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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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FDA ALLOWS MARKETING OF FIRST ZNT8AB AUTOANTIBODY TEST TO HELP DIAGNOSE TYPE 1 DIABETES


FDA allows marketing of first ZnT8Ab autoantibody test to help diagnose type 1 diabetes

 
 
 
Today, August 20, 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration allowed marketing of the first zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) test that can help determine if a person has type 1 diabetes and not another type of diabetes. When used with other tests and patient clinical information, the test may help some people with type 1 diabetes receive timely diagnosis and treatment for their disease.
Type 1 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes diagnosed in children and adolescents, but in some instances it may also develop in adults. People with the disease produce little or no insulin because their immune system attacks and destroys the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin, a hormone that converts sugars (glucose) in food to the energy the bodyneeds. People with type 1 diabetes mustinject insulinto regulate their blood glucose because proper regulation is critical to lower their risk of long-term complications such as blindness, kidney failure and cardiovascular disease.
The immune system of many people with type 1 diabetes produces ZnT8Ab, but patients with other types of diabetes (type 2 and gestational) do not. The KRONUS Zinc Transporter 8 Autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) ELISA Assay detects the presence of the ZnT8 autoantibody in a patient’s blood.
“Early treatment of type 1 diabetes is important in helping to prevent further deterioration of insulin producing cells,” said Alberto Gutierrez, Ph.D., director of the Office of In Vitro Diagnostics and Radiological Health in the Center for Devices and Radiological Health at the FDA. “This test can help patients get a timely diagnosis and help start the right treatment sooner.”
The KRONUS ZnT8Ab ELISA Assay was reviewed through the de novo premarket review pathway, a regulatory pathway for some low- to moderate-risk medical devices that are not substantially equivalent to an already legally marketed device.
 
 
The agency reviewed data from a clinical study of 569 blood samples — 323 from patients with diagnosed type 1 diabetes and 246 samples from patients diagnosed with other kinds of diabetes, other autoimmune diseases, and other clinical conditions. The test was able to detect the ZnT8 autoantibody in 65 percent of the samples from patients with diagnosed type 1 diabetes and incorrectly gave a positive result in less than two percent of the samples from patients diagnosed with other disease.
A negative result from the test does not rule out a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. The test should not be used to monitor the stage of disease or the response to treatment.
KRONUS Zinc Transporter 8 Autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) ELISA Assay is manufactured by KRONUS Market Development Associates, Inc. in Star, Idaho.
 

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Iroko Pharmaceuticals Gains FDA Approval of Zorvolex for Management of Osteoarthritis Pain


 

Iroko Pharmaceuticals Gains FDA Approval of Zorvolex for Management of Osteoarthritis Pain

 

 

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August 25, 2014 — Iroko Pharmaceuticals, LLC, a global specialty pharmaceutical company dedicated to advancing the science of analgesia, announced today the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Zorvolex (diclofenac) capsules, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), for the management of osteoarthritis pain. This marks the second indication for Zorvolex, approved by FDA in October 2013 for the treatment of mild to moderate acute pain in adults1.

  

“Given the dose-related adverse events associated with NSAIDs as a class and the widespread use of NSAIDs for osteoarthritis, we are delighted to gain approval for our first SoluMatrix® NSAID for the management of osteoarthritis pain,” said Dr. Clarence Young, Chief Medical Officer of Iroko Pharmaceuticals. “Iroko has already made great strides to help fill the need for low dose NSAID options in patients with acute pain and we are continuing to expand our portfolio to also address chronic pain indications.”

 

Zorvolex was developed to align with recommendations from FDA and several professional medical organizations that NSAIDs be used at the lowest effective dose for the shortest possible duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals2. Zorvolex is the first FDA-approved low dose NSAID developed using proprietary SoluMatrix Fine Particle Technology™ and is now available by prescription. Zorvolex contains diclofenac as submicron particles that are approximately 20 times smaller than their original size. The reduction in particle size provides an increased surface area, leading to faster dissolution.

 

“Expanding the use of Zorvolex beyond acute pain to osteoarthritis pain, a chronic condition, is a testament to Iroko’s continued commitment to developing a low dose NSAID portfolio to address a broad range of unmet patient needs,” said John Vavricka, President and CEO of Iroko Pharmaceuticals. “This second approval for Zorvolex continues to lay the groundwork for our future portfolio, which utilizes a new approach to pain management.”

 

The approval of Zorvolex for the management of osteoarthritis pain was supported by data from a 12-week, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled 305 patients, aged 41-90 years, with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. Half of the patients were between the ages of 61-90. Participants were randomized to Zorvolex 35mg three times daily or 35mg twice daily, or placebo3. The Supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) also included data from a 12-month open-label safety study that enrolled 602 patients1.

“NSAIDs continue to be an integral part of the management for osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis4, and their use is likely to increase as the U.S. population continues to age and the incidence of osteoarthritis rises5,” said Dr. Roy Altman, Professor of Medicine in Rheumatology at UCLA. “The approval of Zorvolex is a welcome and meaningful advance and is the first SoluMatrix® NSAID option approved by the FDA for osteoarthritis pain.”

 

About Iroko Pharmaceuticals, LLC

Iroko is a global specialty pharmaceutical company, based in Philadelphia, dedicated to advancing the science of analgesia. The company develops and globally commercializes pharmaceutical products.

Iroko is at the forefront of the development of SoluMatrix® NSAIDs – new low dose drug products based on existing NSAIDs – using iCeutica Inc.’s proprietary SoluMatrix Fine Particle Technology™ exclusively licensed to Iroko for NSAIDs. Zorvolex is the first SoluMatrix® NSAID and is available in pharmacies; a second was approved by FDA in February 2014. For more information, visit http://www.iroko.com.

 

FDA GIVES INSYS PHARMACEUTICAL CANNABIDIOL ORPHAN STATUS


FDA Gives Insys Pharmaceutical Cannabidiol Orphan Status

 
Insys Therapeutics Inc., a specialty pharmaceutical company that is developing and commercializing innovative drugs and novel drug delivery systems, announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted orphan drug designation (ODD) to its pharmaceutical cannabidiol (CBD) for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and most aggressive malignant primary brain tumor in humans.
 
 
read at

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A CASE OF H.I.V. POSITIVE WITH TUBERCULER INFECTION ; एच० आई०वी० के साथ टी०बी० से इन्फेक्टेड मरीज का केस


**आधुनिक युग आयुर्वेद ** ई०टी०जी० आयुर्वेदास्कैन ** DIGITAL AYURVEDA TRIDOSHO SCANNER**AYURVED H. T. L. WHOLE-BODY SCANNER**आयुषव्यूज रक्त केमिकल केमेस्ट्री परीक्षण अनालाइजर ** डिजिटल हैनीमेनियन होम्योपैथी स्कैनर **

कुछ दिन पहले एच०आई०वी० से infected एक मरीज का ई०टी०जी० आयुर्वेदास्कैन और इसके तत्सम्बन्धित परीक्षण किये गये /

मरीज की उम्र देखकर मुझे बहुत आश्चर्य हुआ क्योन्कि उसकी उमर के वल २१ साल की है / रोगी के रोग इतिहास को जानने की इछ्छा हुयी और मैने उत्सुकतावश उससे सारी तकलीफ बताने के लिये कहा / रोगी के साथ उसके गार्जियन भी थे /

मुझे यह मालूम करना था कि इतनी छोटी अवस्था मे इस नवयुवक को क्यो H.I.V. जैसा सन्क्रमण हुआ है /

जैसा मुझे बताया गया कि इस रोगी का ROAD accident हुआ था / इस दुर्घटना के बाद उसे अस्पताल मे भरती कराया गया था जहां इस रोगी को कुछ लोगो का रक्त चढाया गया था / इन्ही रक्त दाताओ मे कोई भी व्यक्ति एच०आई०वी० से इन्फेक्टेड होगा इसीलिये जब इस  रोगी को रक्त चढाया गया तो इसके भी HIV Infection  पैदा हो गया /

कुछ दिनो…

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Plerixafor…………..an immunostimulant used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells in cancer patients.


JM 3100.svg

Plerixafor

cas 110078-46-1

CXCR4 chemokine antagonist

Stem cell mobilization [CXCR4 receptor antagonist]

A bicyclam derivate, highly potent & selective inhibitor of HIV-1 & HIV-2.

Bone marrow transplantation; Chronic lymphocytic leukemia; Chronic myelocytic leukemia; Myelodysplastic syndrome; Neutropenia; Sickle cell anemia

Plerixafor; Mozobil; AMD3100; 110078-46-1; Amd 3100; bicyclam JM-2987; AMD-3100; UNII-S915P5499N; JM3100
  • JKL 169
  • Mozobil
  • Plerixafor
  • SDZ SID 791
  • UNII-S915P5499N
Molecular Formula: C28H54N8
Molecular Weight: 502.78196
1,​4-​bis((1,​4,​8,​11-​tetraazacyclotetradecan-​1-​yl)methyl)benzene
1,4,8,11-Tetraazacyclotetradecane, 1,1′-(1,4-phenylenebis(methylene))bis-
1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis [1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane]
1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane
 
Johnson Matthey (Innovator)
Plerixafor is a hematopoietic stem cell mobilizer. It is used to stimulate the release of stem cells from the bone marrow into the blood in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma for the purpose of stimulating the immune system. These stem cells are then collected and used in autologous stem cell transplantation to replace blood-forming cells that were destroyed by chemotherapy. Plerixafor has orphan drug status in the United States and European Union; it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration on December 15, 2008.

Mozobil (plerixafor injection) is a sterile, preservative-free, clear, colorless to pale yellow, isotonic solution for subcutaneous injection. Each mL of the sterile solution contains 20 mg of plerixafor. Each single-use vial is filled to deliver 1.2 mL of the sterile solution that contains 24 mg of plerixafor and 5.9 mg of sodium chloride in Water for Injection adjusted to a pH of 6.0 to 7.5 with hydrochloric acid and with sodium hydroxide, if required.

Plerixafor is a hematopoietic stem cell mobilizer with a chemical name l, 1′-[1,4phenylenebis (methylene)]-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane. It has the molecular formula C28H54N8. The molecular weight of plerixafor is 502.79 g/mol. The structural formula is provided in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Structural Formula

 

MOZOBIL (plerixafor) Structural Formula Illustration

 

Plerixafor is a white to off-white crystalline solid. It is hygroscopic. Plerixafor has a typical melting point of 131.5 °C. The partition coefficient of plerixafor between 1octanol and pH 7 aqueous buffer is < 0.1.

 
 
 
 

Plerixafor (hydrochloride hydrate)

 
(CAS 155148-31-5)
Formal Name 1,​4-​bis((1,​4,​8,​11-​tetraazacyclotetradecan-​1-​yl)methyl)benzene,​ octahydrochloride
CAS Number 155148-31-5
Molecular Formula C28H54N8 • 8HCl • [XH2O]
Formula Weight 794.5
 
The α-chemokine receptor, CXCR4, on CD4+ T-cells is used by CXCR4-selective HIV forms as a gateway for T-cell infection. In mammalian cell signaling, CXCR4 activation promotes the homing of hematopoietic stem cells, chemotaxis and quiescence of lymphocytes, and growth and metastasis of certain cancer cell types. Plerixafor (hydrochloride) is a macrocyclic compound that acts as an irreversible antagonist against the binding of CXCR4 with its ligand, SDF-1 (CXCL12). It suppresses infection by HIV with an IC50 value of 1-10 ng/ml with selectivity toward CXCR4-tropic virus. Plerixafor mobilizes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for transplant better than the ‘gold standard’, G-CSF alone 4and synergizes with G-CSF. It also increases T-cell trafficking in the blood and spleen as well as the central nervous system. Plerixafor regulates the growth of primary and metastic breast cancer cells7 and inhibits dissemination of ovarian carcinoma cells.
 
Plerixafor hydrochloride (AMD-3100), a chemokine CXCR4 (SDF-1) antagonist, is launched in the U.S. for the following indications: to enhance mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells for autologous transplantation in patients with lymphoma and to enhance mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation in patients with multiple myeloma.
 
In 2009, the product was approved in EU for these indications.AnorMED filed an orphan drug application for AMD-3100 with the FDA in January 2003 and received approval in July 2003 as immunostimulation for increasing the stem cells available in patients with multiple myeloma and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Orphan drug status was also granted by the EMEA in October 2004 as a treatment to mobilize progenitor cells prior to stem cell transplantation.
In 2011, orphan drug designation was assigned by the FDA for the treatment of AML and by the EMA for the adjunctive treatment to cytotoxic therapy in acute myeloid leukemia.

Plerixafor (rINN and USAN, trade name Mozobil) is an immunostimulant used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells in cancer patients. The stem cells are subsequently transplanted back to the patient. The drug was developed by AnorMED which was subsequently bought by Genzyme.

 

History

The molecule 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)]bis [1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane], consisting of two cyclam rings linked at the amine nitrogen atoms by a 1,4-xylyl spacer, was first synthesised by Fabbrizzi et al. in 1987 to carry out basic studies on the redox chemistry of dimetallic coordination compounds.[1] Then, it was serendipitously discovered by De Clercq that such a molecule, could have a potential use in the treatment of HIV[2] because of its role in the blocking of CXCR4, a chemokine receptor which acts as a co-receptor for certain strains of HIV (along with the virus’s main cellular receptor, CD4).[2]Development of this indication was terminated because of lacking oral availability and cardiac disturbances. Further studies led to the new indication for cancer patients.[3]

Indications

Peripheral blood stem cell mobilization, which is important as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation, is generally performed using granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), but is ineffective in around 15 to 20% of patients. Combination of G-CSF with plerixafor increases the percentage of persons that respond to the therapy and produce enough stem cells for transplantation.[4] The drug is approved for patients with lymphoma and multiple myeloma.[5]

Contraindications

Pregnancy and lactation

Studies in pregnant animals have shown teratogenic effects. Plerixafor is therefore contraindicated in pregnant women except in critical cases. Fertile women are required to use contraception. It is not known whether the drug is secreted into the breast milk. Breast feeding should be discontinued during therapy.[5]

Adverse effects

Nauseadiarrhea and local reactions were observed in over 10% of patients. Other problems with digestion and general symptoms like dizziness, headache, and muscular pain are also relatively common; they were found in more than 1% of patients. Allergies occur in less than 1% of cases. Most adverse effects in clinical trials were mild and transient.[5][6]

The European Medicines Agency has listed a number of safety concerns to be evaluated on a post-marketing basis, most notably the theoretical possibilities of spleen rupture and tumor cell mobilisation. The first concern has been raised because splenomegaly was observed in animal studies, and G-CSF can cause spleen rupture in rare cases. Mobilisation of tumor cells has occurred in patients with leukaemia treated with plerixafor.[7]

Phase III clinical development in combination with G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) is under way at Genzyme (which acquired the product through its acquisition of AnorMED in late 2006) in a stem cell mobilization regimen in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). The trials are designed to evaluate the potential of plerixafor in combination with G-CSF, to rapidly increase the number of peripheral blood stem cells capable of engraftment, thereby increasing the proportion of patients reaching a peripheral blood stem cell target and, as a result, reducing the number of apheresis sessions required for patients to collect a target number of peripheral blood stem cells. A phase I safety trial had been under way for the treatment of renal cancer, however, no recent development for this indication has been reported. An IND has been filed in the U.S. seeking approval to initiate clinical evaluation of the drug candidate to help repair damaged heart tissue in patients who have suffered heart attacks. Currently, an investigator-sponsored study is ongoing to evaluate plerixafor as a single agent in allogeneic transplant. AMD-3100, in combination with mitoxantrone, etoposide and cytarabine, is also in phase I/II clinical trials at the University of Washington for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

The University has also been conducting early clinical trials for increasing the stem cells available for transplantation in patients with advanced hematological malignancies, however, no recent developments on this trial have been reported. Genzyme has completed a phase I/II clinical study of plerixafor hydrochloride in combination with rituximab for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The former AnorMED had been developing plerixafor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but no clinical development has been reported as of late. AnorMED was also developing plerixafor for the treatment of HIV, but discontinued the trials in 2001 due to abnormal cardiac activity and lack of efficacy.

By blocking CXCR4, a specific cellular receptor, plerixafor triggers the rapid movement of stem cells out of the bone marrow and into circulating blood. Once in the circulating blood, the stem cells can be collected for use in stem cell transplant. In terms of use for cardiac applications, there is clinical evidence that the presence of stem cells circulating in the bloodstream or directly injected into the hearts of patients who have suffered a heart attack may result in improved cardiac function.

 

Chemical properties

Plerixafor is a macrocyclic compound and a bicyclam derivative.[4] It is a strong base; all eight nitrogen atoms accept protons readily. The two macrocyclic rings form chelate complexes with bivalent metal ions, especially zinccopper and nickel, as well as cobalt and rhodium. The biologically active form of plerixafor is its zinc complex.[8]

Synthesis

Chemical structure for JM 3100

Three of the four nitrogen atoms of the macrocycle 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecan are protected with tosyl groups. The product is treated with 1,4-dimethoxybenzene or 1,4-bis(brommethyl)benzene and potassium carbonate in acetonitrile. After cleaving of the tosyl groups with hydrobromic acid, plerixafor octahydrobromide is obtained.[9]

SEE   CHINESE JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY    2010 20 (6): 511-513   ISSN: 1005-0108   CN: 21-1313/R

DOWNLOAD………http://download.bioon.com.cn/upload/201207/24113552_9395.pdf

http://www.zgyhzz.cn/qikan/epaper/zhaiyao.asp?bsid=14753

( 1 ) BASE FORM
0155g ( 8016% ), m p 129 ~ 131 e 。
1H-NM R
( CDC l3 ) D: 7.28( s, 4H, A r-H ), 3.55 ( br s, 4H,A r-CH2 ), 2.82 ~ 2.52( m, 32H, NCH2, NHCH2 ),
1.86 ~ 1.68 ( m, 8H, CCH2C )。 ESI-M S m /z:
503.55 [M + H]+ 。

………………………………………..

SEE

http://doc.sciencenet.cn/upload/file/2011531154034454.pdf

…………………………………..

 

………………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/US5756728

 

U.S. Pat. No. 5,021,409 is directed to a method of treating retroviral infections comprising administering to a mammal in need of such treatment a therapeutically effective amount of a bicyclic macrocyclic polyamine compound. Although the usefulness of certain alkylene and arylene bridged cyclam dimers is generically embraced by the teachings of the reference, no arylene bridged cyclam dimers are specifically disclosed.

WO 93/12096 discloses the usefulness of certain linked cyclic polyamines in combating HIV and pharmaceutical compositions useful therefor. Among the specifically disclosed compounds is 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11 tetraazacyclotetradecane (and its acid addition salts), which compound is a highly potent inhibitor of several strains of human immune deficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2).

European Patent Appln. 374,929 discloses a process for preparing mono-N-alkylated polyazamacrocycles comprising reacting the unprotected macrocycle with an electrophile in a non-polar, relatively aprotic solvent in the absence of base. Although it is indicated that the monosubstituted macrocycle is formed preferentially, there is no specific disclosure which indicates that linked bicyclams can be synthesized by this process.

U.S. Pat. No. 5,047,527 is directed to a process for preparing a monofunctionalized (e.g., monoalkylated)cyclic tetramine comprising: 1) reacting the unprotected macrocycle with chrominum hexacarbonyl to obtain a triprotected tetraazacyloalkane compound; 2) reacting the free amine group of the triprotected compound prepared in 1) with an organic (e.g., alkyl) halide to obtain a triprotected monofunctionalized (e.g., monoalkylated) tetraazacycloalkane compound; and 3) de-protecting the compound prepared in 2) by simple air oxidation at acid pH to obtain the desired compound. In addition, the reference discloses alternative methods of triprotection employing boron and phosphorous derivatives and the preparation of linked compounds, including the cyclam dimer 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, by reacting triprotected cyclam prepared as set forth in 1) above with an organic dihalide in a molar ratio of 2:1, and deprotecting the resultant compound to obtain the desired cyclam dimer.

J. Med. Chem., Vol. 38, No. 2, pgs. 366-378 (1995) is directed to the synthesis and anti-HIV activity of a series of novel phenylenebis(methylene)-linked bis-tetraazamacrocyclic analogs, including the known cyclam dimer 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane. The cyclam dimers disclosed in this reference, including the afore-mentioned cyclam dimer, are prepared by: 1) forming the tritosylate of the tetraazamacrocycle; 2) reacting the protected tetraazamacrocycle with an organic dihalide, e.g., dibromo-p-xylene, in acetonitrile in the presence of a base such as potassium carbonate; and 3) de-protecting the bis-tetraazamacrocycle prepared in 2) employing freshly prepared sodium amalgam, concentrated sulfuric acid or an acetic acid/hydrobromic acid mixture to obtain the desired cyclam dimer, or an acid addition salt thereof.

Although the processes disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,047,527 and the J. Med. Chem. reference are suitable to prepare the cyclam dimer 1,1′- 1,4-phenylene bis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, they involve the use of cyclam as a starting material, a compound which is expensive and not readily available. Accordingly, in view of its potent anti-HIV activity, a number of research endeavors have been undertaken in an attempt to develop a more practical process for preparing 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane.

 

EXAMPLE 1

a) Preparation of the 1,4-phenylenebis-methylene bridged hexatosyl acylic precursor of formula III

To a 4-necked, round-bottom flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, internal thermometer and addition funnel, is added 43.5 g (0.25 mol) of N,N’-bis(3-aminopropyl) ethylenediamine and 250 ml of tetrahydrofuran. To the resultant solution is added, over a period of 30 minutes with external cooling to maintain the temperature at 20° C., 113.6 g (0.8 mol) of ethyl trifluoroacetate. The reaction mixture is then stirred at room temperature for 4 hours, after which time 52.25 ml. (0.3 mol) of diisopropylethylamine is added. The resultant reaction mixture is warmed to 60° C. and, over a period of 2 hours, is added a solution of 33.0 g (0.125 mol) of α,α’-dibromoxylene in 500 ml. of tetrahydrofuran. The reaction mixture is then maintained at a temperature of 60° C., with stirring, for an additional 2 hours after which time a solution of 62.0 g. (1.55 mol) of sodium hydroxide in 250 ml. of water is added. The resultant mixture is then stirred vigorously for 2 hours, while the temperature is maintained at 60° C. A solution of 152.5 g. (0.8 mol) of p-toluenesulfonyl-chloride in 250 ml. of tetrahydrofuran is then added, over a period of 30 minutes, while the temperature is maintained at between 20° C. and 30° C. The reaction is then allowed to proceed for another hour at room temperature. To the reaction mixture is then added 1 liter of isopropyl acetate, the layers are separated and the organic layer is concentrated to dryness under vacuum to yield the desired compound as a foamy material.

b) Preparation of the hexatosyl cyclam dimer of formula IV

To a 4-necked, round-bottom flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, internal thermometer and addition funnel, is added 114.6 g. (0.10 mol) of the compound prepared in a) above and 2.5 liters of dimethylformamide. After the system is degassed, 22.4 g. (0.56 mol) of NaOH beads, 27.6 g (0.2 mol) of anhydrous potassium carbonate and 5.43 g. (0.016 mol) of t-butylammonium sulfate are added to the solution, and the resultant mixture is heated to 100° C. and maintained at this temperature for 2.5 hours. A solution of 111.0 g (0.3 mol) of ethyleneglycol ditosylate in 1 liter of dimethylformamide is then added, over a period of 2 hours, while the temperature is maintained at 100° C. After cooling the reaction mixture to room temperature, it is poured into 4 liters of water with stirring. The suspension is then filtered and the filter cake is washed with 1 liter of water. The filter cake is then thoroughly mixed with 1 liter of water and 2 liters of ethyl acetate. The solvent is then removed from the ethyl acetate solution and the residue is re-dissolved in 500 ml. of warm acetonitrile. The precipitate that forms on standing is collected by filtration and then dried to yield the desired compound as a white solid.

c) Preparation of 1,1′- 1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)!-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane

In a 4-necked, round-bottom flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, internal thermometer and addition funnel, is added 26.7 g.(0.02 mol) of the compound prepared in b) above, 300 ml. of 48% hydrobromic acid and 1 liter of glacial acetic acid. The resultant mixture is then heated to reflux and maintained at reflux temperature, with stirring, for 42 hours. The reaction mixture is then cooled to between 22° C. and 23° C. over a period of 4 hours, after which time it is stirred for an additional 12 hours. The solids are then collected using suction filtration and added to 400 ml. of deionized water. The resultant solution is then stirred for 25 to 30 minutes at a temperature between 22° C. and 23° C. and filtered using suction filtration. After washing the filter pad with a small amount of deionized water, the solution is cooled to between 10° C. and 15° C. 250 g. of a 50% aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide is then added, over a period of 30 minutes, while the temperature is maintained at between 5° C. and 15° C. The resultant suspension is stirred for 10 to 15 minutes, while the temperature is maintained at between 10° C. and 15° C. The suspension is then warmed to between 22° C. and 23° C. and to the warmed suspension is added 1.5 liters of dichloromethane. The mixture is then stirred for 30 minutes, the layers are separated and the organic layer is slurried with 125 g. of sodium sulfate for 1 hour. The solution is then filtered using suction filtration, and the filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure (40°-45° C. bath temperature, 70-75 mm Hg) until approximately 1.25 liters of solvent is collected. To the slurry is then added 1.25 liters of acetone, and the filtrate is concentrated under reduced pressure (40°-45° C. bath temperature, 70-75 mm Hg) until approximately 1.25 liters of solvent is collected. The slurry is then cooled to between 22° C. and 23° C. and the solids are collected using suction filtration. The solids are then washed with three 50 ml. portions of acetone and dried in a vacuum oven to obtain the desired compound as a white solid.

EXAMPLE 2

The following is an alternate procedure for the preparation of the 1,4-phenylenebis-methylene bridged hexatosyl acyclic precursor of formula III.

To a 3-necked, round-bottomed flask, equipped with a mechanical stirrer, heating mantle, internal thermometer and addition funnel, is added 3.48 g. (20 mmol) of N,N’-bis-(3-aminopropyl)ethylenediamine and 20 ml. of tetrahydrofuran. To the resultant solution is added, over a period of 20 minutes with external cooling to maintain the temperature at 20° C., 5.2 ml. (42 mmol) of ethyl trifluoroacetate. The reaction mixture is then stirred at room temperature for 1 hour, after which time a solution of 2.64 g. (10 mmol) of α,α’-dibromoxylene in 20 ml. of tetrahydrofuran is added. The resultant reaction mixture is then stirred at room temperature for 4 hours. A solution of 4.8 g. (120 mmol) of sodium hydroxide in 20 ml. of water is then added and the resultant mixture is warmed to 60° C. and maintained at this temperature, with vigorous stirring, for 2 hours. Over a period of 20 minutes, 13.9 g. (73 mmol) of p-toluenesulfonylchloride is then added portionwise, while the temperature is maintained at 20° C. The reaction is then allowed to proceed for another hour at room temperature. To the reaction mixture is then added 100 ml. of isopropyl acetate, the layers are separated and the organic layer is washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution. The solution is then condensed to 40 ml., cooled to 4° C. and kept at that temperature overnight. The resultant suspension is filtered and the solid is washed with 10 ml. of isopropyl acetate. The solvents are then removed from the filtrate to yield the desired compound as a brown gel.

…………………………

see

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of phenylenebis(methylene)linked bis-tetraazamacrocycles that inhibit HIV replication. Effects of macrocyclic ring size and substituents on the aromatic linker
J Med Chem 1995, 38(2): 366

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm00002a019

…………………………………………………

see

New bicyclam-AZT conjugates: Design, synthesis, anti-HIV evaluation, and their interaction with CXCR-4 coreceptor
J Med Chem 1999, 42(2): 229

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm980358u

……………………………………………………..

CN 102584732

 http://www.google.com/patents/CN102584732B?cl=en

[0003]

Figure CN102584732BD00041

[0004] plerixafor (trade name Mozobil ™) was developed by the U.S. company Genzyme chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) antagonist specificity. The drug is a hematopoietic stem (progenitor) cell activator, and can stimulate hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and differentiation into functional blood circulation.

[0005] As the non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and multiple myeloma (Korea) most of the cases and the progress of cases to alleviate the need for autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, and plerixafor joint G-CSF can significantly improve the number of patients with ⑶ 34 + cells, about 60% of the patient’s peripheral blood can ⑶ 34 + cells increased to ensure that the NHL and MM patients with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation success.

[0006] U.S. FDA approval on December 15, 2008 its listing, clinical studies showed that the drug can greatly increase the number of white blood cells of patients and to promote hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow to the blood flow, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF ) have a synergistic effect; has been used in multiple myeloma and Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients with stem cell transplantation in clinical trials.

[0007] About plerixafor or synthetic analogs have some at home and abroad reported in the literature, there are J.0rg.Chem.2003, 68,6435-6436; J.Med Chem.1995, 38 (2): 366-378; J.SynthCommun.1998 ,28:2903-2906; Tetrahedron, 1989,45 (1) :219-226; Chinese Journal of Pharmaceuticals 2007,38 (6); World Patent W09634860A1; W09312096A1; U.S. Patent US5047527, US5606053, US5801281, US5064956, Chinese patent CN1466579A.

[0008] J.Med Chem.1995, 38 (2) = 366-378 relates to a preparation method comprises the following steps: a) forming a salt of trimethoxy benzene tetraaza macrocycles; 2) reacting the protected tetrazole hetero macrocycle in acetonitrile under the presence of a base such as potassium carbonate as dibromo-p-xylene is reacted with an organic dihalide; 3) using freshly prepared sodium amalgam, concentrated sulfuric acid or acetic acid / hydrobromic acid mixture deprotected target product.

[0009] US 5047527 relates to preparation of the cyclic four monofunctional amine, the method comprising: a) reacting the unprotected macrocycle of reaction with chromium hexacarbonyl to obtain protection tetraazadecalin three compounds; 2) 3 Protection of the free amino compound with an organic halide to obtain three-protected monofunctional tetraaza naphthenic compounds; 3) simple air oxidation, deprotection to obtain the desired product. [0010] J.Synth Commun.1998 ,28:2903-2906 describes an improved method for synthesizing intermediates Plerixafor, the method using phosphor protection, deprotection to give a smooth 1,1 ‘- [1,4 – phenylene bis (methylene)] _ two _1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane fourteen burn.

[0011] US 5606053 relates to a process for preparing dimers 1, I ‘- [1,4 – phenylene bis (methylene)] – two -1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane method. The preparation of compounds include: 1) the four-amine as the starting material, obtained by acylation of toluene Juan acyclic intermediates and three xylene sulfonate and toluene sulfonate and toluene intermediates; 2) and xylene sulfonate and intermediates trimethylbenzene toluenesulfonic acid intermediates after alkylation separation dibromo xylene, toluene sulfonate and then obtain a non-cyclic dimers of six toluenesulfonic acylated; 3) six isolated bridged acyclic toluenesulfonic acid dimer form is reacted with ethylene glycol ditosylate three equivalents of cyclization; 4) deprotection to obtain the objective product was purified by hydrobromic acid and acetic acid.

[0012] US 5801281 relates to preparation of dimer 1, I ‘- [1,4 _-phenylene bis (methylene)] – two _1, 4,8,11

[0013] – tetraazacyclo tetradecane, comprising: a) reacting the acyclic tetraamine with 3 equivalents of ethyl trifluoroacetate, the reaction; 2) with 0.5 equivalents of the tri-dibromo-p-xylene-protected acyclic alkylation of the amine obtained form four non-cyclic dimers; 3) hydrolysis to remove the six trifluoroacetyl compound group; 4) acylation of the compound toluenesulfonic bridged tetraamine dimer; 5) B Juan xylene glycol ester cyclization; 6) and glacial acetic acid mixed with hydrobromic acid deprotection was the target product.

Under the [0014] US 5064956 discloses a multi-alkylated single-ring nitrogen of the compound prepared, the method involves reacting the unprotected macrocycle in an aprotic, relatively non-polar solvent in presence of alkali electrophilic reagent. Not mentioned in this document similar to the embodiment Seclin dimer synthesis.

[0015] Through the open Plerixafor synthetic route research and meta-analysis of the literature, mainly in the following four synthetic routes:

[0016] Route One, is 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane cyclotetradecane as raw material, NI, N4, N8 three protected with 1,4 – bis (halomethyl) benzene-bridged deprotection to obtain the finished product. The following reaction scheme, wherein R is p-toluenesulfonyl group, a methanesulfonyl group, a trifluoroacetyl group, a tert-butoxycarbonyl group and the like:

[0017]

Figure CN102584732BD00061

[0018] Route II is di (2 – aminopropyl) ethylenediamine as raw material, the ring and the reaction with 1,4 – bis (halomethyl) benzene-bridged, and then deprotection Bullock Suffolk.

[0019] Route 3 to 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane cyclotetradecane as raw material, under anhydrous, anaerobic conditions, after the ring protection with 1,4 – bis (halomethyl ) benzene bridging, and then deprotection plerixafor. Synthesis scheme below, wherein R is P, Ni, etc.;

Figure CN102584732BD00071

[0021] line four, based on acrylate as starting material, first with ethylene diamine as raw material by Michael addition of the amine solution, then with malonate cyclization 1,4,8,11 – Tetraaza _5, 7,12 – three oxo cyclotetradecane by α, α ‘- dibromo-p-xylene bridging, the final deprotection plerixafor. Reaction Roadmap follows:

[0022]

Figure CN102584732BD00081

[0023] The above synthesis route and the existing methods have the following disadvantages:

[0024] In an intermediate of the synthesis route, the existing technology, the need for column purification of the intermediates, low yield.

[0025] route to protect the stability of the two because of the strong, leading to the final deprotection step difficult, long production cycle, low yield, and finished organic residues can not be achieved within the standard limits.

Higher dry anaerobic demands [0026] Route 3 on, harsh reaction conditions, deprotection is not complete, intermediates need to repeatedly purified, low yield, after repeated recrystallization, finished monohetero difficult to control in 0.1% less.

[0027] Anhydrous ethylene diamine route and need four anhydrous THF, more stringent requirements on the process, and to use dangerous borane dimethyl sulfide, while the second step is only about 35% lower yield. Selectivity of the reaction is not high shortcomings, so do not be the most economical and reasonable synthetic route.

[0028] We prepared by Plerixafor prepared by methods disclosed above may Plerixafor single impurity of 0.1% or less is difficult to achieve, it is difficult to meet the quality requirements of the injection material, the same techniques can not reach the European Quality of ICH guidelines of the relevant technical requirements, low yield, high cost required for each step of the intermediate column to afford a large amount of solvent, time consuming, and the greater the elution solvent toxicity, is not suitable for industrial production.

(I) Preparation of 1,4,8 _ tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) -1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane: the raw 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane cyclotetradecane suspended in methylene chloride, in the role of acid binding agent, at a temperature 10 ~ 30 ° C, p-toluenesulfonyl chloride and 3 ~ 8h, filtered, and the filtrate was collected and concentrated to dryness to obtain a residue; will have The residue of said C ^ C3 alkyl group in a mixed solvent of alcohol and an aprotic solvent, purification, crystallization segment greater than 95% purity of 1,4,8 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) _1, 4,8,11 – tetraaza cyclotetradecane;

[0032] (2) Preparation of 1,1 ‘- [1,4 – (phenylene methylene)] – two – [4,8,11 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl)] -1,4, 8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane: A (I) the resulting 1,4,8 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) _1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane, α, α two bromo-p-xylene in place of anhydrous acetonitrile, was added acid-binding agent, the reaction was refluxed under nitrogen for 5 to 24 hours; After the reaction was cooled to room temperature, the reaction mixture was then collected by filtration and the filter cake was purified to obtain a mixed solvent I , I, – [1,4 – (phenylene methylene)] – two – [4,8,11 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl)] _1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane ten four alkyl;

[0033] (3) Synthesis Plerixafor: A (2) the resultant I, 1′-[1,4 _ (phenylene methylene)] – two – [4,8,11 – tris (p-toluene sulfonyl)] -1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane myristic acid solution was added to the mixture, stirred and dissolved, the reaction was warmed to reflux for 10 to 24 hours, cooled, filtered, and filter cake was collected; the filter cake was dissolved in purified water, adjusted with sodium hydroxide solution or potassium hydroxide solution to the PH-12, filtered, and the filtrate was extracted with a halogenated solvent, and the organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and then filtered, the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure P Le Suffolk crude;

[0034] (4) Purification Plerixafor: Plerixafor the crude was dissolved into a solvent and heated to reflux to dissolve, filtered, and the crystallization solvent is added dropwise at 40 ~ 45 ° C crystallization 30min, filtered and the filtrate then cooled to 20 ~ 25 ° C crystallization I hour at O ​​~ 5 ° C crystallization three hours, filtered, and the filter cake was dried Plerixafor.

Plerixafor Preparation: 6 [0075] Implementation

[0076] The starting material 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo tetradecane (5g, 25mmol) was suspended in dichloromethane (50g) was added N, N-diisopropylethylamine (7.5ml) , a solution of p-toluenesulfonyl chloride (10.8g, 56.5mmol) and methylene chloride (50g) in a solution of, at 25 ~ 30 ° C reaction temperature 3h, filtered, and the filtrate was collected and concentrated to dryness and to the residue in methanol (30g), toluene (IOg) was heated to reflux, filtered, and the filtrate was cooled to 40 ° C crystallization 30min, filtered to remove impurities little over protection, and the filtrate was added methyl tert-butyl ether (30g), stirring rapidly cooled to O ~ 5 ° C crystallization 3h, filtered, and dried to give 1,4,8 – tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) -1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane (9.6g, 61.9%), purity of 97.2%.

[0077] The 4,8 _ tris (p-toluenesulfonyl) _1, 4,8,11 – tetraazacyclododecane-tetradecane (9g, 13.6mmol) α, α ‘- dibromo-p-xylene (1.81 g, 6.8mmol) in dry acetonitrile was placed (90ml) was added potassium carbonate (15.0g, 108.5mmol), the reaction was refluxed under nitrogen for 5 hours. Cooled to room temperature and filtered to collect the filter cake, was added anhydrous methanol (10ml), ethyl acetate (30ml), dichloromethane (IOml) hot melt, whereby the cooling crystallization, filtration, and dried under reduced pressure to obtain white solid (16. lg, 83%), purity 97.5%.

[0078] The intermediate obtained above (5g, 3.5mmol) was added to glacial acetic acid (25ml) and concentrated hydrochloric acid (25ml) was stirred until dissolved in the mixed solution was heated to reflux for 24 hours, cooled, collected by filtration cake. The filter cake was dissolved in purified water (20ml), adjusting the PH value of the solution with sodium hydroxide to 12, filtered, and the filtrate was extracted with dichloromethane (50mlX3), the organic layer was dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain sand Bullock Fu crude (1.4g, 79.5%), purity 98.6%.

[0079] The crude Plerixafor (1.4g) is placed in tetrahydrofuran (14g), heated to reflux to dissolve, filtered, and added dropwise n-hexane (42g), and 40 ~ 45 ° C crystallization 30min, filtered little solid, The filtrate was rapidly cooled to 20 ~ 25 ° C crystallization I hour and then at O ​​~ 5 ° C crystallization three hours, filtered, 45 ° C and dried under reduced pressure to obtain the finished Plerixafor (1.2g, 85.7%), purity 99.93 %, the largest single miscellaneous 0.04%.

………………………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/US8420626?cl=en

Figure US08420626-20130416-C00014

wherein, n is 0 or 1, Ts is tosyl radical, P is trifluoroacetyl or p-tosyl radical;
To the NaOH solution of the starting material 7 is dropwise added ether solution of tosyl chloride. The system is stirred over night. A white solid is formed and filtrated. The filter cake is washed with water and ethyl ether, respectively, recrystallized to give a white solid intermediate of formula 8. To the dried acetonitrile solution of the compound of formula 8 is slowly dropwise added dried acetonitrile solution of 1,2-di-p-tosyloxypropane under reflux state, refluxed for 2-4 days, stood until room temperature. A white solid is precipitated and filtrated. The filter cake is washed with water and ethyl acetate, respectively, recrystallized to give a white solid compound of formula 9. The compound of formula 9 is dissolved in 90% concentrated sulfuric acid, allowed to react at 100° C. for 24-48 hours, stood until room temperature. To the reaction solution are dropwise added successively ethanol and ethyl ether. A white solid is precipitated, filtrated, dried, and dissolved in NaOH solution. The aqueous phase is extracted with chloroform. The chloroform phase is combined, concentrated, recrystallized to give a white solid compound of formula 10. To the chloroform solution of the compound of formula 10 and triethylamine is dropwise added chloroform solution of tosyl chloride. The mixture is allowed to react at room temperature over night, concentrated and column separated (eluant: dichloromethane/methanol system) to give a white solid compound of formula 11 (protective group is tosyl); or to the methanol solution of the compound of formula 10 is dropwise added ethyl trifluoroacetate. The mixture is allowed to react at room temperature over night, concentrated and column separated (eluant: ethyl acetate) to give a white solid compound of formula 11 (protective group is trifluoroacetyl);

 

Pharmacokinetics

Following subcutaneous injection, plerixafor is absorbed quickly and peak concentrations are reached after 30 to 60 minutes. Up to 58% are bound to plasma proteins, the rest mostly resides in extravascular compartments. The drug is not metabolized in significant amounts; no interaction with the cytochrome P450 enzymes or P-glycoproteins has been found. Plasma half life is 3 to 5 hours. Plerixafor is excreted via the kidneys, with 70% of the drug being excreted within 24 hours.[5]

Pharmacodynamics

In the form of its zinc complex, plerixafor acts as an antagonist (or perhaps more accurately a partial agonist) of the alpha chemokine receptor CXCR4 and an allosteric agonist ofCXCR7.[10] The CXCR4 alpha-chemokine receptor and one of its ligandsSDF-1, are important in hematopoietic stem cell homing to the bone marrow and in hematopoietic stem cell quiescence. The in vivo effect of plerixafor with regard to ubiquitin, the alternative endogenous ligand of CXCR4, is unknown. Plerixafor has been found to be a strong inducer of mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells from the bone marrow to the bloodstream as peripheral blood stem cells.[11]

Interactions

No interaction studies have been conducted. The fact that plerixafor does not interact with the cytochrome system indicates a low potential for interactions with other drugs.[5]

Legal status

Plerixafor has orphan drug status in the United States and European Union for the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this indication on December 15, 2008.[12] In Europe, the drug was approved after a positive Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use assessment report on 29 May 2009.[7] The drug was approved for use in Canada by Health Canada on December 8, 2011.[13]

Research

Small molecule cancer therapy

Plerixafor was seen to reduce metastasis in mice in several studies.[14] It has also been shown to reduce recurrence of glioblastoma in a mouse model after radiotherapy. In this model, the cancer surviving radiation are critically depended on bone marrow derived cells for vasculogenesis whose recruitment mediated by SDF-1 CXCR4 interaction is blocked by plerixafor.[15]

Use in generation of other stem cells

Researchers at Imperial College have demonstrated that plerixafor in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can produce mesenchymal stem cells andendothelial progenitor cells in mice.[16]

Other uses

Blockade of CXCR4 signalling by plerixafor (AMD3100) has also unexpectedly been found to be effective at counteracting opioid-induced hyperalgesia produced by chronic treatment with morphine, though only animal studies have been conducted as yet.[17]

 

Plerixafor
JM 3100.svg
JM 3100 3D.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
1,1′-[1,4-Phenylenebis(methylene)]bis [1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane]
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com Consumer Drug Information
MedlinePlus a609018
Pregnancy cat. (US)
Legal status -only (US)
Routes Subcutaneous injection
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein binding Up to 58%
Metabolism None
Half-life 3–5 hours
Excretion Renal
Identifiers
CAS number 110078-46-1
ATC code L03AX16
PubChem CID 65015
IUPHAR ligand 844
DrugBank DB06809
ChemSpider 58531 Yes
UNII S915P5499N Yes
   
Synonyms JM 3100, AMD3100
Chemical data
Formula C28H54N8 
Mol. mass 502.782 g/mol

http://www.google.com/patents/CN102653536A?cl=en

(Plerixafor), chemical name: 1, I ‘- [I, 4_ phenylene ni (methylene)] – ni -1,4,

8,11 – tetraazacyclo tetradecane, its molecular structure is as follows:

[0004]

Figure CN102653536AD00041

Synthesis of domestic and foreign literature in general, all require 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo-tetradecane for 3 protection (eg of formula I), of the three methods are used to protect the p-toluenesulfonamide chloride, trifluoroacetic acid ko ko cool, tert-butyl carbonate ni. Use of p-toluenesulfonamide-protected deprotection step into strict step because deprotecting reagent (such as hydrobromic acid / glacial acetic acid, concentrated sulfuric acid, etc.) side reactions often occur.The use of trifluoroacetic acid ko ko ester protecting, since the trifluoromethyl group strongly polar ko, resulting fourth-NH unprotected decrease in activity, usually not fully reflect the subsequent reaction, thereby further into ー is introduced after deprotection difficult to remove impurities 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo-tetradecane.

[0006] tert-butyl carbonate ni selective protection of the amino group is widely used (polyamines, amino acids, p printed tidic chains, etc.), but to use it for 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo tetradecane rarely reported, abroad it for 1,4,8,11 – tetraazacyclo tetradecane protection coverage, we use the t-butyl carbonate brother attempted 3 protection, he was surprised to find that in certain conditions, the three protection up to 90% (see Figure I), with high selectivity, significantly higher than the reported domestic Boc protected

Selectivity of the reaction (see table below).

[0007]

Figure CN102653536AD00051

[0008] 2 by three protection product with quite different polarity protection products, flash column chromatography using silica gel column to separate the protector 3 of sufficient purity, and deprotection conditions milder (only hydrochloric acid solution), in a certain extent reduce the incidence of side effects, so capable of synthesizing high purity products.

[0009]

Figure CN102653536AD00052

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

Figure CN102653536AD00053

 

Figure CN102653536AD00061

xample I: 3Boc protection 1,4,8,11 _ tetraazacyclo Preparation tetradecane

[0048] 1,4,8,11 taken tetraazacyclo tetradecane _ 10g (0.05mol), and acetone – water (2: l) 50ml, tris ko amine 10. 119g (0. Lmol), ni ko isopropyl amine 3. 225g (0. 025mol), at room temperature was added dropwise tert-butyl carbonate, brother 38. 194g (0. 175mol), dropwise at room temperature after stirring for 24 hours, HPLC monitoring of the reaction. After completion of the reaction 50 ° C under reduced pressure to dryness to give a pale yellow oil, 150g on a silica gel column, and eluted with ko acid esters ko collecting ko ko acid ester liquid evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure to give a white foam 23. 12g, yield of 92.36%. 1HNMR (400MHz, CDCl3, 6 ppm): 1. 74 (2H, q, 5. 5);

I. 96 (2H, q, 6. 5); 2. 66 (2H, t, 5. 5); 2. 82 (2H, t, 5. 5); 3. 33 (4H, m); 3. 34 (2H, m); 3. 37 (2H, m), 3. 43 (4H, m).

[0049] Implementation Example 2: 6Boc protection Bullock Suffolk Preparation

[0050] Take 3Boc protection 1,4,8,11 _ tetraazacyclo tetradecane 20. 03g (0. 04mol), dissolved in anhydrous ko nitrile 400ml, anhydrous potassium carbonate 20g, aa ‘ni chlorine ni toluene 3.5012g (0.02mol), sodium iodide 75mg, at reflux for 24 hours under nitrogen, TLC monitoring of the reaction. After completion of the reaction, cooled to room temperature, filtered, the filter cake was washed with 200ml of ko nitrile, nitrile ko combined solution was evaporated to dryness under reduced pressure to give the protected Bullock 6Boc Suffolk 21. 20g, yield of 96.06%. Alcohol with ko – a mixed solvent of water and recrystallized to give a white solid. [0051] Implementation Example 3: Bullock Suffolk • 8HC1 • 3H20 Preparation of compounds

[0052] Protection Bullock Suffolk take 6Boc 20g, add methanol 200ml, stirring to dissolve, concentrated hydrochloric acid was added dropwise at room temperature, 60ml, was stirred at room temperature after the addition was complete 48 inches, TLC monitoring of the reaction. After completion of the reaction, filtration, the filter cake was dried 50 ° C under reduced pressure to give a white solid 13. 54g, yield of 88.04%.

 

Figure CN102653536AD00071

 

[0053] Implementation Example 4: Preparation of Suffolk Bullock…………Plerixafor BASE

[0054] Take Bullock Suffolk • 8HC1 • 3H20 compound 13. 54g, add water 40ml ultrasound to dissolve after stirring constantly with 50% sodium hydroxide solution to adjust the pH to 12 and filtered, the filter cake 50 ° C minus pressure and dried to give a white solid 7. 24g, yield 90.24 V0o

1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3, 6 ppm): 1. 75 (4H, bs); 1. 87 (4H, bs); 2. 95-2. 51 (32H, m); 3. 54 (4H, s); 4. 23 (4H, bs); 7. 30 (4H, s). 

IR (KBr) 3280,2927,2883,2805,1458,1264,1117 cm,

 

 

NEW PATENT…………….WO-2014125499

Improved and commercially viable process for the preparation of high pure plerixafor base

Process for the preparation of more than 99.8% pure plerixafor base by HPLC. Also claims solid forms of plerixafor base and composition comprising the same. Appears to be the first filing from the assignee on this API. FDA Orange book lists US6987102 and US7897590, expire in July 2023.

3-5-1997
Process for preparing 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane
2-26-1997
Process for preparing 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)]-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane
12-11-1996
Aromatic-linked polyamine macrocyclic compounds with anti-HIV activity
11-8-1996
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,1′-[1,4-PHENYLENEBIS-(METHYLENE)]-BIS-1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE
10-4-1996
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,1′-[1,4-PHENYLENEBIS-(METHYLENE)]-BIS-1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE
7-14-1995
CYCLIC POLYAMINES
6-25-1993
LINKED CYCLIC POLYAMINES WITH ACTIVITY AGAINST HIV

 

 

     
9-2-2005
Substituted benzodiazepines as inhibitors of the chemokine receptor CXCR4
2-4-2005
Methods and compositions for the treatment or prevention of human immunodeficiency virus and related conditions using cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors and antiviral agents
12-4-2002
Process for preparation of N-1 protected N ring nitrogen containing cyclic polyamines and products thereof
10-2-2002
Prodrugs
10-25-2001
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,1′- 1,4-PHENYLENEBIS-(METHYLENE)]-BIS-1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE
9-29-2000
CHEMOKINE RECPETOR BINDING HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS
8-11-2000
METHODS AND COMPOSITIONS TO ENHANCE WHITE BLOOD CELL COUNT
1-15-1998
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,1′- 1,4-PHENYLENEBIS-(METHYLENE) -BIS-1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE
3-19-1997
Process for preparing 1,1′-[1,4-phenylenebis-(methylene)]-bis-1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane
3-7-1997
PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE PROCESS FOR PREPARING 1,4,8,11-TETRAAZACYCLOTETRADECANE

 

6-24-2011
BETULINIC ACID DERIVATIVES AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS
11-3-2010
Antiviral methods employing double esters of 2′, 3′-dideoxy-3′-fluoroguanosine
2-5-2010
Chemokine Receptor Modulators
1-29-2010
NOVEL POLYNITROGENATED SYSTEMS AS ANTI-HIV AGENTS
9-4-2009
Combination of CXCR4 Antagonist and Morphogen to Increase Angiogenesis
11-28-2008
Chemokine receptor modulators
10-24-2008
Chemokine receptor modulators
8-32-2006
Compositions and methods for treating tissue ischemia
7-5-2006
ANTIVIRAL METHODS EMPLOYING DOUBLE ESTERS OF 2′, 3′-DIDEOXY-3′-FLUOROGUANOSINE
12-14-2005
Treatment of viral infections using prodrugs of 2′,3-dideoxy,3′-fluoroguanosine

 

References

  1. Jump up^ Ciampolini, M.; Fabbrizzi, L.; Perotti, A.; Poggi, A.; Seghi, B.; Zanobini, F. (1987). “Dinickel and dicopper complexes with N,N-linked bis(cyclam) ligands. An ideal system for the investigation of electrostatic effects on the redox behavior of pairs of metal ions”.Inorganic Chemistry 26 (21): 3527. doi:10.1021/ic00268a022edit
  2. Jump up^ Davies, S. L.; Serradell, N.; Bolós, J.; Bayés, M. (2007). “Plerixafor Hydrochloride”.Drugs of the Future 32 (2): 123. doi:10.1358/dof.2007.032.02.1071897edit
  3. Jump up^ Davies, S. L.; Serradell, N.; Bolós, J.; Bayés, M. (2007). “Plerixafor Hydrochloride”.Drugs of the Future 32 (2): 123. doi:10.1358/dof.2007.032.02.1071897edit
  4. Jump up to:a b &Na; (2007). “Plerixafor”. Drugs in R & D 8 (2): 113–119. doi:10.2165/00126839-200708020-00006PMID 17324009edit
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e Haberfeld, H, ed. (2009). Austria-Codex (in German) (2009/2010 ed.). Vienna: Österreichischer Apothekerverlag. ISBN 3-85200-196-X.
  6. Jump up^ Wagstaff, A. J. (2009). “Plerixafor”. Drugs 69 (3): 319. doi:10.2165/00003495-200969030-00007PMID 19275275edit
  7. Jump up to:a b “CHMP Assessment Report for Mozobil”European Medicines Agency.
  8. Jump up^ Esté, J. A.; Cabrera, C.; De Clercq, E.; Struyf, S.; Van Damme, J.; Bridger, G.; Skerlj, R. T.; Abrams, M. J.; Henson, G.; Gutierrez, A.; Clotet, B.; Schols, D. (1999). “Activity of different bicyclam derivatives against human immunodeficiency virus depends on their interaction with the CXCR4 chemokine receptor”. Molecular Pharmacology 55 (1): 67–73.PMID 9882699edit
  9. Jump up^ Bridger, G.; et al. (1993). “Linked cyclic polyamines with activity against HIV. WO/1993/012096”.
  10. Jump up^ Kalatskaya, I.; Berchiche, Y. A.; Gravel, S.; Limberg, B. J.; Rosenbaum, J. S.; Heveker, N. (2009). “AMD3100 is a CXCR7 Ligand with Allosteric Agonist Properties”.Molecular Pharmacology 75: 1240. doi:10.1124/mol.108.053389.PMID 19255243edit
  11. Jump up^ Cashen, A. F.; Nervi, B.; Dipersio, J. (2007). “AMD3100: CXCR4 antagonist and rapid stem cell-mobilizing agent”. Future Oncology 3 (1): 19–27.doi:10.2217/14796694.3.1.19PMID 17280498edit
  12. Jump up^ “Mozobil approved for non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and multiple myeloma” (Press release). Monthly Prescribing Reference. December 18, 2008. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  13. Jump up^ Notice of Decision for MOZOBIL
  14. Jump up^ Smith, M. C. P.; Luker, K. E.; Garbow, J. R.; Prior, J. L.; Jackson, E.; Piwnica-Worms, D.; Luker, G. D. (2004). “CXCR4 Regulates Growth of Both Primary and Metastatic Breast Cancer”. Cancer Research 64 (23): 8604–8612. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1844PMID 15574767edit
  15. Jump up^ Kioi, M.; Vogel, H.; Schultz, G.; Hoffman, R. M.; Harsh, G. R.; Brown, J. M. (2010).“Inhibition of vasculogenesis, but not angiogenesis, prevents the recurrence of glioblastoma after irradiation in mice”Journal of Clinical Investigation 120 (3): 694–705. doi:10.1172/JCI40283PMC 2827954PMID 20179352edit
  16. Jump up^ Pitchford, S.; Furze, R.; Jones, C.; Wengner, A.; Rankin, S. (2009). “Differential Mobilization of Subsets of Progenitor Cells from the Bone Marrow”. Cell Stem Cell 4 (1): 62–72. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2008.10.017PMID 19128793edit
  17. Jump up^ Wilson NM, Jung H, Ripsch MS, Miller RJ, White FA (March 2011). “CXCR4 Signaling Mediates Morphine-induced Tactile Hyperalgesia”Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 25(3): 565–73. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2010.12.014PMC 3039030PMID 21193025.
  18. http://worlddrugtracker.blogspot.in/2013/11/plerixafor-new-treatment-approaches-for.html

External links

 

Synthetic routes to produce the novel chelators 2 and 3.

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2012/dt/c2dt31137b

Theranostics 03: 0047 image No. 04

Theranostics 03: 0047 image No. 18

 

http://www.thno.org/v03p0047.htm

 

SEE ALSO……….http://www.scipharm.at/download.asp?id=1427

 

SEE…………..https://www.academia.edu/5549712/2011531154034454SCHEME 15 IS SYNTHESIS OF PLEXIXAFOR

read

ncur_powerpoint Courtney.ppt

faculty.swosu.edu/tim.hubin/share/ncur_powerpoint%20Courtney.ppt 
 

… trials against cancer and for stem cell mobilization as “Mozobil” or “Plerixafor” …NMR studies of AMD-3100 suggest that complex configuration is important.

Eliquis, Apixaban for the Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism


 

Apixaban.svg

Apixaban

CAS 503612-47-3

APPROVALS

EMA————MAY 18, 2011

FDA…………………DEC28, 2012

PMDA…………..   DEC25, 2012

CFDA………………JAN 22, 2013

 

 

Apixaban, sold under the tradename Eliquis, is a anticoagulant for the treatment of venous thromboembolic events. It is taken by mouth. It is a direct factor Xa inhibitor.

Apixaban was approved in Europe in 2012.[1] It was approved in the U.S. in 2014 for treatment and secondary prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE).[2] It is being developed in a joint venture by Pfizer and Bristol-Myers Squibb.[3][4]

 

Print

 

09338-acsnews1-bms
INVENTIVE
Donald Pinto (left) and Michael Orwat (right) work on developing new products for BMS.
Credit: Bristol-Myers Squibb

Ruth R. Wexler, executive director of cardiovascular diseases chemistry at Bristol-Myers Squibb, who led the group that designed and synthesized Eliquis (apixaban) to reduce the risk of stroke in patients with an abnormal heart rhythm called atrial fibrillation, recalls hearing about the drug’s success in late-stage clinical trials for the first time.

“I was at the European Society of Cardiology meeting when the results of ARISTOTLE, our large Phase 3 trial, were announced,” she says. “I was sitting in the audience, and it was just amazing to see the data released for the first time. It blew my mind that the data was that spectacular.”

In the trial, which compared apixaban with the workhorse anticoagulant Coumadin (warfarin), apixaban reduced the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation by 21%, major bleeding by 31%, and mortality by 11%. Unlike Coumadin, apixaban doesn’t require regular monitoring of the blood.

Medical uses

Apixaban is indicated for the following:[5]

Atrial fibrillation

Apixaban is recommended by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in people with non-valvular atrial fibrillation and at least one of the following risk factors: prior stroke or transient ischemic attack, age 75 years or older, diabetes mellitus, or symptomatic heart failure.[6]

Apixaban and other newer anticoagulants (dabigatran and rivaroxaban) appear equally effective as warfarin in preventing non-hemorrhagic stroke in people with atrial fibrillation and are associated with lower risk of intracranial bleeding.[7]

 

Mechanism of action

Apixaban is a highly selective, orally bioavailable, and reversible direct inhibitor of free and clot-bound factor Xa. Factor Xa catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, the final enzyme in the coagulation cascade that is responsible for fibrin clot formation.[10] Apixaban has no direct effect on platelet aggregation, but by inhibiting factor Xa, it indirectly decreases clot formation induced by thrombin.[5]

FDA approval

A new drug application (NDA) for the approval of apixaban was submitted to the FDA by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer jointly after conclusion of the ARISTOTLE clinical trial in 2011.[11]

Apixaban was approved for the prevention of stroke in people with atrial fibrillation on December 28, 2012.[12] On March 14, 2014, it was approved for the additional use of preventing deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in people that had recently undergone knee or hip replacement.[13] On August 21, 2014, the FDA approved apixaban for the treatment of recurring deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.[2]

During development it was known as BMS-562247-01.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thursday, August 21, 2014 – Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE: BMY) and Pfizer Inc. (NYSE: PFE) today announced the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a Supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for Eliquis for the treatment of DVT and PE, and for the reduction in the risk of recurrent DVT and PE following initial therapy. Combined, DVT and PE are known as VTE. It is estimated that every year, approximately 900,000 Americans are affected by DVT and PE.

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-eliquis-apixaban-deep-vein-thrombosis-pulmonary-embolism-4073.html?utm_source=ddc&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Today%27s+news+summary+-+August+21%2C+2014

See more at: http://worlddrugtracker.blogspot.in/2014/08/fda-approves-eliquis-apixaban-for.html

APIXABAN 13

1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl]-4,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamideAPIXABAN

 

 

 

 

PREDICTIONS



1H NMR


 













13C NMR

COSY

 











1H NMR  PREDICT

 

 



13 C NMR PREDICT

 

1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl]-4,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 503612-47-3 NMR spectral analysis, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl]-4,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide H-NMR spectrum
CAS NO. 503612-47-3, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl]-4,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide H-NMR spectral analysis

1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl]-4,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide NMR spectra analysis, Chemical CAS NO. 503612-47-3 NMR spectral analysis, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl]-4,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide C-NMR spectrum

C-NMR spectral analysis

CAS NO. 503612-47-3, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl]-4,5-dihydropyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide C-NMR spectral analysis
http://www.google.com/patents/WO2012168364A1?cl=en

 

l-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-l -yl)phenyl]-4, 5,6,7- tetrahydro- lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxyamide of formula (I), also known come apixaban, is a powerful inhibitor of coagulation factor Xa disclosed in US 6,967,208. Said compound is used in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders.
Figure imgf000002_0001
(I)
US 7, 153,960 discloses a process for the preparation of apixaban wherein the key step is the formation of intermediate (A) by 1 ,3 dipolar cycloaddition reaction between the compounds of formula (B) and (C) and its subsequent conversion to the compound of formula (D) by treatment with an acid. The compound of formula (D), after simple manipulations of functional groups, is converted to apixaban
Figure imgf000003_0001
B C A D
Said patent discloses the preparation of the compounds of formula (B) and (C). While the synthesis of the hydrazone of formula (B) has been known for some time, the preparation of the key intermediate of formula (C) is complex and uses reagents which are expensive and potentially hazardous, such as phosphorus pentachloride (PC15), and drastic reaction conditions.
US 7, 153,960, for example, discloses as preferred the preparation of an enamine intermediate of formula (C) wherein the amine residue NRbRc is a morpholine. The conditions used for the success of the reaction actually involve the use of morpholine as solvent at high temperatures, such as reflux temperature (about 130- 135°C).
The complexity of the known processes for the preparation of the intermediate of formula C, the expense and danger of the reagents and the drastic reaction conditions used make said processes difficult to apply and scale up industrially, especially for the purpose of preparing the intermediates of formula A and D and apixaban.
Example 6. Synthesis of compound of formula (I): l-(4- Methoxyphenyl)-6-[4-(2-oxo-piperidinyl)phenyl]-7-oxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro- l//-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxyamide: Apixaban (I)
Figure imgf000020_0001
The compound of formula II, prepared as in Example 5 (17.50 g, 35.82 mmol), is suspended in 100 ml of 33% NH3 and 200 ml of MeOH in a 1L 4-necked flask equipped with coolant, thermometer and magnetic stirrer, in nitrogen atmosphere, and heated to 45°. MeOH (250 ml) is added until completely dissolved, and the solution is left under stirring for 2h. Another addition of 33% NH3 (50 ml) is performed, and the progress of the reaction is monitored by TLC (AcOEt/MeOH 9: 1) and HPLC. After 18h the solvent is evaporated under low pressure, and the solid residue obtained is suspended in 200 ml of H2O and left under stirring for 2h. The white solid is filtered through a Buchner funnel, and washed with H2O (50 ml). The product of formula (I) is stove-dried at 50°C to a constant weight (12.60 g, yield 76%). The HPLC purity of the product exceeds 99%
Apixaban.svg
.
1H NMR (300 MHz, CDC13): DELTA
7.47 (2H, dd, J0=8.7 Hz, Ar-H), 
7.31(2H, dd, J0=8.7 Hz, Ar-H), 
7.23 (2H, dd, J0=8.7 Hz, Ar-H), 
6.93 (2H, dd, J0=8.7 Hz, Ar-H), 
6.83 (1H, s, N-H), 
5.53 (1H, s, N-H), 
4.1 1 (2H, t, J=6.6 Hz, CH2CH2N), 
3.81 (3H, s, Ar-OCH3), 
3.59 (2H, m, NCH2CH2CH2CH2CO) 
3.37 (2H, t, J=6.6 Hz, CH2CH2N), 
2.55 (2H, m, NCH2CH2CH2CH2CO), 
1.93 (4H, m, NCH2CH^CH2CH2CO).
Apixaban.svg
SEE

NMR

For apixaban (in CDCl3) 1
HNMR (CDCl3) δ: 7.49 (d, J = 8.80 Hz, 2H), 7.37 (d, J= 9.10 Hz, 2H), 7.26 (d, J=
8.80 Hz, 2H), 6.98 (s, 1H), 6.95 (d, J = 9.20 Hz, 2H), 6.28 (s, 1H), 4.14 (t, J= 6.60
Hz, 2H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 3.61 (m, 2H), 3.39 (t, J = 6.60 Hz, 2H), 2.63 (t, J= 6.20 Hz,
2H), 1.96 (m, 4H) ppmFT-IR spectral data of apixaban  Compound IR (KBr) absorption bands (cm−1
)
Apixaban 1630 for -C=O stretch cyclic amide; 1595 for -C=O stretch amide lactum;
3023 for -C-H stretch aromatic

 Zhou , J. C. ; Oh , L. M. ; Ma , P. ; Li , H. Y. Synthesis of 4,5-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyrid-2-ones. WO Patent 2003/0 49681, June 19 , 2003 .
 
 
 
 
 
 
J. Med. Chem. 2007 , 50 , 5339 – 5356 .
 

1-(4-Methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-1-yl)phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (1)[ref ]J. Med. Chem. 2007 , 50 , 5339 – 5356 .

To the advanced intermediate 2 (2.44 g, 5.0 mmol) was added 25% ammonia water (1.5 mL, 20 mmol) in methanol (20 mL), and the mixture was heated to 65 °C for 5 h in an autoclave of 50 mL. The resulting mixture was cooled to room temperature, poured into water (30 mL), and crystalized below 0°C. The precipitate was filtrated and dried in vacuo at 50°C to afford the desired product 1 as a pale white solid. Yield: 2.09 g, 91%; mp 171–173 °C; IR (KBr, cm−1): 3448 and 3298 (N-H stretching), 2940 (C-H aliphatic), 1669 (C˭N stretching), 1614 (C˭O stretching), 1544 (aliphatic C˭C), 1513, 1463 and 1441 (aromatic C˭C), 1334, 1300 and 1254 (C-N stretching), 1146, 1111, 1090 and 1024 (C-O stretching), 835, 816, 794 and 758 (Ar-H aromatic bending); 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3, ppm), δ: 7.48 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.35 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 7.27 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 6.95 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, 2H), 5.66 (brs, 2H), 4.12 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 3.84 (s, 3H), 3.55–3.65 (m, 2H), 3.39 (t, J = 5.6 Hz, 2H), 2.57 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 1.91–2.01 (m, 4H); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CDCl3, ppm), δ: 170.9, 164.4, 160.5, 158.0, 142.1, 140.6 (2C), 134.0, 133.2, 127.4 (4C), 126.9 (2C), 126.5, 114.4 (2C), 56.2, 52.3, 51.8, 33.5, 24.2, 22.1, 21.9; MS/EI m/z = 459.2 (M+).
SEE

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014056434A1?cl=en

…………………..
Patent

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014108919A2?cl=en

HPLC method of Analysis:
Apixaban compound of formula- 1 of the present invention is analyzed by HPLC using the following conditions:
Apparatus: A liquid chromatographic system is to be equipped with variable wavelength UV- detector; Column: Zorbax Bonus RP, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5μιη or equivalent; Flow rate: 1.2 ml/min; wavelength: 270 nm; column temperature: 40°C; Injection volume; 5 uL; Run time: 35 minutes; Needle wash: diluent; Diluent: Acetonitrile: water (90: 10 v/v); Elution: Gradient; Mobile phase-A: Buffer; Mobile phase-B: acetonitrile:water (90:10 v/v); Buffer: Weigh accurately about 1.36 g of potassium dihydrogen ortho phosphate in 1000 10 ml of milli-Q water and adjust pH 6.0 with dil KOH solution, then filter through 0.22 μιη nylon membrane filter paper. The following impurities have been observed during the preparation of Apixaban.
Figure imgf000020_0001
                                   methyl esterImpurity       Chloro Impurity          Dehydro Impurity
Scheme-I:
Apixaban
Figure imgf000020_0002
Scheme-II:
Figure imgf000021_0001
Pure Apixaban Formula-1 [Apixaban]

 

Example-1: Preparation of 3-chloro-l-(4-iodophenyI)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one (Formula-6)
Lithium carbonate (4.08 gm) followed by lithium chloride (2.28 gm) were added to a mixture of 3,3-dichloro-l-(4-iodophenyl)piperidin-2-one compound of formula-5 (30 gm) and dimethylformamide (60 ml) at 25-30°C and stirred for 5 min at the same temperature. Heated the reaction mixture to 110-115°C and stirred for 4 hrs at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 25-30°C. Water was added to the reaction mixture at 25-30°C and stirred for 1 hr at the same temperature. Filtered the precipitated solid and then dried to get the title compound. Yield: 25.0 gm; MR: 120-130°C.
Example-2: Preparation of 3-chIoro-l-(4-iodophenyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one (Formula-6)
Lithium carbonate (2.99 gm) followed by sodium chloride (2.76 gm) were added to a mixture of 3,3-dichloro-l-(4-iodophenyl)piperidin-2-one compound of formula-5 (50 gm) and dimethylformamide (150 ml) at 30-35°C and stirred for 10 min at the same temperature. Heated the reaction mixture to 110-115°C and stirred for 6 hrs at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 25-30°C. Water was added to the reaction mixture at 25-30°C and stirred for 1 hr at the same temperature. Filtered the precipitated solid and then dried to get the title compound.
Yield: 42.0 gm; M.R: 120-130°C.
Example-3: Preparation of l-(4-iodophenyl)-3-morpholino-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one (Formula-7)
Morpholine (5.09 gm) was added to a mixture of 3-chloro-l-(4-iodophenyl)-5,6-dihydro pyridin-2(lH)-one compound of formula-6 (5 gm) and toluene (5 ml) at 25-30°C and stirred for 5 min at the same temperature. Heated the reaction mixture to 115-120°C and stirred for 3 hrs at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 25-30°C. Water was added to the reaction mixture at 25-30°C and stirred for 15 hrs at the same temperature. Filtered the precipitated solid and then dried to get the title compound. Yield: 3.8 gm.
Example-4: Preparation of l-(4-iodophenyl)-3-morpholino-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one (Formula-7)
Morpholine (28.73 gm) was added to a mixture of 3-chloro-l-(4-iodophenyl)-5,6- dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one compound of formula-6 (50 gm) and toluene (50 ml) at 30-35°C. Heated the reaction mixture to 115-120°C and stirred for 8 hrs at 115-120°C. After completion of the reaction, cooled the reaction mixture to 25-30°C. Methyl tert-butyl ether (100 ml) followed by water were slowly added to the reaction mixture at 25-30°C. Cooled the reaction mixture to 5- 10°C and stirred for 2 hours at 5-10°C. Filtered the precipitated solid and then dried to get the title compound. Yield: 45 gm.
Example-5: Preparation of ethyl 6-(4-iodophenyl)-l-(4-methoxyphenyI)-7-oxo-4,5,6,7-tetra hydro-lH-pyrazoIo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxyIate (FormuIa-13)
A mixture of 3-chloro-l-(4-iodophenyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one compound of formula-6 (79.2 gm), (Z)-ethyl 2-chloro-2-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)hydrazono)acetate compound of formula-9 (65 gm) and toluene (450 ml) was heated to 90-100°C and stirred for 5 min at the same temperature. Triethyl amine (72 gm) was slowly added to the reaction mixture at 95-100°C and stirred for 2½ hrs at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 25-30°C. Water (110 ml) was added to the reaction mixture at 25-30°C and stirred for 8 hrs at the same temperature. Filtered the solid, washed with water and then dried to get the title compound.
Yield: 78.5 gm.
Example-6: Preparation of 5-bromo-N-(4-iodophenyl)pentanamide (Formula-3)
A mixture of 5-bromopentanoic acid (54 g), thionyl chloride (41 g), dimethylformamide (2 ml) and toluene (100 ml) was heated to 40-45°C and stirred for 2 hours at the same temperature. Distilled off the reaction mixture to remove the un-reacted thionyl chloride under reduced pressure at a temperature below 40°C. Toluene (50 ml) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 15 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled to 25-30°C under nitrogen atmosphere and it slowly added to a pre-cooled mixture of 4-iodoaniline compound of formula-2 (50 g) and toluene (350 ml) at 0-5°C. Triethyl amine (29 g) was added to it at 0-5°C. The above reaction mixture containing acid chloride was slowly added to the reaction mixture containing 4- iodoaniline under nitrogen atmosphere and stirred for 2 hours at 0-5°C. Water (250 ml) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 2 hours at 0-5°C. Filtered the precipitated solid and then dried to get title compound. Yield: 83 gm; MR: 135-140°C; HPLC purity: 99%.
Example-7: Preparation of 3-chloro-l-(4-iodophenyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one (Formula-6)
Step-a) Preparation of l-(4-iodophenyl)piperidin-2-one (Formula-4)
Sodium tert-butoxide (18.86 g) was added to a mixture of 5-bromo-N-(4- iodophenyl)pentanamide compound of formula-3 (50 g) and toluene (250 ml) at 0-5°C and stirred for 2 hours at 0-5°C. Water (100 ml) followed by aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (50 ml) were added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 10 minutes at 5-10°C. Both the organic and aqueous layers were separated; the organic layer was washed with water. Distilled off the solvent from the organic layer under reduced pressure at a temperature below 60°C to get title compound as a solid.
Step-b) Preparation of 3,3-dichIoro-l-(4-iodophenyI)piperidin-2-one (Formula-5)
The compound obtained in step-a) was dissolved in dichloromethane (100 ml) and slowly added to a mixture of phosphorous pentachloride (95 g) and dichloromethane (150 ml) at 25- 30°C. The reaction mixture was heated to 35-40°C and stirred for 4 hours at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 5-10°C. Chilled water (150 ml) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 1.5 hours at 10-15°C. Both the organic and aqueous layers were separated; the organic layer was washed with water followed by 10% aqueous sodium carbonate solution. Distilled off the solvent completely from the organic layer to get title compound as a solid.
Step-c) Preparation of 3-chloro-l-(4-iodophenyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one (Formula- 6)
To the obtained compound in step-b), dimethylformamide (100 ml), followed by lithium carbonate (2.2 g) and sodium chloride (2.0 g) were added at 25-30°C. The reaction mixture was heated to 115-120°C and stirred for 6 hours at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 30-35°C, water (350 ml) was added to it and stirred for 2 hours at 25-30°C. Filtered the precipitated solid and washed with water. Methanol (360 ml) was added to the obtained solid and the reaction mixture was heated to 65-70°C. Stirred the reaction mixture for 20 minutes at the same temperature. Carbon (3.0 g) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 20 minutes at 65-70°C. Filtered the reaction mixture through hyflow bed and washed with methanol. Distilled off the solvent from the filtrate under reduced pressure and methanol (300 ml) was added to the residue and stirred for 20 minutes at 25-30°C. Cooled the reaction mixture to -5 to 0°C and stirred for 60 minutes at the same temperature. Filtered the precipitated solid, washed with methanol and then dried to get title compound.
Yield: 25 gm; MR: 115- 120°C: HPLC purity: 98%.
Example-8: Preparation of 3-morpholino-l-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-l-yl)phenyl)-5,6-dihydro pyridin-2(lH)-one (Formula-8)
A mixture of l-(4-iodophenyl)-3-mo holino-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)-one compound of formula-7 (50 g), piperidin-2-one (32.25 g) and o-xylene (75 ml) was stirred for 10 minutes at 25-30°C. Potassium carbonate (27.0 g), followed by copper iodide (7.43 g) were added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was heated to 140-145°C under azeotropic distillation condition and stirred for 6 hours at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 35- 40°C, water (175 ml) was slowly added to the reaction mixture at 35-40°C. Cooled the reaction mixture to 10-15°C and ammonia (125 ml) was added to the reaction mixture at 10-15°C. The temperature of the reaction mixture was raised to 25-30°C and stirred for 2 hours at the same temperature. Filtered the precipitated solid, washed with water and then dried to get title compound.
Yield: 35 gm; MR: 195-200°C; HPLC purity: 95%.
Example-9: Preparation of (Z)-ethyl 2-chloro-2-(2-(4-nlethoxyphenyl)hydrazono)acetate (FormuIa-9)
A mixture of 4-methoxyaniline compound of formula- 12 (50 g) and water (150 ml) was cooled to 5-10°C. Hydrochloric acid (100 ml), followed by a solution of sodium nitrite (30.81 g) in water (50 ml) were slowly added to the reaction mixture at 5-10°C and stirred for 2 hours at 5- 10°C to provide diazotized compound. Ethyl acetate (250 ml) was added to the reaction mixture. Ethyl 2-chloro acetoacetate (76.84 g) was slowly added to a mixture of sodium acetate (76.6 g), ethyl acetate (250 ml) and water (150 ml) at 25-30°C and the reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hours at 25-30°C. The reaction mixture was slowly added to the reaction mixture containing diazotized compound at a temperature below 10°C. The temperature of the reaction mixture was raised to 25-30°C and stirred for 16 hours at the same temperature. Both the organic and aqueous layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with 10% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution followed by 10% aqueous sodium chloride solution. Distilled off the solvent completely from the organic layer under reduced pressure and then co-distilled with toluene. Toluene was added to the obtained compound and stirred for 15 minutes at 25-30°C. Silica-gel was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 30 minutes at 25-30°C. Filtered the reaction mixture and the solvent from the filtrate was distilled off completely under reduced pressure. Cyclohexane (400 ml) was added to the obtained compound and the reaction mixture was stirred for 60 minutes at 25-30°C. Filtered the precipitated solid, washed with cyclohexane and then dried to get title compound. Yield: 60 gm; MR: 95-100°C; HPLC purity: 99%.
ExampIe-10: Preparation of ethyl l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-l-yl) phenyl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxylate (Formula-11)
A mixture of 3-morpholino-l-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-l-yl)phenyl)-5,6-dihydropyridin-2(lH)- one compound of formula-8 (30 g), sodium carbonate (26.83 g) and acetone (150 ml) was heated to 45-50°C. (Z)-ethyl 2-chloro-2-(2-(4-methoxyphenyl)hydrazono)acetate compound of formula- 9 (32.5 g) was added to the reaction mixture at 45-50°C and stirred for 3 hours at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 25-30°C and aqueous hydrochloric acid (50 ml) in 50 ml of water was added to it at 25-30°C. Stirred the reaction mixture for 2 hours at 25-30°C. Water was slowly added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 45 minutes at 25-30°C. Filtered the obtained solid and washed with water. The obtained solid was recrystallized from toluene (150 ml) to get the title compound. Yield: 35 gm; MR: 155-160°C; HPLC purity: 97%.
Example- 11: Preparation of l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo piperidin-l-yl)phenyl]- 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Formula-1)
A mixture of ethyl l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-(4-(2-oxopiperidin-l-yl)phenyl)- 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxylate compound of formula-11 (50 g), formamide (150 ml), sodium methoxide (30 ml) and isopropanol (300 ml) was heated to 65-70°C and stirred for 2 hours at 65-70°C. Cooled the reaction mixture to 0-5°C and stirred for 30 minutes at 0-5°C. Filtered the precipitated solid and washed with isopropanol. Methanol (150 ml) was added to the obtained solid, the reaction mixture was heated to 65-70°C and stirred for 15 minutes at 65-70°C. Cooled the reaction mixture to 0-5°C and stirred for 30 minutes at 0-5°C. Filtered the precipitated solid, washed with methanol and then dried to get title compound. Yield: 35 g. MR: 230-235°C; HPLC purity: 98%.
The PXRD of the crystalline solid obtained from the above example is matches with the PXRD of crystalline form-M of the present invention.
Example-12: Purification of l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo piperidin-l-yl)phenyl]- 4,5,6, 7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Formula-1)
1 -(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin- 1 -yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro- 1 H- pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide compound of formula-1 (100 g) was dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane (1200 ml) and methanol (200 ml) at 25-30°C. 10% aqueous sodium carbonate solution (200 ml) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 15 minutes at 25- 30°C. Both the organic and aqueous layers were separated, methanol (100 ml) was added to the organic layer and again 200 ml of 10% aqueous sodium carbonate solution was added to the reaction mixture. The reaction mixture was stirred for 15 minutes at 25-30°C and separated the organic and aqueous layers. To the organic layer methanol (100 ml) followed by water (200 ml) were added. Both the organic and aqueous layers were separated. The solvent from organic layer was distilled under reduced pressure at a temperature below 40°C. 3000 ml of a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (in the ratio of 3:7) was added to the crude compound and the reaction mixture was heated to reflux temperature and stirred for 10 minutes. Carbon (10 g) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for 15 minutes at the reflux temperature. Filtered the reaction mixture through hyflow bed, washed with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol. The filtrate was cooled to 0-5°C and stirred for 2 hours at 0-5°C. Filtered the precipitated solid and washed with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol. Isopropanol (1000 ml) was added to the reaction mixture. Heated the reaction mixture to 80-85°C and stirred for 15 minutes. Cooled the reaction mixture to 25-30°C and stirred for 2 hours at 35-30°C. Filtered the precipitated solid, washed with isopropanol and then dried to get title compound.
Yield: 80 gm; MR: 235-240°C.
The PXRD pattern of crystalline solid obtained from the above example is matches with PXRD of crystalline form-M of the present invention.
Example-13: Preparation of crystalline form-M of l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo piperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Formula-1)
l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH- pyrazolo[3,4-c] pyridine-3-carboxamide compound of formula-1 (6.25 gm) was added to isopropanol (400 ml) at 25-30°C. Heated the reaction mixture to reflux temperature and stirred for 15 min at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 0-5°C and stirred for 60 min the same temperature. Filtered the solid, washed with isopropanol and then dried to get the title compound. Yield: 4.5 gm; Water content: 0.30% w/w. HPLC purity: 99.8%; Acid impurity: 0.02%; Amino acid impurity: Not detected; Chloro impurity: 0.01%; Methyl ester impurity: 0.05%; Ethyl ester impurity: 0.01%; Dehydro impurity: 0.07%.
Particle size distribution: D(0.1): 9.183 μπι; D(0.5): 25.991 um; D(0.9): 60.749 μιη; D[4,3]: 31.066 μπι.
The PXRD and DSC of the obtained compound are illustrated in figure- 1 and figure-2 respectively.
Example-14: Preparation of crystalline form-M of l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo piperidin-l-yI)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Formula-1)
1 -(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin- 1 -yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro- 1 H- pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide compound of formula-1 (6.25 gm) was added to 50% aqueous isopropanol (60 ml) at 25-30°C. Heated the reaction mixture to 50-60°C and stirred for 4 hrs at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 25-30°C and stirred for 60 min at the same temperature. Filtered the solid and then dried to get the title compound.
Yield: 4.1 gm; Water content: 0.35% w/w.
The PXRD and DSC of the obtained compound are illustrated in figure- 1 and figure-2 respectively.
Example-15: Preparation of crystalline form-S of l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo piperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Formula-1)
l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH- pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide compound of formula-1 (34 gm) was added to a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol at 25-30°C. Heated the reaction mixture to reflux temperature and stirred for 15 min at the same temperature. Filtered the reaction mixture and washed with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol. Cooled the filtrate to 0-5°C and stirred for 60 min at the same temperature. Filtered the precipitated solid and then dried to get the title compound. Yield: 24.0 gm; M.R: 235-245°C; Water content: 7.38% w/w.
The PXRD and DSC of the obtained compound are illustrated in figure-3 and figure-4 respectively.
Example-16: Preparation of crystalline form-N of l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo piperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3- carboxamide(Formula-l)
A mixture of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate (625 ml, in 3:7 ratio) was added to l-(4- methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c] pyridine-3-carboxamide compound of formula- 1 (6.25 gm) at 25-30°C. Heated the reaction mixture to reflux temperature and stirred for 15 min at the same temperature. Cooled the reaction mixture to 0-5°C and stirred for 60 min at the same temperature. Filtered the solid and then dried to get title compound. Yield: 3.9 g; Water content: 5.21% w/w.
The PXRD and DSC of the obtained compound are illustrated in figure-5 and figure-6 respectively.
Example-17: Preparation of crystalline form-M of l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo piperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Formula-1)
1 -(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin- 1 -yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro- 1 H- pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide compound of formula-1 (34 gm) was added to a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (1020 ml, in 3:7 ratio) at 25-30°C. Heated the reaction mixture to reflux temperature and stirred for 15 min at the same temperature. Filtered the reaction mixture and washed with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol. Cooled the filtrate to 0- 5°C and stirred for 60 min at the same temperature. Filtered the precipitated solid and added to isopropanol (510 ml). Heated the reaction mixture to reflux temperature and stirred for 15 Minutes at the same temperature. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0-5°C and stirred for 60 minutes at the same temperature. Filtered the solid and then dried to get crystalline form-M of compound of formula-1. Yield: 23 g; Water content: 0.30%w/w.
The PXRD and DSC of the obtained compound are illustrated in figure- 1 and figure-2 respectively.
Example-18: Preparation of crystalline form-M of l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxo piperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide (Formula-1)
l-(4-methoxyphenyl)-7-oxo-6-[4-(2-oxopiperidin-l-yl)phenyl]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-lH- pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyridine-3-carboxamide compound of formula-1 (34 gm) was added to a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (1020 ml, in 3:7 ratio) at 25-30°C. Heated the reaction mixture to reflux temperature and stirred for 15 min at the same temperature. Filtered the reaction mixture and washed with a mixture of dichloromethane and methanol. Cooled the filtrate to 0- 5°C and stirred for 60 min at the same temperature. Filtered the precipitated solid and added to aq.isopropanol (340 ml). Heated the reaction mixture to 50-60°C and stirred for 15 minutes at the same temperature. The reaction mixture was cooled to 25-35°C and stirred for 60 minutes at the same temperature. Filtered the solid and then dried to get crystalline form-M of compound of formula-1.
Yield: 23 g; Water content: 0.35%w/w.
The PXRD and DSC of the obtained compound are illustrated in figure- 1 and figure-2 respectively

/…………………

US3068248 * Mar 23, 1962 Dec 11, 1962 Farmaceutici Italia Halo-derivatives of 4-hydroxy-17alpha-methyl-testosterone
US20030191115 * Sep 17, 2002 Oct 9, 2003 Pinto Donald J.P. Lactam-containing compounds and derivatives thereof as factor Xa inhibitors
US20060069258 * Sep 26, 2005 Mar 30, 2006 Rafael Shapiro Process for preparing 4,5-dihydro-pyrazolo[3,4-c]pyrid-2-ones
WO2012168364A1 * Jun 7, 2012 Dec 13, 2012 Dipharma Francis S.R.L. Apixaban preparation process
WO2013119328A1 * Dec 28, 2012 Aug 15, 2013 Assia Chemical Industries Ltd. Solid state forms of apixaban
CN101065379A * Sep 27, 2005 Oct 31, 2007 布里斯托尔-迈尔斯斯奎布公司 Process for preparing 4,5-dihydro-pyrazolo [3,4-c] pyrid-2-ones
US20060160841 * Sep 26, 2005 Jul 20, 2006 Chenkou Wei Crystallization via high-shear transformation

 

References

 

Neale, Todd (March 14, 2014). “FDA OKs Apixaban for DVT Prevention”. MedPage Today. Retrieved 17 September 2015.

 

//////////

 

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Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) エチリノテカンペゴル: A Next-Generation Topoisomerase I Inhibitor


 

Chemical structure for etirinotecan pegol

 

Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102)

848779-32-8

PEG-irinotecan

Also known as: NKTR-102; UNII-LJ16641SFT; 848779-32-8

Molecular Formula: C161H192N20O40 Molecular Weight: 3047.35718

Nektar Therapeutics innovator

http://www.acsmedchem.org/mediabstractf2013.pdf

 

 

CAS: 1193151-09-5

Synonym: NKTR102; NKTR 102; NKTR-102; pegylated irinotecan NKTR 102; Etirinotecan pegol.

IUPAC/Chemical name: (1). Tetrakis{(4S)-9-[([1,4′-bipiperidinyl]-1′-carbonyl)oxy]-4,11-diethyl-3,14-dioxo-3,4,12,14- tetrahydro-1H-pyrano[3′,4′:6,7]indolizino[1,2-b]quinolin-4-yl} N,N’,N”,N”’- {methanetetrayltetrakis[methylenepoly(oxyethylene)oxy(1-oxoethylene)]}tetraglycinate tetrahydrochloride

(2). Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-[2-[[2-[[(4S)-9-[([1,4′-bipiperidin]-1′-ylcarbonyl)oxy]- 4,11-diethyl-3,4,12,14-tetrahydro-3,14-dioxo-1H-pyrano[3′,4′:6,7]indolizino[1,2- b]quinolin-4-yl]oxy]-2-oxoethyl]amino]-2-oxoethoxy]-, ether with 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)- 1,3-propanediol, hydrochloride (4:1:4)

Etirinotecan pegol tetratriflutate [USAN]

RN: 1193151-12-0

2D chemical structure of 1193151-12-0

MF and MW

  • C153-H176-N20-O36 (C8-H16-O4)n.4(C2-H-F3-O2)
  • 3503.4754

Tetrakis((4S)-9-(((1,4′-bipiperidinyl)-1′-carbonyl)oxy)-4,11-diethyl-3,14-dioxo-3,4,12,14- tetrahydro-1H-pyrano(3′,4′:6,7)indolizino(1,2-b)quinolin-4-yl) N,N’,N”,N”’- (methanetetrayltetrakis(methylenepoly(oxyethylene)oxy(1-oxoethylene)))tetraglycinate tetrakis(trifluoroacetate)

NKTR-102 is currently being developed by Nektar. According to the company’s news release, this agent exhibits a very high response rate and excellent clinical benefit rate in patients with metastatic breast cancer, and importantly, this anti-tumor activity is maintained in each of the poor prognosis subsets within the study. The data from the Phase 2 study also shows highly promising PFS of 5.3 months and OS of 13.1 months in the every three week dose schedule, which was also very well-tolerated. As a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor in breast cancer, NKTR-102 holds great therapeutic potential and allows us to address the challenge of resistance in this setting

NKTR-102 (PEG-irinotecan), a PEGylated form of irinotecan, is in clinical development by Nektar Therapeutics for the treatment of multiple solid tumors, including colorectal cancer, metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer, metastatic or locally advanced ovarian cancer and gastrointestinal cancer. No recent development has been reported for phase I clinical trials for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer.

In preclinical studies, NKTR-102 resulted in significantly higher reduction in tumor growth than irinotecan in colon, lung and breast tumors. The company believes that following intravenous administration of NKTR-102, irinotecan will be released slowly, resulting in prolonged systemic exposure of irinotecan. Irinotecan is a cytotoxic anticancer agent used extensively to treat colorectal, lung, esophageal and other solid tumors. In 2011, orphan drug designation was assigned to the compound in the U.S. for the treatment of ovarian cancer.

In 2011, orphan drug designation was assigned in the E.U. for the treatment of ovarian cancer. In 2012, fast track designation was assigned by the FDA for the treatment of locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer progressing after treatment with an anthracycline, a taxane and capecitabine.

Therapeutic Area Nektar
Discovered
Indication Phase
Oncology  
Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102)
Metastatic Breast Cancer
Phase 3
Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer
Phase 2 Completed
Second-Line Colorectal Cancer
Phase 2 Completed
Bevacizumab (Avastin)-refractory high-grade glioma
Phase 2
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)
Phase 2
Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)
Phase 2
GI and solid tumors
In combination with 5-FU

Phase 1 Completed

http://www.nektar.com/product_pipeline/all_phases.html#BAX855

Market Overview

Etirinotecan pegol is in Phase 3 clinical development for patients with metastatic or locally recurrent breast cancer and Phase 2 clinical development for patients with solid tumor malignancies, including ovarian, colorectal, glioma, small cell and non-small cell lung cancers. Each year, approximately 5.3 million patients worldwide are diagnosed with one of these types of cancer.1

Etirinotecan Pegol Clinical Data and Product Profile

Etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) is the first long-acting topoisomerase I-inhibitor (Topo I) designed to concentrate in tumor tissue, provide sustained tumor suppression throughout the entire chemotherapy cycle, and to reduce the peak exposures that are associated with toxicities of other cytotoxics. Etirinotecan pegol was invented by Nektar using its advanced polymer conjugate technology platform, and is the first oncology product candidate to leverage Nektar’s releasable polymer technology platform.

Topo I-inhibitors are important chemotherapeutic agents used to treat cancer. Immediately after dosing, however, standard topo I-inhibitors reach high peak concentrations and diffuse quickly throughout the body—penetrating and damaging healthy tissue, such as bone marrow, as well as tumor tissue. Subsequent rapid metabolism limits topo I exposure in tumor cells, reducing the duration of their effect and resulting in a much lower tumor exposure to the active metabolite that may limit their efficacy.

Etirinotecan pegol is a novel chemotherapeutic designed to enhance the anti-cancer effects of topo I-inhibition while minimizing its toxicities. Unlike first generation topo I-inhibitors that exhibit a high initial peak concentration and short half-life, etirinotecan pegol’s unique pro-drug design results in a lowered initial peak concentration of active topo I inhibitor in the blood. The large etirinotecan pegol molecule is inactive when administered. Over time, the body’s natural enzymatic processes slowly metabolize the linkers within the molecule, continuously freeing active drug that then works to stop tumor cell division through inhibition of topo I.

Clinical and preclinical studies have shown that the half-life of active drug generated from etirinotecan pegol is greatly extended to 50 days (compared to 48 hours for irinotecan) and that active drug remains in circulation throughout the entire chemotherapy cycle, providing sustained exposure to topo I inhibition. In preclinical models, etirinotecan pegol achieved a 300-fold increase in tumor concentration as compared to a first generation topo I-inhibitor. Because etirinotecan pegol is a large molecule, it is believed to penetrate the leaky vasculature within the tumor environment more readily than normal vasculature, concentrating and trapping etirinotecan pegol in tumor tissue.

Etirinotecan pegol is currently in development for the treatment of breast, ovarian, colorectal, glioma, small cell and non-small cell lung cancers.

Ongoing clinical development for etirinotecan pegol:

  • In metastatic breast cancer, a Phase 3 randomized, head to head study (The BEACON Study) of etirinotecan pegol compared to Treatment of Physician’s Choice (TPC) completed enrollment of 864 patients in August 2013. Data from the study on the primary endpoint of overall survival is expected by the end of 2014 or early 2015.
  • In ovarian cancer, an expanded Phase 2 study of single-agent etirinotecan pegol in platinum refractory/resistant ovarian cancer in 177 women who failed prior Doxil therapy was completed at the end of 2012.
  • In colorectal cancer, a 174-patient Phase 2 randomized, head-to-head study of etirinotecan pegol compared to irinotecan in patients with second-line colorectal cancer with the KRAS gene mutation is in progress.
  • Etirinotecan pegol is also being evaluated in glioma, small cell and non-small cell lung cancers.

Highlighted Data Presentations:

Data from a Phase 2 clinical study of etirinotecan pegol in metastatic breast cancer were published in the November 2013 issue of The Lancet Oncology (click here to view manuscript) These data were previously presented at the 2011 ASCO Annual meeting (click here to download this presentation).

Data from a Phase 2 clinical study of etirinotecan pegol in platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer were published in the September 30, 2013 online edition of the Journal of Clinical Oncology (click here to view abstract). These data were previously presented at the 2010 ASCO Meeting (click here to download this presentation).

Data from a Phase 2 clinical study of etirinotecan pegol in metastatic breast cancer were presented in an oral abstract session at the 2011 ASCO Breast Cancer Symposium by Agustin Garcia, MD. View presentation slides.

Data from a Phase 2 clinical study of NKTR-102 in a subpopulation of patients with platinum-resistant/refractory ovarian cancer and prior Doxil® (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or PLD) treatment were presented at the 2011 ASCO Annual Meeting by Agustin Garcia, MD. (click here to download this presentation).

Data from a Phase 2 clinical study of etirinotecan pegol in metastatic breast cancer were presented at the 2010 33rd Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium by Amad Awada, MD. (click here to download this presentation).

January 16-18, 2014 2014 Gastrointestinal Cancers SymposiumPoster C55: “A phase I study of etirinotecan pegol in combination with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in patients with advanced cancer.” January 18, 2014 San Francisco, CA
February 22, 2014 26.2 with Donna Marathon sponsored by Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, FL
March 5-7, 2014 TAT 2013: International Congress on Targeted Anticancer Therapies Washington, DC
April 5-9, 2014 AACR Annual Meeting 2013 San Diego, CA
May 19-21, 2014 10th International Symposium on Polymer Therapeutics Valencia, Spain
May 30-June 3, 2014 2014 ASCO 50th Annual MeetingPoster Presentation: “Combination Immunotherapy: Synergy of a Long-Acting Engineered Cytokine (NKTR-214) and Checkpoint Inhibitors Anti-CTLA-2 or Anti-PD-1 in Murine Tumor Models,” Kantak et al.
Abstract Number: 3082
Session Title/Track: Developmental Therapies – Immunotherapy
Date: June 1, 2014, 8:00 a.m. – 11:45 a.m. Central Time
Chicago, Illinois
September 4-6, 2014 ASCO Breast Cancer Symposium San Francisco, CA
September 26-30, 2014 ESMO 2014 Congress Madrid, Spain
December 9-13, 2014 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium San Antonio, TX

 

 

……………………….

http://www.google.com.ar/patents/US7744861?cl=pt-PT

Example 1 SYNTHESIS OF PENTAERYTHRITOLYL-4-ARM-(PEG-1-METHYLENE-2 OXO-VINYLAMINO ACETATE LINKED-IRINOTECAN)-20K

A. Synthesis of t-Boc-Glycine-Irinotecan

 

In a flask, 0.1 g Irinotecan (0.1704 mmoles), 0.059 g t-Boc-Glycine (0.3408 mmoles), and 0.021 g DMAP (0.1704 mmoles) were dissolved in 13 mL of anhydrous dichloromethane (DCM). To the solution was added 0.070 g DCC (0.3408 mmoles) dissolved in 2 mL of anhydrous DCM. The solution was stirred overnight at room temperature. The solid was removed through a coarse frit, and the solution was washed with 10 mL of 0.1N HCL in a separatory funnel. The organic phase was further washed with 10 mL of deionized H2O in a separatory funnel and then dried with Na2SO4. The solvent was removed using rotary evaporation and the product was further dried under vacuum. 1H NMR (DMSO): δ 0.919 (t, CH2CH 3), 1.34 (s, C(CH3)3), 3.83 (m, CH2), 7.66 (d, aromatic H).

B. Deprotection of t-Boc-Glycine-Irinotecan

 

0.1 g t-Boc-Glycine-Irinotecan (0.137 mmoles) was dissolved in 7 mL of anhydrous DCM. To the solution was added 0.53 mL trifluoroacetic acid (6.85 mmoles). The solution was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The solvent was removed using rotary evaporation. The crude product was dissolved in 0.1 mL MeOH and then precipitated in 25 mL of ether. The suspension was stirred in an ice bath for 30 minutes. The product was collected by filtration and dried under vacuum. 1H NMR (DMSO): δ 0.92 (t, CH2CH 3), 1.29 (t, CH2CH 3), 5.55 (s, 2H), 7.25 (s, aromatic H).

C. Covalent Attachment of a Multi-Armed Activated Polymer to Glycine Irinotecan.

 

0.516 g Glycine-Irinotecan (0.976 mmoles), 3.904 g 4arm-PEG(20K)-CM (0.1952 mmoles), 0.0596 g 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP, 0.488 mmoles), and 0.0658 g 2-hydroxybenzyltriazole (HOBT, 0.488 mmoles) were dissolved in 60 mL anhydrous methylene chloride. To the resulting solution was added 0.282 g 1,3-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC, 1.3664 mmoles). The reaction mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature. The mixture was filtered through a coarse frit and the solvent was removed using rotary evaporation. The syrup was precipitated in 200 mL of cold isopropanol over an ice bath. The solid was filtered and then dried under vacuum. Yield: 4.08 g. 1H NMR (DMSO): δ 0.909 (t, CH2CH 3), 1.28 (m, CH2CH 3), 3.5 (br m, PEG), 3.92 (s, CH2), 5.50 (s, 2H).

Example 2 ANTI-TUMOR ACTIVITY OF PENTAERYTHRITOLYL-4-ARM-(PEG -1-METHYLENE-2 OXO-VINYLAMINO ACETATE LINKED-IRINOTECAN)-20K, “4-ARM-PEG-GLY-IRINO-20K” IN A COLON CANCER MOUSE XENOGRAFT MODEL

Human HT29 colon tumor xenografts were subcutaneously implanted in athymic nude mice. After about two weeks of adequate tumor growth (100 to 250 mg), these animals were divided into different groups of ten mice each. One group was dosed with normal saline (control), a second group was dosed with 60 mg/kg of irinotecan, and the third group was dosed with 60 mg/kg of the 4-arm PEG-GLY-Irino-20K (dose calculated per irinotecan content). Doses were administered intraveneously, with one dose administered every 4 days for a total of 3 administered doses. The mice were observed daily and the tumors were measured with calipers twice a week. FIG.1 shows the effect of irinotecan and PEG-irinotecan treatment on HT29 colon tumors in athymic nude mice.

As can be seen from the results depicted in FIG. 1, mice treated with both irinotecan and 4-arm-PEG-GLY-Irino-20K exhibited a delay in tumor growth (anti-tumor activity) that was significantly improved when compared to the control. Moreover, the delay in tumor growth was significantly better for the 4-arm-PEG-GLY-Irino-20K group of mice when compared to the group of animals administered unconjugated irinotecan.

Example 3 SYNTHESIS OF PENTAERYTHRITOLYL-4-ARM-(PEG-1-METHYLENE-2 OXO-VINYLAMINO ACETATE LINKED-IRINOTECAN)-40K, “4-ARM-PEG-GLY-IRINO-40K”

4-arm-PEG-GLY-IRINO-40K was prepared in an identical fashion to that described for the 20K compound in Example 1, with the exception that in step C, the multi-armed activated PEG reagent employed was 4 arm-PEG(40K)-CM rather than the 20K material.

Example 4 SYNTHESIS OF PENTAERYTHRITOLYL-4-ARM-(PEG-1-METHYLENE-2 OXO-VINYLAMINO ACETATE LINKED-SN-38)-20K, “4-ARM-PEG-GLY-SN-38-20K”

4-arm PEG-GLY-SN-38-20K was prepared in a similar fashion to its irinotecan counterpart as described in Example 1, with the exception that the active agent employed was SN-38, an active metabolite of camptothecin, rather than irinotecan, where the phenolic-OH of SN-38 was protected with MEMCI (2-methoxyethoxymethyl chloride) during the chemical transformations, followed by deprotection with TEA to provide the desired multi-armed conjugate.

Example 5 SYNTHESIS OF PENTAERYTHRITOLYL-4-ARM-(PEG-1-METHYLENE-2 OXO-VINYLAMINO ACETATE LINKED-SN-38)-40K, “4-ARM-PEG-GLY-SN-38-40K”

4-arm PEG-GLY-SN-38-40K was prepared in a similar fashion to the 20K version described above, with the exception that the multi-armed activated PEG reagent employed was 4 arm-PEG(40K)-CM rather than the 20K material.

Example 8 SYNTHESIS OF PENTAERYTHRITOLYL-4-ARM-(PEG-2-{2-[2-1-HYDROXY-2-OXO-VINYLOXY)-ETHOXY]-ETHYLAMINO}-PROPEN-1-ONE LINKED-IRINOTECAN)-20K AND -40K

 

A. 2-(2-t-Boc-aminoethoxy)ethanol (1)

2-(2-Aminoethoxy)ethanol (10.5 g, 0.1 mol) and NaHCO3 (12.6 g, 0.15 mol) were added to 100 mL CH2Cl2 and 100 mL H2O. The solution was stirred at RT for 10 minutes, then di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (21.8 g, 0.1 mol) was added. The resulting solution was stirred at RT overnight, then extracted with CH2Cl2 (3×100 mL). The organic phases were combined and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate and evaporated under vacuum. The residue was subjected to silica gel column chromatography (CH2Cl2:CH3OH=50:1˜10:1) to afford 2-(2-t-Boc-aminoethoxy)ethanol (1) (16.0 g, 78 mmol, yield 78%)

B. 2-(2-t-Boc-aminoethoxy)ethoxycarbonyl-Irinotecan (2)

2-(2-t-Boc-aminoethoxy)ethanol (1) (12.3 g, 60 mmol) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) (14.6 g, 120 mmol) were dissolved in 200 ml anhydrous CH2Cl2. Triphosgene (5.91 g, 20 mmol) was added to the solution while stirring at room temperature. After 20 minutes, the solution was added to a solution of irinotecan (6.0 g, 10.2 mmol) and DMAP (12.2 g, 100 mmol) in anhydrous CH2Cl2 (200 mL). The reaction was stirred at RT for 2 hrs, then washed with HCI solution (pH=3, 2L) to remove DMAP. The organic phases were combined and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate. The dried solution was evaporated under vacuum and subjected to silica gel column chromatography (CH2Cl2:CH3OH=40:1˜10:1) to afford 2-(2-t-Boc-aminoethoxy)ethoxycarbonyl-irinotecan (2) (4.9 g, 6.0 mmol, yield 59%).

C. 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxycarbonyl-irinotecan TFA salt (3)

2-(2-t-Boc-aminoethoxy)ethoxycarbonyl-irinotecan (2) (4.7 g, 5.75 mmol) was dissolved in 60 mL CH2Cl2, and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (20 mL) was added at RT. The reaction solution was stirred for 2 hours. The solvents were removed under vacuum and the residue was added to ethyl ether and filtered to give a yellow solid as product 3 (4.3 g, yield 90%).

D. 4-arm-PEG20k-carbonate-inotecan (4)

4-arm-PEG20k-SCM (16.0 g) was dissolved in 200 mL CH2Cl2. 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxycarbonyl-irinotecan TFA salt (3) (2.85 g, 3.44 mmol) was dissolved in 12 mL DMF and treated with 0.6 mL TEA, then added to a solution of 4-arm-PEG20k-SCM. The reaction was stirred at RT for 12 hrs then precipitated in Et2O to yield a solid product, which was dissolved in 500 mL IPA at 50° C. The solution was cooled to RT and the resulting precipitate collected by filtration to give 4-arm-PEG20k-glycine -irinotecan (4) (16.2 g, drug content 7.5% based on HPLC analysis). Yield: 60%.

E. 4-arm-PEG40k-carbonate-irinotecan (5)

4-arm-PEG40k-SCM (32.0 g) was dissolved in 400 mL CH2Cl2. 2-(2-aminoethoxy)ethoxycarbonyl-irinotecan TFA salt (3) (2.85 g, 3.44 mmol) was dissolved in 12 mL DMF and treated with 0.6 mL TEA, then added to the solution of 4-arm -PEG40k-SCM. The reaction was stirred at RT for 12 hrs and then precipitated in Et2O to get solid product, which was dissolved in 1000 mL isopropyl alcohol (IPA) at 50° C. The solution was cooled to RT and the precipitate collected by filtration to gave 4-arm-PEG40k-glycine-irinotecan (4) (g, drug content 3.7% based on HPLC analysis). Yield: 59%.

 

References

1: Iwase Y, Maitani Y. Dual functional octreotide-modified liposomal irinotecan leads to high therapeutic efficacy for medullary thyroid carcinoma xenografts. Cancer Sci. 2011 Oct 24. doi: 10.1111/j.1349-7006.2011.02128.x. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 22017398.

2: Matsuzaki T, Takagi A, Furuta T, Ueno S, Kurita A, Nohara G, Kodaira H, Sawada S, Hashimoto S. Antitumor activity of IHL-305, a novel pegylated liposome containing irinotecan, in human xenograft models. Oncol Rep. 2012 Jan;27(1):189-97. doi: 10.3892/or.2011.1465. Epub 2011 Sep 20. PubMed PMID: 21935577.

3: Cobleigh MA. Other options in the treatment of advanced breast cancer. Semin Oncol. 2011 Jun;38 Suppl 2:S11-6. Review. PubMed PMID: 21600380.

4: Li C, Cui J, Wang C, Li Y, Zhang L, Xiu X, Li Y, Wei N, Zhang L, Wang P. Novel sulfobutyl ether cyclodextrin gradient leads to highly active liposomal irinotecan formulation. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2011 Jun;63(6):765-73. doi: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2011.01272.x. Epub 2011 Apr 7. PubMed PMID: 21585373.

5: Iwase Y, Maitani Y. Octreotide-targeted liposomes loaded with CPT-11 enhanced cytotoxicity for the treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma. Mol Pharm. 2011 Apr 4;8(2):330-7. Epub 2011 Jan 18. PubMed PMID: 21166471.

6: Xenidis N, Vardakis N, Varthalitis I, Giassas S, Kontopodis E, Ziras N, Gioulbasanis I, Samonis G, Kalbakis K, Georgoulias V. Α multicenter phase II study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with irinotecan as second-line treatment of patients with refractory small-cell lung cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2011 Jul;68(1):63-8. Epub 2010 Sep 10. PubMed PMID: 20830475.

7: Pastorino F, Loi M, Sapra P, Becherini P, Cilli M, Emionite L, Ribatti D, Greenberger LM, Horak ID, Ponzoni M. Tumor regression and curability of preclinical neuroblastoma models by PEGylated SN38 (EZN-2208), a novel topoisomerase I inhibitor. Clin Cancer Res. 2010 Oct 1;16(19):4809-21. Epub 2010 Aug 11. PubMed PMID: 20702613.

8: Morgensztern D, Baggstrom MQ, Pillot G, Tan B, Fracasso P, Suresh R, Wildi J, Govindan R. A phase I study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and irinotecan in patients with solid tumors. Chemotherapy. 2009;55(6):441-5. Epub 2009 Dec 8. PubMed PMID: 19996589.

9: Meckley LM, Neumann PJ. Personalized medicine: factors influencing reimbursement. Health Policy. 2010 Feb;94(2):91-100. Epub 2009 Oct 7. PubMed PMID: 19815307.

10: Skak K, Søndergaard H, Frederiksen KS, Ehrnrooth E. In vivo antitumor efficacy of interleukin-21 in combination with chemotherapeutics. Cytokine. 2009 Dec;48(3):231-8. Epub 2009 Aug 25. PubMed PMID: 19709902.

11: Murphy CG, Seidman AD. Evolving approaches to metastatic breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes. Clin Breast Cancer. 2009 Jun;9 Suppl 2:S58-65. Review. PubMed PMID: 19596644.

12: Fox ME, Guillaudeu S, Fréchet JM, Jerger K, Macaraeg N, Szoka FC. Synthesis and in vivo antitumor efficacy of PEGylated poly(l-lysine) dendrimer-camptothecin conjugates. Mol Pharm. 2009 Sep-Oct;6(5):1562-72. PubMed PMID: 19588994; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2765109.

13: Atyabi F, Farkhondehfai A, Esmaeili F, Dinarvand R. Preparation of pegylated nano-liposomal formulation containing SN-38: In vitro characterization and in vivo biodistribution in mice. Acta Pharm. 2009 Jun;59(2):133-44. PubMed PMID: 19564139.

14: Liu Z, Robinson JT, Sun X, Dai H. PEGylated nanographene oxide for delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs. J Am Chem Soc. 2008 Aug 20;130(33):10876-7. Epub 2008 Jul 29. PubMed PMID: 18661992; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2597374.

15: Scott LC, Yao JC, Benson AB 3rd, Thomas AL, Falk S, Mena RR, Picus J, Wright J, Mulcahy MF, Ajani JA, Evans TR. A phase II study of pegylated-camptothecin (pegamotecan) in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic gastric and gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2009 Jan;63(2):363-70. Epub 2008 Apr 9. PubMed PMID: 18398613.

16: Almubarak M, Newton M, Altaha R. Reinduction of bevacizumab in combination with pegylated liposomal Doxorubicin in a patient with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme who progressed on bevacizumab/irinotecan. J Oncol. 2008;2008:942618. Epub 2008 Sep 2. PubMed PMID: 19259336; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2648641.

17: Krauze MT, Noble CO, Kawaguchi T, Drummond D, Kirpotin DB, Yamashita Y, Kullberg E, Forsayeth J, Park JW, Bankiewicz KS. Convection-enhanced delivery of nanoliposomal CPT-11 (irinotecan) and PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil) in rodent intracranial brain tumor xenografts. Neuro Oncol. 2007 Oct;9(4):393-403. Epub 2007 Jul 24. PubMed PMID: 17652269; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC1994096.

18: Li YF, Fu S, Hu W, Liu JH, Finkel KW, Gershenson DM, Kavanagh JJ. Systemic anticancer therapy in gynecological cancer patients with renal dysfunction. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2007 Jul-Aug;17(4):739-63. Epub 2007 Feb 16. Review. PubMed PMID: 17309673.

19: Bayes M, Rabasseda X, Prous JR. Gateways to clinical trials. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2006 Dec;28(10):719-40. PubMed PMID: 17235418.

20: Lokich J. Same-day pegfilgrastim and chemotherapy. Cancer Invest. 2005;23(7):573-6. PubMed PMID: 16305982.

21: Honig A, Rieger L, Sutterlin A, Kapp M, Dietl J, Sutterlin MW, Kämmerer U. Brain metastases in breast cancer–an in vitro study to evaluate new systemic chemotherapeutic options. Anticancer Res. 2005 May-Jun;25(3A):1531-7. PubMed PMID: 16033055.

Irinotecan
Irinotecan.svg
Irinotecan ball-and-stick.png
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(S)-4,11-diethyl-3,4,12,14-tetrahydro-4-hydroxy-
3,14-dioxo1H-pyrano[3’,4’:6,7]-indolizino[1,2-b]quinolin-
9-yl-[1,4’bipiperidine]-1’-carboxylate
Clinical data
Trade names Camptosar
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a608043
Pregnancy cat. D (Australia, United States)
Legal status POM (UK), ℞-only (U.S.)
Routes Intravenous
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability NA
Metabolism Hepatic glucuronidation
Half-life 6 to 12 hours
Excretion Biliary and renal
Identifiers
CAS number 100286-90-6 Yes
ATC code L01XX19
PubChem CID 60838
DrugBank DB00762
ChemSpider 54825 Yes
UNII 7673326042 Yes
KEGG D08086 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL481 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C33H38N4O6 e
Mol. mass 586.678 g/mol (Irinotecan)
623.139 g/mol (Irinotecan hydrochloride)
677.185 g/mol (Irinotecan hydrochloride trihydrate))

…………..

Irinotecan (Camptosar, Pfizer; Campto, Yakult Honsha) is a drug used for the treatment of cancer.

Irinotecan prevents DNA from unwinding by inhibition of topoisomerase 1.[1] In chemical terms, it is a semisynthetic analogue of the natural alkaloid camptothecin.

Its main use is in colon cancer, in particular, in combination with other chemotherapy agents. This includes the regimen FOLFIRI, which consists of infusional 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan.

Irinotecan received accelerated approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996[2] and full approval in 1998.[3] During development, it was known as CPT-11.

 

Mechanism

Irinotecan is activated by hydrolysis to SN-38, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I. This is then inactivated by glucuronidation by uridine diphosphate glucoronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). The inhibition of topoisomerase I by the active metabolite SN-38 eventually leads to inhibition of both DNA replication and transcription.

Interactive pathway map

Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [§ 1]

[[File:

IrinotecanPathway_WP46359

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IrinotecanPathway_WP46359

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Irinotecan Pathway edit

  1. The interactive pathway map can be edited at WikiPathways: “IrinotecanPathway_WP46359”.

Side-effects

The most significant adverse effects of irinotecan are severe diarrhea and extreme suppression of the immune system.

Diarrhea

Irinotecan-associated diarrhea is severe and clinically significant, sometimes leading to severe dehydration requiring hospitalization or intensive care unit admission. This side-effect is managed with the aggressive use of antidiarrheals such as loperamide or Lomotil with the first loose bowel movement.

Immunosuppression

The immune system is adversely impacted by irinotecan. This is reflected in dramatically lowered white blood cell counts in the blood, in particular the neutrophils. The patient may experience a period of neutropenia (a clinically significant decrease of neutrophils in the blood) while the bone marrow increases white cell production to compensate.

Pharmacogenomics

Irinotecan is converted by an enzyme into its active metabolite SN-38, which is in turn inactivated by the enzyme UGT1A1 by glucuronidation.

*28 variant patients

People with variants of the UGT1A1 called TA7, also known as the “*28 variant”, express fewer UGT1A1 enzymes in their liver and often suffer from Gilbert’s syndrome. During chemotherapy, they effectively receive a larger than expected dose because their bodies are not able to clear irinotecan as fast as others. In studies this corresponds to higher incidences of severe neutropenia and diarrhea.[4]

In 2004, a clinical study was performed that both validated prospectively the association of the *28 variant with greater toxicity and the ability of genetic testing in predicting that toxicity before chemotherapy administration.[4]

In 2005, the FDA made changes to the labeling of irinotecan to add pharmacogenomics recommendations, such that irinotecan recipients with a homozygous (both of the two gene copies) polymorphism in UGT1A1 gene, to be specific, the *28 variant, should be considered for reduced drug doses.[5] Irinotecan is one of the first widely used chemotherapy agents that is dosed according to the recipient’s genotype.[6]

Research

Recently it was shown that antitumor activity of irinotecan against glioblastoma can be enhanced by co-treatment with statins.[7] Similarly, it was shown that berberine may enhance chemosensitivity to irinotecan in colon cancercells. [8]

 

 

References

  1. Pommier, Y., Leo, E., Zhang, H., Marchand, C. 2010. DNA topoisomerases and their poisoning by anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Chem. Biol. 17: 421-433.
  2. New York Times Article http://www.nytimes.com/1996/06/18/science/new-cancer-drug-approved.html
  3. FDA Review Letter http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/appletter/1998/20571s8ltr.pdf
  4. Innocenti F, Undevia SD, Iyer L, et al. (April 2004). “Genetic variants in the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 gene predict the risk of severe neutropenia of irinotecan”. J. Clin. Oncol. 22 (8): 1382–8. doi:10.1200/JCO.2004.07.173. PMID 15007088.
  5. Camptosar® irinotecan hydrochloride injection August 2010 http://labeling.pfizer.com/ShowLabeling.aspx?id=533
  6. O’Dwyer PJ, Catalano RB (October 2006). “Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and irinotecan: practical pharmacogenomics arrives in cancer therapy”. J. Clin. Oncol. 24 (28): 4534–8. doi:10.1200/JCO.2006.07.3031. PMID 17008691.
  7. Jiang PF (Jan 2014). “Novel anti-glioblastoma agents and therapeutic combinations identified from a collection of FDA approved drugs.”. J Transl Med. 12. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-12-13. PMC 3898565. PMID 24433351.
  8. Yu M (Jan 2014). “Berberine enhances chemosensitivity to irinotecan in colon cancer via inhibition of NF-κB”. J Mol Med Rep 9 (1): 249–54. doi:10.3892/mmr.2013.1762. PMID 24173769.
  9. DNA Topoisomerases and Cancer. Yves Pommier, Editor. Human Press. 2012

External links

With Persistence And Phase 3 Win, Amicus Nears First Drug Approval …….Migalastat


Migalastat hydrochloride

CAS Number: 75172-81-5 hydrochloride

CAS BASE….108147-54-2

ABS ROT = (+)

  +53.0 °
Conc: 1 g/100mL; Solv: water ;  589.3 nm; Temp: 24 °C

IN Van den Nieuwendijk, Adrianus M. C. H.; Organic Letters 2010, 12(17), 3957-3959 

3,4,5-Piperidinetriol,2-(hydroxymethyl)-, hydrochloride (1:1), (2R,3S,4R,5S)-

Molecular Structure:

Molecular Structure of 75172-81-5 (3,4,5-Piperidinetriol,2-(hydroxymethyl)-, hydrochloride (1:1), (2R,3S,4R,5S)-)

Formula: C6H14ClNO4

Molecular Weight:199.63

Synonyms:  3,4,5-Piperidinetriol,2-(hydroxymethyl)-, hydrochloride, (2R,3S,4R,5S)- (9CI);

3,4,5-Piperidinetriol,2-(hydroxymethyl)-, hydrochloride, [2R-(2a,3a,4a,5b)]-;

Migalastat hydrochloride;Galactostatin hydrochloride;

(2S,3R,4S,5S)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol hydrochloride;

  • 1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin
  • 1-Deoxygalactostatin
  • Amigal
  • DDIG
  • Migalastat
  • UNII-C4XNY919FW

Melting Point:160 °C-162…….http://www.google.com/patents/DE3906463A1?cl=de

Boiling Point:382.7 °C at 760 mmHg

Flash Point:185.2 °C

Amicus Therapeutics, Inc. innovator

Aug 2014

http://www.xconomy.com/new-york/2014/08/20/with-persistence-and-phase-3-win-amicus-nears-first-drug-approval/?utm_source=rss&utm_medium=rss&utm_campaign=with-persistence-and-phase-3-win-amicus-nears-first-drug-approval

Amicus Therapeutics was on the ropes in late 2012 when its pill for a rare condition called Fabry Disease108147-54-2 failed a late-stage trial. It had already put seven years of work into the drug, and the setback added even more development time and uncertainty to the mix. But the Cranbury, NJ-based company kept plugging away, and now it looks like all the effort could lead to its first approved drug.

Amicus (NASDAQ: FOLD) is reporting today that the Fabry drug, migalastat, succeeded in the second of two late-stage trials. It hit two main goals that essentially measured its ability to slow the decline of Fabry patients’ kidney function comparably to enzyme-replacement therapy (ERT)—the standard of care for the often-fatal disorder.

Amicus believes the results, along with those from an earlier Phase 3 trial comparing migalastat to a placebo, are good enough to ask regulators in the U.S. and Europe for market approval.

“These are the good days to be a CEO,” says Amicus CEO John Crowley (pictured above). “It’s great when a plan comes together and data cooperates.”

Crowley says Amicus will seek approval of migalastat first in Europe and is already in talks with regulators there. In the next few months, Amicus will begin talking with the FDA about a path for approval in the U.S. as well.

 

 

End feb 2013

About Amicus Therapeutics

Amicus Therapeutics  is a biopharmaceutical company at the forefront of therapies for rare and orphan diseases. The Company is developing orally-administered, small molecule drugs called pharmacological chaperones, a novel, first-in-class approach to treating a broad range of human genetic diseases. Amicus’ late-stage programs for lysosomal storage disorders include migalastat HCl monotherapy in Phase 3 for Fabry disease; migalastat HCl co-administered with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in Phase 2 for Fabry disease; and AT2220 co-administered with ERT in Phase 2 for Pompe disease.

About Migalastat HCl

Amicus in collaboration with GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) is developing the investigational pharmacological chaperone migalastat HCl for the treatment of Fabry disease. Amicus has commercial rights to all Fabry products in the United States and GSK has commercial rights to all of these products in the rest of world.

As a monotherapy, migalastat HCl is designed to bind to and stabilize, or “chaperone” a patient’s own alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A) enzyme in patients with genetic mutations that are amenable to this chaperone in a cell-based assay. Migalastat HCl monotherapy is in Phase 3 development (Study 011 and Study 012) for Fabry patients with genetic mutations that are amenable to this chaperone monotherapy in a cell-based assay. Study 011 is a placebo-controlled study intended primarily to support U.S. registration, and Study 012 compares migalastat HCl to ERT to primarily support global registration.

For patients currently receiving ERT for Fabry disease, migalastat HCl in combination with ERT may improve ERT outcomes by keeping the infused alpha-Gal A enzyme in its properly folded and active form thereby allowing more active enzyme to reach tissues.2Migalastat HCl co-administered with ERT is in Phase 2 (Study 013) and migalastat HCl co-formulated with JCR Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd’s proprietary investigational ERT (JR-051, recombinant human alpha-Gal A enzyme) is in preclinical development.

About Fabry Disease

Fabry disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of an enzyme called alpha-galactosidase A (alpha-Gal A). The role of alpha-Gal A within the body is to break down specific lipids in lysosomes, including globotriaosylceramide (GL-3, also known as Gb3). Lipids that can be degraded by the action of α-Gal are called “substrates” of the enzyme. Reduced or absent levels of alpha-Gal A activity leads to the accumulation of GL-3 in the affected tissues, including the kidneys, heart, central nervous system, and skin. This accumulation of GL-3 is believed to cause the various symptoms of Fabry disease, including pain, kidney failure, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke.

It is currently estimated that Fabry disease affects approximately 5,000 to 10,000 people worldwide. However, several literature reports suggest that Fabry disease may be significantly under diagnosed, and the prevalence of the disease may be much higher.

1. Bichet, et al., A Phase 2a Study to Investigate the Effect of a Single Dose of Migalastat HCl, a Pharmacological Chaperone, on Agalsidase Activity in Subjects with Fabry Disease, LDN WORLD 2012

2. Benjamin, et al.Molecular Therapy: April 2012, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 717–726.

http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01458119

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/129812511/migalastat-hcl

 

Migalastat hydrochloride is a pharmacological chaperone in phase III development at Amicus Pharmaceuticals for the oral treatment of Fabry’s disease. Fabry’s disease occurs as the result of an inherited genetic mutation that results in the production of a misfolded alpha galactosidase A (alpha-GAL) enzyme, which is responsible for breaking down globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in the lysosome. Migalastat acts by selectively binding to the misfolded alpha-GAL, increasing its stability and promoting proper folding, processing and trafficking of the enzyme from the endoplasmic reticulum to the lysosome.

In February 2004, migalastat hydrochloride was granted orphan drug designation by the FDA for the treatment of Fabry’s disease.

The EMEA assigned orphan drug designation for the compound in 2006 for the treatment of the same indication. In 2007, the compound was licensed to Shire Pharmaceuticals by Amicus Therapeutics worldwide, with the exception of the U.S., for the treatment of Fabry’s disease.

In 2009, this license agreement was terminated. In 2010, the compound was licensed by Amicus Therapeutics to GlaxoSmithKline on a worldwide basis to develop, manufacture and commercialize migalastat hydrochloride as a treatment for Fabry’s disease, but the license agreement terminated in 2013.

 

Chemical Name: DEOXYGALACTONOJIRIMYCIN, HYDROCHLORIDE
Synonyms: DGJ;Amigal;Unii-cly7m0xd20;GALACTOSTATIN HCL;DGJ, HYDROCHLORIDE;Migalastat hydrochloride;Galactostatin hydrochloride;DEOXYGALACTONOJIRIMYCIN HCL;1-DEOXYGALACTONOJIRIMYCIN HCL;1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-d-galactitol

DEOXYGALACTONOJIRIMYCIN, HYDROCHLORIDE Structure

 

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Links

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO1999062517A1?cl=en

Example 1

A series of plant alkaloids (Scheme 1, ref. 9) were used for both in vitro inhibition and intracellular enhancement studies of α-Gal A activity. The results of inhibition experiments are shown in Fig. 1 A.

 

f^

 

Among the tested compounds, 1-deoxy-galactonojirimycin (DGJ, 5) known as a powerful competitive inhibitor for α-Gal A, showed the highest inhibitory activity with IC50 at 4.7 nM. α-3,4-Di-epi-homonojirimycin (3) was an effective inhibitor with IC50 at 2.9 μM. Other compounds showed moderate inhibitory activity with IC50 ranging from 0.25 mM (6) to 2.6 mM (2). Surprisingly, these compounds also effectively enhanced α-Gal A activity in COS-1 cells transfected with a mutant α-Gal A gene (R301Q), identified from an atypical variant form of Fabry disease with a residual α- Gal A activity at 4% of normal. By culturing the transfected COS-1 cells with these compounds at concentrations cat 3 – 10-fold of IC50 of the inhibitors, α-Gal A activity was enhanced 1.5 – 4-fold (Fig. 1C). The effectiveness of intracellular enhancement paralleled with in vitro inhibitory activity while the compounds were added to the culture medium at lOμM

concentration (Fig. IB).

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Links

WO 2008045015

or  http://www.google.com/patents/EP2027137A1?cl=enhttp://www.google.com/patents/US7973157?cl=en

This invention relates to a process for purification of imino or amino sugars, such as D-1-deoxygalactonojirimycin hydrochloride (DGJ’HCl). This process can be used to produce multi-kilogram amounts of these nitrogen-containing sugars.

Sugars are useful in pharmacology since, in multiple biological processes, they have been found to play a major role in the selective inhibition of various enzymatic functions. One important type of sugars is the glycosidase inhibitors, which are useful in treatment of metabolic disorders. Galactosidases catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages and are important in the metabolism of complex carbohydrates. Galactosidase inhibitors, such as D-I- deoxygalactonojirimycin (DGJ), can be used in the treatment of many diseases and conditions, including diabetes (e.g., U.S. Pat. 4,634,765), cancer (e.g., U.S. Pat. 5,250,545), herpes (e.g. , U.S. Pat. 4,957,926), HIV and Fabry Disease (Fan et al, Nat. Med. 1999 5:1, 112-5).

Commonly, sugars are purified through chromatographic separation. This can be done quickly and efficiently for laboratory scale synthesis, however, column chromatography and similar separation techniques become less useful as larger amounts of sugar are purified. The size of the column, amount of solvents and stationary phase (e.g. silica gel) required and time needed for separation each increase with the amount of product purified, making purification from multi-kilogram scale synthesis unrealistic using column chromatography.

Another common purification technique for sugars uses an ion- exchange resin. This technique can be tedious, requiring a tedious pre-treatment of the ion exchange resin. The available ion exchange resins are also not necessarily able to separate the sugars from salts (e.g., NaCl). Acidic resins tend to remove both metal ions found in the crude product and amino- or imino-sugars from the solution and are therefore not useful. Finding a resin that can selectively remove the metal cations and leave amino- or imino-sugars in solution is not trivial. In addition, after purification of a sugar using an ion exchange resin, an additional step of concentrating the diluted aqueous solution is required. This step can cause decomposition of the sugar, which produces contaminants, and reduces the yield.

U.S. Pats. 6,740,780, 6,683,185, 6,653,482, 6,653,480, 6,649,766, 6,605,724, 6,590,121, and 6,462,197 describe a process for the preparation of imino- sugars. These compounds are generally prepared from hydroxyl-protected oxime intermediates by formation of a lactam that is reduced to the hexitol. However, this process has disadvantages for the production on a multi-kg scale with regard to safety, upscaling, handling, and synthesis complexity. For example, several of the disclosed syntheses use flash chromatography for purification or ion-exchange resin treatment, a procedure that is not practicable on larger scale. One particularly useful imino sugar is DGJ. There are several DGJ preparations disclosed in publications, most of which are not suitable for an industrial laboratory on a preparative scale (e.g., >100 g). One such synthesis include a synthesis from D-galactose (Santoyo-Gonzalez, et al, Synlett 1999 593-595; Synthesis 1998 1787-1792), in which the use of chromatography is taught for the purification of the DGJ as well as for the purification of DGJ intermediates. The use of ion exchange resins for the purification of DGJ is also disclosed, but there is no indication of which, if any, resin would be a viable for the purification of DGJ on a preparative scale. The largest scale of DGJ prepared published is 13 g (see Fred-Robert Heiker, Alfred Matthias Schueller, Carbohydrate Research, 1986, 119-129). In this publication, DGJ was isolated by stirring with ion-exchange resin Lewatit MP 400 (OH) and crystallized with ethanol. However, this process cannot be readily scaled to multi- kilogram quantities.

Similarly, other industrial and pharmaceutically useful sugars are commonly purified using chromatography and ion exchange resins that cannot easily be scaled up to the purification of multi-kilogram quantities.

Therefore, there is a need for a process for purifying nitrogen- containing sugars, preferably hexose amino- or imino-sugars that is simple and cost effective for large-scale synthesis

FIG. 1. HPLC of purified DGJ after crystallization. The DGJ is over 99.5% pure.

 

 

FIG. 2A. 1H NMR of DGJ (post HCl extraction and crystallization), from 0 – 15 ppm in DMSO.

FIG. 2B. 1H NMR of DGJ (post HCl extraction and crystallization), from 0 – 5 ppm, in DMSO.

 

FIG. 3 A. 1H NMR of purified DGJ (after recrystallization), from 0 – 15 ppm, in D2O. Note OH moiety has exchanged with OD.

FIG. 3B. 1H NMR of purified DGJ (after recrystallization), from 0 –

4 ppm, in D2O. Note OH moiety has exchanged with OD.

 

FIG. 4. 13C NMR of purified DGJ, (after recrystallization), 45 – 76 ppm.

 

One amino-sugar of particular interest for purification by the method of the current invention is DGJ. DGJ, or D-l-deoxygalactonojirimycin, also described as (2R,3S,4R,5S)-2-hydroxymethyl-3,4,5-trihydroxypiperidine and 1- deoxy-galactostatin, is a noj irimycin (5-amino-5-deoxy-D-galactopyranose) derivative of the form:

Figure imgf000011_0001
 

Example 1: Preparation and Purification of DGJ

A protected crystalline galactofuranoside obtained from the technique described by Santoyo-Gonzalez. 5-azido-5-deoxy-l,2,3,6-tetrapivaloyl-α-D- galactofuranoside (1250 g), was hydrogenated for 1-2 days using methanol (10 L) with palladium on carbon (10%, wet, 44 g) at 50 psi of H2. Sodium methoxide (25% in methanol, 1.25 L) was added and hydrogenation was continued for 1-2 days at 100 psi ofH2. Catalyst was removed by filtration and the reaction was acidified with methanolic hydrogen chloride solution (20%, 1.9 L) and concentrated to give crude mixture of DGJ • HCl and sodium chloride as a solid. The purity of the DGJ was about 70% (w/w assay), with the remaining 30% being mostly sodium chloride.

The solid was washed with tetrahydrofuran (2 x 0.5 L) and ether (I x 0.5 L), and then combined with concentrated hydrochloric acid (3 L). DGJ went into solution, leaving NaCl undissolved. The obtained suspension was filtered to remove sodium chloride; the solid sodium chloride was washed with additional portion of hydrochloric acid (2 x 0.3 L). All hydrochloric acid solution were combined and slowly poured into stirred solution of tetrahydrofuran (60 L) and ether (11.3 L). The precipitate formed while the stirring was continued for 2 hours. The solid crude DGJ* HCl, was filtered and washed with tetrahydrofuran (0.5 L) and ether (2 x 0.5 L). An NMR spectrum is shown in FIGS. 2A-2B.

The solid was dried and recrystallized from water (1.2 mL /g) and ethanol (10 ml/1 ml of water). This recrystallization step may be repeated. This procedure gave white crystalline DGJ* HCl, and was usually obtained in about 70- 75% yield (320 – 345 g). The product of the purification, DGJ-HCl is a white crystalline solid, HPLC >98% (w/w assay) as shown in FIG. 1. FIGS. 3A-3D and FIG. 4 show the NMR spectra of purified DGJ, showing the six sugar carbons.

Example 2: Purification of 1-deoxymannojirimycin 1 -deoxymannojirimycin is made by the method described by Mariano

(J. Org. Chem., 1998, 841-859, see pg. 859, herein incorporated by reference). However, instead of purification by ion-exchange resin as described by Mariano, the 1-deoxymannojirimycin is mixed with concentrated HCl. The suspension is then filtered to remove the salt and the 1-deoxymannojirimycin hydrochloride is precipitated crystallized using solvents known for recrystallization of 1- deoxymannojirimycin (THF for crystallization and then ethanol/water.

Example 3: Purification of (+)-l-deoxynojirimycin

(+)-l-deoxynojirimycin is made by the method Kibayashi et al. (J. Org. Chem., 1987, 3337-3342, see pg. 334I5 herein incorporated by reference). It is synthesized from a piperidine compound (#14) in HCl/MeOH. The reported yield of 90% indicates that the reaction is essentially clean and does not contain other sugar side products. Therefore, the column chromatography used by Kibayashi is for the isolation of the product from non-sugar related impurities. Therefore, instead of purification by silica gel chromatography, the (+)-l-deoxynojirimycin is mixed with concentrated HCl. The suspension is then filtered to remove the salt and the nojirimycin is crystallized using solvents known for recrystallization of nojirimycin.

Example 4: Purification of Nojirimycin

Nojirimycin is made by the method described by Kibayashi et al. (J.

Org. Chem., 1987, 3337-3342, see pg. 3342). However, after evaporating of the mixture at reduced pressure, instead of purification by silica gel chromatography with ammonia-methanol-chloroform as described by Kibayashi, the nojirimycin is mixed with concentrated HCl. The suspension is then filtered to remove the impurities not dissolved in HCl and the nojirimycin is crystallized using solvents known for recrystallization of nojirimycin.

 

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Links

Synthesis of (+)-1-deoxygalactonojirimycin and a related indolizidine

Tetrahedron Lett 1995, 36(5): 653

Amido-alcohol 1 is transformed via aminal 2 into 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin (3) and the structurally related indolizidine 4.

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Links

Synthesis of D-galacto-1-deoxynojirimycin (1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol) starting from 1-deoxynojirimycin

Carbohydr Res 1990, 203(2): 314

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Synthesis of (+)-1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol, a potent alpha-D-galactosidase inhibitor

Carbohydr Res 1987, 167: 305

 

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Links

SEE

Monosaccharides containing nitrogen in the ring, XXXVII. Synthesis of 1,5-didexy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol

Chem Ber 1980, 113(8): 2601

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Links

Org. Lett., 2010, 12 (17), pp 3957–3959
DOI: 10.1021/ol101556k

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ol101556k

  +53.0 °
Conc: 1 g/100mL; Solv: water ;  589.3 nm; Temp: 24 °C

IN

van den Nieuwendijk, Adrianus M. C. H.; Organic Letters 2010, 12(17), 3957-3959 

Abstract Image

The chemoenzymatic synthesis of three 1-deoxynojirimycin-type iminosugars is reported. Key steps in the synthetic scheme include a Dibal reduction−transimination−sodium borohydride reduction cascade of reactions on an enantiomerically pure cyanohydrin, itself prepared employing almond hydroxynitrile lyase (paHNL) as the common precursor. Ensuing ring-closing metathesis and Upjohn dihydroxylation afford the target compounds.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ol101556k/suppl_file/ol101556k_si_002.pdf

COMPD 18

D-galacto-1-deoxynojirimicin.HCl (18).

D-N-Boc-6-OBn-galacto-1-deoxynojirimicin (159 mg, 0.450 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of MeOH

(10 mL) and 6 M HCl (2 mL). The flask was purged with argon, Pd/C-10% (20 mg) was added and a balloon

with hydrogen gas was placed on top of the reaction. The mixture was stirred overnight at room temperature.

Pd/C was removed by filtration and the filtrate evaporated to yield the crude product (90 mg, 100%) as a

white foam that needed no further purification.

[α]24D = + 53.0 (c = 1, H2O);

[lit4a [α]24D = +44.6 (c = 0.9, H2O); lit4b [α]20D = +46.1 (c = 0.9, H2O)].

HRMS calculated for [C6H13NO4 + H]+164.09173; Found 164.09160.

1H NMR (400 MHz, D2O) δ 4.20 (dd, J = 2.7, 1.1 Hz, 1H), 4.11 (ddd, J = 11.4, 9.7, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 3.88 (ddd,

J = 20.9, 12.2, 6.8 Hz, 2H), 3.68 (dd, J = 9.7, 3.0 Hz, 1H), 3.55 (dd, J = 12.5, 5.4 Hz, 1H), 3.46 (ddd, J = 8.6,

4.8, 1.0 Hz, 1H), 2.97 – 2.86 (t, J = 12.0 Hz, 1H). [lit4c supporting information contains 1

H NMR-spectrumof an authentic sample].

13C NMR (101 MHz, D2O) δ 73.01, 66.97, 64.69, 60.16, 59.15, 46.15

4a) Ruiz, M.; Ruanova, T. M.; Blanco, O.; Núñez, F.; Pato, C.; Ojea, V. J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 2240

– 2255.

4b) Paulsen, H.; Hayauchi, Y.; Sinnwell, V. Chem. Ber. 1980, 113, 2601 – 2608. c)

McDonnell, C.; Cronin, L.; O’Brien, J. L.; Murphy, P. V. J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 3565 – 3568.

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(- ) FORM………… BE CAREFUL

Short and straightforward synthesis of (-)-1-deoxygalactonojirimycin

Org Lett 2010, 12(6): 1145

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ol100037c

Abstract Image

The mildness and low basicity of vinylzinc species functioning as a nucleophile in addition to α-chiral aldehydes is characterized by lack of epimerization of the vulnerable stereogenic center. This is demonstrated by a highly diastereoselective synthesis of 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin in eight steps from commercial starting materials with overall yield of 35%.

Figure

Figure 1. Structures of nojirimycin (1) and DGJ (2).

SEE SUPP INFO

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/ol100037c/suppl_file/ol100037c_si_001.pdf

(-)-1-deoxygalactojirimycin hydrochloride as transparent colorless needles.

[α]D -51.4 (D2O, c 1.0)

1H-NMR (D2O) δ ppm 4.09 (dd, 1H, J 2.9 Hz, 1.3 Hz), 4.00 (ddd, 1H, J = 11.3 Hz, 9.7 Hz, 5.3 Hz),

3.80 (dd, 1H, J = 12,1 Hz, 8.8 Hz), 3.73 (dd, 1H, J = 12.1 Hz, 8.8 Hz), 3.56 (dd, 1H, J = 9.7 Hz, 2.9

Hz), 3.44 (dd, 1H, J = 12.4 Hz, 5.3 Hz), 3.34 (ddd, 1H, J = 8.7 Hz, 4.8 Hz, 1.0 Hz), 2.8 (app. t, 1H,

J = 12.0 Hz)

13C-NMR (D2O, MeOH iSTD) δ 73.6, 67.5, 65.3, 60.7, 59.7, 46.7

HRMS Measured 164.0923 (M + H – Cl) Calculated 164.0923 (C6H13NO4 + H – Cl)

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Links

Concise and highly stereocontrolled synthesis of 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin and its congeners using dioxanylpiperidene, a promising chiral building block

Org Lett 2003, 5(14): 2527

 http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ol034886y

Abstract Image

A concise and stereoselective synthesis of the chiral building block, dioxanylpiperidene 4 as a precursor for deoxyazasugars, starting from the Garner aldehyde 5 using catalytic ring-closing metathesis (RCM) for the construction of the piperidine ring is described. The asymmetric synthesis of 1-deoxygalactonojirimycin and its congeners 13 was carried out via the use of 4in a highly stereocontrolled mode.

 

mp 135-135.5 °C [lit.3mp 137-139 °C];

[α]D25 +27.8° (c 0.67, H2O)

[lit.3[α]D23 +28° (c 0.5, H2O)];

1H NMR (300 MHz, D2O) δ 2.59–2.65 (m, 1H), 2.81–2.87 (m, 1H),

3.02–3.08 (m, 1H), 3.46–3.48 (m, 2H), 3.59–3.66 (m, 3H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, D2O) δ 44.7, 57.1,

58.4, 70.9, 71.4, 73.3 [lit4 13C NMR (125 MHz, D2O) δ 44.5, 56.8, 58.3, 70.1, 70.7, 72.3];

HRMScalcd for C6H13NO4 (M+) 163.0855, Found 163.0843. Anal. calcd for C6H13NO4: C, 44.16; N,

8.58; H, 8.03. Found: C, 44.31; N, 8.55; H, 7.71.

3. Schaller, C.; Vogel, P.; Jager, V. Carbohydrate Res. 1998, 314, 25-35.

4. Lee, B. W.; Jeong, Ill-Y.; Yang, M. S.; Choi, S. U.; Park, K. H. Synthesis 2000, 1305-1309.

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Links

Applications and limitations of the I2-mediated carbamate annulation for the synthesis of piperidines: Five- versus six-membered ring formation

J Org Chem 2013, 78(19): 9791

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo401512h

Abstract Image

A protecting-group-free synthetic strategy for the synthesis of piperidines has been explored. Key in the synthesis is an I2-mediated carbamate annulation, which allows for the cyclization of hydroxy-substituted alkenylamines into piperidines, pyrrolidines, and furans. In this work, four chiral scaffolds were compared and contrasted, and it was observed that with both d-galactose and 2-deoxy-d-galactose as starting materials, the transformations into the piperidines 1-deoxygalactonorjirimycin (DGJ) and 4-epi-fagomine, respectively, could be achieved in few steps and good overall yields. When d-glucose was used as a starting material, only the furan product was formed, whereas the use of 2-deoxy-d-glucose resulted in reduced chemo- and stereoselectivity and the formation of four products. A mechanistic explanation for the formation of each annulation product could be provided, which has improved our understanding of the scope and limitations of the carbamate annulation for piperidine synthesis.

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Links

Ruiz, Maria; Journal of Organic Chemistry 2008, 73(6), 2240-2255 

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo702601z

ROT  +44.6 °  Conc: 0.9 g/100mL; Solv: water ;  589.3 nm; Temp: 24 °C

Abstract Image

A general strategy for the synthesis of 1-deoxy-azasugars from a chiral glycine equivalent and 4-carbon building blocks is described. Diastereoselective aldol additions of metalated bislactim ethers to matched and mismatched erythrose or threose acetonides and intramolecular N-alkylation (by reductive amination or nucleophilic substitution) were used as key steps. The dependence of the yield and the asymmetric induction of the aldol addition with the nature of the metallic counterion of the azaenolate and the γ-alkoxy protecting group for the erythrose or threose acetonides has been studied. The stereochemical outcome of the aldol additions with tin(II) azaenolates has been rationalized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In accordance with DFT calculations with model glyceraldehyde acetonides, hightrans,syn,anti-selectivitity for the matched pairs and moderate to low trans,anti,anti-selectivity for the mismatched ones may originate from (1) the intervention of solvated aggregates of tin(II) azaenolate and lithium chloride as the reactive species and (2) favored chair-like transition structures with a Cornforth-like conformation for the aldehyde moiety. DFT calculations indicate that aldol additions to erythrose acetonides proceed by an initial deprotonation, followed by coordination of the alkoxy-derivative to the tin(II) azaenolate and final reorganization of the intermediate complex through pericyclic transition structures in which the erythrose moiety is involved in a seven-membered chelate ring. The preparative utility of the aldol-based approach was demonstrated by application in concise routes for the synthesis of the glycosidase inhibitors 1-deoxy-d-allonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-l-altronojirimycin, 1-deoxy-d-gulonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin, 1-deoxy-l-idonojirimycin and 1-deoxy-d-talonojirimycin.

 

 

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Links

J. Org. Chem., 1991, 56 (2), pp 815–819
DOI: 10.1021/jo00002a057

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jo00002a057

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Links

Hinsken, Werner; DE 3906463 A1 1990

http://www.google.com/patents/DE3906463A1?cl=de

Example 1 Preparation of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-glucitol hydrobromide

A suspension of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-glucitol (500 g) in isopropanol (2 l) with 48% hydrochloric acid, bromine (620 g). The suspension is stirred for 2 hours at 40 ° C, cooled to 0 ° C and the product isolated by filtration.

Yield: 700 g (93% of theory),
mp: 184 ° C.

Example 2 Preparation of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-mannitol hydrobromide

The prepared analogously to Example 1 from 1,5-dideoxy 1,5-imino-D-mannitol and 48% hydrobromic acid.

Yield: 89% of theory;

C₆H₁₄NO₄Br (244.1)
Ber .: C 29.5%; H 5.8%; N 5.7%; Br 32.7%;
vascular .: C 29.8%; H 5.8%; N 5.8%; Br 32.3%.

Example 3 Preparation of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-Galactitol- hydrochloride

The preparation was carried out analogously to Example 1 from 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol and corresponding mole ratios of 37% hydrochloric acid.
yield: 91% of theory
, mp: 160-162 ° C.

 

Amat et al., “Eantioselective Synthesis of 1-deoxy-D-gluonojirimycin From A Phenylglycinol Derived Lactam,” Tetrahedron Letters, pp. 5355-5358, 2004.
2   Chernois, “Semimicro Experimental Organic Chemistry,” J. de Graff (1958), pp. 31-48.
3   Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th Ed., 1995, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 14: p. 737-741.
4   Heiker et al., “Synthesis of D-galacto-1-deoxynojirimycin (1, 5-dideoxy-1, 5-imino-D-galactitol) starting from 1-deoxynojirimycin.” Carbohydrate Research, 203: 314-318, 1990.
5   Heiker et al., 1990, “Synthesis of D-galacto-1-deoxynojirimycin (1,5-dideoxy-1, 5-imino-D-galactitol) starting from 1-deoxynojirimycin,” Carbohydrate Research, vol. 203: p. 314-318.
6 * Joseph, Carbohydrate Research 337 (2002) 1083-1087.
7 * Kinast et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 20 (1998), No. 9, pp. 805-806.
8 * Lamb, Laboratory Manual of General Chemistry, Harvard University Press, 1916, p. 108.
9   Linden et al., “1-Deoxynojirimycin Hydrochloride,” Acta ChrystallographicaC50, pp. 746-749, 1994.
10   Mellor et al., Preparation, biochemical characterization and biological properties of radiolabelled N-alkylated deoxynojirimycins, Biochem. J. Aug. 15, 2002; 366(Pt 1):225-233.
11 * Mills, Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis, Hydrochloric Acid, 2001 John Wily & Sons.
12   Santoyo-Gonzalez et al., “Use of N-Pivaloyl Imidazole as Protective Reagent for Sugars.” Synthesis 1998 1787-1792.
13   Schuller et al., “Synthesis of 2-acetamido-1, 2-dideoxy-D-galacto-nojirimycin (2-acetamido-1, 2, 5-trideoxy-1, 5-imino-D-galacitol) from 1-deoxynojirimycin.” Carbohydrate Res. 1990; 203: 308-313.
14   Supplementary European Search Report dated Mar. 11, 2010 issued in corresponding European Patent Application No. EP 06 77 2888.
15   Uriel et al., A Short and Efficient Synthesis of 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-D-galactitol (1-deoxy-D-galactostatin) and 1,5-dideoxy-1,5-dideoxy-1,5-imino-L-altritol (1-deoxy-L-altrostatin) From D-galactose, Synlett (1999), vol. 5, pp. 593-595.

 

1-Deoxygalactonojirimycin:

(a) Liguchi, T.; Tajiri, K.; Ninomiya, I.; Naito, T. Tetrahedron200056, 5819−5833.

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Indian Sterile Manufacturer receives FDA Warning Letter and changes company name from Marck Biosience to Amanta Healthcare


DRUG REGULATORY AFFAIRS INTERNATIONAL

Marck Biosciences Ltd. to “Amanta Healthcare Ltd.”, effective from June 24, 2014.

Click here to visit  website at
www.amanta.co.in

 


Indian Sterile Manufacturer receives FDA Warning Letter and changes company name from Marck Biosience to Amanta Healthcare

Marck Biosciences Limited is a producer of sterile products which has been producing sterile products for the US market. The FDA Warning Letter dated July 8, 2014 contains shocking details about the GMP situation at this facility. Read more here about the FDA Warning Letter to Marck Biosciences and about the name change to Amanta Healthcare.

see
http://www.gmp-compliance.org/enews_4468_Indian-Sterile-Manufacturer-receives-FDA-Warning-Letter-and-changes-company-name-from-Marck-Biosience-to-Amanta-Healthcare_8401,S-QSB_n.html

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Which SOPs are required by GMP?


DRUG REGULATORY AFFAIRS INTERNATIONAL

ECA is receiving a lot of questions on SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures) needed in a GMP environment. The most interesting is the one on which SOPs are required by law. Here is an Overview.

GMP News: Which SOPs are required by GMP?

The ECA Academy is receiving a lot of questions on SOPs (Standard Operating Procedures) needed in a GMP environment. The most interesting is the one on which SOPs are required by law. Here is an Overview:

U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA):

A three year old Notice focusing on specific recordkeeping requirements in the Federal Register also gives a very good summary of SOPs required by 21 CFR Part 211:

“Written procedures (standard operating procedures – SOPs), are required for many Part 211 records. The current SOP requirements were initially provided in a final rule published in the Federal Register of September 29, 1978 (43 FR 45014), and…

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