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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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BMS-986115


Figure imgf000170_0002

BMS-986115
CAS 1584647-27-7

(2R,3S)-N-((3S)-5-(3-Fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-lH-l,4-benzodiazepin- 3-yl)-2, -bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinamide

MW: 574.4945,  C26-H25-F7-N4-O3, UNII: LSK1L593UU

10-Nitrooleate, CTK3B7458, CTK3C3167, 9-Octadecenoic acid, 10-nitro-, 875685-46-4, AG-L-63109, 9-Octadecenoic acid, 10-nitro-, (9E)-, 88127-53-1

FOR advanced solid tumors

  • Originator Bristol-Myers Squibb
  • Class Antineoplastics
  • Mechanism of Action Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors; Notch signalling pathway inhibitors
  • Phase I Solid tumours

Most Recent Events

  • 30 Aug 2016Bristol-Myers Squibb terminates a phase I trial for Solid tumours (late-stage disease, second-line therapy or greater) in USA, Australia and Canada (NCT01986218)
  • 25 Jan 2016Bristol-Myers Squibb completes enrolment in its phase I trial for Solid tumours in USA, Australia and Canada (NCT01986218)
  • 31 Dec 2013Phase-I clinical trials in Solid tumours (late-stage disease) in Canada & Australia (Oral)

DETAILS WILL BE UPDATED SOON………….

BMS-986115 is an orally bioavailable, gamma secretase (GS) and pan-Notch inhibitor, with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, GS/pan-Notch inhibitor BMS 986115 binds to GS and blocks the proteolytic cleavage and release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which would normally follow ligand binding to the extracellular domain of the Notch receptor. This prevents both the subsequent translocation of NICD to the nucleus to form a transcription factor complex and the expression of Notch-regulated genes. This results in the induction of apoptosis and the inhibition of growth of tumor cells that overexpress Notch. Overexpression of the Notch signaling pathway plays an important role in tumor cell proliferation and survival

 

Bristol-Myers Squibb
Ashvinikumar V. Gavai, George V. Delucca,Daniel O’MALLEY, Patrice Gill, Claude A. Quesnelle, Brian E. Fink, Yufen Zhao,Francis Y. Lee,
Applicant Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

str2

Ashvinikumar Gavai

Claude Quesnelle

Claude Quesnelle
Senior Research Investigator/Chemist at Bristol-Myers Squibb

str2

RICHARD LEE

 

 

 

Patrice Gill

Patrice Gill

Research scientist at BMS

Dan O’Malley (Rice University)
Currently: Bristol-Myers Squibb

PICTURES WILL BE UPDATED………….

Useful for the treatment of conditions related to the Notch pathway, such as cancer and other proliferative diseases.

Notch signaling has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, such as cell fate specification, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. (Bray, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 7:678-689 (2006); Fortini, Developmental Cell 16:633-647 (2009)). The Notch proteins are single-pass heterodimeric transmembrane molecules. The Notch family includes 4 receptors, NOTCH 1-4, which become activated upon binding to ligands from the DSL family (Delta-like 1, 3, 4 and Jagged 1 and 2).

The activation and maturation of NOTCH requires a series of processing steps, including a proteolytic cleavage step mediated by gamma secretase, a multiprotein complex containing Presenilin 1 or Presenilin 2, nicastrin, APH1, and PEN2. Once NOTCH is cleaved, NOTCH intracellular domain (NICD) is released from the membrane. The released NICD translocates to the nucleus, where it functions as a transcriptional activator in concert with CSL family members (RBPSUH, “suppressor of hairless”, and LAG1). NOTCH target genes include HES family members, such as HES- 1. HES- 1 functions as transcriptional repressors of genes such as HERP 1 (also known as HEY2), HERP2 (also known as HEY1), and HATH1 (also known as ATOH1).

The aberrant activation of the Notch pathway contributes to tumorigenesis. Activation of Notch signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various solid tumors including ovarian, pancreatic, as well as breast cancer and hematologic tumors such as leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. The role of Notch inhibition and its utility in the treatment of various solid and hematological tumors are described in Miele, L. et al, Current Cancer Drug Targets, 6:313-323 (2006); Bolos, V. et al, Endocrine Reviews, 28:339-363 (2007); Shih, I.-M. et al, Cancer Research, 67: 1879- 1882 (2007); Yamaguchi, N. et al., Cancer Research, 68: 1881-1888 (2008); Miele, L., Expert Review Anti-cancer Therapy, 8: 1 197-1201 (2008); Purow, B., Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 10: 154-160 (2009); Nefedova, Y. et al, Drug Resistance Updates, 1 1 :210-218 (2008); Dufraine, J. et al, Oncogene, 27:5132-5137 (2008); and Jun, H.T. et al, Drug Development Research, 69:319-328 (2008).

There remains a need for compounds that are useful as Notch inhibitors and that have sufficient metabolic stability to provide efficacious levels of drug exposure. Further, there remains a need for compounds useful as Notch inhibitors that can be orally or intravenously administered to a patient.

U.S. Patent No. 7,053,084 Bl discloses succinoylamino benzodiazepine compounds useful for treating neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease. The reference discloses that these succinoylamino benzodiazepine compounds inhibit gamma secretase activity and the processing of amyloid precursor protein linked to the formation of neurological deposits of amyloid protein. The reference does not disclose the use of these compounds in the treatment of proliferative diseases such as cancer.

Applicants have found potent compounds that have activity as Notch inhibitors and have sufficient metabolic stability to provide efficacious levels of drug exposure upon intravenous or oral administration. These compounds are provided to be useful as pharmaceuticals with desirable stability, bioavailability, therapeutic index, and toxicity values that are important to their drugability.

Image result for BMS 906024

Image result for BMS 906024 synthesis

PATENTS

US-20150166489-A1

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US137591635&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

PATENT

US-20140087992-A1

https://www.google.com/patents/US20140087992

Example 1(2R,3S)—N-((3S)-5-(3-Fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinamideFigure US20140087992A1-20140327-C00138

Intermediate 1A: (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((S)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoate

Figure US20140087992A1-20140327-C00139

In a 100 mL round-bottomed flask, a solution of Intermediate B-1 (1683 mg, 5.94 mmol), Et3N (1.656 mL, 11.88 mmol), and Intermediate S-1 in DMF (20 mL) was treated with o-benzotriazol-1-yl-N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (3815 mg, 11.88 mmol) and stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and saturated aqueous NaHCO3. An off white precipitate formed and was filtered and washed with water. The resulting solid was dried on the filter under a stream of nitrogen to give Intermediate 1A (3.7 g, 99% yield). MS (ES): m/z=632.4[M+H+]; HPLC: RT=3.635 min Purity=98%. (H2O/MeOH with TFA, CHROMOLITH® ODS S5 4.6×50 mm, gradient=4 min, wavelength=220 nm). 1H NMR (400 MHz, methanol-d4) δ 7.53 (t, J=4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.46-7.30 (m, 3H), 7.28-7.23 (m, 1H), 7.23-7.18 (m, 2H), 5.37 (s, 1H), 2.88 (td, J=10.4, 3.4Hz, 1H), 2.60 (td, J=10.2, 4.1 Hz, 1H), 2.54-2.40 (m, 1H), 2.47 (s, 3H), 2.33-2.12 (m, 3H), 1.98-1.69 (m, 4H), 1.51 (s, 9H).

Intermediate 1B: (2S,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((S)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[e][1,4]diazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure US20140087992A1-20140327-C00140

In a 250 mL round-bottomed flask, a solution of Intermediate 1A (3.7 g, 5.86 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) was treated with TFA (25 mL) and the resulting pale orange solution was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 hours. The reaction mixture was then concentrated to give Intermediate 1B. HPLC: RT=3.12 min (H2O/MeOH with TFA, CHROMOLITH® ODS S5 4.6×50 mm, gradient=4 min, wavelength=220 nm). MS (ES): m/z=576.3 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (400 MHz, methanol-d4) δ 7.54 (t, J=4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.49-7.29 (m, 3H), 7.28-7.15 (m, 3H), 5.38 (br. s., 1H), 2.89 (td, J=10.3, 3.7 Hz, 1H), 2.67 (td, J=9.9, 4.2Hz, 1H), 2.56-2.38 (m, 1H), 2.48 (s, 3H), 2.34-2.13 (m, 3H), 2.00-1.71 (m, 4H).

Example 1

In a 250 mL round-bottomed flask, a solution of Intermediate 1B (4.04 g, 5.86 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was treated with ammonia (2M in iPrOH) (26.4 mL, 52.7 mmol), followed by HOBT (1.795 g, 11.72 mmol) and EDC (2.246 g, 11.72 mmol). The resulting white suspension was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and saturated aqueous NaHCO3. The resulting solid was filtered, rinsed with water and then dried on the filter under a stream of nitrogen. The crude product was suspended in 20 mL of iPrOH and stirred at room temperature for 20 min and then filtered and washed with iPrOH and dried under vacuum to give 2.83 g of solid. The solid was dissolved in refluxing EtOH (100 mL) and slowly treated with 200 mg activated charcoal added in small portions. The hot mixture was filtered through CELITE® and rinsed with hot EtOH. The filtrate was reduced to half volume, allowed to cool and the white precipitate formed was filtered and rinsed with EtOH to give 2.57 g of white solid. A second recrystallization from EtOH (70 mL) afforded Example 1 (2.39 g, 70% yield) as a white solid. HPLC: RT=10.859 min (H2O/CH3CN with TFA, Sunfire C18 3.5 μm, 3.0×150 mm, gradient=15 min, wavelength=220 and 254 nm); MS (ES): m/z=575.3 [M+H+]; 1H NMR (400 MHz, methanol-d4) δ 7.57-7.50 (m, 1H), 7.47-7.30 (m, 3H), 7.29-7.15 (m, 3H), 5.38 (s, 1H), 2.85-2.75 (m, 1H), 2.59 (td, J=10.5, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 2.53-2.41 (m, 4H), 2.31-2.10 (m, 3H), 1.96-1.70 (m, 4H).

 

PATENT

WO-2014047372-A1

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2014047372A1?cl=en

Figure imgf000041_0001

Figure imgf000042_0001

Scheme 3

Figure imgf000044_0001
Figure imgf000045_0001

XII XI

Scheme 4

Figure imgf000047_0001

Intermediate S-l : (2R,3S)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000053_0001

Intermediate S-IA: 3,3,3-Trifluoro ropyl trifluoromethanesulfonate

Figure imgf000053_0002

[00180] To a cold (-25 °C) stirred solution of 2,6-lutidine (18.38 mL, 158 mmol) in DCM (120 mL) was added Tf20 (24.88 mL, 147 mmol) over 3 min, and the mixture was stirred for 5 min. To the reaction mixture was added 3,3,3-trifluoropropan-l-ol (12 g, 105 mmol) over an interval of 3 min. After 2 hr, the reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1 hr. The reaction mixture was concentrated to half its volume, then purified by loading directly on a silica gel column (330g ISCO) and the product was eluted with DCM to afford Intermediate S-IA (13.74 g, 53%) as a colorless oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 4.71 (2 H, t, J= 6.15 Hz), 2.49-2.86 (2 H, m).

Intermediate S-1B: (4S)-4-Benzyl-3-(5,5,5-trifluoropentanoyl)-l,3-oxazolidin-2-one

Figure imgf000054_0001

[00181] To a stirring solution of 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (14.76 g, 95 mmol) and DMF (0.146 rriL) in DCM (50 mL) was slowly added oxalyl chloride (8.27 mL, 95 mmol). After 2h, the mixture was concentrated to dryness. A separate flask was changed with (S)-4-benzyloxazolidin-2-one (16.75 g, 95 mmol) in THF (100 mL) and then cooled to -78 °C. To the solution was slowly added n-BuLi (2.5M, 37.8 mL, 95 mmol) over 10 min, stirred for 10 min, and then a solution of the above acid chloride in THF (50 mL) was slowly added over 5 min. The mixture was stirred for 30 min, and then warmed to room temperature. The reaction was quenched with sat aq NH4C1. Next, 10% aq LiCl was then added to the mixture, and the mixture was extracted with Et20. The organic layer was washed with sat aq NaHC03 then with brine, dried (MgSC^), filtered and concentrated to dryness. The residue was purified by Si02 chromatography (ISCO, 330 g column, eluting with a gradient from 100% hexane to 100% EtOAc) to afford the product Intermediate S-IB; (25.25 g, 85%): 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.32-7.39 (2 H, m), 7.30 (1 H, d, J= 7.05 Hz), 7.18-7.25 (2 H, m), 4.64-4.74 (1 H, m), 4.17-4.27 (2 H, m), 3.31 (1 H, dd, J= 13.35, 3.27 Hz), 3.00-3.11 (2 H, m), 2.79 (1 H, dd, J= 13.35, 9.57 Hz), 2.16-2.28 (2 H, m), 1.93-2.04 (2 H, m).

Intermediate S-IC: tert- utyl (3R)-3-(((4S)-4-benzyl-2-oxo-l,3-oxazolidin-3- yl)carbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoroh xanoate

Figure imgf000054_0002

[00182] To a cold (-78 °C), stirred solution of Intermediate S-IB (3.03 g, 9.61 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added NaHMDS (1.0M in THF) (10.6 mL, 10.60 mmol) under a nitrogen atmosphere. After 2 hours, tert-butyl 2-bromoacetate (5.62 g, 28.8 mmol) was added neat via syringe at -78 °C and stirring was maintained at the same temperature. After 6 hours, the reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature. The reaction mixture was partitioned between saturated NH4C1 and EtOAc. The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2s04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO

CombiFlash Rf, 5% to 100% solvent A/B = hexanes/EtOAc, REDISEP® Si02 120g). Concentration of the appropriate fractions provided Intermediate S-1C (2.79 g, 67.6%) as a colorless viscous oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.34 (2 H, d, J= 7.30 Hz), 7.24-7.32 (3 H, m), 4.62-4.75 (1 H, m, J= 10.17, 6.89, 3.43, 3.43 Hz), 4.15-4.25 (3 H, m), 3.35 (1 H, dd, J= 13.60, 3.27 Hz), 2.84 (1 H, dd, J= 16.62, 9.57 Hz), 2.75 (1 H, dd, J = 13.35, 10.07 Hz), 2.47 (1 H, dd, J= 16.62, 4.78 Hz), 2.11-2.23 (2 H, m), 1.90-2.02 (1 H, m), 1.72-1.84 (1 H, m), 1.44 (9 H, s).

Intermediate S-ID: (2R)-2-( -tert-Butoxy-2-oxoethyl)-5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid

Figure imgf000055_0001

[00183] To a cool (0 °C), stirred solution of Intermediate S-1C (2.17 g, 5.05 mmol) in THF (50 mL) and water (15 mL) was added a solution of LiOH (0.242 g, 10.11 mmol) and H202 (2.065 mL, 20.21 mmol) in H20 (2 mL). After 10 min, the reaction mixture was removed from the ice bath, stirred for lh, and then cooled to 0 °C. Saturated aqueous NaHCC”3 (25 mL) and saturated aqueous Na2s03 (25 mL) were added to the reaction mixture, and the mixture was stirred for 10 min, and then partially concentrated. The resulting mixture was extracted with DCM (2x), cooled with ice and made acidic with cone. HC1 to pH 3. The mixture was saturated with solid NaCl, extracted with EtOAc (3x), and then dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated to a colorless oil to afford Intermediate S-ID, 1.2514g, 92%): 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 2.83-2.95 (1 H, m), 2.62-2.74 (1 H, m), 2.45 (1 H, dd, J= 16.62, 5.79 Hz), 2.15-2.27 (2 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (1 H, m), 1.75-1.88 (1 H, m), 1.45 (9 H, s). Intermediate S-l : (2R,3S)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and Intermediate S-1E: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)- 6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000056_0001

(S-1E)

[00184] To a cold (-78 °C) stirred solution of Intermediate S-1D (5 g, 18.50 mmol) in THF (60 mL) was slowly added LDA (22.2 mL, 44.4 mmol, 2.0M) over 7 min. After stirring for 2 hr, Intermediate S- 1 A (6.38 g, 25.9 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture over 3 min. After 60 min, the reaction mixture was warmed to -25 °C

(ice/MeOH/dry ice) and stirred for an additional 60 min at which time sat aq NH4C1 was added. The separated aqueous phase was acidified with IN HC1 to pH 3, and then extracted with Et20. The combined organic layers were washed with brine (2x), dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated to provide a 1 :4 (II :I1E) mixture (as determined by 1H NMR) of Intermediate S-l and Intermediate S-1E (6.00 g, 89%) as a pale yellow solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 2.81 (1 H, ddd, J = 10.17, 6.32, 3.85 Hz), 2.63- 2.76 (1 H, m), 2.02-2.33 (4 H, m), 1.86-1.99 (2 H, m), 1.68-1.85 (2 H, m), 1.47 (9 H, s).

[00185] To a cold (-78 °C), stirred solution of a mixture of Intermediate S-l and Intermediate S-1E (5.97 g, 16.30 mmol) in THF (91 mL) was added LDA (19 mL, 38.0 mmol, 2.0M in THF/hexane/ethyl benzene) dropwise via syringe over 10 min (internal temperature never exceeded -65 °C, J-KEM® probe in reaction solution). The mixture was stirred for 15 min, and then warmed to room temperature (24 °C water bath), stirred for 15 min, and then cooled to -78 °C for 15 min. To the reaction mixture was added Et2AlCl (41 mL, 41.0 mmol, 1M in hexane) via syringe (internal temperature never exceeded -55 °C), and the mixture was stirred for 10 min, and then warmed to room temperature (24 °C bath) for 15 min and then back to -78 °C for 15 min. Meanwhile, a 1000 mL round bottom flask was charged with MeOH (145 mL) and precooled to -78 °C. With vigorous stirring the reaction mixture was transferred via cannula over 5 min to the MeOH. The flask was removed from the bath, ice was added followed by the slow addition of IN HC1 (147 mL, 147 mmol). Gas evolution was observed as the HC1 was added. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature during which the gas evolution subsided. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (750 mL), saturated with NaCl, and the organic phase was separated, washed with a solution of potassium fluoride (8.52 g, 147 mmol) and IN HC1 (41 mL, 41.0 mmol) in water (291 mL), brine (100 mL), and then dried (Na2s04), filtered and concentrated under vacuum. 1H NMR showed the product was a 9: 1 mixture of Intermediate S-l and Intermediate S- 1E. The enriched mixture of Intermediate S-l and Intermediate S-1E (6.12 g, >99% yield) was obtained as a dark amber solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 2.64-2.76 (2 H, m), 2.04-2.35 (4 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2 H, m), 1.71-1.83 (2 H, m), 1.48 (9 H, s).

Alternate procedure to make Intermediate S-l :

Intermediate S-IF: (2R,3 -1 -Benzyl 4-tert-butyl 2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinate

Figure imgf000057_0001

[00186] To a stirred solution of a 9: 1 enriched mixture of Intermediate S-l and Intermediate S-1E (5.98 g, 16.33 mmol) in DMF (63 mL) were added potassium carbonate (4.06 g, 29.4 mmol) and benzyl bromide (2.9 mL, 24.38 mmol), the mixture was then stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction mixture was diluted with EtOAc (1000 mL), washed with 10% LiCl (3×200 mL), brine (200 mL), dried (Na2S04), filtered, concentrated, and then dried under vacuum. The residue was purified by Si02 chromatography using a toluene:hexane gradient. Diastereomerically purified

Intermediate S-IF (4.81g, 65%) was obtained as a colorless solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d) δ 7.32-7.43 (m, 5H), 5.19 (d, J= 12.10 Hz, 1H), 5.15 (d, J= 12.10 Hz, 1H), 2.71 (dt, J= 3.52, 9.20 Hz, 1H), 2.61 (dt, J= 3.63, 9.63 Hz, 1H), 1.96-2.21 (m, 4H), 1.69-1.96 (m, 3H), 1.56-1.67 (m, 1H), 1.45 (s, 9H).

Intermediate S-l : (2R,3S)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000058_0001

[00187] To a solution of Intermediate S-1F (4.81 g, 10.54 mmol) in MeOH (100 mL) was added 10% palladium on carbon (wet, Degussa type, 568.0 mg, 0.534 mmol) in a H2– pressure flask. The vessel was purged with N2 (4x), then purged with H2 (2x), and finally, pressurized to 50 psi and shaken overnight. The reaction vessel was

depressurized and purged with nitrogen. The mixture was filtered through CELITE®, washed with MeOH and then concentrated and dried under vacuum. Intermediate S-1 (3.81 g, 99% yield)) was obtained as a colorless solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, chloroform-d) δ 2.62-2.79 (m, 2H), 2.02-2.40 (m, 4H), 1.87-2.00 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.84 (m, 2H), 1.48 (s, 9H).

Alternate procedure to make Intermediate S-1 :

Intermediate S-1 : (2R,3S)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000058_0002

[00188] Intermediate S-1 as a mixture with Intermediate S-IE was prepared in a similar procedure as above from Intermediate S-1D to afford a 1 :2.2 mixture of

Intermediate S-1 and Intermediate S-IE (8.60 g, 23.48 mmol), which was enriched using LDA (2.0 M solution in THF, ethyl benzene and heptane, 28.2 mL, 56.4 mmol) and diethyl aluminum chloride (1.0 M solution in hexane, 59 mL, 59.0 mmol) in THF (91 mL). After workup as described above, the resulting residue was found to be a 13.2: 1 (by 1H NMR) mixture of Intermediate S-1 and Intermediate S-IE, which was treated as follows: The crude material was dissolved in MTBE (43 mL). Hexanes (26 mL) were slowly charged to the reaction mixture while maintaining a temperature below 30 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 min. Next, tert-butylamine (2.7 mL, 1.1 eq) was charged slowly over a period of 20 minutes while maintaining a temperature below 30 °C. This addition was observed to be exothermic. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hrs below 30 °C and then filtered. The solid material was washed with 5:3 MTBE: hexane (80 mL), and the filtrate was concentrated and set aside. The filtered solid was dissolved in dichloromethane (300 mL), washed with IN HC1 (lOOmL), and the organic layer was washed with brine (100 mL x 2), and then concentrated under reduced pressure below 45 °C to afford Intermediate S-l (5.46 g, 64%).

A second alternate procedure for preparing Intermediate S-l :

Intermediate S-1G: tert- utyl 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoate

Figure imgf000059_0001

[00189] To a stirred solution of 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (5 g, 32.0 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and hexane (30 mL) at 0 °C, was added tert-butyl 2,2,2-trichloroacetimidate (11.46 mL, 64.1 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 15 min at 0 °C. Boron trifluoride etherate (0.406 mL, 3.20 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature overnight. To the clear reaction mixture was added solid NaHC03 (5 g) and stirred for 30 min. The mixture was filtered through MgSC^ and washed with hexanes (200 mL). The solution was allowed to rest for 45 min, and the resulting solid material was removed by filtering on the same MgSC^ filter again, washed with hexanes (100 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure without heat. The volume was reduced to about 30 mL, filtered through a clean fritted funnel, washed with hexane (5 mL), and then concentrated under reduced pressure without heat. The resulting neat oil was filtered through a 0.45μιη nylon membrane filter disk to provide Intermediate S-1G (6.6 g, 31.4 mmol 98% yield) as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 1.38 (s, 9 H) 1.74-1.83 (m, 2 H) 2.00-2.13 (m, 2 H) 2.24 (t, J= 7.28 Hz, 2 H). Intermediate S-1H: (4S)-4-(Propan-2-yl)-3-(5,5,5-trifluoropentanoyl)-l,3-oxazolidin-2- one

Figure imgf000060_0001

[00190] To a stirred solution of 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (5.04 g, 32.3 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) and DMF (3 drops) was added oxalyl chloride (3.4 mL, 38.8 mmol) dropwise over 5 min. The solution was stirred until all bubbling subsided. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to give pale yellow oil. To a separate flask charged with a solution of (4S)-4-(propan-2-yl)-l,3-oxazolidin-2-one (4.18 g, 32.4 mmol) in THF (100 mL) at -78 °C was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexane) (13.0 mL, 32.5 mmol) dropwise via syringe over 5 min. After stirring for 10 min, the above acid chloride, dissolved in THF (20 mL), was added via cannula over 15 min. The reaction mixture was warmed to 0 °C, and was allowed to warm to room temperature as the bath warmed and stirred overnight. To the reaction mixture was added saturated NH4C1, and the mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2x). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2s04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 5% to 60% solvent A/B = hexanes/EtOAc, REDISEP® Si02 120g). Concentration of the appropriate fractions provided Intermediate S-1H (7.39 g, 86%) as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 4.44 (1 H, dt, J= 8.31, 3.53 Hz), 4.30 (1 H, t, J= 8.69 Hz), 4.23 (1 H, dd, J= 9.06, 3.02 Hz), 2.98-3.08 (2 H, m), 2.32-2.44 (1 H, m, J= 13.91, 7.02, 7.02, 4.03 Hz), 2.13-2.25 (2 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2 H, m), 0.93 (3 H, d, J= 7.05 Hz), 0.88 (3 H, d, J= 6.80 Hz).

Intermediate S-1I: (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-((S)-4-isopropyl-2- oxooxazolidine-3-carbonyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoate, and Intermediate S-U: (2R,3R)-tert-Butyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-((S)-4-isopropyl-2-oxooxazolidine-3-carbonyl)-2- (3 ,3 ,3 -trifluoropropyl)hexanoate

Figure imgf000061_0001

[00191] To a cold (-78 °C), stirred solution of diisopropylamine (5.3 mL, 37.2 mmol) in THF (59 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexane) (14.7 mL, 36.8 mmol). The mixture was then warmed to 0 °C to give a 0.5M solution of LDA. A separate vessel was charged with Intermediate S-1H (2.45 g, 9.17 mmol). The material was azeotroped twice with benzene (the RotoVap air inlet was fitted with a nitrogen inlet to completely exclude humidity), and then toluene (15.3 mL) was added. This solution was added to a flask containing dry lithium chloride (1.96 g, 46.2 mmol). To the resultant mixture, cooled to -78 °C, was added the LDA solution (21.0 mL, 10.5 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at -78 °C for 10 min, then warmed to 0 °C for 10 min., and then cooled to -78 °C. To a separate reaction vessel containing Intermediate S-1G (3.41 g, 16.07 mmol), also azeotroped twice with benzene, was added toluene (15.3 mL), cooled to -78 °C and LDA (37.0 mL, 18.5 mmol) was added. The resulting solution was stirred at -78 °C for 25 min. At this time the enolate derived from the ester was transferred via cannula into the solution of the oxazolidinone enolate and stirred at -78 °C for an additional 5 min, at which time the septum was removed and solid powdered bis(2- ethylhexanoyloxy)copper (9.02 g, 25.8 mmol) was rapidly added to the reaction vessel and the septum was replaced. The vessel was immediately removed from the cold bath and immersed into a warm water bath (40 °C) with rapid swirling and with a concomitant color change from the initial turquoise to brown. The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 min, was then poured into 5% aqueous NH4OH (360 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2x). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2s04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 0% to 60% solvent A/B = hexanes/EtOAc, REDISEP® Si02 120g). Concentration of the appropriate fractions provided a mixture of Intermediate S- II and Intermediate S-1J (2.87 g, 66%) as a pale yellow viscous oil. 1H NMR showed the product was a 1.6: 1 mixture of diastereomers S-1LS-1J as determined by the integration of the multiplets at 2.74 and 2.84 ppm: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 4.43-4.54 (2 H, m), 4.23-4.35 (5 H, m), 4.01 (1 H, ddd, J= 9.54, 6.27, 3.51 Hz), 2.84 (1 H, ddd, J = 9.41, 7.28, 3.64 Hz), 2.74 (1 H, ddd, J= 10.29, 6.27, 4.02 Hz), 2.37-2.48 (2 H, m, J = 10.38, 6.98, 6.98, 3.51, 3.51 Hz), 2.20-2.37 (3 H, m), 1.92-2.20 (8 H, m), 1.64-1.91 (5 H, m), 1.47 (18 H, s), 0.88-0.98 (12 H, m). Intermediate S-1 : (2R,3S)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and Intermediate S-IE: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)- 6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000062_0001

(S-IE)

[00192] To a cool (0 °C), stirred solution of Intermediate S-1I and Intermediate S-1 J (4.54 g, 9.51 mmol) in THF (140 mL) and water (42 mL) were sequentially added hydrogen peroxide (30% in water) (10.3 g, 91 mmol) and LiOH (685.3 mg, 28.6 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 1 hr. At this time the reaction vessel was removed from the cold bath and then stirred for 1.5 hr. To the reaction mixture were added saturated NaHC03 (45 mL) and saturated Na2s03 (15 mL), and then the mixture was partially concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting crude solution was extracted with DCM (3x). The aqueous phase was acidified to pH~l-2 with IN HC1, extracted with DCM (3x) and then EtOAc (lx). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2s04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide a mixture of Intermediates S-1 and S-IE (3.00 g, 86%) as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 2.76-2.84 (1 H, m, diastereomer 2), 2.64-2.76 (3 H, m), 2.04-2.35 (8 H, m), 1.88- 2.00 (4 H, m), 1.71-1.83 (4 H, m), 1.48 (9 H, s, diastereomer 1), 1.46 (9 H, s,

diastereomer 2); 1H NMR showed a 1.7: 1 mixture of S-1E:S-1F by integration of the peaks for the t-butyl groups. Intermediate S-1 : (2R,3S)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and Intermediate S-IF: (2R,3R)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)- 6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000063_0001

[00193] To a cold (-78 °C) stirred solution of diisopropylamine (1.7 mL, 11.93 mmol) in THF (19 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexanes) (4.8 mL, 12.00 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 5 min and then warmed to 0 °C. In a separate vessel, to a cold (-78 °C) stirred solution of the mixture of Intermediates S-1 and S-1E (1.99 g, 5.43 mmol) in THF (18 mL) was added the LDA solution prepared above via cannula slowly over 25 min. The mixture was stirred for 15 min, then warmed to room temperature (placed in a 24 °C water bath) for 15 min, and then again cooled to -78 °C for 15 min. To the reaction mixture was added Et2AlCl (1M in hexane) (11.4 mL, 11.40 mmol) via syringe. The mixture was stirred for 10 min, warmed to room

temperature for 15 min and then cooled back to -78 °C for 15 min. Methanol (25 mL) was rapidly added, swirled vigorously while warming to room temperature, and then concentrated to ~l/4 the original volume. The mixture was dissolved in EtOAc and washed with IN HC1 (50 mL) and ice (75 g). The aqueous phase was separated and extracted with EtOAc (2x). The combined organics were washed with a mixture of KF (2.85g in 75 mL water) and IN HC1 (13 mL) [resulting solution pH 3-4], then with brine, dried (Na2s04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a 9: 1 (S-LS-1E) enriched diastereomeric mixture (as determined by 1H NMR) of Intermediate S-1 and Intermediate S-1E (2.13 g, >99%) as a pale yellow viscous oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 2.64-2.76 (2 H, m), 2.04-2.35 (4 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2 H, m), 1.71-1.83 (2 H, m), 1.48 (9 H, s).

Intermediate S-2: (2R,3S)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3- fluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000064_0001

Intermediate S-2: (2R,3S)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-7,7,7-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)heptanoic acid, and Intermediate S-2A: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)- 7,7,7-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)heptanoic acid

Figure imgf000064_0002

(S-2A)

[00194] To a cold (-78 °C), stirred solution of Intermediate S-1D (1.72 g, 6.36 mmol) in THF (30 mL) was slowly added LDA (7.32 mL, 14.6 mmol) over 7 min. After stirring for 1 h, 4,4,4-trifluorobutyltrifluoromethanesulfonate (2.11 g, 8.11 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture over 2 min. After 15 min, the reaction mixture was warmed to -25 °C (ice/MeOH/dry ice) for lh, and then cooled to -78 °C. After 80 min, the reaction was quenched with a saturated aqueous NH4C1 solution (10 mL). The reaction mixture was further diluted with brine and the solution was adjusted to pH 3 with IN HC1. The aqueous layer was extracted with ether. The combined organics were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide a mixture of Intermediates S-2 and S-2A (2.29 g, 95%) as a colorless oil. 1H NMR (400MHz, chloroform-d) δ 2.83-2.75 (m, 1H), 2.64 (ddd, J = 9.9, 6.7, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 2.32-2.03 (m, 5H), 1.98-1.70 (m, 3H), 1.69-1.52 (m, 3H), 1.50-1.42 (m, 9H). 1H NMR showed a 1 :4.5 mixture (S-2:S-2A) of diastereomers by integration of the peaks for the t- Bu groups.

Intermediate S-2: (2R,3S)-3-(fert-Butoxycarbonyl)-7,7,7-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)heptanoic acid, and Intermediate S-2A: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)- 7,7,7-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)heptanoic acid

Figure imgf000065_0001

[00195] A mixture of Intermediate S-2 and Intermediate S-2A (2.29 g, 6.02 mmol) was dissolved in THF (38 mL) to give a colorless solution which was cooled to -78 °C. Then, LDA (7.23 mL, 14.5 mmol) (2.0M in heptane/THF/ethylbenzene) was slowly added to the reaction mixture over 3 min. After stirring for 15 min, the reaction mixture was placed in a room temperature water bath. After 15 min the reaction mixture was placed back in a -78 °C bath and then diethylaluminum chloride (14.5 mL, 14.5 mmol) (1M in hexane) was added slowly over 5 min. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78 °C. After 15 min, the reaction mixture was placed in a room temperature water bath for 10 min, and then cooled back to -78 °C. After 15 min, the reaction was quenched with MeOH (30.0 mL, 741 mmol), removed from the -78 °C bath and concentrated. To the reaction mixture was added ice and HC1 (60.8 mL, 60.8 mmol) and the resulting mixture was extracted with EtOAc (2x 200 mL). The organic layer was washed with potassium fluoride (3.50g, 60.3 mmol) in 55 mL H20 and 17.0 mL of IN HC1. The organics were dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide an enriched mixture of Intermediate S-2 and Intermediate S-2A (2.25g, 98% yield) as a light yellow oil. 1H NMR (400MHz, chloroform-d) δ 2.83-2.75 (m, 1H), 2.64 (ddd, J= 9.9, 6.7, 3.6 Hz, 1H), 2.32-2.03 (m, 5H), 1.98-1.70 (m, 3H), 1.69-1.52 (m, 3H), 1.50-1.42 (m, 9H). 1H NMR showed a 9: 1 ratio in favor of the desired diastereomer Intermediate S-2.

Intermediate S-2B: (2R,3S)-1 -Benzyl 4-tert-butyl 2,3-bis(4,4,4-trifluorobutyl)succinate

Figure imgf000065_0002

[00196] To a stirred 9: 1 mixture of Intermediate S-2 and Intermediate S-2A (2.24 g, 5.89 mmoL) and potassium carbonate (1.60 g, 11.58 mmoL) in DMF (30 mL) was added benzyl bromide (1.20 mL, 10.1 mmoL)). The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 19 h. The reaction mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (400 mL) and washed with 10% LiCl solution (3 x 100 mL), brine (50 mL), and then dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, filtered and concentrated to dryness under vacuum. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash 0%> to 100% solvent A/B = hexane/EtOAc, REDISEP® Si02 220 g, detecting at 254 nm, and monitoring at 220 nm). Concentration of the appropriate fractions provided Intermediate S-2B (1.59 g, 57.5%). HPLC: RT = 3.863 min (CHROMOLITH® SpeedROD column 4.6 x 50 mm, 10-90% aqueous methanol over 4 minutes containing 0.1% TFA, 4 mL/min, monitoring at 220 nm), 1H NMR (400MHz, chloroform-d) δ 7.40-7.34 (m, 5H), 5.17 (d, J= 1.8 Hz, 2H), 2.73-2.64 (m, 1H), 2.55 (td, J= 10.0, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 2.16-1.82 (m, 5H), 1.79-1.57 (m, 3H), 1.53-1.49 (m, 1H), 1.45 (s, 9H), 1.37-1.24 (m, 1H).

Intermediate S-2: (2R,3S)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(4,4,4- trifluorobutyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000066_0001

[00197] To a stirred solution of Intermediate S-2B (1.59 g, 3.37 mmoL) in MeOH (10 mL) and EtOAc (10 mL) under nitrogen was added 10%> Pd/C (510 mg). The atmosphere was replaced with hydrogen and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2.5 h. The palladium catalyst was filtered off through a 4 μΜ polycarbonate film and rinsed with MeOH. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to give intermediate S-2 (1.28 g, 99%). 1H NMR (400MHz, chloroform-d) δ 2.76-2.67 (m, 1H), 2.65-2.56 (m, 1H), 2.33-2.21 (m, 1H), 2.17-2.08 (m, 3H), 1.93 (dtd, J= 14.5, 9.9, 5.2 Hz, 1H), 1.84-1.74 (m, 2H), 1.70-1.52 (m, 3H), 1.48 (s, 9H).

Intermediate A- 1 : (2-Amino-3 -methylphenyl)(3 -fluorophenyl)methanone

Figure imgf000067_0001

Intermediate A-1 A: 2-Amino- -methoxy-N,3-dimethylbenzamide

Figure imgf000067_0002

[00198] In a 1 L round-bottomed flask was added 2-amino-3-methylbenzoic acid (11.2 g, 74.1 mmol) and Ν,Ο-dimethylhydroxylamine hydrochloride (14.45 g, 148 mmol) in DCM (500 mL) to give a pale brown suspension. The reaction mixture was treated with Et3N (35 mL), HOBT (11.35 g, 74.1 mmol) and EDC (14.20 g, 74.1 mmol) and then stirred at room temperature for 24 hours. The mixture was then washed with 10% LiCl, and then acidified with IN HCl. The organic layer was washed successively with 10%> LiCl and aq NaHC03. The organic layer was decolorized with charcoal, filtered, and the filtrate was dried over MgSC^. The mixture was filtered and concentrated to give 13.22 g (92% yield) of Intermediate A-1A. MS(ES): m/z = 195.1 [M+H+]; HPLC: RT = 1.118 min. (H20/MeOH with TFA, CHROMOLITH® ODS S5 4.6 x 50 mm, gradient = 4 min, wavelength = 220 nm); 1H NMR (500MHz, chloroform-d) δ 7.22 (dd, J= 7.8, 0.8 Hz, 1H), 7.12-7.06 (m, 1H), 6.63 (t, J= 7.5 Hz, 1H), 4.63 (br. s., 2H), 3.61 (s, 3H), 3.34 (s, 3H), 2.17 (s, 3H).

Intermediate A- 1 : (2-Amino-3 -methylphenyl)(3 -fluorophenyl)methanone

Figure imgf000067_0003

[00199] In a 500 mL round-bottomed flask, a solution of l-fluoro-3-iodobenzene (13.61 mL, 116 mmol) in THF (120 mL) was cooled in a -78 °C bath. A solution of n- BuLi, (2.5M in hexane, 46.3 mL, 116 mmol) was added dropwise over 10 minutes. The solution was stirred at -78 °C for 30 minutes and then treated with a solution of

Intermediate A-1 A (6.43 g, 33.1 mmol) in THF (30 mL). After 1.5 hours, the reaction mixture was added to a mixture of ice and IN HCl (149 mL, 149 mmol) and the reaction flask was rinsed with THF (5 ml) and combined with the aqueous mixture. The resulting mixture was diluted with 10% aq LiCl and the pH was adjusted to 4 with IN NaOH. The mixture was then extracted with Et20, washed with brine, dried over MgS04, filtered and concentrated. The resulting residue was purified by silica gel chromatography (220g ISCO) eluting with a gradient from 10% EtOAc/hexane to 30% EtOAc/hexane to afford Intermediate A-l (7.11 g, 94% yield) as an oil. MS(ES): m/z = 230.1 [M+H+]; HPLC: RT = 2.820 min Purity = 99%. (H20/MeOH with TFA, CHROMOLITH® ODS S5 4.6 x 50 mm, gradient = 4 min, wavelength = 220 nm).

Intermediate B-1 : (S)-3-Amino-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-lH-benzo[e][l,4]diazepin- 2(3H)-one

Figure imgf000085_0001

Intermediate B-1 A: (S)-Benzyl (5-(3-fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro benzo[e] [ 1 ,4]diazepin-3-yl)carbamate

Figure imgf000085_0002

(B-1A)

[00225] In a 1 L round-bottomed flask, a solution of 2-(lH-benzo[d][l,2,3]triazol-l- yl)-2-((phenoxycarbonyl)amino)acetic acid (J. Org. Chem., 55:2206-2214 (1990)) (19.37 g, 62.0 mmol) in THF (135 mL) was cooled in an ice/water bath and treated with oxalyl chloride (5.43 mL, 62.0 mmol) and 4 drops of DMF. The reaction mixture was stirred for 4 hours. Next, a solution of Intermediate A- 1 (7.11 g, 31.0 mmol) in THF (35 mL) was added and the resulting solution was removed from the ice/water bath and stirred at room temperature for 1.5 hours. The mixture was then treated with a solution of ammonia, (7M in MeOH) (19.94 mL, 140 mmol). After 15 mins, another portion of ammonia, (7M in MeOH) (19.94 mL, 140 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was sealed under N2 and stirred overnight at room temperature. The reaction mixture was then concentrated to ~l/2 volume and then diluted with AcOH (63 mL) and stir at room temperature for 4 hours. The reaction mixture was then concentrated, and the residue was diluted with 500 mL water to give a precipitate. Hexane and Et20 were added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour to form an orange solid. Et20 was removed under a stream of nitrogen and the aqueous layer was decanted. The residue was triturated with 40 mL of iPrOH and stirred at room temperature to give a white precipitate. The solid was filtered and washed with iPrOH, then dried on a filter under a stream of nitrogen to give racemic Intermediate B-1A (5.4 g, 41.7%yield).

[00226] Racemic Intermediate B-1A (5.9 g, 14.3 mmol) was resolved using the Chiral SFC conditions described below. The desired stereoisomer was collected as the second peak in the elution order: Instrument: Berger SFC MGIII, Column: CHIRALPAK® IC 25 x 3 cm, 5 cm; column temp: 45 °C; Mobile Phase: C02/MeOH (45/55); Flow rate: 160 mL/min; Detection at 220 nm.

[00227] After evaporation of the solvent, Intermediate B-1A (2.73 g, 46% yield) was obtained as a white solid. HPLC: RT = 3.075 min. (H20/MeOH with TFA,

CHROMOLITH® ODS S5 4.6 x 50 mm, gradient = 4 min, wavelength = 220 nm).

Chiral HPLC RT: 8.661 min (AD, 60% (EtOH/MeOH)/heptane) > 99%ee. MS(ES): m/z = 418.3 [M+H+];1H NMR (500MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.21 (s, 1H), 8.38 (d, J= 8.3 Hz, 1H), 7.57-7.47 (m, 2H), 7.41-7.29 (m, 8H), 7.25-7.17 (m, 2H), 5.10-5.04 (m, 3H), 2.42 (s, 3H).

Intermediate B-l : (S)-3-Amino-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-lH-benzo[e][l,4]diazepin- 2(3H)-one.

[00228] In a 100 mL round-bottomed flask, a solution of Intermediate B-1A (2.73 g, 6.54 mmol) in acetic acid (12 mL) was treated with HBr, 33% in HOAc (10.76 mL, 65.4 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The solution was diluted with Et20 to give a yellow precipitate. The yellow solid was filtered and rinsed with Et20 under nitrogen. The solid was transferred to 100 mL round bottom flask and water was added (white precipitate formed). The slurry was slowly made basic with saturated NaHC03. The resulting tacky precipitate was extracted with EtOAc. The organic layer was washed with water, dried over MgS04, and then filtered and

concentrated to dryness to give Intermediate B-l (1.68 g, 91% yield) as a white foam solid. MS(ES): m/z = 284.2 [M+H+]; HPLC: RT = 1.72 min (H20/MeOH with TFA, CHROMOLITH® ODS S5 4.6 x 50 mm, gradient = 4 min, wavelength = 220 nm). 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.01 (br. s., 1H), 7.56-7.44 (m, 2H), 7.41-7.26 (m, 3H), 7.22-7.11 (m, 2H), 4.24 (s, 1H), 2.55 (br. s., 2H), 2.41 (s, 3H). [00229] The compounds listed below in Table 6 (Intermediates B-2 to B-3) were prepared according to the general synthetic procedure described for Intermediate B-l , using the starting materials Intermediate A- 10 and Intermediate A-4, respectively.

 

Example 1

(2R,3S)-N-((3S)-5-(3-Fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-2-oxo-2,3-dihydro-lH-l,4-benzodiazepin- 3-yl)-2, -bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinamide

Figure imgf000098_0001

Intermediate 1A: (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((S)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-9-methyl- 2-0X0-2, 3-dihydro-lH-benzo[e][l,4]diazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3 ,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoat

Figure imgf000098_0002

[00240] In a 100 mL round-bottomed flask, a solution of Intermediate B-l (1683 mg, 5.94 mmol), Et3N (1.656 mL, 11.88 mmol), and Intermediate S-l in DMF (20 mL) was treated with o-benzotriazol-l-yl-A .A .N’.N’-tetramethyluronium tetrafluoroborate (3815 mg, 11.88 mmol) and stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and saturated aqueous NaHC03. An off white precipitate formed and was filtered and washed with water. The resulting solid was dried on the filter under a stream of nitrogen to give Intermediate 1A (3.7 g, 99% yield). MS(ES): m/z =

632.4[M+H+]; HPLC: RT = 3.635 min Purity = 98%. (H20/MeOH with TFA,

CHROMOLITH® ODS S5 4.6 x 50 mm, gradient = 4 min, wavelength = 220 nm). 1H NMR (400MHz, methanol-d4) δ 7.53 (t, J = 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.46-7.30 (m, 3H), 7.28-7.23 (m, 1H), 7.23-7.18 (m, 2H), 5.37 (s, 1H), 2.88 (td, J = 10.4, 3.4 Hz, 1H), 2.60 (td, J =

10.2, 4.1 Hz, 1H), 2.54-2.40 (m, 1H), 2.47 (s, 3 H), 2.33-2.12 (m, 3H), 1.98-1.69 (m, 4H), 1.51 (s, 9H). Intermediate IB: (2S,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((S)-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-9-methyl-2-oxo-

2,3-dihydro-lH-benzo[e][l,4]diazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000099_0001

[00241] In a 250 mL round-bottomed flask, a solution of Intermediate 1A (3.7 g, 5.86 mmol) in DCM (25 mL) was treated with TFA (25 mL) and the resulting pale orange solution was stirred at room temperature for 1.5 hours. The reaction mixture was then concentrated to give Intermediate IB. HPLC: RT = 3.12 min (H20/MeOH with TFA, CHROMOLITH® ODS S5 4.6 x 50 mm, gradient = 4 min, wavelength = 220 nm).

MS(ES): m/z = 576.3 (M+H)+. 1H NMR (400MHz, methanol-d4) δ 7.54 (t, J= 4.5 Hz, 1H), 7.49-7.29 (m, 3H), 7.28-7.15 (m, 3H), 5.38 (br. s., 1H), 2.89 (td, J= 10.3, 3.7 Hz, 1H), 2.67 (td, J= 9.9, 4.2 Hz, 1H), 2.56-2.38 (m, 1H), 2.48 (s, 3 H), 2.34-2.13 (m, 3H), 2.00-1.71 (m, 4H).

Example 1 :

[00242] In a 250 mL round-bottomed flask, a solution of Intermediate IB (4.04 g, 5.86 mmol) in THF (50 mL) was treated with ammonia (2M in iPrOH) (26.4 mL, 52.7 mmol), followed by HOBT (1.795 g, 11.72 mmol) and EDC (2.246 g, 11.72 mmol). The resulting white suspension was stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction mixture was diluted with water and saturated aqueous NaHC03. The resulting solid was filtered, rinsed with water and then dried on the filter under a stream of nitrogen. The crude product was suspended in 20 mL of iPrOH and stirred at room temperature for 20 min and then filtered and washed with iPrOH and dried under vacuum to give 2.83 g of solid. The solid was dissolved in re fluxing EtOH(100 mL) and slowly treated with 200 mg activated charcoal added in small portions. The hot mixture was filtered through CELITE® and rinsed with hot EtOH. The filtrate was reduced to half volume, allowed to cool and the white precipitate formed was filtered and rinsed with EtOH to give 2.57 g of white solid. A second recrystallization from EtOH (70 mL) afforded Example 1 (2.39 g, 70% yield) as a white solid. HPLC: RT = 10.859 min (H20/CH3CN with TFA, Sunfire C18 3.5μπι, 3.0x150mm, gradient = 15 min, wavelength = 220 and 254 nm); MS(ES): m/z = 575.3 [M+H+]; 1H NMR (400MHz, methanol-d4) δ 7.57-7.50 (m, 1H), 7.47-7.30 (m, 3H), 7.29-7.15 (m, 3H), 5.38 (s, 1H), 2.85-2.75 (m, 1H), 2.59 (td, J= 10.5, 4.0 Hz, 1H), 2.53-2.41 (m, 4H), 2.31-2.10 (m, 3H), 1.96-1.70 (m, 4H).

 

SEE

WO2012129353A1 *Mar 22, 2012Sep 27, 2012Bristol-Myers Squibb CompanyBis(fluoroalkyl)-1,4-benzodiazepinone compounds

 

PAPER RELATED

Structure–activity relationships in a series of (2-oxo-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-succinamides identified highly potent inhibitors of γ-secretase mediated signaling of Notch1/2/3/4 receptors. On the basis of its robust in vivo efficacy at tolerated doses in Notch driven leukemia and solid tumor xenograft models, 12 (BMS-906024) was selected as a candidate for clinical evaluation.

Discovery of Clinical Candidate BMS-906024: A Potent Pan-Notch Inhibitor for the Treatment of Leukemia and Solid Tumors

Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, United States
Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, 5 Research Parkway, Wallingford, Connecticut 06492, United States
§ Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037,United States
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2015, 6 (5), pp 523–527
*Phone: 609-252-5091. E-mail: ashvinikumar.gavai@bms.com.
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Patent

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2012129353A1?cl=en

 

PATENT RELATED

US-20160060232-A1

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US159930181&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

 

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Clip RELATED

For some disease targets, an indirect approach may be best. Or so Ashvinikumar V. Gavai and his colleagues atBristol-Myers Squibbfound in their quest toward a potential cancer drug. Gavai unveiled BMS-906024, which is an experimental—and slightly roundabout—treatment for a number of cancers, including breast, lung, and colon cancers, and leukemia.

Cancers have a tendency to relapse or to become resistant to treatments that once worked. Research at BMS and elsewhere had suggested that a family of proteins called Notch is implicated in that resistance and in cancer progression more generally. Gavai, director of oncology chemistry at BMS in Princeton, N.J., and his team set out to block Notch family signaling.

Notch family members lack enzymatic activity, so blocking them directly is difficult. Instead, BMS developed inhibitors of an enzyme that is essential for activating Notch signaling—γ-secretase.

09116-cover-bms906024

Company: Bristol-Myers Squibb

Target: pan-Notch

Disease: breast, lung, colon cancer; leukemia

Interfering with Notch, even in this indirect way, can have detrimental effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Only two of the four Notch family members are linked to that side effect, Gavai says. But he and his team think their drug will be most effective if it acts on all four family members roughly equally—a so-called pan-Notch inhibitor. By selecting a molecule that’s well tolerated in animals and carefully scheduling doses of the drug in humans, it could be possible to minimize side effects, he says.

The BMS team relied on Notch signaling assays in leukemia and breast cancer cell lines to find leads. They soon learned that for their molecules to work, three chiral centers had to be in the S,R,Sconfiguration. After that, they strove to make the molecules last in the bloodstream. They removed an isobutyl group and tweaked some other parts of their candidate’s succinamide side chain. It was tough to retain both a long half-life and activity against Notch, Gavai told C&EN. “You’d optimize one and lose the other.”

His team threaded the needle with BMS-906024. Their studies with mice suggest that a dose of 4–6 mg once a week could be effective in people. That’s lower than doses being tested for other Notch-targeted agents, according to the website clinicaltrials.gov. The mouse studies also back the idea that Notch is involved in cancer drug resistance and suggest that Notch could be a target for taking on cancer stem cells, which are notoriously resistant to chemotherapy.

BMS-906024 is in Phase I clinical trials, both alone and in combination with other agents. Patients with colon, lung, breast, and other cancers are receiving intravenous doses of the compound to determine its safety and optimum dose ranges.

09116-cover-BMScxd

(From left, front row) Gavai, Weifeng Shan, (second row) Aaron Balog, Patrice Gill, Gregory Vite, (third row) Francis Lee, Claude Quesnelle, (rear row) Wen-Ching Han, Richard Westhouse.

Credit: Catherine Stroud Photography

http://cen.acs.org/articles/91/i16/BMS-906024-Notch-Signaling-Inhibitor.html

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PAPER RELATED

Abstract Image

An enantioselective synthesis of (S)-7-amino-5H,7H-dibenzo[b,d]azepin-6-one (S1) is described. The key step in the sequence involved crystallization-induced dynamic resolution (CIDR) of compound 7 using Boc-d-phenylalanine as a chiral resolving agent and 3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde as a racemization catalyst to afford S1 in 81% overall yield with 98.5% enantiomeric excess.

Crystallization-Induced Dynamic Resolution toward the Synthesis of (S)-7-Amino-5H,7H-dibenzo[b,d]-azepin-6-one: An Important Scaffold for γ-Secretase Inhibitors

Department of Discovery Synthesis, Biocon Bristol-Myers Squibb Research Centre, Biocon Park, Bommasandra IV Phase, Jigani Link Road, Bengaluru 560099, India
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, P.O Box 4000, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
Cited Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO2000007995A1 * Aug 7, 1999 Feb 17, 2000 Du Pont Pharmaceuticals Company SUCCINOYLAMINO LACTAMS AS INHIBITORS OF Aβ PROTEIN PRODUCTION
WO2000038618A2 * Dec 23, 1999 Jul 6, 2000 Du Pont Pharmaceuticals Company SUCCINOYLAMINO BENZODIAZEPINES AS INHIBITORS OF Aβ PROTEIN PRODUCTION
WO2001060826A2 * Feb 16, 2001 Aug 23, 2001 Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharma Company SUCCINOYLAMINO CARBOCYCLES AND HETEROCYCLES AS INHIBITORS OF Aβ PROTEIN PRODUCTION
US6737038 * May 17, 2000 May 18, 2004 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Use of small molecule radioligands to discover inhibitors of amyloid-beta peptide production and for diagnostic imaging
US7053084 Feb 17, 2000 May 30, 2006 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Succinoylamino benzodiazepines as inhibitors of Aβ protein production
US7456172 Jan 13, 2006 Nov 25, 2008 Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharma Company Succinoylamino benzodiazepines as inhibitors of Aβ protein production
US20030134841 * Nov 1, 2002 Jul 17, 2003 Olson Richard E. Succinoylamino lactams as inhibitors of A-beta protein production
US20120245151 * Mar 22, 2012 Sep 27, 2012 Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Bisfluoroalkyl-1,4-benzodiazepinone compounds

 

//////////BMS-986115, BMS 986115, 3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde, Alzheimer’s disease, Boc-D-phenylalanine, CIDR;dibenzoazepenone DKR; Notch inhibitorsNotch inhibitor, SAR T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, triple-negative breast cancer, γ-secretase inhibitor, PHASE 1, BMS, Bristol-Myers Squibb,  Ashvinikumar Gavai1584647-27-7, UNII: LSK1L593UU

Cc1cccc2c1NC(=O)[C@H](N=C2c3cccc(c3)F)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(F)(F)F)[C@H](CCC(F)(F)F)C(=O)N

BMS 906024


BMS-906024.pngBMS-906024.svg

 

Figure imgf000065_0001

BMS 906024

cas 1401066-79-2

  • MF C26H26F6N4O3
  • MW 556.500

(2R,3S)-N-[(3S)-1-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl]-2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinamide

Butanediamide, N1-((3S)-2,3-dihydro-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluorophenyl)-, (2R,3S)-

(2R,35)-N-((35)-l-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-l,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-3- (2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinamide

Claude Quesnelle, Soong-Hoon Kim, Francis Lee, Ashvinikumar Gavai
Applicant Bristol-Myers Squibb Company

 

str2

Ashvinikumar Gavai

 

 

Claude Quesnelle

Claude Quesnelle
Senior Research Investigator/Chemist at Bristol-Myers Squibb

str2

RICHARD LEE

BMS-906024 is a novel, potent Notch receptor inhibitor . Cancers have a tendency to relapse or to become resistant to treatments that once worked. A family of proteins called Notch is implicated in that resistance and in cancer progression more generally. BMS-906024 is in Phase I clinical trials, both alone and in combination with other agents. Patients with colon, lung, breast, and other cancers are receiving intravenous doses of the compound to determine its safety and optimum dose ranges.

New Phase I drug structure by Bristol-Myers Squibb disclosed at the spring 2013 American Chemical Society meeting in New Orleans to treat breast, lung, and colon cancers and leukemia.[1] The drug works as an pan-Notch inhibitor. The structure is one of a set patented in 2012,[2] and it currently being studied in clinical trials.[3][4]

useful for the treatment of conditions related to the Notch pathway, such as cancer and other proliferative diseases.

Notch signaling has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, such as cell fate specification, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. (Bray, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 7:678-689 (2006); Fortini, Developmental Cell 16:633-647 (2009)). The Notch proteins are single-pass heterodimeric transmembrane molecules. The Notch family includes 4 receptors, NOTCH 1-4, which become activated upon binding to ligands from the DSL family (Delta-like 1, 3, 4 and Jagged 1 and 2).

The activation and maturation of NOTCH requires a series of processing steps, including a proteolytic cleavage step mediated by gamma secretase, a multiprotein complex containing Presenilin 1 or Presenilin 2, nicastrin, APH1, and PEN2. Once NOTCH is cleaved, NOTCH intracellular domain (NICD) is released from the membrane. The released NICD translocates to the nucleus, where it functions as a transcriptional activator in concert with CSL family members (RBPSUH, “suppressor of hairless”, and LAG1). NOTCH target genes include HES family members, such as HES- 1. HES- 1 functions as transcriptional repressors of genes such as HERP 1 (also known as HEY2), HERP2 (also known as HEY1), and HATH1 (also known as ATOH1).

The aberrant activation of the Notch pathway contributes to tumorigenesis. Activation of Notch signaling has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various solid tumors including ovarian, pancreatic, as well as breast cancer and hematologic tumors such as leukemias, lymphomas, and multiple myeloma. The role of Notch inhibition and its utility in the treatment of various solid and hematological tumors are described in Miele, L. et al, Current Cancer Drug Targets, 6:313-323 (2006); Bolos, V. et al, Endocrine Reviews, 28:339-363 (2007); Shih, I.-M. et al, Cancer Research, 67: 1879- 1882 (2007); Yamaguchi, N. et al., Cancer Research, 68: 1881-1888 (2008); Miele, L., Expert Review Anti-cancer Therapy, 8: 1 197-1201 (2008); Purow, B., Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, 10: 154-160 (2009); Nefedova, Y. et al, Drug Resistance Updates, 1 1 :210-218 (2008); Dufraine, J. et al, Oncogene, 27:5132-5137 (2008); and Jun, H.T. et al, Drug Development Research, 69:319-328 (2008).

There remains a need for compounds that are useful as Notch inhibitors and that have sufficient metabolic stability to provide efficacious levels of drug exposure. Further, there remains a need for compounds useful as Notch inhibitors that can be orally or intravenously administered to a patient.

U.S. Patent No. 7,053,084 Bl discloses succinoylamino benzodiazepine compounds useful for treating neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s Disease. The reference discloses that these succinoylamino benzodiazepine compounds inhibit gamma secretase activity and the processing of amyloid precursor protein linked to the formation of neurological deposits of amyloid protein. The reference does not disclose the use of these compounds in the treatment of proliferative diseases such as cancer.

Applicants have found potent compounds that have activity as Notch inhibitors and have sufficient metabolic stability to provide efficacious levels of drug exposure upon intravenous or oral administration. These compounds are provided to be useful as pharmaceuticals with desirable stability, bioavailability, therapeutic index, and toxicity values that are important to their drugability.

Image result for BMS 906024Image result for BMS 906024

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PAPER

Abstract Image

Structure–activity relationships in a series of (2-oxo-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-succinamides identified highly potent inhibitors of γ-secretase mediated signaling of Notch1/2/3/4 receptors. On the basis of its robust in vivo efficacy at tolerated doses in Notch driven leukemia and solid tumor xenograft models, 12 (BMS-906024) was selected as a candidate for clinical evaluation.

Discovery of Clinical Candidate BMS-906024: A Potent Pan-Notch Inhibitor for the Treatment of Leukemia and Solid Tumors

Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, Princeton, New Jersey 08543, United States
Bristol-Myers Squibb Research and Development, 5 Research Parkway, Wallingford, Connecticut 06492, United States
§ Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037,United States
ACS Med. Chem. Lett., 2015, 6 (5), pp 523–527
*Phone: 609-252-5091. E-mail: ashvinikumar.gavai@bms.com.
(2R,3S)-N-((3S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4- benzodiazepin-3-yl)-2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinamide
colorless solid: HPLC: RT = 9.60 min (HPLC Method D). Chiral LC/Analytical SFC conditions: Column: LuxCellulose-2 (0.46 x 25cm), Mobile phase: 10% methanol in CO2, Flow rate: 3 mL/min, wavelength: 220 nm; Temp.: 35C. RT = 9.21 min, Purity = 99.95%.
MS (ES): m/z = 557 [M+H]+ ;
1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6)  9.54 (1H, d, J = 7.28 Hz), 7.71 – 7.80 (1H, m), 7.68 (2H, d, J = 8.78 Hz), 7.50 – 7.62 (3H, m), 7.45 (2H, t, J = 7.28 Hz), 7.29 – 7.40 (2H, m), 7.15 (1H, s), 5.30 (1H, d, J = 7.28 Hz), 3.39 (3H, s), 2.74 – 2.86 (1H, m), 2.02 -2.32 (3H, m), 1.45 – 1.79 (4H, m);
[]D = -107.0° (5.73 mg/mL, DMSO).
Elemental analysis: Theoretical: C: 54.11%; H: 4.70%; N: 10.06%; Actual: C: 54.06%; H: 4.90%; N: 10.08%.
Karl Fisher Moisture: 0.48.
HPLC Method D: Sunfire C18 3.5um, 3.0x150mm column, solvent A: 5% acetonitrile – 95% water – 0.05% TFA, solvent B: 95% acetonitrile – 5% water – 0.05% TFA, flow=0.5 mL/min, gradient from 10%B to 100%B over 15min, 254 nm detector.
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Patent

http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2012129353A1?cl=en

Example 1

(2R,35)-N-((35′)-l-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-l,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-2,3- b -trifluoropropy l)succinamide

Figure imgf000065_0001

Preparation 1A: tert-Butyl 5, -trifluoropentanoate

Figure imgf000065_0002

[00219] To a stirred solution of 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (5 g, 32.0 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and hexane (30 mL) at 0 °C, was added tert-butyl 2,2,2-trichloroacetimidate (11.46 mL, 64.1 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 15 min at 0 °C. Boron trifluoride etherate (0.406 mL, 3.20 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature overnight. To the clear reaction mixture was added solid aHC03 (5 g) and stirred for 30 min. The mixture was filtered through MgS04 and washed with hexanes (200 mL). The solution was allowed to rest for 45 min, and the resulting solid material was removed by filtering on the same MgS04 filter again, washed with hexanes (100 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure without heat. The volume was reduced to about 30 mL, filtered through a clean fritted funnel, washed with hexane (5 mL), and then concentrated under reduced pressure without heat. The resulting neat oil was filtered through a 0.45μηι nylon membrane filter disk to provide tert-butyl 5,5,5- trifluoropentanoate (6.6 g, 31.4 mmol 98% yield) as a colorless oil: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 1.38 (s, 9 H) 1.74-1.83 (m, 2 H) 2.00-2.13 (m, 2 H) 2.24 (t, J=7.28 Hz, 2 H).

Preparation IB: (45)-4-(Propan-2- l)-3-(5,5,5-trifluoropentanoyl)-l,3-oxazolidin-2-one

Figure imgf000066_0001

[00220] To a stirred solution of 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (5.04 g, 32.3 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) and DMF (3 drops) was added oxalyl chloride (3.4 mL, 38.8 mmol) dropwise over 5 min and the solution was stirred until all bubbling subsided. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to give pale yellow oil. To a separate flask charged with a solution of (45)-4-(propan-2-yl)-l,3-oxazolidin-2-one (4.18 g, 32.4 mmol) in THF (100 mL) at -78 °C was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexane) (13.0 mL, 32.5 mmol) dropwise via syringe over 5 min. After stirring for 10 min, the above acid chloride dissolved in THF (20 mL) was added via cannula over 15 min. The reaction mixture was warmed to 0 °C, and was allowed to warm to room temperature as the bath warmed and stirred overnight. To the reaction mixture was added saturated NH4CI, and then extracted with EtOAc (2x). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 5% to 60% solvent A/B=hexanes/EtOAc, REDISEP® S1O2 120g). Concentration of appropriate fractions provided Preparation IB (7.39 g, 86%) as a colorless oil: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 4.44 (1 H, dt, J=8.31, 3.53 Hz), 4.30 (1 H, t, J=8.69 Hz), 4.23 (1 H, dd, J=9.06, 3.02 Hz), 2.98-3.08 (2 H, m), 2.32-2.44 (1 H, m, J=13.91, 7.02, 7.02, 4.03 Hz), 2.13-2.25 (2 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2 H, m), 0.93 (3 H, d, J=7.05 Hz), 0.88 (3 H, d, J=6.80 Hz). Preparation 1C: (25′,3R)-tert-Butyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-((5)-4-isopropyl-2-oxooxazolidine- 3 -carbonyl)-2-(3 ,3,3 -trifluoropropyl)hexanoate, and

Preparation ID: (2R,3R)-tert-Butyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-((5)-4-isopropyl-2-oxooxazolidine- 3 -carbonyl)- -(3 ,3 ,3 -trifluoropropyl)hexanoate

Figure imgf000067_0001

(1 C) (1 D)

[00221] To a cold (-78 °C), stirred solution of diisopropylamine (5.3 mL, 37.2 mmol) in THF (59 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexane) (14.7 mL, 36.8 mmol), then warmed to 0 °C to give a 0.5M solution of LDA. A separate vessel was charged with Preparation IB (2.45 g, 9.17 mmol), the material was azeotroped twice with benzene (the RotoVap air inlet was fitted with nitrogen inlet to completely exclude humidity) then toluene (15.3 mL) was added. This solution was added to a flask containing dry lithium chloride (1.96 g, 46.2 mmol). To the resultant mixture, cooled to -78 °C, was added LDA solution (21.0 mL, 10.5 mmol) and stirred at -78 °C for 10 min, warmed to 0 °C for 10 min then recooled to -78 °C. To a separate reaction vessel containing Preparation 1A (3.41 g, 16.07 mmol), also azeotroped twice with benzene, was added toluene (15.3 mL), cooled to -78 °C and LDA (37.0 mL, 18.5 mmol) was added, the resulting solution was stirred at -78° for 25 min. At this time the enolate derived from the ester was transferred via cannula into the solution of the oxazolidinone enolate, stirred at -78 °C for an additional 5 min at which time the septum was removed and solid powdered bis(2-ethylhexanoyloxy)copper (9.02 g, 25.8 mmol) was rapidly added to the reaction vessel and the septum replaced. The vessel was immediately removed from the cold bath and immersed into a warm water bath (40 °C) with rapid swirling with a concomitant color change from the initial turquoise to brown. The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 min, was poured into 5% aqueous NH4OH (360 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2x). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 0% to 60% solvent A/B=hexanes/EtOAc, REDISEP® S1O2 120g). Concentration of appropriate fractions provided Preparation 1C (2.87 g, 66%) as pale yellow viscous oil. XH NMR showed the product was a 1.6: 1 mixture of diastereoisomers 1C: 1D as determined by the integration of the multiplets at 2.74 & 2.84 ppm: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 4.43-4.54 (2 H, m), 4.23-4.35 (5 H, m), 4.01 (1 H, ddd, J=9.54, 6.27, 3.51 Hz), 2.84 (1 H, ddd, J=9.41, 7.28, 3.64 Hz), 2.74 (1 H, ddd, J=10.29, 6.27, 4.02 Hz), 2.37-2.48 (2 H, m, J=10.38, 6.98, 6.98, 3.51, 3.51 Hz), 2.20-2.37 (3 H, m), 1.92-2.20 (8 H, m), 1.64-1.91 (5 H, m), 1.47 (18 H, s), 0.88-0.98 (12 H, m). Preparation IE: (2R,35)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation IF: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000068_0001

(1 E) (1 F)

[00222] To a cool (0 °C), stirred solution of Preparation 1C and ID (4.54 g, 9.51 mmol) in THF (140 mL) and water (42 mL) was sequentially added hydrogen peroxide (30% in water) (10.3 g, 91 mmol) and LiOH (685.3 mg, 28.6 mmol) and the mixture was stirred for 1 hr. At this time the reaction vessel was removed from the cold bath and then stirred for 1.5 hr. The reaction was judged complete by HPLC. To the reaction mixture was added saturated NaHC03 (45 mL) and saturated a2S03(15 mL), and then partially concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting crude solution was extracted with DCM (3x). The aqueous phase was acidified to pH~l-2 with IN HC1, extracted with DCM (3x) and EtOAc (lx). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide a mixture of Preparation IE and IF (3.00 g, 86%) as colorless oil: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 2.76-2.84 (1 H, m, diastereoisomer 2), 2.64-2.76 (3 H, m), 2.04-2.35 (8 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (4 H, m), 1.71-1.83 (4 H, m), 1.48 (9 H, s, diastereoisomer 1), 1.46 (9 H, s, diastereoisomer 2); XH NMR showed a 1.7: 1 mixture of 1E: 1F by integration of the peaks for the ?-butyl groups.

Preparation IE: (2R,35)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation IF: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000069_0001

(1 E) (1 F)

[00223] To a cold (-78 °C), stirred solution of diisopropylamine (1.7 mL, 11.93 mmol) in THF (19 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexanes) (4.8 mL, 12.00 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 5 min and then warmed to 0 °C. In a separate vessel, to a cold (-78 °C) stirred solution of the mixture of Preparation IE and IF (1.99 g, 5.43 mmol) in THF (18 mL) was added the LDA solution prepared above via cannula slowly over 25 min. The mixture was stirred for 15 min, then warmed to room temperature (placed in a 24 °C water bath) for 15 min, and then again cooled to -78 °C for 15 min. To the reaction mixture was added Et2AlCl (1M in hexane) (11.4 mL, 1 1.40 mmol) via syringe, stirred for 10 min, warmed to room temperature for 15 min and then cooled back to -78 °C for 15 min. Methanol (25 mL) was rapidly added, swirled vigorously while warming to room temperature, then concentrated to ~l/4 original volume. The mixture was dissolved in EtOAc and washed with IN HCl (50 mL) and ice (75 g). The aqueous phase was separated, extracted with EtOAc (2x). The combined organics were washed with a mixture of KF (2.85g in 75 mL water) and IN HCl (13 mL) [resulting solution pH 3-4], then with brine, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a 9: 1 (IE: IF) enriched diastereoisomeric mixture (as determined by XH NMR) of Preparation IE and Preparation IF (2.13 g, >99%) as a pale yellow viscous oil: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 2.64-2.76 (2 H, m), 2.04-2.35 (4 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2 H, m), 1.71-1.83 (2 H, m), 1.48 (9 H, s). Preparation 1 G: (35)-3 -Amino- 1 -methyl-5-phenyl- 1 ,3 -dihydro-2H- 1 ,4-benzodiazepin-2- one, and

Preparation 1H: (3R)-3 -Amino- 1 -methyl-5-phenyl- 1 ,3-dihydro-2H- 1 ,4-benzodiazepin-2- one

Figure imgf000070_0001

(1G) (1 H)

[00224] Racemic 3-amino-l-methyl-5-phenyl-l,3-dihydro-2H-l,4-benzodiazepin-2- one (Rittle, K.E. et al, Tetrahedron Letters, 28(5):521-522 (1987)) was prepared according to the literature procedure. The enantiomers were separated under chiral-SFC conditions using the following method: CHIRALPAK® AS-H 5×25; Mobile phase: 30% MeOH+ 0.1% DEA in C02; Flow rate: 280 mL/min; Pressure: 100 bar; Temperature: 35 °C.

[00225] Obtained the S-enantiomer (Preparation 1G): HPLC: RT=1.75 min (30% MeOH + 0.1% DEA in C02 on CHIRALPAK® AS-H 4.6×250 mm, 3 mL/min, 35 °C, 100 bar, 230 nm, ΙΟμΙ injection); ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.58-7.63 (2 H, m), 7.55 (1 H, ddd, J=8.50, 7.1 1, 1.76 Hz), 7.40-7.47 (1 H, m), 7.34-7.40 (3 H, m), 7.31 (1 H, dd, J=7.81, 1.51 Hz), 7.14-7.22 (1 H, m), 4.46 (1 H, s), 3.44 (3 H, s), 3.42 (2 H, s); [a]D= -155° (c=1.9, MeOH) (Lit. Rittle, K.E. et al, Tetrahedron Letters, 28(5):521-522 (1987): [a]D=-236°).

[00226] Also obtained the R-enantiomer (Preparation 1H): HPLC: RT=1.71 min; [a]D=+165° (c=2.1, MeOH) (Lit [a]D= +227°).

Alternate procedure to make Preparation 1 G:

Preparation 1G»CSA salt: (35)-3-Amino-l-methyl-5-phenyl-l,3-dihydro-2H-l,4- benzodiazepin-2-one, (15)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid salt

Figure imgf000071_0001

[00227] Preparation lG’CSA was prepared from racemic 3-amino-l-methyl-5-phenyl- l,3-dihydro-2H-l,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (9.98g, 37.6 mmol) (prepared according to the literature as shown above) according to the literature procedure (Reider, P.J. et al, J. Org. Chem., 52:955-957 (1987)). Preparation lG’CSA (16.91g, 99%) was obtained as a colorless solid: Optical Rotation: [a]D = -26.99° (c=l, H20) (Lit. [a]D = -27.8° (c=l,

H20))

Preparation II: tert-Butyl (25,,3R)-6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((35)-l-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3- dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,4-benzodiazepin-3 -yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3 ,3 ,3 -trifluoropropyl)hexanoate, and Preparation 1J: tert-Butyl (2R,3R)-6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((35)-l-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3- dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,4-benzodiazepin-3 -yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3 ,3 ,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoate

Figure imgf000071_0002

(11) (U)

[00228] To a stirred solution of Preparation 1G (1.45 g, 5.47 mmol) and a 9: 1 mixture of Preparation IE and IF (1.989 g, 5.43 mmol) in DMF (19 mL) was added O- benzotriazol-l-yl-N,N,N’,N’-tetra-methyluronium tetrafluoroborate (1.79 g, 5.57 mmol) and triethylamine (3.0 mL, 21.52 mmol) and stirred overnight. The reaction was judged complete by LCMS. The reaction mixture was poured into water (125 mL) and the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with water and air dried to provide an 8: 1 mixture of Preparation II and Preparation 1J (2.95 g, 89%) as a cream solid: MS (ES): m/z= 614 [M+H]+;XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.55-7.65 (3 H, m), 7.44- 7.52 (2 H, m), 7.35-7.45 (4 H, m), 5.52 (1 H, d, J=8.03 Hz), 3.48 (3 H, s), 2.63 (2 H, ddd, J=9.35, 3.95, 3.76 Hz), 2.14-2.25 (4 H, m), 1.90-2.03 (3 H, m), 1.69-1.82 (1 H, m), 1.51 (9 H, s).

Preparation IK: (25,,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((35)-l-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro- lH-l,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation 1L: (2R,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((35)-l-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,4-

Figure imgf000072_0001

(1 K) (1 L)

[00229] To a cool (0 °C), stirred solution of the above mixture of Preparation II and Preparation 1 J (2.95 g, 4.81 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was added TFA (20 mL, 260 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for lhr, then allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 2.5 hr. The reaction was judged complete by LCMS. The reaction mixture was diluted with toluene (50 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue mixture was redissolved in toluene (50 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure then dried under high vacuum. The crude product was dissolved in DCM, S1O2 (15g) was added, concentrated, then was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 0% to 45% solvent A/B=DCM/EtOAc, REDISEP® S1O2 80g). Concentration of appropriate fractions provided a mixture of Preparation IK and Preparation 1L (2.00 g, 75%) as a cream solid: HPLC: RT=2.770 min

(CHROMOLITH® SpeedROD 4.6 x 50 mm (4 min grad) eluting with 10-90% aqueous MeOH over 4 minutes containing 0.1% TFA, 4 mL/min, monitoring at 254 nm); MS (ES): m/z= 558 [M+H]+; XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 8.32 (1 H, d, J=8.03 Hz), 7.65-7.71 (1 H, m), 7.50-7.60 (3 H, m), 7.41-7.49 (2 H, m), 7.39 (1 H, dd, J=7.91, 1.63 Hz), 7.23-7.35 (2 H, m), 5.59 (1 H, d, J=8.03 Hz), 3.51 (3 H, s), 2.81 (1 H, ddd, J=10.54, 6.90, 3.64 Hz), 2.67-2.76 (1 H, m), 2.22-2.33 (3 H, m), 1.99-2.12 (3 H, m), 1.85-1.94 (1 H, m), 1.79 (1 H, ddd, J=13.87, 7.84, 3.64 Hz). Example 1 :

[00230] To a stirred solution of an 8: 1 mixture of Preparation IK and Preparation 1L (3.46 g, 6.21 mmol) in DMF (25 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere was added ammonium chloride (3.32 g, 62.1 mmol), EDC (3.55 g, 18.52 mmol), HOBT (2.85 g, 18.61 mmol), and triethyl amine (16 mL, 1 15 mmol) and stirred overnight. The reaction was judged complete by LCMS. The reaction mixture was poured into water (200 mL) with vigorous swirling and then allowed to sit. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with water, allowed to dry to afford 3.6 g colorless solid. The solid was purified by preparative SFC chromatography (Lux-Cellulose-2 (3x25cm), 8% methanol in CO2, 140ml/min @220nm and 35 °C; Sample: 3.6g in 50cc methanol, conc.=70mg/ml, Stack injection:

0.5cc/9.2min). Fractions containing product were concentrated, dried overnight under vacuum. Obtained Example 1 (2.74 g, 79%) as a colorless solid (Crystal Form -1): HPLC: RT=9.601 min (H20/CH3CN with TFA, Sunfire CI 8 3.5um, 4.6x150mm, 4.6x150mm, gradient = 15 min, wavelength = 220 and 254 nm). MS (ES): m/z= 557 [M+H]+; XH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.54 (1 H, d, J=7.28 Hz), 7.71-7.80 (1 H, m), 7.68 (2 H, d, J=8.78 Hz), 7.50-7.62 (3 H, m), 7.45 (2 H, t, J=7.28 Hz), 7.29-7.40 (2 H, m), 7.15 (1 H, br. s.), 5.30 (1 H, d, J=7.28 Hz), 3.39 (3 H, s), 2.74-2.86 (1 H, m), 2.02-2.32 (3 H, m), 1.45-1.79 (4 H, m); [a]D = -107.0° (5.73 mg/mL, DMSO).

[00231] Crystal Form A-2 was prepared by adding approximately 1 mg of Example 1 to approximately 0.7 mL of acetone/acetonitrile/water solution (2:2: 1). A mixture of colorless needles and thin blades crystals were obtained after one day of slow evaporation of the solution at room temperature. The thin blade crystals were separated to provide crystal Form A-2.

[00232] Crystal Form EA-3 was prepared by adding approximately 1 mg of Example 1 to approximately 0.7 mL of ethyl acetate/heptane solution (1 : 1). Colorless blade crystals were obtained after three days of slow evaporation of the solution at room temperature.

[00233] Crystal Form THF-2 was obtained by adding approximately 5 mg of Example 1 to approximately 0.7 mL of THF/water solution (4: 1). Colorless blade-like crystals were obtained after one day of solvent evaporation at room temperature.

Alternate Procedure to Make Example 1 : Preparation 1M: 3,3,3-Trifluoropropyl trifluoromethanesulfonate

Figure imgf000074_0001

[00234] To a cold (-25 °C), stirred solution of 2,6-lutidine (18.38 mL, 158 mmol) in CH2CI2 (120 mL) was added Tf20 (24.88 mL, 147 mmol) over 3 min, and stirred for 5 min. To the reaction mixture was added 3,3,3-trifluoropropan-l-ol (12 g, 105 mmol) over an interval of 3 min. After 2 hr, the reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1 hr. The reaction mixture was concentrated to half volume, then purified by loading directly on silica gel column (330g ISCO) and eluted with CH2C12. Obtained Preparation 1M (13.74 g, 53%) as a colorless oil. XH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ ppm 4.71 (2 H, t, J=6.15 Hz), 2.49-2.86 (2 H, m).

Preparation IN: (45)-4-Benzyl- -(5,5,5-trifluoropentanoyl)-l,3-oxazolidin-2-one

Figure imgf000074_0002

[00235] Preparation IN was prepared from 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (3.35 g, 21.46 mmol) and (45)-4-benzyl-l,3-oxazolidin-2-one (3.80 g, 21.46 mmol) by the general methods shown for Preparation IB. Preparation IN (5.67 g, 84%) was obtained as a colorless viscous oil: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.32-7.39 (2 H, m), 7.30 (1 H, d, J=7.05 Hz), 7.18-7.25 (2 H, m), 4.64-4.74 (1 H, m), 4.17-4.27 (2 H, m), 3.31 (1 H, dd, J=13.35, 3.27 Hz), 3.00-3.1 1 (2 H, m), 2.79 (1 H, dd, J=13.35, 9.57 Hz), 2.16-2.28 (2 H, m), 1.93-2.04 (2 H, m).

Preparation 10: tert-Butyl (3R)-3-(((45)-4-benzyl-2-oxo-l,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)carbonyl)- 6,6,6-trifluorohexanoate

Figure imgf000075_0001

[00236] To a cold (-78 °C), stirred solution of Preparation IN (3.03 g, 9.61 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added NaHMDS (1.0M in THF) (10.6 mL, 10.60 mmol) under nitrogen atmosphere. After 2 hours, tert-butyl 2-bromoacetate (5.62 g, 28.8 mmol) was added neat via syringe at -78 °C and stirring was maintained at the same temperature. After 6 hours, the reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature. The reaction mixture was partitioned between saturated NH4C1 and EtOAc. The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous was extracted with EtOAc (3x). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 5% to 100% solvent A/B=hexanes/EtO Ac, REDISEP® Si02 120g). Concentration of appropriate fractions provided Preparation 10 (2.79 g, 67.6%) as a colorless viscous oil: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 7.34 (2 H, d, J=7.30 Hz), 7.24-7.32 (3 H, m), 4.62- 4.75 (1 H, m, J=10.17, 6.89, 3.43, 3.43 Hz), 4.15-4.25 (3 H, m), 3.35 (1 H, dd, J=13.60, 3.27 Hz), 2.84 (1 H, dd, J=16.62, 9.57 Hz), 2.75 (1 H, dd, J=13.35, 10.07 Hz), 2.47 (1 H, dd, J=16.62, 4.78 Hz), 2.1 1-2.23 (2 H, m), 1.90-2.02 (1 H, m), 1.72-1.84 (1 H, m), 1.44 (9 H, s). -2-(2-tert-Butoxy-2-oxoethyl)-5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid

Figure imgf000075_0002

[00237] Preparation IP was prepared from Preparation 10 (2.79 g, 6.50 mmol) by the general methods shown for Preparation IE. Preparation IP (1.45 g, 83%) was obtained as a colorless oil: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 2.83-2.95 (1 H, m), 2.62-2.74 (1 H, m), 2.45 (1 H, dd, J=16.62, 5.79 Hz), 2.15-2.27 (2 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (1 H, m), 1.75-1.88 (1 H, m), 1.45 (9 H, s). Preparation IE: (2R,35′)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation IF: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000076_0001

(1 E) (1 F)

[00238] To a cold (-78 °C), stirred solution of Preparation IP (5.44 g, 20.13 mmol) in THF (60 mL) was slowly added LDA (24.60 mL, 44.3 mmol) over 7 min. After stirring for 2 hr, Preparation 1M (6.44 g, 26.2 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture over 3 min. After 45 min, the reaction mixture was warmed to -25 °C bath (ice/MeOH/dry ice) for 1 hr, and then warmed to 0 °C. After 45 min, Preparation 1M (lg) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 20 min. The reaction was quenched with water and IN NaOH and was extracted with (¾(¾. The organic layer was again extracted with IN NaOH (2x) and the aqueous layers were combined. The aqueous layer was cooled in ice/water bath and then acidified with concentrated HCl to pH 2. Next, the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organics were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dried under high vacuum to provide a 1 :5 (IE: IF) mixture (as determined by XH NMR) of Preparation IE and Preparation IF (5.925 g, 80%) as a pale yellow solid. XH NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) 8 ppm 2.81 (1 H, ddd, J=10.17, 6.32, 3.85 Hz), 2.63-2.76 (1 H, m), 2.02- 2.33 (4 H, m), 1.86-1.99 (2 H, m), 1.68-1.85 (2 H, m), 1.47 (9 H, s).

Preparation IE: (2R,35)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation IF: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000077_0001

(1 E) (1 F)

[00239] A mixture of Preparation IE and Preparation IF (64 mg, 1.758 mmol) was taken in THF (6 mL) to give a colorless solution which was cooled to -78 °C. Then, LDA (2.149 mL, 3.87 mmol) (1.8M in heptane/THF/ethylbenzene) was slowly added to the reaction mixture over 10 min. After stirring for 15 min the reaction mixture was placed in a room temperature water bath. After 15 min the reaction mixture was placed back in -78 °C bath and then diethylaluminum chloride (3.87 mL, 3.87 mmol) (1M in hexane) was added slowly over 5 min. The reaction mixture was stirred at -78 °C. After 15 min the reaction mixture was placed in a room temperature water bath for 10 min and then cooled back to -78 °C bath. After 15 min the reaction was quenched with MeOH (8 mL, 198 mmol), removed from the -78 °C bath and concentrated. To the reaction mixture was added ice and HC1 (16 mL, 16.00 mmol), followed by extraction with EtOAc (2x). The organic layer was washed with potassium fluoride (920 mg, 15.84 mmol) (in 25 mL FLO) and HC1 (4.5 mL, 4.50 mmol). The organics were dried over anhydrous magnesium sulphate and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide a 9: 1 (IE: IF) enriched mixture of Preparation IE and Preparation IF (540 mg, 1.583 mmol, 90% yield) as light yellow/orange solid. ¾ NMR (400 MHz, CDC13) δ ppm 2.64-2.76 (2 H, m), 2.04-2.35 (4 H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2 H, m), 1.71-1.83 (2 H, m), 1.48 (9 H, s). It was converted to Example 1 by the sequence of reactions as outlined above.

Alternate procedure to make Preparation IE:

Preparation 1Q: (2R,35)- -Benzyl 4-tert-butyl 2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinate

Figure imgf000077_0002

(1Q) [00240] A clean and dry 5 L four neck round bottom flask equipped with mechanical stirring, thermometer socket and nitrogen bubbler at room temperature was charged with Ν,Ν-dimethyl formamide (2.07 L), a 1.2: 1 mixture of Preparation IE and Preparation IF (207 g, 0.5651 moles), potassium carbonate (1 17.1 g, 0.8476 moles) followed by benzyl bromide (116 g, 0.6781 moles) over 15-20 min. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2-3 hr. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness at 50-55 °C under vacuum. Ethyl acetate (3.1 L, 30 Vol.) was charged into the concentrated reaction mass and then washed with water (2.07 L), brine (0.6 L) then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (207 g), filtered and concentrated to dryness at 40-45 °C under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.035 L, 5 vol.) and then absorbed onto silica gel (60-120) (607 g, 3.0 w/w), then was purified with column chromatography using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as solvents. After pooling several batches, Preparation 1Q (235 g) was obtained. HPLC purity: 99.77%, Preparation IE: (2R,35)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000078_0001

[00241] A clean and dry 2 L autoclave was charged with methanol (540 mL) and was purged with nitrogen for 5-10 minutes. To the autoclave was added 10% palladium on carbon (12 g, 20%), purged with nitrogen once again for 5-10 min then was charged with Preparation 1Q (60g, 0.1315 moles), the autoclave was flushed with methanol (60mL) and stirred for 4-6 hr at 20-25 °C under 5Kg hydrogen pressure. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mass was filtered through CELITE®, washed with methanol (180 mL), dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate (60 g), filtered and concentrated to dryness at 45-50 °C under vacuum. Obtained Preparation IE (45.8 g, 95%) as a colorless solid: HPLC purity: 98.9%.

Alternate procedure to make Preparation IE: Preparation IE: (2R,35)-3-(te^Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000079_0001

[00242] Preparation IE was prepared in a procedure identical as above from a mixture of Preparations IE and IF (200g, 0.5460 moles) using LDA (1.8 M solution in THF, ethyl benzene and heptane) (698mL, 2.3equiv.) and diethyl aluminum chloride (1.0 M solution in hexane) (1256mL, 2.3equiv) in THF (2.0L). After workup as explained above, the resulting residue was treated as follows: The crude material was added to a 2L four neck round bottom flask, followed by the addition of MTBE (1.0L) charged below 30 °C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 5-10 minutes to obtain a clear solution.

Hexanes (600mL) was charged to the reaction mixture at a temperature below 30 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 min. Next, tert-butylamine (43.8g, l. leq) was charged slowly over a period of 15 minutes below 30 °C. This addition was observed to be exothermic. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hrs below 30 °C and filtered. The solid material was washed with 5:3 MTBE: hexane (200mL), the filtrate was

concentrated and transferred to an amber color bottle. The filtered solid was dissolved in dichloromethane (2.0L), washed with IN HC1 (2.0), the organic layer was washed with brine (1.0L x 2), then was concentrated under reduced pressure below 45 °C. This material was found to be 91.12% pure. The material was repurified by the above t- butylamine crystallization purification procedure. Obtained Preparation IE (78 g, 39%): HPLC purity: 99.54%.

Alternate procedure to make Example 1 :

Preparation II: tert-Butyl (25,,3R)-6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((35)-l-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3- dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,4-benzodiazepin-3 -yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3 ,3 ,3 -trifluoropropyl)hexanoate

Figure imgf000080_0001

[00243] A clean and dry 2 L four neck round bottom flask equipped with mechanical stirring, thermometer socket and nitrogen bubbler was charged with N,N- dimethylformamide (457 mL), Preparation IE (45.7g, 0.1248moles) and Preparation lG’CSA (62.08g, 0.1248moles) under nitrogen atmosphere at 20-25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 15-20 minutes to make clear solution at 20-25 °C. To the reaction mixture was added TBTU (48.16g, 0.1498 moles) at 20-25 °C followed by triethylamine (50.51g, 0.4992 moles) over 15-20 minutes at 20-25 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 60-120 minutes at 20-25 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. After completion of the reaction, the reaction was quenched into water (1.37L, 30 Vol.) at 20-25 °C under stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 20-25 °C. The reaction mixture was filtered and washed with water (228 mL). The resulting solid material was dissolved in ethyl acetate (457 mL), washed with water (2×137 mL), brine (137 mL), and then dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate (45.7g). Activated charcoal (9.14 g, 20%) was charged into the reaction mixture and stirred for 30 minutes. The mixture was filtered through CELITE® bed and 1 micron filter cloth, washed charcoal bed with ethyl acetate (137 mL), concentrated to 1.0 Vol. stage and then petroleum ether (457 mL, 10 Vol.) was charged and stirred for 30 minutes at 20-25 °C. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with petroleum ether (137 mL) and then dried under vacuum at 40-45 °C for 8 hr until loss on drying was less than 3.0%. Obtained Preparation II (65.2 g, 85%): HPLC purity: 98.26%.

Preparation IK: (25,,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((35)-l-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,4-benzodiazepin-3 -yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3 ,3 ,3 -trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000081_0001

[00244] A clean and dry 3 L four neck round bottom flask equipped with mechanical stirring, thermometer socket and nitrogen bubbler was charged with dichloromethane (980 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere followed by Preparation II (140 g, 0.2282 moles) at 20-25 °C. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C and trifluoroacetic acid (980 mL) was charged slowly for 30-40 minutes. The resulting mixture was stirred for 2 hr at 0-5 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction temperature was raised to 20 to 25 °C, and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1-2 hr at 20 to 25 °C. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness at 50 to 55 °C under vacuum. Toluene (3×700 mL,) was charged into the concentrated reaction mass, and then distilled off at 50 to 55 °C under vacuum. After complete concentration from toluene, ethyl acetate (280 mL) was charged into the reaction mass at 20 to 25 °C, stirred for 60 minutes, then the solid was collected by filtration, washed with ethyl acetate (140 mL), dried under vacuum at 50 to 55 °C for 12 hr until loss on drying was less than 2.0%. Obtained Preparation IK (106 g, 84%): HPLC purity: 98.43%.

Example 1 :

[00245] A reaction vessel was charged with Preparation IK (30 g, 53.81 mmol), HOBt (8.7g, 64.38 mmol), and THF (150 mL) at room temperature. To the homogeneous solution was added EDCI (12.4g, 64.68 mmol), stirred for 15 min, then cooled to 8 °C. To the reaction mixture was added ammonia (2M in IP A) (81 mL, 162 mmol) over 5 min so as to maintain a temperature below 10 °C. The resulting heavy slurry was stirred for 10 min, warmed to room temperature over 30 min, then stirred for 4 hr. At the completion of the reaction, water (230 mL) was slowly added over 15 min to maintain a temperature below 20 °C, and then stirred for 2 hr. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (3X60 mL), then dried under vacuum 48 hr at 55 °C. The above crude product was charged into a 1 L 3 -necked round flask. IP A (200 mL) was added, then heated to 80 °C resulting in a homogeneous solution. Water (170 mL) was slowly added (15 min) to maintain an internal temperature >75 °C. The resulting slurry was stirred and cooled to room temperature for 2 hr. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (2 X 50 mL), then dried under vacuum (55 °C for 24 h, and 30 °C for 48 h).

Obtained Example 1 (23.4 g, 78% yield): HPLC purity: 99.43%.

Example 2 NOT SAME

WITHOUT METHYL GROUP

(2R,35)-N-((35)-2-Oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-l,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-2,3-bis(3,3,3- trifluoropropyl)succinamide

Figure imgf000082_0001

Preparation 2A: (35)-3-Amino-5-phenyl-l,3-dihydro-2H-l,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, and Preparation 2B: -3-Amino-5-phenyl-l,3-dihydro-2H-l,4-benzodiazepin-2-one

Figure imgf000082_0002

(2A) (2B)

[00246] Racemic 3-amino-5-phenyl-l,3-dihydro-2H-l,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (J. Med. Chem., 49:231 1-2319 (2006), compound# 5) was prepared according to the literature procedure. The enantiomers were separated on Berger SFC MGIII Column: Lux 25X3 cm, 5cm; Mobile phase: 30% MeOH+ 0.1% DEA in C02; Flow rate: 150 mL/min;

Temperature: 40 °C; Detector wavelength: 250 nM. Obtained the S-enantiomer

Preparation 2A as a white solid: XH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.67 (1 H, br. s.), 7.58 (1 H, td, J=7.65, 1.76 Hz), 7.37-7.53 (5 H, m), 7.23-7.30 (2 H, m), 7.14-7.22 (1 H, m), 4.23 (1 H, s), 2.60 (2 H, br. s.); HPLC: RT=3.0625 min (30% MeOH + 0.1% DEA in C02 on OD-H Column, 3 mL/min, 35 °C, 96 bar, 230 nm, ΙΟμΙ inj); [a]D = -208.3° (5.05 mg/niL, MeOH). Also obtained the R-enantiomer Preparation 2B as an off white solid: HPLC: RT=3.970 min; [a]D = 182.1° (2.01 mg/mL, MeOH).

Preparation 2C: tert-Butyl (25,,3R)-6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((35)-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro- 1 H- 1 ,4-benzodiazepin-3 -yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3 ,3 ,3 -trifluoropropyl)hexanoate, and

Preparation 2D: tert-Butyl (2R,3R)-6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((35)-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro- 1 H- -benzodiazepin-3 -yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3 ,3 ,3 -trifluoropropyl)hexanoate

Figure imgf000083_0001

(2C) (2D)

[00247] Preparation 2C was prepared from Preparation 2A (564 mg, 2.244 mmol) and a mixture of Preparation IE and Preparation IF (822 mg, 2.244 mmol) according to the general procedure shown for Preparation II. Obtained Preparation 2C and Preparation 2D (1.31 g, 97%): HPLC: RT=3.443 min (CHROMOLITH® ODS 4.6 x 50 mm (4 min grad) eluting with 10-90% aqueous MeOH over 4 minutes containing 0.% TFA, 4 mL/min, monitoring at 220 nm); MS (ES): m/z= 600.3 [M+H]+.

Preparation 2E: (25′,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((35)-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-l,4- benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation 2F: (2R,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((35)-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-lH-l,4- benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

Figure imgf000083_0002

(2E) (2F) [00248] A mixture of Preparation 2E and Preparation 2F was prepared from a mixture of Preparation 2C and Preparation 2D (1.3 lg, 2.185 mmol) by the general methods shown for Preparation IK. Obtained a mixture of Preparation 2E and Preparation 2F (1.18 g, 99%): HPLC: RT=2.885 min (CHROMOLITH® ODS 4.6 x 50 mm (4 min grad) eluting with 10-90% aqueous MeOH over 4 minutes containing 0.% TFA, 4 mL/min, monitoring at 220 nm). MS (ES): m/z= 544.2 [M+H]+.

Example 2:

[00249] Example 2 was prepared from a mixture of Preparation 2E and Preparation 2F (354 mg, 0.651 mmol) by the general methods shown for Example 1. After separation of the diastereoisomers, Example 2 was obtained (188 mg, 52%) as a white solid: HPLC: RT=9.063 min (H20/CH3CN with TFA, Sunfire C18 3.5um, 4.6x150mm, 4.6x150mm, gradient = 15 min, wavelength = 220 and 254 nm); MS (ES): m/z= 543 [M+H]+; XH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 10.87 (1 H, br. s.), 9.50-9.55 (1 H, m), 7.62-7.69 (2 H, m), 7.40-7.57 (5 H, m), 7.29-7.36 (2 H, m), 7.22-7.28 (1 H, m), 7.16 (1 H, br. s.), 5.25 (1 H, d), 3.30-3.32 (1 H, m), 2.75-2.86 (1 H, m), 2.44-2.48 (1 H, m), 2.06-2.34 (3 H, m), 1.51- 1.77 (4 H, m); [a]D = -114.4° (8.04 mg/mL, DMSO).

[00250] Crystal Form M2- 1 was prepared by adding approximately 1 mg of Example 2 to approximately 0.7 mL of MeOH/fluorobenzene solution (3 : 1). Colorless plate-like crystals were obtained after 2 days of solvent evaporation at room temperature.

PATENT

US-20160060232-A1

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US159930181&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

Example 1

(2R,3S)—N-((3S)-1-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)-2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinamide


Preparation 1A: tert-Butyl 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoate


      To a stirred solution of 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (5 g, 32.0 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and hexane (30 mL) at 0° C., was added tert-butyl 2,2,2-trichloroacetimidate (11.46 mL, 64.1 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 15 min at 0° C. Boron trifluoride etherate (0.406 mL, 3.20 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature overnight. To the clear reaction mixture was added solid NaHCO3 (5 g) and stirred for 30 min. The mixture was filtered through MgSO4 and washed with hexanes (200 mL). The solution was allowed to rest for 45 min, and the resulting solid material was removed by filtering on the same MgSO4 filter again, washed with hexanes (100 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure without heat. The volume was reduced to about 30 mL, filtered through a clean fitted funnel, washed with hexane (5 mL), and then concentrated under reduced pressure without heat. The resulting neat oil was filtered through a 0.45 μm nylon membrane filter disk to provide tert-butyl 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoate (6.6 g, 31.4 mmol 98% yield) as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 1.38 (s, 9H) 1.74-1.83 (m, 2H) 2.00-2.13 (m, 2H) 2.24 (t, J=7.28 Hz, 2H).

Preparation 1B: (4S)-4-(Propan-2-yl)-3-(5,5,5-trifluoropentanoyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one


      To a stirred solution of 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (5.04 g, 32.3 mmol) in DCM (50 mL) and DMF (3 drops) was added oxalyl chloride (3.4 mL, 38.8 mmol) dropwise over 5 min and the solution was stirred until all bubbling subsided. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to give pale yellow oil. To a separate flask charged with a solution of (4S)-4-(propan-2-yl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one (4.18 g, 32.4 mmol) in THF (100 mL) at −78° C. was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexane) (13.0 mL, 32.5 mmol) dropwise via syringe over 5 min. After stirring for 10 min, the above acid chloride dissolved in THF (20 mL) was added via cannula over 15 min. The reaction mixture was warmed to 0° C., and was allowed to warm to room temperature as the bath warmed and stirred overnight. To the reaction mixture was added saturated NH4Cl, and then extracted with EtOAc (2×). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 5% to 60% solvent A/B=hexanes/EtOAc, REDISEP® SiO2 120 g). Concentration of appropriate fractions provided Preparation 1B (7.39 g, 86%) as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 4.44 (1H, dt, J=8.31, 3.53 Hz), 4.30 (1H, t, J=8.69 Hz), 4.23 (1H, dd, J=9.06, 3.02 Hz), 2.98-3.08 (2H, m), 2.32-2.44 (1H, m, J=13.91, 7.02, 7.02, 4.03 Hz), 2.13-2.25 (2H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2H, m), 0.93 (3H, d, J=7.05 Hz), 0.88 (3H, d, J=6.80 Hz).

Preparation 1C: (2S,3R)-tert-Butyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-((S)-4-isopropyl-2-oxooxazolidine-3-carbonyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoate, and

Preparation 1D: (2R,3R)-tert-Butyl 6,6,6-trifluoro-3-((S)-4-isopropyl-2-oxooxazolidine-3-carbonyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoate


      To a cold (−78° C.), stirred solution of diisopropylamine (5.3 mL, 37.2 mmol) in THF (59 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexane) (14.7 mL, 36.8 mmol), then warmed to 0° C. to give a 0.5M solution of LDA. A separate vessel was charged with Preparation 1B (2.45 g, 9.17 mmol), the material was azeotroped twice with benzene (the RotoVap air inlet was fitted with nitrogen inlet to completely exclude humidity) then toluene (15.3 mL) was added. This solution was added to a flask containing dry lithium chloride (1.96 g, 46.2 mmol). To the resultant mixture, cooled to −78° C., was added LDA solution (21.0 mL, 10.5 mmol) and stirred at −78° C. for 10 min, warmed to 0° C. for 10 min then recooled to −78° C. To a separate reaction vessel containing Preparation 1A (3.41 g, 16.07 mmol), also azeotroped twice with benzene, was added toluene (15.3 mL), cooled to −78° C. and LDA (37.0 mL, 18.5 mmol) was added, the resulting solution was stirred at −78° for 25 min. At this time the enolate derived from the ester was transferred via cannula into the solution of the oxazolidinone enolate, stirred at −78° C. for an additional 5 min at which time the septum was removed and solid powdered bis(2-ethylhexanoyloxy)copper (9.02 g, 25.8 mmol) was rapidly added to the reaction vessel and the septum replaced. The vessel was immediately removed from the cold bath and immersed into a warm water bath (40° C.) with rapid swirling with a concomitant color change from the initial turquoise to brown. The reaction mixture was stirred for 20 min, was poured into 5% aqueous NH4OH (360 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (2×). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 0% to 60% solvent A/B=hexanes/EtOAc, REDISEP® SiO2 120 g). Concentration of appropriate fractions provided Preparation 1C (2.87 g, 66%) as pale yellow viscous oil. 1H NMR showed the product was a 1.6:1 mixture of diastereoisomers 1C:1D as determined by the integration of the multiplets at 2.74 & 2.84 ppm: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 4.43-4.54 (2H, m), 4.23-4.35 (5H, m), 4.01 (1H, ddd, J=9.54, 6.27, 3.51 Hz), 2.84 (1H, ddd, J=9.41, 7.28, 3.64 Hz), 2.74 (1H, ddd, J=10.29, 6.27, 4.02 Hz), 2.37-2.48 (2H, m, J=10.38, 6.98, 6.98, 3.51, 3.51 Hz), 2.20-2.37 (3H, m), 1.92-2.20 (8H, m), 1.64-1.91 (5H, m), 1.47 (18H, s), 0.88-0.98 (12H, m).

Preparation 1E: (2R,3S)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation 1F: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid


      To a cool (0° C.), stirred solution of Preparation 1C and 1D (4.54 g, 9.51 mmol) in THF (140 mL) and water (42 mL) was sequentially added hydrogen peroxide (30% in water) (10.3 g, 91 mmol) and LiOH (685.3 mg, 28.6 mmol) and the mixture was stirred for 1 hr. At this time the reaction vessel was removed from the cold bath and then stirred for 1.5 hr. The reaction was judged complete by HPLC. To the reaction mixture was added saturated NaHCO3(45 mL) and saturated Na2SO3 (15 mL), and then partially concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting crude solution was extracted with DCM (3×). The aqueous phase was acidified to pH-1-2 with 1N HCl, extracted with DCM (3×) and EtOAc (1×). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide a mixture of Preparation 1E and 1F (3.00 g, 86%) as colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 2.76-2.84 (1H, m, diastereoisomer 2), 2.64-2.76 (3H, m), 2.04-2.35 (8H, m), 1.88-2.00 (4H, m), 1.71-1.83 (4H, m), 1.48 (9H, s, diastereoisomer 1), 1.46 (9H, s, diastereoisomer 2); 1H NMR showed a 1.7:1 mixture of 1E:1F by integration of the peaks for the t-butyl groups.

Preparation 1E: (2R,3S)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation 1F: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid


      To a cold (−78° C.), stirred solution of diisopropylamine (1.7 mL, 11.93 mmol) in THF (19 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere was added n-BuLi (2.5M in hexanes) (4.8 mL, 12.00 mmol). The mixture was stirred for 5 min and then warmed to 0° C. In a separate vessel, to a cold (−78° C.) stirred solution of the mixture of Preparation 1E and 1F (1.99 g, 5.43 mmol) in THF (18 mL) was added the LDA solution prepared above via cannula slowly over 25 min. The mixture was stirred for 15 min, then warmed to room temperature (placed in a 24° C. water bath) for 15 min, and then again cooled to −78° C. for 15 min. To the reaction mixture was added Et2AlCl (1M in hexane) (11.4 mL, 11.40 mmol) via syringe, stirred for 10 min, warmed to room temperature for 15 min and then cooled back to −78° C. for 15 min. Methanol (25 mL) was rapidly added, swirled vigorously while warming to room temperature, then concentrated to ˜¼ original volume. The mixture was dissolved in EtOAc and washed with 1N HCl (50 mL) and ice (75 g). The aqueous phase was separated, extracted with EtOAc (2×). The combined organics were washed with a mixture of KF (2.85 g in 75 mL water) and 1N HCl (13 mL) [resulting solution pH 3-4], then with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure to give a 9:1 (1E:1F) enriched diastereoisomeric mixture (as determined by 1H NMR) of Preparation 1E and Preparation 1F (2.13 g, >99%) as a pale yellow viscous oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 2.64-2.76 (2H, m), 2.04-2.35 (4H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2H, m), 1.71-1.83 (2H, m), 1.48 (9H, s).

Preparation 1G: (3S)-3-Amino-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, and

Preparation 1H: (3R)-3-Amino-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one


      Racemic 3-amino-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (Rittle, K. E. et al., Tetrahedron Letters, 28(5):521-522 (1987)) was prepared according to the literature procedure. The enantiomers were separated under chiral-SFC conditions using the following method: CHIRALPAK® AS-H 5×25; Mobile phase: 30% MeOH+0.1% DEA in CO2; Flow rate: 280 mL/min; Pressure: 100 bar; Temperature: 35° C.
      Obtained the S-enantiomer (Preparation 1G): HPLC: RT=1.75 min (30% MeOH+0.1% DEA in CO2 on CHIRALPAK® AS-H 4.6×250 mm, 3 mL/min, 35° C., 100 bar, 230 nm, 10 μl injection); 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.58-7.63 (2H, m), 7.55 (1H, ddd, J=8.50, 7.11, 1.76 Hz), 7.40-7.47 (1H, m), 7.34-7.40 (3H, m), 7.31 (1H, dd, J=7.81, 1.51 Hz), 7.14-7.22 (1H, m), 4.46 (1H, s), 3.44 (3H, s), 3.42 (2H, s); [α]D=−155° (c=1.9, MeOH) (Lit. Rittle, K. E. et al.,Tetrahedron Letters, 28(5):521-522 (1987): [α]D=−236°).
      Also obtained the R-enantiomer (Preparation 1H): HPLC: RT=1.71 min; [α]D=+165° (c=2.1, MeOH) (Lit [α]D=+227°).

Alternate Procedure to Make Preparation 1G

Preparation 1G•CSA salt: (3S)-3-Amino-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one, (1 S)-(+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid salt


      Preparation 1G•CSA was prepared from racemic 3-amino-1-methyl-5-phenyl-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one (9.98 g, 37.6 mmol) (prepared according to the literature as shown above) according to the literature procedure (Reider, P. J. et al., J. Org. Chem., 52:955-957 (1987)). Preparation 1G•CSA (16.91 g, 99%) was obtained as a colorless solid: Optical Rotation: [α]D=−26.99° (c=1, H2O) (Lit. [α]D=−27.8° (c=1, H2O))

Preparation 1I: tert-Butyl (2S,3R)-6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((3S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoate, and

Preparation 1J: tert-Butyl (2R,3R)-6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((3S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoate

      To a stirred solution of Preparation 1G (1.45 g, 5.47 mmol) and a 9:1 mixture of Preparation 1E and 1F (1.989 g, 5.43 mmol) in DMF (19 mL) was added 0-benzotriazol-1-yl-N,N,N′,N′-tetra-methyluronium tetrafluoroborate (1.79 g, 5.57 mmol) and triethylamine (3.0 mL, 21.52 mmol) and stirred overnight. The reaction was judged complete by LCMS. The reaction mixture was poured into water (125 mL) and the precipitated solid was collected by filtration, washed with water and air dried to provide an 8:1 mixture of Preparation 1I and Preparation 1J (2.95 g, 89%) as a cream solid: MS (ES): m/z=614 [M+H]+; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.55-7.65 (3H, m), 7.44-7.52 (2H, m), 7.35-7.45 (4H, m), 5.52 (1H, d, J=8.03 Hz), 3.48 (3H, s), 2.63 (2H, ddd, J=9.35, 3.95, 3.76 Hz), 2.14-2.25 (4H, m), 1.90-2.03 (3H, m), 1.69-1.82 (1H, m), 1.51 (9H, s).

Preparation 1K: (2S,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((3S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation 1L: (2R,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((3S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

      To a cool (0° C.), stirred solution of the above mixture of Preparation 1I and Preparation 1J (2.95 g, 4.81 mmol) in DCM (20 mL) was added TFA (20 mL, 260 mmol). The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 hr, then allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 2.5 hr. The reaction was judged complete by LCMS. The reaction mixture was diluted with toluene (50 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue mixture was redissolved in toluene (50 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure then dried under high vacuum. The crude product was dissolved in DCM, SiO2(15 g) was added, concentrated, then was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 0% to 45% solvent A/B=DCM/EtOAc, REDISEP® SiO2 80 g). Concentration of appropriate fractions provided a mixture of Preparation 1K and Preparation 1L (2.00 g, 75%) as a cream solid: HPLC: RT=2.770 min (CHROMOLITH® SpeedROD 4.6×50 mm (4 min grad) eluting with 10-90% aqueous MeOH over 4 minutes containing 0.1% TFA, 4 mL/min, monitoring at 254 nm); MS (ES): m/z=558 [M+H]+; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 8.32 (1H, d, J=8.03 Hz), 7.65-7.71 (1H, m), 7.50-7.60 (3H, m), 7.41-7.49 (2H, m), 7.39 (1H, dd, J=7.91, 1.63 Hz), 7.23-7.35 (2H, m), 5.59 (1H, d, J=8.03 Hz), 3.51 (3H, s), 2.81 (1H, ddd, J=10.54, 6.90, 3.64 Hz), 2.67-2.76 (1H, m), 2.22-2.33 (3H, m), 1.99-2.12 (3H, m), 1.85-1.94 (1H, m), 1.79 (1H, ddd, J=13.87, 7.84, 3.64 Hz).

Example 1

      To a stirred solution of an 8:1 mixture of Preparation 1K and Preparation 1L (3.46 g, 6.21 mmol) in DMF (25 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere was added ammonium chloride (3.32 g, 62.1 mmol), EDC (3.55 g, 18.52 mmol), HOBT (2.85 g, 18.61 mmol), and triethyl amine (16 mL, 115 mmol) and stirred overnight. The reaction was judged complete by LCMS. The reaction mixture was poured into water (200 mL) with vigorous swirling and then allowed to sit. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with water, allowed to dry to afford 3.6 g colorless solid. The solid was purified by preparative SFC chromatography (Lux-Cellulose-2 (3×25 cm), 8% methanol in CO2, 140 ml/min @220 nm and 35° C.; Sample: 3.6 g in 50 cc methanol, conc.=70 mg/ml, Stack injection: 0.5 cc/9.2 min). Fractions containing product were concentrated, dried overnight under vacuum. Obtained Example 1 (2.74 g, 79%) as a colorless solid (Crystal Form N-1): HPLC: RT=9.601 min (H2O/CH3CN with TFA, Sunfire C18 3.5 um, 4.6×150 mm, 4.6×150 mm, gradient=15 min, wavelength=220 and 254 nm). MS (ES): m/z=557 [M+H]+; 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 9.54 (1H, d, J=7.28 Hz), 7.71-7.80 (1H, m), 7.68 (2H, d, J=8.78 Hz), 7.50-7.62 (3H, m), 7.45 (2H, t, J=7.28 Hz), 7.29-7.40 (2H, m), 7.15 (1H, br. s.), 5.30 (1H, d, J=7.28 Hz), 3.39 (3H, s), 2.74-2.86 (1H, m), 2.02-2.32 (3H, m), 1.45-1.79 (4H, m); [α]D=−107.0° (5.73 mg/mL, DMSO).
      Crystal Form A-2 was prepared by adding approximately 1 mg of Example 1 to approximately 0.7 mL of acetone/acetonitrile/water solution (2:2:1). A mixture of colorless needles and thin blades crystals were obtained after one day of slow evaporation of the solution at room temperature. The thin blade crystals were separated to provide crystal Form A-2.
      Crystal Form EA-3 was prepared by adding approximately 1 mg of Example 1 to approximately 0.7 mL of ethyl acetate/heptane solution (1:1). Colorless blade crystals were obtained after three days of slow evaporation of the solution at room temperature.
      Crystal Form THF-2 was obtained by adding approximately 5 mg of Example 1 to approximately 0.7 mL of THF/water solution (4:1). Colorless blade-like crystals were obtained after one day of solvent evaporation at room temperature.

Alternate Procedure to Make Example 1

Preparation 1M: 3,3,3-Trifluoropropyl trifluoromethanesulfonate

      To a cold (−25° C.), stirred solution of 2,6-lutidine (18.38 mL, 158 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (120 mL) was added Tf2O (24.88 mL, 147 mmol) over 3 min, and stirred for 5 min. To the reaction mixture was added 3,3,3-trifluoropropan-1-ol (12 g, 105 mmol) over an interval of 3 min. After 2 hr, the reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1 hr. The reaction mixture was concentrated to half volume, then purified by loading directly on silica gel column (330 g ISCO) and eluted with CH2Cl2. Obtained Preparation 1M (13.74 g, 53%) as a colorless oil. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 4.71 (2H, t, J=6.15 Hz), 2.49-2.86 (2H, m).

Preparation 1N: (4S)-4-Benzyl-3-(5,5,5-trifluoropentanoyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one

      Preparation 1N was prepared from 5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid (3.35 g, 21.46 mmol) and (4S)-4-benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one (3.80 g, 21.46 mmol) by the general methods shown for Preparation 1B. Preparation 1N (5.67 g, 84%) was obtained as a colorless viscous oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.32-7.39 (2H, m), 7.30 (1H, d, J=7.05 Hz), 7.18-7.25 (2H, m), 4.64-4.74 (1H, m), 4.17-4.27 (2H, m), 3.31 (1H, dd, J=13.35, 3.27 Hz), 3.00-3.11 (2H, m), 2.79 (1H, dd, J=13.35, 9.57 Hz), 2.16-2.28 (2H, m), 1.93-2.04 (2H, m).

Preparation 1O: tert-Butyl (3R)-3-(((4S)-4-benzyl-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-3-yl)carbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluorohexanoate

      To a cold (−78° C.), stirred solution of Preparation 1N (3.03 g, 9.61 mmol) in THF (20 mL) was added NaHMDS (1.0M in THF) (10.6 mL, 10.60 mmol) under nitrogen atmosphere. After 2 hours, tert-butyl 2-bromoacetate (5.62 g, 28.8 mmol) was added neat via syringe at −78° C. and stirring was maintained at the same temperature. After 6 hours, the reaction mixture was warmed to room temperature. The reaction mixture was partitioned between saturated NH4Cl and EtOAc. The organic phase was separated, and the aqueous was extracted with EtOAc (3×). The combined organics were washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (Teledyne ISCO CombiFlash Rf, 5% to 100% solvent A/B=hexanes/EtOAc, REDISEP® SiO2 120 g). Concentration of appropriate fractions provided Preparation 10 (2.79 g, 67.6%) as a colorless viscous oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 7.34 (2H, d, J=7.30 Hz), 7.24-7.32 (3H, m), 4.62-4.75 (1H, m, J=10.17, 6.89, 3.43, 3.43 Hz), 4.15-4.25 (3H, m), 3.35 (1H, dd, J=13.60, 3.27 Hz), 2.84 (1H, dd, J=16.62, 9.57 Hz), 2.75 (1H, dd, J=13.35, 10.07 Hz), 2.47 (1H, dd, J=16.62, 4.78 Hz), 2.11-2.23 (2H, m), 1.90-2.02 (1H, m), 1.72-1.84 (1H, m), 1.44 (9H, s).

Preparation 1P: (2R)-2-(2-tert-Butoxy-2-oxoethyl)-5,5,5-trifluoropentanoic acid

      Preparation 1P was prepared from Preparation 1O (2.79 g, 6.50 mmol) by the general methods shown for Preparation 1E. Preparation 1P (1.45 g, 83%) was obtained as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 2.83-2.95 (1H, m), 2.62-2.74 (1H, m), 2.45 (1H, dd, J=16.62, 5.79 Hz), 2.15-2.27 (2H, m), 1.88-2.00 (1H, m), 1.75-1.88 (1H, m), 1.45 (9H, s).

Preparation 1E: (2R,3S)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation 1F: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

      To a cold (−78° C.), stirred solution of Preparation 1P (5.44 g, 20.13 mmol) in THF (60 mL) was slowly added LDA (24.60 mL, 44.3 mmol) over 7 min. After stirring for 2 hr, Preparation 1M (6.44 g, 26.2 mmol) was added to the reaction mixture over 3 min. After 45 min, the reaction mixture was warmed to −25° C. bath (ice/MeOH/dry ice) for 1 hr, and then warmed to 0° C. After 45 min, Preparation 1M (1 g) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred for 20 min. The reaction was quenched with water and 1N NaOH and was extracted with CH2Cl2. The organic layer was again extracted with 1N NaOH (2×) and the aqueous layers were combined. The aqueous layer was cooled in ice/water bath and then acidified with concentrated HCl to pH 2. Next, the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc. The combined organics were washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was dried under high vacuum to provide a 1:5 (1E:1F) mixture (as determined by 1H NMR) of Preparation 1E and Preparation 1F (5.925 g, 80%) as a pale yellow solid. 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 2.81 (1H, ddd, J=10.17, 6.32, 3.85 Hz), 2.63-2.76 (1H, m), 2.02-2.33 (4H, m), 1.86-1.99 (2H, m), 1.68-1.85 (2H, m), 1.47 (9H, s).

Preparation 1E: (2R,3S)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid, and

Preparation 1F: (2R,3R)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

      A mixture of Preparation 1E and Preparation 1F (64 mg, 1.758 mmol) was taken in THF (6 mL) to give a colorless solution which was cooled to −78° C. Then, LDA (2.149 mL, 3.87 mmol) (1.8M in heptane/THF/ethylbenzene) was slowly added to the reaction mixture over 10 min. After stirring for 15 min the reaction mixture was placed in a room temperature water bath. After 15 min the reaction mixture was placed back in −78° C. bath and then diethylaluminum chloride (3.87 mL, 3.87 mmol) (1M in hexane) was added slowly over 5 min. The reaction mixture was stirred at −78° C. After 15 min the reaction mixture was placed in a room temperature water bath for 10 min and then cooled back to −78° C. bath. After 15 min the reaction was quenched with MeOH (8 mL, 198 mmol), removed from the −78° C. bath and concentrated. To the reaction mixture was added ice and HCl (16 mL, 16.00 mmol), followed by extraction with EtOAc (2×). The organic layer was washed with potassium fluoride (920 mg, 15.84 mmol) (in 25 mL H2O) and HCl (4.5 mL, 4.50 mmol). The organics were dried over anhydrous magnesium sulphate and concentrated under reduced pressure to provide a 9:1 (1E:1F) enriched mixture of Preparation 1E and Preparation 1F (540 mg, 1.583 mmol, 90% yield) as light yellow/orange solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ ppm 2.64-2.76 (2H, m), 2.04-2.35 (4H, m), 1.88-2.00 (2H, m), 1.71-1.83 (2H, m), 1.48 (9H, s). It was converted to Example 1 by the sequence of reactions as outlined above.

Alternate Procedure to Make Preparation 1E

Preparation 1Q: (2R,3S)-1-Benzyl 4-tert-butyl 2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinate

      A clean and dry 5 L four neck round bottom flask equipped with mechanical stirring, thermometer socket and nitrogen bubbler at room temperature was charged with N,N-dimethyl formamide (2.07 L), a 1.2:1 mixture of Preparation 1E and Preparation 1F (207 g, 0.5651 moles), potassium carbonate (117.1 g, 0.8476 moles) followed by benzyl bromide (116 g, 0.6781 moles) over 15-20 min. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2-3 hr. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness at 50-55° C. under vacuum. Ethyl acetate (3.1 L, 30 Vol.) was charged into the concentrated reaction mass and then washed with water (2.07 L), brine (0.6 L) then dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (207 g), filtered and concentrated to dryness at 40-45° C. under vacuum. The residue was dissolved in dichloromethane (1.035 L, 5 vol.) and then absorbed onto silica gel (60-120) (607 g, 3.0 w/w), then was purified with column chromatography using petroleum ether and ethyl acetate as solvents. After pooling several batches, Preparation 1Q (235 g) was obtained. HPLC purity: 99.77%,

Preparation 1E: (2R,3S)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

      A clean and dry 2 L autoclave was charged with methanol (540 mL) and was purged with nitrogen for 5-10 minutes. To the autoclave was added 10% palladium on carbon (12 g, 20%), purged with nitrogen once again for 5-10 min then was charged with Preparation 1Q (60 g, 0.1315 moles), the autoclave was flushed with methanol (60 mL) and stirred for 4-6 hr at 20-25° C. under 5 Kg hydrogen pressure. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mass was filtered through CELITE®, washed with methanol (180 mL), dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate (60 g), filtered and concentrated to dryness at 45-50° C. under vacuum. Obtained Preparation 1E (45.8 g, 95%) as a colorless solid: HPLC purity: 98.9%.

Alternate Procedure to Make Preparation 1E

Preparation 1E: (2R,3S)-3-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-6,6,6-trifluoro-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

      Preparation 1E was prepared in a procedure identical as above from a mixture of Preparations 1E and 1F (200 g, 0.5460 moles) using LDA (1.8 M solution in THF, ethyl benzene and heptane) (698 mL, 2.3 equiv.) and diethyl aluminum chloride (1.0 M solution in hexane) (1256 mL, 2.3 equiv) in THF (2.0 L). After workup as explained above, the resulting residue was treated as follows: The crude material was added to a 2 L four neck round bottom flask, followed by the addition of MTBE (1.0 L) charged below 30° C. The resulting mixture was stirred for 5-10 minutes to obtain a clear solution. Hexanes (600 mL) was charged to the reaction mixture at a temperature below 30° C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 min. Next, tert-butylamine (43.8 g, 1.1 eq) was charged slowly over a period of 15 minutes below 30° C. This addition was observed to be exothermic. The reaction mixture was stirred for 2 hrs below 30° C. and filtered. The solid material was washed with 5:3 MTBE: hexane (200 mL), the filtrate was concentrated and transferred to an amber color bottle. The filtered solid was dissolved in dichloromethane (2.0 L), washed with 1N HCl (2.0), the organic layer was washed with brine (1.0 L×2), then was concentrated under reduced pressure below 45° C. This material was found to be 91.12% pure. The material was repurified by the above t-butylamine crystallization purification procedure. Obtained Preparation 1E (78 g, 39%): HPLC purity: 99.54%.

Alternate Procedure to Make Example 1

Preparation 1I: tert-Butyl (2S,3R)-6,6,6-trifluoro-3-(((3S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoate

      A clean and dry 2 L four neck round bottom flask equipped with mechanical stirring, thermometer socket and nitrogen bubbler was charged with N,N-dimethylformamide (457 mL), Preparation 1E (45.7 g, 0.1248 moles) and Preparation 1G•CSA (62.08 g, 0.1248 moles) under nitrogen atmosphere at 20-25° C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 15-20 minutes to make clear solution at 20-25° C. To the reaction mixture was added TBTU (48.16 g, 0.1498 moles) at 20-25° C. followed by triethylamine (50.51 g, 0.4992 moles) over 15-20 minutes at 20-25° C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 60-120 minutes at 20-25° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. After completion of the reaction, the reaction was quenched into water (1.37L, 30 Vol.) at 20-25° C. under stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at 20-25° C. The reaction mixture was filtered and washed with water (228 mL). The resulting solid material was dissolved in ethyl acetate (457 mL), washed with water (2×137 mL), brine (137 mL), and then dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate (45.7 g). Activated charcoal (9.14 g, 20%) was charged into the reaction mixture and stirred for 30 minutes. The mixture was filtered through CELITE® bed and 1 micron filter cloth, washed charcoal bed with ethyl acetate (137 mL), concentrated to 1.0 Vol. stage and then petroleum ether (457 mL, 10 Vol.) was charged and stirred for 30 minutes at 20-25° C. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with petroleum ether (137 mL) and then dried under vacuum at 40-45° C. for 8 hr until loss on drying was less than 3.0%. Obtained Preparation 11 (65.2 g, 85%): HPLC purity: 98.26%.

Preparation 1K: (2S,3R)-6,6,6-Trifluoro-3-(((3S)-1-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl)carbamoyl)-2-(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)hexanoic acid

      A clean and dry 3 L four neck round bottom flask equipped with mechanical stirring, thermometer socket and nitrogen bubbler was charged with dichloromethane (980 mL) under nitrogen atmosphere followed by Preparation 1I (140 g, 0.2282 moles) at 20-25° C. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0-5° C. and trifluoroacetic acid (980 mL) was charged slowly for 30-40 minutes. The resulting mixture was stirred for 2 hr at 0-5° C. under nitrogen atmosphere. The reaction temperature was raised to 20 to 25° C., and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1-2 hr at 20 to 25° C. After completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness at 50 to 55° C. under vacuum. Toluene (3×700 mL,) was charged into the concentrated reaction mass, and then distilled off at 50 to 55° C. under vacuum. After complete concentration from toluene, ethyl acetate (280 mL) was charged into the reaction mass at 20 to 25° C., stirred for 60 minutes, then the solid was collected by filtration, washed with ethyl acetate (140 mL), dried under vacuum at 50 to 55° C. for 12 hr until loss on drying was less than 2.0%. Obtained Preparation 1K (106 g, 84%): HPLC purity: 98.43%.

Example 1

      A reaction vessel was charged with Preparation 1K (30 g, 53.81 mmol), HOBt (8.7 g, 64.38 mmol), and THF (150 mL) at room temperature. To the homogeneous solution was added EDCI (12.4 g, 64.68 mmol), stirred for 15 min, then cooled to 8° C. To the reaction mixture was added ammonia (2M in IPA) (81 mL, 162 mmol) over 5 min so as to maintain a temperature below 10° C. The resulting heavy slurry was stirred for 10 min, warmed to room temperature over 30 min, then stirred for 4 hr. At the completion of the reaction, water (230 mL) was slowly added over 15 min to maintain a temperature below 20° C., and then stirred for 2 hr. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (3×60 mL), then dried under vacuum 48 hr at 55° C. The above crude product was charged into a 1 L 3-necked round flask. IPA (200 mL) was added, then heated to 80° C. resulting in a homogeneous solution. Water (170 mL) was slowly added (15 min) to maintain an internal temperature>75° C. The resulting slurry was stirred and cooled to room temperature for 2 hr. The solid was collected by filtration, washed with water (2×50 mL), then dried under vacuum (55° C. for 24 h, and 30° C. for 48 h). Obtained Example 1 (23.4 g, 78% yield): HPLC purity: 99.43%.

PATENTS

US-20150284342-A1

US-20140357605-A1

US-20140100365-A1

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For some disease targets, an indirect approach may be best. Or so Ashvinikumar V. Gavai and his colleagues atBristol-Myers Squibbfound in their quest toward a potential cancer drug. Gavai unveiled BMS-906024, which is an experimental—and slightly roundabout—treatment for a number of cancers, including breast, lung, and colon cancers, and leukemia.

Cancers have a tendency to relapse or to become resistant to treatments that once worked. Research at BMS and elsewhere had suggested that a family of proteins called Notch is implicated in that resistance and in cancer progression more generally. Gavai, director of oncology chemistry at BMS in Princeton, N.J., and his team set out to block Notch family signaling.

Notch family members lack enzymatic activity, so blocking them directly is difficult. Instead, BMS developed inhibitors of an enzyme that is essential for activating Notch signaling—γ-secretase.

09116-cover-bms906024

Company: Bristol-Myers Squibb

Target: pan-Notch

Disease: breast, lung, colon cancer; leukemia

Interfering with Notch, even in this indirect way, can have detrimental effects on the gastrointestinal tract. Only two of the four Notch family members are linked to that side effect, Gavai says. But he and his team think their drug will be most effective if it acts on all four family members roughly equally—a so-called pan-Notch inhibitor. By selecting a molecule that’s well tolerated in animals and carefully scheduling doses of the drug in humans, it could be possible to minimize side effects, he says.

The BMS team relied on Notch signaling assays in leukemia and breast cancer cell lines to find leads. They soon learned that for their molecules to work, three chiral centers had to be in the S,R,Sconfiguration. After that, they strove to make the molecules last in the bloodstream. They removed an isobutyl group and tweaked some other parts of their candidate’s succinamide side chain. It was tough to retain both a long half-life and activity against Notch, Gavai told C&EN. “You’d optimize one and lose the other.”

His team threaded the needle with BMS-906024. Their studies with mice suggest that a dose of 4–6 mg once a week could be effective in people. That’s lower than doses being tested for other Notch-targeted agents, according to the website clinicaltrials.gov. The mouse studies also back the idea that Notch is involved in cancer drug resistance and suggest that Notch could be a target for taking on cancer stem cells, which are notoriously resistant to chemotherapy.

BMS-906024 is in Phase I clinical trials, both alone and in combination with other agents. Patients with colon, lung, breast, and other cancers are receiving intravenous doses of the compound to determine its safety and optimum dose ranges.

09116-cover-BMScxd

(From left, front row) Gavai, Weifeng Shan, (second row) Aaron Balog, Patrice Gill, Gregory Vite, (third row) Francis Lee, Claude Quesnelle, (rear row) Wen-Ching Han, Richard Westhouse.
Credit: Catherine Stroud Photography

http://cen.acs.org/articles/91/i16/BMS-906024-Notch-Signaling-Inhibitor.html

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BMS-906024
Company: Bristol-Myers Squibb
Meant to treat: cancers including breast, lung, colon, and leukemia
Mode of action: pan-Notch inhibitor
Medicinal chemistry tidbit: The BMS team used an oxidative enolate heterocoupling en route to the candidate– a procedure from Phil Baran’s lab at Scripps Research Institute. JACS 130, 11546
Status in the pipeline: Phase I
Relevant documents: WO 2012/129353

PAPER

Abstract Image

An enantioselective synthesis of (S)-7-amino-5H,7H-dibenzo[b,d]azepin-6-one (S1) is described. The key step in the sequence involved crystallization-induced dynamic resolution (CIDR) of compound 7 using Boc-d-phenylalanine as a chiral resolving agent and 3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde as a racemization catalyst to afford S1 in 81% overall yield with 98.5% enantiomeric excess.

Crystallization-Induced Dynamic Resolution toward the Synthesis of (S)-7-Amino-5H,7H-dibenzo[b,d]-azepin-6-one: An Important Scaffold for γ-Secretase Inhibitors

Department of Discovery Synthesis, Biocon Bristol-Myers Squibb Research Centre, Biocon Park, Bommasandra IV Phase, Jigani Link Road, Bengaluru 560099, India
Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, P.O Box 4000, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-4000, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
 1. Quesnelle, Claude; Kim, Soong-Hoon; Lee, Francis; Gavai, Ashvinikumar. Bis(fluoroalkyl)-1,4-benzodiazepinone compounds as Notch receptor inhibitors and their preparation and use in the treatment of cancer. PCT Int. Appl. (2012), WO 2012129353 A1 20120927.
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2016060232 2016-03-03 BIS(FLUOROALKYL)-1, 4-BENZODIAZEPINONE COMPOUNDS
US2016022723 2016-01-28 COMBINATION THERAPY FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROLIFERATIVE DISEASES
US2016008316 2016-01-14 USE OF DIANHYDROGALACTITOL AND ANALOGS OR DERIVATIVES THEREOF IN COMBINATION WITH PLATINUM-CONTAINING ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS TO TREAT NON-SMALL-CELL CARCINOMA OF THE LUNG AND BRAIN METASTASES
US2016009785 2016-01-14 NOVEL FUSION MOLECULES AND USES THEREOF
US2015284342 2015-10-08 BIS(FLUOROALKYL)-1, 4-BENZODIAZEPINONE COMPOUNDS
US2015232491 2015-08-20 PRODRUGS OF 1, 4-BENZODIAZEPINONE COMPOUNDS
US8968741 2015-03-03 Anti-CD22 antibodies and immunoconjugates and methods of use
US2014357605 2014-12-04 BIS(FLUOROALKYL)-1, 4-BENZODIAZEPINONE COMPOUNDS
US8822454 2014-09-02 Bisfluoroalkyl-1, 4-benzodiazepinone compounds
US8629136 2014-01-14 Bisfluoroalkyl-1, 4-benzodiazepinone compounds
BMS-906024
BMS-906024.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(2R,3S)-N-[(3S)-1-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-1,4-benzodiazepin-3-yl]-2,3-bis(3,3,3-trifluoropropyl)succinamide
Identifiers
PubChem CID 66550890
ChemSpider 28536138
Chemical data
Formula C26H26F6N4O3
Molar mass 556.500 g/mol

///////////////3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde, Alzheimer’s disease, Boc-D-phenylalanine, CIDR;dibenzoazepenone DKR; Notch inhibitorsNotch inhibitor, SAR T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, triple-negative breast cancer, γ-secretase inhibitor, PHASE 1, BMS, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 1401066-79-2, Ashvinikumar Gavai

CN1c2ccccc2C(=N[C@@H](C1=O)NC(=O)[C@H](CCC(F)(F)F)[C@H](CCC(F)(F)F)C(=O)N)c3ccccc3

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Patent US8377886 – Use of gamma secretase inhibitors and notch …

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Figure US08377886-20130219-C00003. gamma secretase inhibitor

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RO4929097 | γ-secretase inhibitor – Cellagen Technology

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RO4929097 | γ-secretase inhibitor
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