4 hours, the compound was added 2-amino-4-methoxycarbonyl-1,3-thiazole (85 g), stirred for 5 hours at 100 ° C, the reaction was completed After cooling to room temperature, the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration, crystals were added to 1.6 liters of water, 400 g of ice was added with stirring, and added a mass ratio of 10% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution adjusted to pH 7.5, followed by stirring for 3 hours at room temperature, filtered The crystals were collected, washed with water, 60 ° C and dried to give the title compound (170 g).

Hl-NMR (DMSO, 400MHz) δ: 1.34 (s, 3H), 1.37 (s, 3H), 1.40 (s, 3H), 3.77 (s, 3H),

3.82 (s, 3H), 3.88 (s, 3H), 7.17 (s, 1H), 7.50 (s, 1H), 7.95 (s, 1H), 11.45 (bs, 1H).

Step 2: 2- [N- (2- hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] -4- [(2_ diisopropylamino ethyl) – aminocarbonyl] -1 , Preparation of 3-thiazole hydrochloride

The 2- [N- (2- tert-butoxycarbonyl group -4,5_ dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] _4_ methoxycarbonyl _1,3_ thiazole prepared (170 g) and N , N- diisopropyl-ethylenediamine (162 ml), N, N- dimethylacetamide (162 ml) was stirred at 135 ° C for 8 hours and cooled, 1-butanol (1.7 liters), with 0.5N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution and washed with saturated brine, the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, methanol (1.7 l), hydrogen chloride gas under cooling and stirred for 5 hours, the precipitate was collected by filtration, the crystals were washed with 2-propanol and water do recrystallized from a mixed solvent, to give the title compound. Melting point: 160 ° C.

[0067] Hl- bandit R (DMSO, 400ΜΗζ) δ: 1.33 (d, J = 6.4Hz, 6H); 1.36 (d, J = 6.4,6H), 3.17-3.20 (m, 2H); 3.57-3.69 ( m, 4H), 3.77 (s, 3H), 3.82 (s, 3H), 6.89 (s, 1H), 7.50 (s, 1H), 7.91 (s, 1H); 8

• 74 (t, 1H, J = 5.9Hz); 9.70 (s, 1H); 11.80 (s, 1H); 12.05-12.15 (bs, 1H).

 

CN 104045606

http://google.com/patents/CN104045606B?cl=en

Example 1: A test preparation for the amine hydrochloride

  In 500ml reaction flask was added 2,4, 5- trimethoxy benzoic acid (20 g, 94. 3mmol), 200 ml N, N- dimethylformamide. Was added TBTU (30.88 g, 113.2mmol), jealous% was added diisopropylethylamine (14.59g, 113. 2mmol), stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. Was added 2-aminothiazol 4-carboxylic acid methyl ester setback (14. 92 g, 94. 3mmol), DMAP (2. 30g, 18. 9mmol), was heated to 75 ° C, stirred for 24 hours. Added% Jealous diisopropylethylenediamine (27. 16g, 188. 6mmol), and heated to 140 ° C, stirred for 10 hours. After cooling, 400ml of n-butanol was added, stirred, allowed to stand for stratification. Take the upper, washed with saturated brine, 400ml, standing stratification. Take the upper, lower temperatures hydrogen chloride isopropanol solution of 120ml, precipitated solids. Vacuum filter cake into the oven blast 60 ° C and dried for 1 hour. A test was for amine hydrochloride (Compound V) 28. 5g, HPLC purity 99%, yield 62%.

1HNMR (400 MHz, dmso) 8 12.10 (s, 1H), 11.77 (s, 1H), 9.74 (s, 1H), 8.72 (t, / = 5.8 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (s, 1H) , 7.48 (s, 1H), 6.89 (s, 1H), 3.80 (s, 3H), 3.76 (s, 3H), 3.62 (d, / = 6.6 Hz, 4H), 3.16 (d, / = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 1.32 (dd, / = 13. 4,6. 3 Hz, 12H).

2 Example: A test preparation for the amine hydrochloride

added 2, 4, 5- trimethoxy benzoic acid (20g, 94. 3mmol) in 500ml reaction flask, 200ml% Jealous dimethylacetamide. Was added TBTU (30.88g, 113. 2mmol), was added diisopropylethylamine jealous% (14. 59g, 113. 2mmol)), followed by stirring at room temperature for 2 hours. Was added 2-aminothiazol-4-carboxylate (14. 92g, 94. 3mmol), DMAP (2. 3g, 18. 9mmol), was heated to 75 ° C, stirred for 24 hours. Added% Jealous diisopropylethylenediamine (27. 16g, 188. 6mmol), and heated to 140 ° C, stirred for 10 hours. After cooling, 400ml of n-butanol was added, stirred, allowed to stand for stratification. Take the upper, washed with saturated brine, 400ml, standing stratification. Take the upper, lower temperatures hydrogen chloride isopropanol solution of 120ml, precipitate a solid, vacuum filtration, cake into the oven blast 60 ° C and dried for 1 hour. A test was for amine hydrochloride (Compound V) 31. 7 g, HPLC purity 99%, yield 69%.

 

 

CN103387552A

A test for the amine hydrochloride (Z-338) is a new Ml Japan Zeria company’s original research, M2 receptor antagonist, for the treatment of functional dyspepsia clinic.

Chinese patent application describes doxorubicin hydrochloride CN200580028537 test for amines (Z-338) preparation, reaction

Process is as follows.

Figure CN103387552AD00031

A test for the amine hydrochloride (z-338) Compound Patent Application (CN96194002.6) choosing 2,4,5-trimethoxy benzoic acid as a starting material first with 2-aminothiazol-4-carboxylate reacts 2- [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] -1,3-thiazole-4-carboxylate, 2-methyl-benzene and then removed, the yield of this method lower demethylation selectivity bad. So choose the first 2-methyl-removal before subsequent reaction better.

The first patent application CN200580028537 2_ hydroxyl _4,5_ dimethoxy benzoic acid and triphenyl phosphite placed in toluene, was added a few drops of concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst under reflux to give the intermediate 2-hydroxy – 4,5-dimethoxy-phenyl benzoate. After the above intermediate with 2-aminothiazol-4-carboxylate in place of toluene, was added triphenyl borate reacted, treated to give 2- [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxy- benzoyl) amino] -1,3-thiazole-4-carboxylate, and finally with N, N- diisopropylethylamine in toluene diamine salt in the system after the reaction.

 Figure CN103387552AD00041

Example 1

  2 – [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] thiazole Synthesis _1,3_ _4_ carboxylate

[0030] triphosgene dissolved in 90ml CH2Cl2 19.0g placed in a four-necked flask, under N2 stream, the 2_ hydroxyl _4,5_ dimethoxy benzoic acid (22.2g) was dissolved in 150ml CH2Cl2 and 45ml pyridine, at four-necked flask temperature dropped 0_5 ° C under ice-salt bath. Dropping finished within 45min, kept cold stirred lOmin. After warm to room temperature (20 ° C) was stirred for 50min, the reaction was stopped. Pressure filtration, and the filtrate by rotary evaporation at room temperature to a constant weight, adding 35g 2- aminothiazol-4-carboxylate and 240ml 1,2_ dichloroethane and heated to reflux, the reaction 6h. After stopping the cooling, suction filtration, washed with methanol and the resulting solid was refluxed in 40ml, hot filtration to give a white solid 32.18g, yield 85%. M + Na + 361; 2M + Na + 699. [0031] Example 2

2 – [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] thiazole Synthesis _1,3_ _4_ carboxylate

triphosgene dissolved in 15ml CH2Cl2 placed 3.0g four-necked flask, under N2 stream, the 2_ hydroxyl _4,5_ dimethoxy benzoic acid (3.0g) was dissolved in pyridine 30ml CH2Cl2 and 61,111, in four-necked flask temperature dropped 0_5 ° C under ice-salt bath. 20min Upon completion, kept cold stirring lh. After warm to room temperature (20 ° C) and stirred overnight, 24h after stopping the reaction. Rotary evaporation at room temperature to a constant weight is added 3.5g 2- aminothiazol-4-carboxylate and 30ml 1,2- dichloroethane burning, heated to reflux, the reaction 6h. The solvent was evaporated after stopping, add 30ml methanol reflux filtration to give a white solid 4.1g, 20ml methanol was added to the mother liquor evaporated leaching and washing a white solid 0.85g. After the merger was solid 4.95g, yield 97%.

Example 3

  2 – [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] thiazole Synthesis _1,3_ _4_ carboxylate

The diphosgene 3.0g was dissolved into 15ml CH2Cl2 four-necked flask, under N2 stream, the 2_ hydroxyl _4,5_ dimethoxy benzoic acid (3.0g) was dissolved in 30ml CH2Cl2 and 61,111 pyridine, Under ice-salt bath temperature dropped a four-necked flask 0_5 ° C. 20min Upon completion, kept cold stirring lh. After warm to room temperature (20 ° C) and stirred overnight, 24h after stopping the reaction. Rotary evaporation at room temperature to a constant weight is added 3.5g 2- aminothiazol-4-carboxylate and 30ml 1,2- dichloroethane burning, heated to reflux, the reaction 6h. After the solvent was evaporated and stopped by adding 30ml of methanol was refluxed for leaching to give a white solid 4.57g, yield 89.6%.

  Example 4

  2 – [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] thiazole Synthesis _1,3_ _4_ carboxylate

  triphosgene dissolved in 15ml CH2Cl2 placed 3.0g four-necked flask, under N2 stream, the 2_ hydroxyl _4,5_ dimethoxy benzoic acid (3.0g) `pyridine was dissolved in 30ml CH2Cl2 and 61 111, Under ice-salt bath temperature dropped a four-necked flask 0_5 ° C. 20min Upon completion, kept cold stirring lh. After warm to room temperature (20 ° C) and stirred overnight, 24h after stopping the reaction. Rotary evaporation at room temperature to a constant weight is added 3.7g 2- aminothiazol-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester and 30ml 1,2- dichloroethane burning, heated to reflux, the reaction 6h. The solvent was evaporated after stopping, add 30ml methanol reflux filtration to give a white solid 3.8g, 20ml methanol was added to the mother liquor evaporated leaching and washing a white solid 0.54g. After the merger was solid 4.34g, yield 81.4%. M + Na + 375.

Example 5

  N- [2_ (diisopropylamino) ethyl] -2 – [(hydroxy -4,5_ 2_ dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] -1,3-thiazol-4-carboxamide amide hydrochloride

  2 – [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] thiazole _4_ _1,3_ carboxylate and 1.5g IOml 1,4- dioxane placed in a four-necked flask, N2 gas shielded at 75 ° C was added dropwise 1.5ml N, N- diisopropyl-ethylenediamine, rose after reflux, the reaction was stirred for 6 hours. The reaction was stopped, the solvent was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure, 30ml CH2Cl2 was added dissolved in 20ml10% NaCl solution was washed twice, and then the organic solvent was evaporated to dryness. IOml methanol was added, concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to adjust Xeon acidic. Evaporated methanol, washed with acetone to give the product 2.08g, yield 96.3%. M + H 451, MH 449.

Example 6

[0044] N- [2- (diisopropylamino) ethyl] -2 – [(hydroxy _4,5_ 2_ dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] -1,3-thiazol-4-carboxamide amide hydrochloride

2 – [(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxybenzoyl) amino] thiazole _4_ _1,3_ carboxylate and 1.5g IOml 1,4- dioxane placed in a four-necked flask, N2 gas shielded at 75 ° C was added dropwise 1.5ml N, N- diisopropyl-ethylenediamine, rose after reflux, the reaction was stirred for 6 hours. The reaction was stopped, the solvent was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure, 30ml CH2Cl2 was added dissolved in 20ml10% NaCl solution was washed twice, and then the organic solvent was evaporated to dryness. IOml methanol was added, concentrated hydrochloric acid was added to adjust Xeon acidic. Evaporated methanol, washed with acetone to give the product 1.76g, yield 84.7%.

PAPER

A Three-Step Synthesis of Acotiamide for the Treatment of Patients with Functional Dyspepsia

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong P.R. China
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2015, 19 (12), pp 2006–2011
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.5b00256
Publication Date (Web): November 13, 2015
Copyright © 2015 American Chemical Society
*E-mail: chm_zhenggx@ujn.edu.cn. Tel.: +8653182765841.

Abstract

Abstract Image

A three-step synthesis of acotiamide is described. The agent is marketed in Japan for treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia. We designed a one-pot method to prepare the key intermediate 5a from 2 via an acyl chloride and amide and then reacted with 6 to obtain 1 under solvent-free condition. With the use of DCC, the unavoidable impurity 5b was also successfully converted into the desired 1. After isolation of 1, we carried forward to the next step of HCl salt formation, which was proved to be a very effective procedure for the removal of practically all major impurities. The process is cost-effective, simple to operate, and easy to scale-up.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.oprd.5b00256

see………….http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/acs.oprd.5b00256/suppl_file/op5b00256_si_001.pdf

 

 

 

References

Matsueda K, Hongo M, Tack J, Aoki H, Saito Y, Kato H (January 2010). “Clinical trial: dose-dependent therapeutic efficacy of acotiamide hydrochloride (Z-338) in patients with functional dyspepsia – 100 mg t.i.d. is an optimal dosage”. Neurogastroenterology and Motility : the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society 22 (6): 618–e173. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2009.01449.x. PMID 20059698.

: Mayanagi S, Kishino M, Kitagawa Y, Sunamura M. Efficacy of acotiamide in combination with esomeprazole for functional dyspepsia refractory to proton-pump inhibitor monotherapy. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2014;234(3):237-40. PubMed PMID: 25382232.

2: Zai H, Matsueda K, Kusano M, Urita Y, Saito Y, Kato H. Effect of acotiamide on gastric emptying in healthy adult humans. Eur J Clin Invest. 2014 Dec;44(12):1215-21. doi: 10.1111/eci.12367. PubMed PMID: 25370953.

3: Xiao G, Xie X, Fan J, Deng J, Tan S, Zhu Y, Guo Q, Wan C. Efficacy and safety of acotiamide for the treatment of functional dyspepsia: systematic review and meta-analysis. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014;2014:541950. doi: 10.1155/2014/541950. Epub 2014 Aug 12. PubMed PMID: 25197703; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4146483.

4: Sun Y, Song G, McCallum RW. Evaluation of acotiamide for the treatment of functional dyspepsia. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2014 Aug;10(8):1161-8. doi: 10.1517/17425255.2014.920320. Epub 2014 May 31. PubMed PMID: 24881488.

5: Matsunaga Y, Tanaka T, Saito Y, Kato H, Takei M. [Pharmacological and clinical profile of acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate (Acofide(®) Tablets 100 mg), a novel therapeutic agent for functional dyspepsia (FD)]. Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2014 Feb;143(2):84-94. Review. Japanese. PubMed PMID: 24531902.

6: Nowlan ML, Scott LJ. Acotiamide: first global approval. Drugs. 2013 Aug;73(12):1377-83. doi: 10.1007/s40265-013-0100-9. Erratum in: Drugs. 2014 Jun;74(9):1059. Nolan, Mary L [corrected to Nowlan, Mary L]. PubMed PMID: 23881665.

7: Altan E, Masaoka T, Farré R, Tack J. Acotiamide, a novel gastroprokinetic for the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia: postprandial distress syndrome. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Sep;6(5):533-44. doi: 10.1586/egh.12.34. Review. PubMed PMID: 23061703.

8: Nagahama K, Matsunaga Y, Kawachi M, Ito K, Tanaka T, Hori Y, Oka H, Takei M. Acotiamide, a new orally active acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, stimulates gastrointestinal motor activity in conscious dogs. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012 Jun;24(6):566-74, e256. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2012.01912.x. Epub 2012 Mar 19. PubMed PMID: 22429221.

9: Kusunoki H, Haruma K, Manabe N, Imamura H, Kamada T, Shiotani A, Hata J, Sugioka H, Saito Y, Kato H, Tack J. Therapeutic efficacy of acotiamide in patients with functional dyspepsia based on enhanced postprandial gastric accommodation and emptying: randomized controlled study evaluation by real-time ultrasonography. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2012 Jun;24(6):540-5, e250-1. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2982.2012.01897.x. Epub 2012 Mar 4. PubMed PMID: 22385472.

10: McLarnon A. Dyspepsia: Acotiamide can relieve symptoms of functional dyspepsia. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012 Jan 17;9(2):62. doi: 10.1038/nrgastro.2011.262. PubMed PMID: 22249733.

 

CN103665023A * Dec 23, 2013 Mar 26, 2014 华润赛科药业有限责任公司 Synthetic method of acotiamide hydrochloride
CN103980226A * May 10, 2014 Aug 13, 2014 杭州新博思生物医药有限公司 Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate crystal form and preparation method thereof
CN104031001A * Jun 30, 2014 Sep 10, 2014 山东诚创医药技术开发有限公司 Method for preparing 2-(N-(2,4,5-trimothoxyaniline) amino]-4-carbethoxy-1,3-thiazole by using one-pot process
CN104031001B * Jun 30, 2014 Sep 30, 2015 山东诚创医药技术开发有限公司 一锅烩制备2-[n-(2,4,5-三甲氧基苯甲胺基)氨基]-4-乙氧羰基-1,3-噻唑的方法
CN104045606A * Jul 11, 2014 Sep 17, 2014 杭州新博思生物医药有限公司 One-pot method for preparing acotiamide hydrochloride
CN104045606B * Jul 11, 2014 Sep 30, 2015 杭州新博思生物医药有限公司 一锅法制备阿考替胺盐酸盐的方法
CN103665023A * Dec 23, 2013 Mar 26, 2014 华润赛科药业有限责任公司 Synthetic method of acotiamide hydrochloride
CN104045606A * Jul 11, 2014 Sep 17, 2014 杭州新博思生物医药有限公司 One-pot method for preparing acotiamide hydrochloride
CN104045606B * Jul 11, 2014 Sep 30, 2015 杭州新博思生物医药有限公司 一锅法制备阿考替胺盐酸盐的方法
Acotiamide
Acotiamide.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-{2-[Bis(1-methylethyl)amino]ethyl}-2-{[(2-hydroxy-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl]amino}-1,3-thiazole-4-carboxamide
Clinical data
Legal status
  • Uncontrolled
Routes of
administration
Oral
Identifiers
CAS Number 185106-16-5 
ATC code None
PubChem CID: 5282338
ChemSpider 4445505 Yes
UNII D42OWK5383 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL2107723 
Chemical data
Formula C21H30N4O5S
Molecular mass 450.55 g/mol

Approval in Japan for Treating Functional Dyspepsia with Acofide®

Press Release


Tokyo, March 25, 2013
– Zeria Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. (Tokyo: 4559; “Zeria”) and Astellas Pharma Inc. (Tokyo: 4503; “Astellas”) announced today that as of March 25, Zeria has obtained the marketing approval of Acofide® Tablets 100mg (nonproprietary name: acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate; “Acofide”; Zeria’sdevelopment code: “Z-338”; Astellas’s development code: “YM443”) for the treatment of functional dyspepsia(FD) from the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan. Acofide has been co-developed by both companies.

Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate is a new chemical entity originated by Zeria, and inhibits peripheralacetylcholinesterase activities. Acetylcholine is an important neurotransmitter to regulate gastrointestinalmotility, and through the inhibition of degradation of acetylcholine, Acofide improves the impaired gastricmotility and delayed gastric emptying, and consequently the subjective symptoms of FD such as postprandialfullness, upper abdominal bloating, and early satiation.

Acofide, the world first FD treatment which demonstrated efficacy in the patients with FD diagnosed by the Rome III, will be launched in Japan ahead of the rest of the world.Also, since Acofide will be the first treatment with FD indication, Zeria and Astellas will co-promote Acofide for the sake of the increase of disease awareness of FD, the prompt market penetration, and the maximization of product potential.

In March 2008, Zeria and Astellas concluded the agreement for the co-development and co-marketing of Acofide and, subsequently conducted the co-development. In September 2010, Zeria submitted the application for marketing approval to the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare in Japan.

We believe that Acofide will contribute to alleviate the subjective symptoms and improve QOL of patients with FD.

Summary of Approval

Product name: Acofide® Tablets 100mg

Nonproprietary name: Acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate

Formulation: Tablet

Indication: Postprandial fullness, upper abdominal bloating, and early satiation due to functional dyspepsia

Dosage regimen: Normally in adults, 100mg of acotiamide hydrochloride hydrate is taken orally three times per day before a meal.

About Functional Dyspepsia (FD)

According to the Rome III, FD is a gastrointestinal disease comprised of subjective symptoms including postprandial fullness, early satiation and epigastric pain without any organic abnormality on gastrointestinal tract. The etiology of FD is still unclear, but it has been shown that delayed gastric emptying is closely associated with FD.

For inquiries or additional information

Zeria Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

Public Relations

TEL:+81-3-3661-1039, FAX:+81-3-3663-4203

http://www.zeria.co.jp/english

Astellas Pharma Inc.

Corporate Communications

TEL: +81-3-3244-3201, FAX:+81-3-5201-7473

http://www.astellas.com/en

////////////

COC1=CC(O)=C(C=C1OC)C(=O)NC1=NC(=CS1)C(=O)NCCN(C(C)C)C(C)C

Astellas receives approval of Irribow in Japan


File:Ramosetron.svg

ramosetron

19 August 2013

Irribow OD Tablet is a drug for treating IBS-D developed using WOWTAB which is one of the Astellas’ proprietary drug delivery technologies.

Singapore: Astellas Pharma has obtained the marketing approval of Irribow OD 1 Tablets 2.5µg / 5µg (generic name: ramosetron hydrochloride) in Japan. They were approved for an additional formulation of Irribow Tablets with the indication of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D ) in male.

Read more at: http://www.biospectrumasia.com/biospectrum/news/193695/astellas-receives-approval-irribow-japan#.UhHORqI3CSo

Ramosetron (INN) is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist for the treatment of nausea and vomiting.[1] Ramosetron is also indicated for a treatment of “diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome in males”.[2] In India it is marketed under the brand name of“IBset”.
It is only licensed for use in Japan and selected Southeast Asian countries. In Japan it is sold under the tradename Iribo (イリボー). [3] Elsewhere it is commonly sold under the tradename Nasea and in India as Nozia (300 mcg/ml Inj. & 100 mcg Tab.) [4]

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