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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Daprodustat, ダプロデュスタット


ChemSpider 2D Image | daprodustat | C19H27N3O6

Figure imgf000039_0001Daprodustat.png

Daprodustat, GSK1278863

ダプロデュスタット

CAS 960539-70-2

GSK1278863; GSK 1278863; GSK-1278863; Daprodustat

C19H27N3O6
Exact Mass: 393.18999

(1,3-dicyclohexyl-2,4,6-trioxohexahydropyrimidine-5-carbonyl)glycine

N-[(l,3-dicyclohexyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-dioxo-l,2,3,4- tetrahydro-5-pyrimidinyl)carbonyl]glycine

2-(1,3-dicyclohexyl-2,4,6-triohexahydropyrimidine-5-carboxamide acetic acid
Mechanism of Action: HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor
Indication: anemia, diabetic wounds, and reduction of ischemic complications
Development Stage: Phase II
Developer:GlaxoSmithKline

UNII:JVR38ZM64B

ダプロデュスタット
Daprodustat

C19H27N3O6 : 393.43
[960539-70-2]

Daprodustat , also known as GSK1278863, is a novel HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) stabilization by HIF-prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors may improve ischemic conditions such as peripheral artery disease (PAD). Short-term treatment with a novel HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor (GSK1278863) failed to improve measures of performance in subjects with claudication-limited peripheral artery disease

  • Originator GlaxoSmithKline
  • Class Antianaemics; Pyrimidines; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of ActionErythropoiesis stimulants; Prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors
  • Phase II Anaemia; Perioperative ischaemia
  • Phase I Diabetic foot ulcer; Tendon injuries
  • DiscontinuedPeripheral arterial disorders

Most Recent Events

  • 27 Jul 2015No recent reports of development identified – Phase-II for Anaemia in India and New Zealand (PO)
  • 27 Jul 2015Daprodustat is still in phase II trials for Anaemia in the USA, Australia, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Poland, Russia, Spain, South Korea, and United Kingdom
  • 01 Jun 2015GlaxoSmithKline completes a phase I trial in Tendon injuries (In volunteers) in USA (PO) (NCT02231190)
WHO ATC code: B03 (Antianemic Preparations)C (Cardiovascular System)

C01 (Cardiac Therapy)

D03 (Preparations for Treatment of Wounds and Ulcers)

M09A-X (Other drugs for disorders of the musculo-skeletal system)

EPhMRA code: B3 (Anti-Anaemic Preparations)C1 (Cardiac Therapy)

C6A (Other Cardiovascular Products)

D3A (Wound Healing Agents)

M5X (All Other Musculoskeletal Products)

Daprodustat (INN) (GSK1278863) is a drug which acts as a HIF prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor and thereby increases endogenous production of erythropoietin, which stimulates production of hemoglobin and red blood cells. It is in Phase III clinical trials for the treatment of anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease.[1][2] Due to its potential applications in athletic doping, it has also been incorporated into screens for performance-enhancing drugs.[3]

SYN 1

SYN 2

PATENT

WO 2007150011

https://www.google.com.ar/patents/WO2007150011A2

Illustrated Methods of preparation

Scheme 1

Figure imgf000023_0001

a) 1. NaH, THF, rt 2. R1NCO, 60 0C; b) 1. NaH, THF or dioxane, rt 2. R4NCX, heat; c) H2NCH2CO2H, DBU, EtOH, 1600C, microwave.

Scheme 2

Figure imgf000023_0002

a) R1NH2, CH2Cl2 or R1NH2-HCl, base, CH2Cl2; b) CH2(C(O)Cl)2, CH2Cl2, reflux or CH2(CO2Et)2, NaOEt, MeO(CH2)2OH, reflux or 1. EtO2CCH2COCl, CHCl3, 70 0C 2.

DBU, CHCl3, 70 0C; c) 1. YCNCH2CO2Et,, EtPr’2N, CHCl3 or CH2Cl2 2. aq NaOH, EtOH, rt. Scheme 3 (for R1 = R4)

a) CDI,

Figure imgf000024_0001

DMF, 70 0C or , EtOAc, rt

Scheme 4

Figure imgf000024_0002

a) OCNCH2CO2Et, EtPr’2N, CHCl3 or CH2Cl2; b) 1. R1HaI, Na/K2CO3, DMF or DMA, 100 0C or R1HaI, pol-BEMP, DMF, 120 0C, microwave 2. aq NaOH, MeOH or EtOH, rt.

Scheme 5

Figure imgf000024_0003

a) 1. CH2(CO2H)2, THF, O 0C – rt 2. EtOH, reflux; b) 1. OCNCH2CO2Et, EtPr’2N, CH2Cl2 2. aq NaOH, EtOH, rt.

Scheme 6

Figure imgf000024_0004

a) 1. Phthalimide, DIAD, PPh3, THF 2. (NH2)2, EtOH, reflux.

Scheme 7

Figure imgf000025_0001

a) Ac2O, AcOH, 130 0C.

Example 18

Figure imgf000039_0001

N-T(1 ,3-Dicvclohexyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-dioxo- 1 ,2,3,4-tetrahvdro-5-pyrimidinyl)carbonyl1grycine Method 1

18.1a) h3-Dicvclohexyl-2A6(lH,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione. Dicyclohexylurea (3.0 g, 13.39 mmoles) was stirred in chloroform (80 mL) and treated with a solution of malonyl dichloride (1.3 mL, 13.39 mmoles) in chloroform (20 mL), added dropwise under argon. The mixture was heated at 500C for 4 hours, wasahed with 1 molar hydrochloric acid and evaporated onto silica gel. Flash chromatography (10-30% ethyl acetate in hexane) to give the title compound (2.13 g, 55%). 1Η NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6) δ ppm 4.46 (tt, J=12.13, 3.54 Hz, 2 H), 3.69 (s, 2 H), 2.15 (qd, J=12.46, 3.28 Hz, 4 H), 1.77 (d, J=13.14 Hz, 4 H), 1.59 (t, J=12.76 Hz, 6 H), 1.26 (q, J=12.97 Hz, 4 H), 1.04 – 1.16 (m, 2 H)

18.1b) N-r(1.3-Dicvclohexyl-6-hvdroxy-2.4-dioxo-1.2.3.4-tetrahvdro-5- pyrimidinvDcarbonyll glycine. Ethyl isocyanatoacetate (802 uL, 7.15 mmoles) was added to a mixture of l,3-dicyclohexyl-2,4,6(lH,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione (2.1 g, 7.15 mmoles) and diisopropylethylamine (2.47 mL, 14.3 mmoles) in dichloromethane (100 mL) and stirred overnight. The reaction mixture was washed with 1 molar hydrochloric acid (x2) and evaporated. The residue was dissolved in ethanol (10 mL) and treated with 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide (5 mL). The mixture was stirred for 72 hours, acidified and extracted into ethyl acetate. Some ester remained, therefore the solution was evaporated and ther residue was dissolved in 1 molar soldium hydroxide solution with warming and strred for 2 hours. The mixture was acidified with IM HCl and extracted with ethyl acetate (x2). The combined extracts were washed with 1 molar hydrochloric acid , dried and evaporated to a solid which was slurried in a mixture of diethyl ether and hexane, collected, washed with the same solvent mixture and dried to give the title compound (1.86 g, 66%). IH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^6) δ ppm 13.07 (br. s., 1 H), 10.19 (t, J=5.31 Hz, 1 H), 4.63 (t, J=10.99 Hz, 2 H), 4.12 (d, J=5.56 Hz, 2 H), 2.27 (q, J=I 1.71 Hz, 4 H), 1.79 (d, J=12.88 Hz, 4 H), 1.50 – 1.69 (m, 6 H), 1.28 (q, J=12.97 Hz, 4 H), 1.12 (q, J=12.72 Hz, 2 H)

Method 2

18.2a) 1.3-Dicvclohexyl-2.4.6πH.3H.5H)-pyrimidinetrione. A solution of N5N- dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (254 g; 1.23 mol.) in anhydrous TΗF (700 mL) was added dropwise to a cold (0 0C) solution of malonic acid (64.1 g; 0.616 mol.) in anhydrous TΗF (300 mL) over a period of- 30 minutes. The mixture was stirred and allowed to warm to room temperature over 2 h. (After 1 h, the mixture became very thick with precipitate so further anhydrous TΗF (500 mL) was added to facilitate agitation.). The mixture was filtered and the filtrate evaporated to afford a yellow solid which was immediately slurried in ethanol (1 L) and heated to reflux temperature. The mixture was then allowed to cool to room temperature then filtered and the solid washed with cold ethanol (250 mL) to afford the title compound (129.4 g; 72%) as a colorless solid. 1Η NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-(Z6) δ ppm 1.03 – 1.18 (m, 2 H) 1.18 – 1.34 (m, 4 H) 1.59 (t, J=13.14 Hz, 6 H) 1.76 (d, J=12.88 Hz, 4 H) 2.04 – 2.24 (m, 4 H) 3.69 (s, 2 H) 4.35 – 4.54 (m, 2 H).

18.2b) Ethyl N-[(l .3-dicvclohexyl-6-hvdroxy-2.4-dioxo- 1.2.3.4-tetrahydro-5- pyrimidinyPcarbonyll glycinate. A solution of l,3-dicyclohexyl-2,4,6(lH,3H,5H)-pyrimidinetrione (120.0 g; 0.41 mol.) and diisopropylethylamine (105.8 g; 0.82 mol.) in dichloromethane (1 L) was stirred and treated dropwise with a solution of ethyl isocyanatoacetate (53.0 g; 0.41 mol.) in dichloromethane (500 mL) and the mixture was then stirred at room temperature overnight. The mixture was then treated dropwise with 6M aq. hydrochloric acid (500 mL) and the separated organic layer was dried and evaporated. The resulting solid was slurried in hexanes (500 mL) and heated to reflux temperature. The mixture was then allowed to cool and filtered to afford ethyl N- [(1 ,3-dicyclohexyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-dioxo- 1 ,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-pyrimidinyl)carbonyl]glycinate (159.1 g; 92%) as a cream powder. IH NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-,/) δ ppm 1.24 (s, 2 H) 1.37 (s, 7 H) 1.52 – 1.76 (m, 6 H) 1.78 – 1.94 (m, 4 H) 2.25 – 2.48 (m, 4 H) 4.17 (d, J=5.81 Hz, 2 H) 4.28 (q, J=7.24 Hz, 2 H) 4.74 (s, 2 H) 10.37 (t, J=4.67 Hz, 1 H). 18.2c)

N-rπ^-Dicyclohexyl-ό-hydroxy^^-dioxo-l^J^-tetralivdro-S- pyrimidinyDcarbonyll glycine. A stirred suspension of ethyl Ν-[(l,3-dicyclohexyl-6-hydroxy-2,4- dioxo-l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-5-pyrimidinyl)carbonyl]glycinate (159.0 g; 0.377 mol.) in ethanol (1.5 L) was treated dropwise with 6M aq. Sodium hydroxide (250 mL) and stirred at room temperature for 3 h. The solution was then acidified by the dropwise addition of 6M aq. hydrochloric acid (300 mL), diluted with water (IL) and then filtered. The crude solid was slurried in water (2 L) then stirred vigorously and heated at 35 0C for 1 h and filtered and dried. The solid material (~ 138 g) was then crystallized from glacial acetic acid (1.5 L) (with hot filtration to remove a small amount of insoluble material). The solid, which crystallized upon cooling, was collected and washed with cold glacial acetic acid (3 x 100 mL) to afford N-[(l,3-dicyclohexyl-6-hydroxy-2,4-dioxo-l,2,3,4- tetrahydro-5-pyrimidinyl)carbonyl]glycine (116.2 g; 78%) as a colorless solid.

IH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-(Z6) δ ppm 1.11 (d, J=12.88 Hz, 2 H) 1.27 (q, J=12.80 Hz, 4 H) 1.62 (s, 6 H) 1.70 – 1.90 (m, J=12.88 Hz, 4 H) 2.11 – 2.44 (m, 4 H) 4.11 (d, J=5.81 Hz, 2 H) 4.45 – 4.77 (m, 2 H) 10.19 (t, J=5.81 Hz, 1 H) 13.08 (s, 1 H).

References

  1. Jump up^ Schmid H, Jelkmann W. Investigational therapies for renal disease-induced anemia. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2016 Aug;25(8):901-16. doi:10.1080/13543784.2016.1182981PMID 27122198. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. Jump up^ Ariazi JL, Duffy KJ, Adams DF, Fitch DM, Luo L, Pappalardi M, Biju M, DiFilippo EH, Shaw T, Wiggall K, Erickson-Miller C. Discovery and Preclinical Characterization of GSK1278863 (Daprodustat), a Small Molecule Hypoxia Inducible Factor-Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor for Anemia. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2017 Dec;363(3):336-347. doi:10.1124/jpet.117.242503PMID 28928122. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. Jump up^ Thevis M, Milosovich S, Licea-Perez H, Knecht D, Cavalier T, Schänzer W. Mass spectrometric characterization of a prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor GSK1278863, its bishydroxylated metabolite, and its implementation into routine doping controls. Drug Test Anal. 2016 Aug;8(8):858-63. doi:10.1002/dta.1870PMID 26361079. Missing or empty |title= (help)
Daprodustat
Daprodustat structure.png
Clinical data
Synonyms GSK1278863
ATC code
  • None
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H27N3O6
Molar mass 393.44 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

//////////////Daprodustat, GSK1278863, ダプロデュスタット , HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, anemia, diabetic wounds, reduction of ischemic complications, Phase II, GlaxoSmithKline

  1. Daprodustat
  2. 960539-70-2
  3. GSK1278863
  4. UNII-JVR38ZM64B
  5. GSK-1278863
  6. JVR38ZM64B
  7. N-((1,3-Dicyclohexylhexahydro-2,4,6-trioxopyrimidin-5-yl)carbonyl)glycine
  8. Daprodustat [USAN:INN]
  9. GSK 1278863
  10. D0F6JC
  11. Daprodustat(GSK1278863)
  12. Daprodustat; GSK1278863
  13. Daprodustat (JAN/USAN/INN)
  14. GTPL8455
  15. Daprodustat (GSK1278863)
  16. CHEMBL3544988
  17. BCP16766
  18. EX-A1121
  19. KS-00000M8Z
  20. s8171

C1CCC(CC1)N2C(=O)C(C(=O)N(C2=O)C3CCCCC3)C(=O)NCC(=O)O

sNDA – FDA accepts AMAG Feraheme (Ferumoxytol) sNDA for review


Feraheme (ferumoxytol)

Iron(II,III) oxide

Fe3O4

CUT PASTE OF INFO….

7 MAR 2013

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review AMAG Pharmaceuticals’ supplemental new drug application (sNDA) for Feraheme (ferumoxytol) injection for Intravenous (IV) use.

The sNDA filed is to expand the indication for ferumoxytol for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who have failed or could not take oral iron treatment.

Ferumoxytol is currently indicated for oral use for the treatment of IDA in adult patients with CKD, according to the company.

The sNDA included the data from a global phase III program, which included two phase III clinical trials such as as IDA-301 (placebo comparator) and IDA-302 (active comparator).

The trials, which enrolled 1,400 patients, evaluated the use of ferumoxytol in a broad range of adult IDA patients, all of whom had failed or could not take oral iron treatment.

Both studies achieved the primary efficacy endpoints with statistically significant improvements in hemoglobin from baseline to the 35-day.

The studies, which also included patient-reported outcomes data as pre-specified secondary and exploratory endpoints, found no new safety signals, outside of those described in the current Feraheme (ferumoxytol) label, were observed with ferumoxytol treatment in these studies, claims the company.

In response to the application, the FDA said it will complete the review of Feraheme sNDA by 21 October 2013.

 

 

Feraheme, an iron replacement product, is a non-stoichiometric magnetite (superparamagnetic iron oxide) coated with polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethylether. The overall colloidal particle size is 17-31 nm in diameter. The chemical formula of Feraheme is Fe5874O8752-C11719H18682O9933Na414 with an apparent molecular weight of 750 kDa.

Feraheme injection is an aqueous colloidal product that is formulated with mannitol. It is a black to reddish brown liquid, and is provided in single use vials containing 510 mg of elemental iron. Each mL of the sterile colloidal solution of Feraheme injection contains 30 mg of elemental iron and 44 mg of mannitol, and has low bleomycin-detectable iron. The formulation is isotonic with an osmolality of 270-330 mOsm/kg. The product contains no preservatives, and has a pH of 6 to 8.

Ferumoxytol

2D chemical structure of 1309-38-2

STRUCTURE SOURCE http://chem.sis.nlm.nih.gov/chemidplus/rn/1309-38-2

EMA DOC   http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/002215/WC500129751.pdf

Molecular Formulas

  • Fe.O
  • Fe3-O4

Molecular Weight

  • 231.531

Ferumoxytol [USAN]
RN: 1309-38-2

Polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyl ether-coated non-stoichiometric magnetite. Ferumoxytol is a superparamagnetic iron oxide that is coated with a low molecular weight semi-synthetic carbohydrate, polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyl ether. The iron oxide is a superparamagnetic form of non-stoichiometric magnetite with crystal size of 6.2 to 7.3 nm. In solution, the colloidal particle of ferumoxytol has a Stokes diameter of 18-20 nm. Molecular weight is approximately 308,000

Iron oxide (Fe3O4). It is a black ore of IRON that forms opaque crystals and exerts strong magnetism. The NANOPARTICLES; and MICROSPHERES of its mineral form, magnetite, have many biomedical applications.

Ferumoxytol is the generic ingredient in one branded drug marketed by Amag Pharms Inc and is included in one NDA. There are six patents protecting this compound and one Paragraph IV challenge. Additional information is available in the individual branded drug profile pages.

This ingredient has eleven patent family members in ten countries.

There is one drug master file entry for ferumoxytol. One supplier is listed for this compound.

Phase II

Cas 722492-56-0

Launched – 2009, Anemia, iron deficiency

7228
AMI-7228
Code-7228

A superparamagnetic iron oxide (non-stoichiometric magnetite) coated with a low molecular weight semi-synthetic carbohydrate polyglucose carboxymethyl ether; USAN (OO-74) (Advanced Magnetics, Cambridge, MA, USA)

Other Names

  • C 7228
  • Code 7228
  • Cytogen
  • Feraheme
  • Rienso

 

Superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with a low molecular weight semi-synthetic carbohydrate polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyl ether. The iron oxide is a superparamagnetic form of non-stoichiometric magnetite with crystal size of 6.2 to 7.3 nm. In solution, the colloidal particle has a Stokes diameter of 18-20 nm

CLICK ON IMAGE

 

CLICK O IMAGE

Feraheme, an iron replacement product, is a non-stoichiometric magnetite (superparamagnetic iron oxide) coated with polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethylether. The overall colloidal particle size is 17-31 nm in diameter. The chemical formula of Feraheme is Fe5874O8752C11719H18682O9933Na414 with an apparent molecular weight of 750 kDa.

Feraheme Injection is an aqueous colloidal product that is formulated with mannitol. It is a black to reddish brown liquid, and is provided in single use vials containing 510 mg of elemental iron. Each mL of the sterile colloidal solution of Feraheme Injection contains 30 mg of elemental iron and 44 mg of mannitol, and has low bleomycin-detectable iron. The formulation is isotonic with an osmolality of 270-330 mOsm/kg. The product contains no preservatives, and has a pH of 6 to 8.

 

Ferumoxytol is AMAG Pharmaceuticals’ lead investigational compound. In 2007, the company filed a regulatory application seeking approval in the U.S. for use as an intravenous iron replacement therapeutic in patients who may be on dialysis and are suffering from anemic chronic kidney disease (CKD). In 2009, FDA approval was assigned and the product became available on the market. A regulatory application was filed in the E.U. in 2010 for this indication and a positive opinion was received in 2012. Final E.U. approval was obtained in June 2012. In 2012, AMAG Pharmaceuticals submitted a supplemental NDA to the FDA for the treatment of patients with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) who are not candidates for oral iron, for which they received a complete response letter in January 2014. In 2013, Takeda filed for approval for this indication in the E.U. This application was withdrawn in 2015 due to safety concerns.

In terms of clinical studies, phase II trials are underway at AMAG and at Oregon Health and Science University for use in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). The National Cancer Institute is also conducting phase II trials for the imaging of primary high-grade brain tumors and/or cerebral metastases from lung or breast cancer. Phase I clinical trials are ongoing at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for use in magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric and adult patients with malignant sarcoma.

The drug consists of intravenously administered bioavailable iron which allows for more efficient replenishment of the body’s iron stores than oral iron supplements, without their associated common side effects. Ferumoxytol is a blood pool agent, a true intravascular contrast agent that remains in the blood stream for an extended period of time. Based on this quality, the product may be useful as a contrast agent in a wide range of applications in MRI.

In 2008, fast track designation was received in the U.S. as a diagnostic agent for vascular-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (VE-MRI) to improve the assessment of peripheral arterial disease in patients with known or suspected chronic kidney disease. In 2010, a license, development and commercialization agreement was established between Takeda and AMAG Pharmaceuticals in Asia Pacific countries (excluding Japan, China and Taiwan), Canada, Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States and Turkey. However, in December 2014, both companies announced the termination of this license agreement. In 2011, orphan drug designation was assigned by the FDA for use in magnetic resonance imaging in brain metastases. This designation was assigned in 2012 for use in magnetic resonance imaging to assess, and monitor treatment of solid tumor malignancies previously diagnosed in pediatric patients (age 16 years and younger).

SFDA

STR1

As announced in May 2008, we entered into a development and commercialization agreement with AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“AMAG”) (NASDAQ:AMAG), a US biopharmaceutical company, for ferumoxytol, an intravenous iron replacement therapeutic agent being developed to treat iron deficiency anemia in CKD patients and in patients requiring hemodialysis.

Under the terms of the agreement, AMAG granted us exclusive rights to develop and commercialize ferumoxytol in the PRC, initially for CKD, and with an option to expand into additional indications. We will be responsible for the clinical development, registration, and commercialization of ferumoxytol in the PRC. We and AMAG will form a joint steering committee, with equal representation from both parties, to oversee and guide the development and commercialization of ferumoxytol in China. The agreement has an initial duration of 13 years and will be automatically renewed for a set term if minimum sales thresholds are achieved. AMAG will retain all manufacturing rights for ferumoxytol and will provide, under a separate agreement, commercial supply to us at a predetermined supply price.

Ferumoxytol was approved in June 2009 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat iron deficiency anemia in CKD patients and launched commercially in the U.S. by AMAG in July 2009. Ferumoxytol received marketing approval in Canada in December 2011 and a positive recommendation for approval from the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use of the European Medicines Agency in April 2012.

We have submitted the application for a registrational clinical trial for ferumoxytol to SFDA, as announced in January 2010. Once approved by the SFDA, we will commence a multi-center randomized efficacy and safety study in China with approximately 200 CKD patients, measuring the mean change in hemoglobin from baseline at Day 35 after first dose.

https://www.google.com/patents/US20100266644

Ferumoxytol is a newer parenteral iron formulation but limited information is available as to its efficacy and administration. See e.g., Landry et al. (2005) Am J Nephrol 25, 400-410, 408; and Spinowitz et al. (2005) Kidney Intl 68, 1801-1807; U.S. Pat. No. 6,599,498.

Another example of a preferred iron carbohydrate complex for use in the methods described herein is a carboxyalkylated reduced polysaccharide iron oxide complex (e.g., ferumoxytol, described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,599,498).

Another preferred iron carbohydrate complex for use in the methods described herein is a polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyl ether-coated non-stoichiometric magnetite (e.g., “ferumoxytol”). Ferumoxytol is known in the art to be effective for treating anemia (at single unit doses lower than described herein). See e.g., Spinowitz et al. (2005) Kidney Intl 68, 1801-1807. Ferumoxytol is a superparamagnetic iron oxide that is coated with a low molecular weight semi-synthetic carbohydrate, polyglucose sorbitol carboxymethyl ether. Ferumoxytol and its synthesis are described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,599,498, incorporated herein by reference. Safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of ferumoxytol are as described, for example, in Landry et al. (2005) Am J Nephrol 25, 400-410, 408; and Spinowitz et al. (2005) Kidney Intl 68, 1801-1807.

The iron oxide of ferumoxytol is a superparamagnetic form of non-stoichiometric magnetite with a crystal size of 6.2 to 7.3 nm. Average colloidal particle size can be about 30 nm, as determined by light scattering. Molecular weight is approximately 750 kD. The osmolarity of ferumoxytol is isotonic at 297 mOsm/kg and the pH is neutral. The blood half-life of ferumoxytol is approximately 10-14 hours. It has been previously reported that ferumoxytol can be given by direct intravenous push over 1-5 minutes in doses up to 1,800 mg elemental iron per minute, with maximal total dose up to 420 mg per injection. Landry et al. (2005) Am J Nephrol 25, 400-410, 408.

About Feraheme® (ferumoxytol)/Rienso

In the United States, Feraheme (ferumoxytol) Injection for Intravenous (IV) use is indicated for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in adult patients who have failed oral iron therapy. Feraheme received marketing approval from the FDA on June 30, 2009 for the treatment of IDA in adult chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and was commercially launched by AMAG in the U.S. shortly thereafter.

Ferumoxytol is protected in the U.S. by five issued patents covering the composition and dosage form of the product. Each issued patent is listed in the FDA’s Orange Book. These patents are set to expire in March 2020; a request for patent term extension has been filed, which, if granted, may extend the patent term to June 2023 for one of the patents.

Ferumoxytol received marketing approval in Canada in December 2011, where it is marketed by Takeda as Feraheme, and in the European Union in June 2012 and Switzerland in August 2012, where it is marketed by Takeda as Rienso.

For additional U.S. product information, including full prescribing information, please visit www.feraheme.com.

AMAG now has five Orange Book-listed patents for ferumoxytol, with patent protection through March 2020, without patent term extension. AMAG has applied for a patent term extension for an Orange Book-listed ferumoxytol patent, which would lengthen that patent term through June 2023.

 

 

//////////Ferumoxytol, AMAG Pharmaceuticals, Phase II,  722492-56-0, Launched,  2009, Anemia, iron deficiency, 7228  , AMI-7228  , Code-7228

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