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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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NDA, ANDA AND IND by DR ANTHONY CRASTO


Aripiprazole lauroxil ……….Alkermes submits new drug application


Aripiprazole3DanBall.gif

Aripiprazole2D1.svg

 

Aripiprazole

7-[4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1- piperazinyl]butoxy]- 3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-quinolinone.

END AUG 2014

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has received a new drug application (NDA) from Ireland-based Alkermes for its aripiprazole lauroxil to treat schizophrenia.

Aripiprazole lauroxil is an injectable atypical antipsychotic with one-month and two-month formulations, developed for the treatment of schizophrenia, which is a chronic, severe and disabling brain disorder.

The company has submitted the application based on positive results from the pivotal phase three study that assessed the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole lauroxil, where the drug demonstrated significant improvements in schizophrenia symptoms when compared to a placebo.

“We have designed aripiprazole lauroxil to be a differentiated treatment option for schizophrenia, with a ready-to-use format with multiple dosing options.”

Alkermes CEO Richard Pops said: “We have designed aripiprazole lauroxil to be a differentiated treatment option for schizophrenia, with a ready-to-use format with multiple dosing options, to help meet the individual needs of patients and their healthcare providers.

“These attributes, together with the robust clinical data observed in the pivotal study, position aripiprazole lauroxil to be a meaningful new entrant in the growing long-acting injectable antipsychotic market, and we look forward to working with the FDA to bring this important new medication to patients and physicians as quickly as possible.”

The study, in which both doses of aripiprazole lauroxil tested, including 441mg and 882mg, reached the primary endpoint with statistically significant and clinically meaningful reductions in positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores, according to the company.

In addition, it met all secondary endpoints and demonstrated significant improvements in schizophrenia symptoms against the placebo.

  • ALKS 9070
  • ALKS 9072
  • Aripiprazole lauroxil
  • RDC 3317
  • RDC-3317
  • UNII-B786J7A343

Aripiprazole lauroxil [USAN]  CAS  1259305-29-7

 

 

 

Systematic (IUPAC) name
7-{4-[4-(2,3-Dichlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]butoxy}-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H)-one
Clinical data
Trade names Abilify
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a603012
Licence data EMA:Link, US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat. B3 (AU) C (US)
Legal status Prescription Only (S4) (AU) -only (CA) POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes Oral (via tablets, orodispersable tablets, and oral solution); intramuscular (including as a depot)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 87%[1][2][3][4]
Protein binding >99%[1][2][3][4]
Metabolism Hepatic (liver; mostly via CYP3A4 and CYP2D6[1][2][3][4])
Half-life 75 hours (active metabolite is 94 hours)[1][2][3][4]
Excretion Renal (27%; <1% unchanged), Faecal (60%; 18% unchanged)[1][2][3][4]
Identifiers
CAS number 129722-12-9 Yes
ATC code N05AX12
PubChem CID 60795
IUPHAR ligand 34
DrugBank DB01238
ChemSpider 54790 Yes
UNII 82VFR53I78 Yes
KEGG D01164 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:31236 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1112 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C23H27Cl2N3O2 
Mol. mass 448.385

Aripiprazole (/ˌɛərɨˈpɪprəzl/ AIR-i-PIP-rə-zohl; brand names: Abilify, Aripiprex) is a partial dopamine agonist of the second generation (or atypical) class of antipsychotics that is primarily used in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder (as an add on to other treatment), tic disorders, and irritability associated with autism.[5]

It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for schizophrenia on November 15, 2002 and the European Medicines Agency on 4 June 2004; for acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder on October 1, 2004; as an adjunct for major depressive disorder on November 20, 2007;[6] and to treat irritability in children with autism on 20 November 2009.[7] Likewise it was approved for use as a treatment for schizophrenia by the TGA of Australia in May 2003.[1]

Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan, and in the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb.

Regulator status

In the United States, the FDA has approved aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults and adolescents (aged 13–17), of manic and mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I (One) Disorder with or without psychotic features in adults, children and adolescents (aged 10–17),[59] of irritability associated with autism in pediatric patients (aged 6–17),[60] and of depression when used along with antidepressants in adults.[61]

Aripiprazole has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes, in both pediatric patients aged 10–17 and in adults.[62]

In 2007, aripiprazole was approved by the FDA for the treatment of unipolar depression when used adjunctively with an antidepressant medication.[63] It has not been FDA-approved for use as monotherapy in unipolar depression.

Patent status

Otsuka’s US patent on aripiprazole expires on October 20, 2014;[64] however, due to a pediatric extension, a generic will not become available until at least April 20, 2015.[62] Barr Laboratories (now Teva Pharmaceuticals) initiated a patent challenge under the Hatch-Waxman Act in March 2007.[65] On November 15, 2010, this challenge was rejected by a United States district court in New Jersey.[1][2]

Dosage forms

Abilify 2mg tablets (US)

  • Intramuscular injection, solution: 9.75 mg/mL (1.3 mL)
  • Solution, oral: 1 mg/mL (150 mL) [contains propylene glycol, sucrose 400 mg/mL, and fructose 200 mg/mL; orange cream flavor]
  • Tablet: 2 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg
  • Tablet, orally disintegrating: 10 mg [contains phenylalanine 1.12 mg; creme de vanilla flavor]; 15 mg [contains phenylalanine 1.68 mg; creme de vanilla flavor]

Synthesis

Aripiprazole can be synthesized beginning with a dichloroaniline and bis(2-chloroethyl)amine:[66]

Aripiprazole synth.png
U.S. Patent No.4, 734, 416 and U.S. Patent No.5,006,528 discloses the Aripiprazole, 7-{4- [4- (2, 3-dichlorophenyl) -1-piperazinyl] butoxy}- 3,4-dihydro-2 (IH) -quinolinone or 7-{4-[4- (2, 3-dichlorophenyl) -1- piperazinyl] butoxy}-3, 4-dihydro carbostyril, is a typical antipsychotic agent useful for the treatment of Schizophrenia, having the formula as given below.

Aripiprazole

U.S. patent No.5,006,528 discloses preparation of Aripiprazole and its pharmaceutically acceptable acid-addition salts. The process for the preparation of acid salts involves reaction of Aripiprazole with a pharmaceutically acceptable inorganic acids such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrobromic acid, and the like; organic acids such as oxalic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, maleic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid, . benzoic acid and the like as per Scheme-1. Scheme- 1

 

a. K2CO3, Water K CH2CI2 c. Column chromatographic purification d. n-Hexane – Ethaπol

ARIPIPRAZOLE ACID SALT

The product Aripiprazole .obtained by the above process has melting point of 139.0° – 139.5°C.

The process involves purification of the intermediate, 7-(4- bromobutoxy) -3, 4-dihydrocarbostyril (III) by silica gel column chromatography to remove impurities formed during the reaction. The process further involves two recrystallizations of Aripiprazole from ethanol to obtain the pure Aripiprazole though compromising on yields by increasing the operational cost of the product. PCT publication WO 03/026659 discloses low hygroscopic forms of

Aripiprazole and the process for their preparation from the Aripiprazole hydrate Form SA’ . It further states that the anhydrous

Aripiprazole made by the Japanese patent publication No. 191256/1990, yields the Aripiprazole, which is significantly hygroscopic. As per PCT publication WO 03/026659 anhydrous crystals of Aripiprazole exist as type-I crystals and type-II crystals. Further discloses that the type-I crystals are prepared -by recrsytallization from ethanol solution of

Aripiprazole or by heating Aripiprazole hydrate at 800C and type-II crystals by heating type-I crystals at 130 to 1400C for 15 hrs.

PCT application Publication WO 03/026659 discloses process for the Aripiprazole polymorphic form-B by heating the Aripiprazole hydrate

‘A’ at 90 – 125°C for about 3 – 50 hrs. The process for Polymorphic

Form-C is by heating the Aripiprazole anhydrous to a temperature of 140

– 1500C. The process for Form-D is recrystallization from toluene; process for Form-E is heating with acetonitrile or by recrystallization from acetonitrile and the process for Form-F is by heating the suspension of anhydrous Aripiprazole in acetone. The polymorphic Form-G is by heating to 1700C for at least 2 weeks in a sealed tube, which is a glassy mass.

PCT publication WO 03/026659 further discloses the characterization data X-ray diffraction pattern; IR absorption and DSC of Form B, Form C, Form-D, Form-E, Form-F and Form-G.It further reported the melting point of Aripiprazole anhydrous Form B as 139.7°C-

File:Aripiprazole synthesis.svg

Research

Perhaps owing to its mechanism of action relating to dopamine receptors, there is some evidence to suggest that aripiprazole blocks cocaine-seeking behavior in animal models without significantly affecting other rewarding behaviors (such as food self-administration).[67] Aripiprazole may be counter-therapeutic as treatment for methamphetamine dependency because it increased methamphetamine’s stimulant and euphoric effects, and increased the baseline level of desire for methamphetamine.[68]

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2006030446A1?cl=en

 

Scheme-3

Aripiprazole Acid addition salt

 

Form-A, B, C , D , E , F Type-I & Type-II Aripiprazole acid salts used for the preparation of polymorphs

…………………………….

patent expiry
………………….patent…..approved….exp
United States 5006528 1994-10-20 2014-10-20
United States 7115587 2005-01-21 2025-01-21
Aripiprazole can be synthesized beginning with a dichloroaniline and bis(2-chloroethyl)amineU.S. Patent 5,006,528
Aripiprazole synth.png

Aripiprazole, 7-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-butoxy}-3,4-dihydro carbostyril or 7-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-butoxy}-3,4-dihydro-2 (1H)-quinolinone, is an atypical antipsychotic agent useful for the treatment of schizophrenia (U.S. Pat. No. 4,74,416 and U.S. Pat. No. 5,006,528). Schizophrenia is a common type of psychosis characterized by delusions, hallucinations and extensive withdrawal from others. Onset of schizophrenia typically occurs between the age of 16 and 25 and affects 1 in 100 individuals worldwide. It is more prevalent, than Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, insulin-dependent diabetes and muscular dystrophy. Early diagnosis and treatment can lead to significantly improved recovery and outcome. Moreover, early therapeutic intervention can avert costly hospitalization.

Aripiprazole (Aripiprazole) is an atypical antipsychotic, on 15 November 2002 by the U.S. FDA clearance to market, its efficacy is through the dopamine D2 receptor and serotonin 5HT1A receptor partial agonist activity and serotonin 5HT2A receptor antagonism activity mediated common. With its unique mechanism of action and safety assessment, aripiprazole known as third-generation antipsychotic drugs.

[0003] Aripiprazole is a quinolinone derivative, developed by the Japanese company Otsuka Pharmaceutical, the chemical name

Is: 7 – {4 – [4 – (2,3 – dichlorophenyl)-1_ piperazinyl] butoxy} -3,4 – dihydro-quinolone, the following structural formula:

[0004]

Figure CN101538252BD00031

[0005] For the preparation of aripiprazole, Japanese OtsukaPharmaceutical’s patent EP 0367141A2, and related patents US4234585, CN89108934 preparation methods described in 5. In addition, the patent CN1450056A, CN1562973A, CN1784385A, CN1680328A, CN1576273A, etc. describe some of these five Preparation

Method is very similar way. These preparation methods are direct or indirect use of 7 – hydroxy -3,4 – dihydro – quinolin-2 – one (HCS) that the key to higher prices of raw materials, and some methods involve harsh reaction conditions, poor selectivity, low yield, but also increases the cost of industrial production of the product.

[0006] Chinese patent CN1304373C preparation method is not described in the 7 – hydroxy-3 ,4 _ dihydro-2_ (1H) – quinoline

Quinolone intermediates for their preparation of the core reaction is as follows:

[0007]

Figure CN101538252BD00032

[0008] This reaction is Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, there is a harsh reaction conditions, the yield is low, the reaction selectivity is poor, the shortcomings of high emissions, is not conducive to industrial mass production. SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

[0009] In order to solve the above problems, the present invention provides a simple, high selectivity, high yield, low cost, environmentally friendly, easy to prepare industrialization aripiprazole and intermediates thereof.

[0010] The technical solution of the present invention, the present invention provides in one aspect a process for preparingaripiprazole novel intermediates.

[0011] The present invention, on the other hand provides a method for the preparation of intermediates.

[0012] The present invention provides the use of the other intermediates for preparing aripiprazole two new preparation methods.

[0013] Specifically, the present invention relates to novel intermediates, compounds of formula ⑴:

[0014]

Figure CN101538252BD00041

[0015] wherein, R is selected from methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, butyl, t-butyl, benzyl and other common alkyl groups in any one, and preferably is ethyl.

[0016] Compound of formula ⑴: 3 – (4 – (4 – (4 – (2,3 _-dichlorophenyl)-piperazinyl) butoxy) _2_ nitrophenyl) propionate, is the following prepared by the procedure:

[0017] Step one, the acylation reaction: with 4 – methyl – 3 – nitro-phenol (VIII) and acetic anhydride as the raw material, DMAP as catalyst, to give 4 – methyl – 3 – nitrophenyl acetate ( VII).

[0018] wherein 4 – methyl – 3 – nitro-phenol (VIII), acetic anhydride, DMAP molar ratio is preferably 1: 1.0 to 1.4: 0.05, at room temperature, the reaction time is preferably 0.5 to 3 hours.

[0019] Step two, the bromination reaction: The resulting product, 4 to Step one – methyl – 3 – nitrophenyl acetate (VII), N-bromosuccinimide and benzoyl peroxide as a raw material , carbon tetrachloride solvent reflux, to give 4 – bromomethyl-3 – nitrophenyl acetate (VI).

[0020] wherein 4 – methyl – 3 – nitrophenyl acetate (VII), N-bromosuccinimide, benzoyl peroxide molar ratio is preferably 1: 1 to 1.2: 0.05, reaction time is preferably 4-18 hours.

[0021] Step three, instead of the reaction: in an appropriate solvent, adding an alkaline agent and diethyl malonate was stirred in an ice bath, was added dropwise step two the resulting product, 4 – bromomethyl-3 – nitrophenyl yl acetate (VI) solution after completion of the addition reaction of 1 to 3 hours to obtain a brown liquid product, 2 – (4_ acetoxy-2 – nitrobenzyl) malonate (V).

[0022], wherein the alkali agent is a common organic or inorganic base selected from sodium methoxide, sodium ethoxide, sodium hydride, sodium tert-butoxide or potassium tert-butoxide, preferably sodium tert-butoxide; the solvent is selected from tetrahydrofuran, methanol, ethanol, butanol, tert-butanol, toluene or N, N-dimethylformamide; 4 – bromomethyl-3 – nitrophenyl acetate (VI), alkaline agent and lipid diethyl molar ratio is preferably 1: 1.0 to 1.8: 1.0 to 1.4.

[0023] Step 4 Hydrolysis decarboxylation: the product obtained in Step Three 2 – (4_ acetoxy-2 – nitro-benzyl)-malonic acid diethyl ester (V) was added concentrated hydrochloric acid and a suitable solvent, heating and stirring reflux, to give a yellow solid product 3 – (4_ hydroxy-2 – nitrophenyl) propionic acid (IV).

[0024] wherein the solvent is selected from water, methanol, ethanol or acetic acid, water soluble solvent, was heated with stirring under reflux time is preferably 3 to 18 hours. [0025] Step five, the esterification reaction: the product obtained in step 4, 3 – (4 – hydroxy-2 – nitrophenyl) propionic acid (IV) was added to an appropriate solvent, the mixture was stirred in an ice bath, was added dropwise thionyl sulfone, after completion of the addition reaction of 1 to 3 hours, to give a pale brown liquid product 3 – (4 – hydroxy-2 – nitrophenyl) propionate (III).

[0026] wherein the solvent is selected from anhydrous methanol, ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, butanol, t-butanol, benzyl alcohol, alcohol and other common solvents.

[0027] Step VI substitution reaction: 1,4 – dibromobutane was added to an appropriate solvent and an alkaline reagent, heated to 50 ~ 100 ° C, the product obtained was added dropwise Step Five 3 – (4_ hydroxy – nitrophenyl) propionate (III) solution, after the addition was complete the reaction was kept 2 to 4 hours to obtain a brown liquid product 3 – (4 – (4 – bromo-butoxy)-2 – nitrophenyl) propionate (II).

[0028] wherein the solvent is selected from methanol, 95% ethanol, ethanol, acetonitrile and N, N-dimethylformamide, and the like; said alkaline agent is a common organic or inorganic weak base, such as triethylamine, pyridine, potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate, etc..

[0029] Step 7 condensation reaction: the product obtained in Step Six 3 – (4 – (4 – bromo-butoxy)-2 – nitrophenyl) propionate (II) adding a suitable solvent, (2,3 – dichlorophenyl)-piperazine hydrochloride 1_, alkaline reagents and catalysts, to obtain

The intermediate product 3 – (4 – (4 – (4 – (2,3 – dichlorophenyl)-piperazin-1 – yl) butoxy)-2 – nitrophenyl) propionate ⑴.

[0030] Among them, 3 – (4 – (4 – (4 – (2,3 _-dichlorophenyl)-piperazinyl) butoxy) _2_ nitrophenyl) propionate (I), (2, 3 – dichloro-phenyl)-piperazine hydrochloride 1_, alkaline reagents and catalysts, the four molar ratio is preferably 1: 0.9 to 1.0: 2.0 to 2.2: 0.05 to 0.5. The solvent is selected from methanol, ethanol and N, N-dimethylformamide, acetonitrile and the like. Step six of the alkaline reagent and alkaline reagent used in the same, said catalyst is a common low-iodine salts, such as sodium iodide, potassium iodide.

[0031] The present invention provides two other hand, the use of a compound of formula ⑴ preparing aripiprazole new method.

[0032] Method one: ⑴ intermediate compound of formula in an appropriate solvent in the acid or salt or a base in the presence of a reducing agent under the action of restoring ring closure reaction to obtain aripiprazole.

[0033] Method one reductive cyclization of the reducing agent used is iron, zinc, sodium sulfide, stannous chloride, and preferably iron; reaction solvent is selected from water, methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate or in one or more of the mixed solvent; said acid is a common organic or inorganic acid, preferably acetic acid or hydrochloric acid; said salt is a common inorganic or organic salts selected from chloride, ferrous chloride, , ammonium sulfate, calcium chloride, zinc chloride, sodium chloride, sodium bromide or sodium acetate and the like; common said base is an inorganic base selected from sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide or sodium bicarbonate; the reduction ring-closing reaction temperature range of 30 ~ 140 ° C, preferably about 80 ° C; reaction time ranges from about 0.5 to 8 hours, preferably 2 hours.

[0034] Method two: ⑴ intermediate compound of formula in an appropriate solvent in the first catalyst, the reduction reaction, and then carried out in a suitable solvent can be prepared by cyclization of aripiprazole.

[0035] The reduction reaction of the second approach, the reducing agent is hydrogen or a carboxylic acid; the catalyst is selected from molybdenum, molybdenum dioxide or Raney nickel, preferably Raney nickel; the solvent is selected from methanol, ethanol, ethyl acetate or acetic acid, preferably ethanol; said ring-closing reaction of the solvent is selected from N, N-dimethylformamide, trichlorobenzene or xylene; reaction temperature range of 50 ~ 180 ° C, preferably about 70 ~ 150 ° C; reaction time the range of about 1 to 8 hours.

[0036] In summary, the present invention is described for preparing aripiprazole method in 4– methyl – 3 – nitro-phenol (VIII) as a starting material, by acetylation protected hydroxy, radical instead of 4 – bromomethyl-3 – nitrophenyl acetate (VI), the diethyl malonate and a nucleophilic substitution reaction to obtain 2 – (4_ acetoxy-2 – nitrobenzyl ) malonic acid diethyl ester (V), which is decarboxylated by hydrolysis, esterification, to give 3 – (4 – hydroxy-2 – nitrophenyl) propionate (III), the reaction product with dibromobutane an ether compounds, and with (2,3 – dichlorophenyl)-piperazine hydrochloride 1_ condensation, to give 3 – (4 – (4 – (4 – (2,3 – dichlorophenyl) piperazine -1 – yl) butoxy) -2 – nitrophenyl) propionate (I), and then by reductive cyclization step, or first reduced and then ring-closing reaction of aripiprazole. The synthetic route of the present invention is as follows: [0037]

Figure CN101538252BD00061

According to Example 1 of Japanese Unexamined Patent Publication No. 191256/1990, anhydrous aripiprazole crystals are manufactured for example by reacting 7-(4-bromobutoxy)-3,4-dihydrocarbostyril with 1-(2,3-dichlorophenylpiperadine and recrystallizing the resulting raw anhydrousaripiprazole with ethanol. Also, according to the Proceedings of the 4th Japanese-Korean Symposium on Separation Technology (Oct. 6-8, 1996), anhydrousaripiprazole crystals are manufactured by heating aripiprazole hydrate at 80° C. However, the anhydrous aripiprazole crystals obtained by the aforementioned methods have the disadvantage of being significantly hygroscopic.

The hygroscopicity of these crystals makes them difficult to handle since costly and burdensome measures must be taken in order ensure they are not exposed to moisture during process and formulation. Exposed to moisture, the anhydrous form can take on water and convert to a hydrous form. This presents several disadvantages. First, the hydrous forms of aripiprazole have the disadvantage of being less bioavailable and less dissoluble than the anhydrous forms ofaripiprazole. Second, the variation in the amount of hydrous versus anhydrousaripiprazole drug substance from batch to batch could fail to meet specifications set by drug regulatory agencies. Third, the milling may cause the drug substance, Conventional Anhydrous Aripiprazole, to adhere so manufacturing equipment which may further result in processing delay, increased operator involvement, increased cost, increased maintenance, and lower production yield. Fourth, in addition to problems caused by introduction of moisture during the processing of these hygroscopic crystals, the potential for absorbance of moisture during storage and handling would adversely affect the dissolubility of aripiprazole drug substance. Thus shelf-life of the product could be significantly decreased and/or packaging costs could be significantly increased. It would be highly desirable to discover a form of aripiprazole that possessed low hygroscopicity thereby facilitating pharmaceutical processing and formulation operations required for producing dosage units of an aripiprazole medicinal product having improved shelf-life, suitable dissolubility and suitable bioavailability.

Also, Proceedings of the 4 the Japanese-Korean Symposium on Separation Technology (Oct. 6-8, 1996) state that, anhydrous aripiprazole crystals exist as type-I crystals and type-II crystals; the type-I crystals of anhydrous aripiprazolecan be prepared by recrystallizing from an ethanol solution of aripiprazole, or by heating aripiprazole hydrate at 80° C.; and the type-II crystals of anhydrousaripiprazole can be prepared by heating the type-I crystals of anhydrousaripiprazole at 130 to 140° C. for 15 hours.

By the aforementioned methods, anhydrous aripiprazole type-II crystals having high purity can not be easily prepared in an industrial scale with good repeatability.

Chemical Synthesis of Aripiprazole (active ingredient for Abilify)

Chemical Synthesis of Abilify-Aripirazole-Atypical Antipsychotics-Otsuka-BMS-aripiprazole - Ann re ピ have suitable plastic AKZO

Experimental Procedures for the preparation of Aripiprazole (Abilify, aripiprazole)

US 5,006,528 discloses process for the preparation of Aripiprazole in two steps The first step comprises synthesis of 7 -. (4-bromobutoxy) -3,4-dihydrocarbostyril (7-BBQ) by alkylating the hydroxy group of 7-hydroxy-3, 4 -dihydrocarbostyril (7-HQ) with 1 ,4-dibromobutane using potassium carbonate in water at reflux temperature for 3 hours to obtain 7-BBQ in 68% yield The resulting 7-BBQ is further reacted with 1 -. (2,3 – dichlorophenyl)-piperazine to obtain Aripiprazole.

Preparation of 7 – (4-Bromobutoxy) 3 ,4-dihydro-2 (1H) quinolinon ( 7 – (4-Bromobutoxy) 3 ,4-dihydrocarbostyril; 7-BBQ)

7-Hydroxy-3 ,4-dihydro-2 (1H)-quinolinone (aka 7-Hydroxy-3 ,4-dihydrocarbostyril, 60gm) and potassium carbonate (76.3 gm) were taken in acetonitrile (1200ml) at room temperature. To this tetra butyl ammonium iodide (13.7 gm) and 1 ,4-dibromobutane (238.5gm) were added and heated at 40 – 45 ° C for 24 hours Reaction mass was cooled upto room temperature and was filtered off The resulting filtrate was distilled off.. under vacuum. The resultant mass was cooled to 25-30 ° C and cyclohexane (300 ml) was added under stirring. The resulting solid was filtered off and was dried. The resulting solid was taken in water and was stirred for few minutes. The . solid was filtered and dried under vacuum at 55-60 ° C for 20 hours to obtain title compound mp 110.5-111 ° C; 1H NMR (DMSO-d6) ä 1.81 (2H, m,-CH2-), 1.95 (2H , m,-CH2-), 2.41 (2H, t, J) 7 Hz,-CH2CO-), 2.78 (2H, t, J) 7 Hz,-CH2-C-CO-), 3.60 (2H, t, J) 6 Hz,-CH2Br), 3.93 (2H, t, J) 6 Hz, O-CH2-), 6.43 (1H, d, J) 2.5 Hz), 6.49 (1H, dd, J) 2.5, 8 Hz ), 7.04 (1H, d, J) 8 Hz), 9.98 (1H, s, NHCO). Anal. (C13H16NO2Br) C, H, N.

Yield: 73-75%; Purity: 93-95%

Preparation of Aripiprazole (7 – {4 – [4 – (2,3-Dichlorophenyl) piperazin-1-yl] butoxy} 3 ,4-dihydroquinolin-2 (1H)-One)

7 – (4-Bromobutoxy)-l ,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-2-one (50 gm) was taken in acetonitrile (500 ml) at 25-30 ° C. To this potassium carbonate (67.2 gm) and l – (2,3 – dichlorophenyl). piperazine hydrochloride (44.9gm) were added under stirring The reaction mixture was refluxed at 80-85 ° C for 8 hours The reaction mass was cooled to room temperature, filtered and the resulting solid was washed. with acetonitrile. To the resulting solid, water was added and was stirred. The solid was filtered off, washed with water and dried under vacuum at 75-80 ° C for 15 hrs. The resulting crude aripiprazole was crystallized from isopropyl alcohol and water to . obtain title compound Yield: 75-80%; Dimer Impurity: <0.1% 1H NMR:. DMSO-d6 d 9.96 [1H, s, NH]; 7.29 [2H, m, Ar]; 7.13 [1H, q, Ar ]; 7.04 [1H, d, Ar]; 6.49 [1H, dd, Ar]; 6.45 [1H, d, Ar]; 3.92 [2H, t,-CH2-O-]; 2.97 [4H, bb, 2 ( -CH2-)]; 2.78 [2H, t,-CH2-N2-)]; 2.39 [4H, m, 2 (-CH2-)]; 1.73 [2H, m, – CH2-]; 1.58 [2H, m .,-CH2-] IR: cm-1 3193; 2939; 2804; 1680; 1627; 1579; 1520; 1449; 1375; 1270; 1245; 1192; 1169; 1045; 965; 649; 869; 780; 712; 588 .

Preparation of aripiprazole anhydrous Type I using isopropyl alcohol and water
Crude aripiprazole (30 g) was taken in isopropyl alcohol (600 ml) and was heated to 80-85 ° C. Water (90 ml) was added at the same temperature. Activated carbon was added and the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes at the same temperature. The resulting hot solution was filtered and the bed was washed with hot isopropyl alcohol. The resulting filtrate was cooled to 25-30 ° C for 4 hours. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with isopropyl alcohol and dried under suction for 1 hour. The resulting wet solid was dried in preheated oven maintained at 100-105 ° C for 6 hours to obtain title compound.
Yield: 87-89% HPLC Purity: 99.89
Anhydrous crystal D: Below detectable limit (BDL) at limit of detection 1%.
Hydrate A: Below detectable limit (BDL) at limit of detection 1%.
Particle Size Distribution: d 10 = 15.83 m, d 50 = 60.12 m, d 90 = 144.99 m
Preparation of aripiprazole anhydrous Type I using ethanol and water
Crude aripiprazole (15 g) was taken in ethanol (300 ml) and water (45 ml) and was heated to 80-85 ° C for 1-2 hours. The resulting mixture was cooled to 25-30 ° C within 4 hours and . stirred for 3 hours The resulting solid was filtered and dried under suction for 1 hour The resulting wet solid was dried in preheated oven maintained at 100-105 ° C for 3 hours to obtain title compound Yield:.. 90% HPLC Purity: 99.9 %
Anhydrous crystal D: Below detectable limit (BDL) at limit of detection 1%.
Hydrate A: Below detectable limit (BDL) at limit of detection 1%.
Particle Size Distribution: d 10 = 22.01 m, d 50 = 105.10 m, d 90 = 232.97 m

For the Process of references Aripiprazole (Abilify, Japanese: Oh, Bldg re phi, Ann reピplastic AKZO have suitable; Chinese: Ann-law who, aripiprazole)

Yasuo Oshiro, Seiji Sato, Nobuyuki Kurahashi, Tatsuyoshi Tanaka, Tetsuro Kikuchi, Katsura Tottori, Yasufumi Uwahodo, and Takao Nishi; Novel Antipsychotic Agents with Dopamine autoreceptor Agonist Properties: Synthesis and Pharmacology of 7 – [4 – (4-Phenyl-1- piperazinyl) butoxy] – 3,4-dihydro-2 (1H)-quinolinone Derivatives ; J. Med Chem. 1998, 41, 658-667.

Yasuo Oshiro, Seiji Sato, Nobuyuki Kurahashi; Carbostyril Derivatives , Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.;. U.S. Patent 5006528 ; Issue Date: Apr 9, 1991

BANDO, Takuji, YANO, Katsuhiko, FUKANA, Makoto, AOKI, Satoshi; Method for producing fine particles of aripiprazole anhydride crystals b; OTSUKA PHARMACEUTICAL CO, LTD, WO 2013002420 A1..

Yuanqiu Hui, Chen Hongwen, Qian Wen, firewood rain column, Xu Dan, Yang Zhimin, Tian Zhoushan; method for preparing high purity of aripiprazole; NJCTT Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; application number: 201210292382.0; Publication Number: CN102863377A; Publication date: 2013.01.09 After (The invention relates to the field of medicine and chemical industry, in particular to a method for preparing high purity of aripiprazole would join aripiprazole A solvent is heated, filtered, and the filtrate was added to a solvent B, low temperature mixing, filtration, the filter cake is suspended in water, adjusted to alkaline pH of the aqueous solution, filtration, high temperature vacuum dried to obtain a high-purity refined product Aripiprazole This method is simple, high purity, suitable for the industrial the large-scale application)

ZHENG Siji, LIU Xiaoyi, FU Linyong, TAN Bo, ZHOU Min:.. ARIPIPRAZOLE MEDICAMENT FORMULATION AND PREPARATION METHOD THEREFOR / FORMULATION DE MÉDICAMENT ARIPIPRAZOLE ET SON PROCÉDÉ DE PRÉPARATION / a aripiprazole pharmaceutical formulation and preparation method SHANGHAI ZHONGXI. PHARMACEUTICAL January 2013: WO 2013/000391

Zheng Si Ji, Liu Xiaoyi, Fulin Yong, Tan Bo, Zhou Min: A aripiprazole pharmaceutical formulation and preparation method; Shanghai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and Western; Publication date: 2013.01.02: Application Number: CN 201210235157.3; Publication Number: CN102846543A (the invention provides a method for preparing aripiprazole pharmaceutical formulation, comprising the steps of: an acidic solution containing aripiprazole is dissolved in the acidulant, to obtain an acidic solution containing the drug; Thereafter, the resulting drug-containing acidic solution alkalizing agents and materials prepared by wet granulation or suspension to give aripiprazole pharmaceutical formulation; said excipients include antioxidants)

Zheng Si Ji; Tan wave; Fulin Yong; Liu Xiaoyi; Yuanshao Qing; Cao Zhihui; aripiprazole Ⅰ type microcrystalline, aripiprazole solid preparation and preparation methods; application number: 201110180032.0; Publication Number: CN102850268A; Publication Date: 2013.01.02

Cai Fu Bo, Qin Xinrong, Du Xiaochun, Li Ling; kind of aripiprazole improved method of synthesis; Chengdu Nakasone Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd.; Application Number: 200910058148.X; Publication Number: CN101781246A; Publication date: 2010.07.21 (the invention provides a method of synthesis of aripiprazole improved method according to the modified method of the present invention, aripiprazole into the etherification reaction and condensation reaction of two-step synthesis, by an etherification reaction in the quinolone compound and at least 6-fold molar equivalents of 1,4 – dihalo-butane reacted with a non-polar solvent ether aripiprazole precipitate, and recovering 1,4 – dihalo-butane recycling; azeotropic condensation reaction of a ketone to be / water mixture as solvent, aripiprazole etherified with a piperazine compound or a salt thereof in the presence of a base under reflux and alkaline metal iodide compound conditions, the amount of water added to the end of the reaction, cooling crystallization, filtration, and dried to give aripiprazole. improved high yield synthesis of high purity, step simple, low cost, suitable for industrial production.)

GUPTA, Vijay Shankar, KUMAR, Pramod, VIR, Dharam; Process for producing aripiprazole in anhydrous type i crystals; JUBILANT LIFE SCIENCES LIMITED; WO 2012131451 A1

SRIVASTAVA JAYANT GUPTA Vijay Shankar;. Improved process for the preparation of 7 (4-bromobutoxy) 3,4-dihydrocarbostyril, a precursor of aripiprazole; wo2011030213 A1

No Generic Abilify in the US until April 2015

On May 7, 2012, The US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit ruled in favor of Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. In its patent litigation against several companies including Israel-based Teva and Weston, Ontario-based Apotex seeking FDA approval to market generic copies of Abilify ®.. The Federal Circuit Affirmed a Decision of the U.S. District Court for the District of New Jersey Holding that the asserted claims ofU.S. Patent No. 5,006,528 Covering aripiprazole, the active Ingredient in Abilify ®, are Valid, THUS Maintaining Patent and Regulatory Protection for Abilify ® in the U.S. until at least April 20, 2015 . The Case is Otsuka Pharma Co.. V. sand Inc.., 2011-1126 and 2011-1127, US Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (Washington). The lower court case is Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co. v. Sandoz Inc., 07cv1000, US District Court for the District of New Jersey (Trenton).

Chemical Name for Aripiprazole (Abilify for active Ingredient): 7 – {4 – [4 – (2,3-Dichlorophenyl) piperazin-1-yl] butoxy} 3 ,4-dihydroquinolin-2 (1H)-One
CAS Number 129722 -12-9
aripiprazole chemical name 7 – [4 – [4 – (2,3 – dichlorophenyl) -1 – piperazinyl] butoxy] -3,4 – dihydro-2 ( 1H) – quinolinone

Aripiprazole (, Aripiprazole, Abilify) is an atypical antipsychotic medication for the quinoline derivatives, aripiprazole is a dopamine system stabilizer first, positive and schizophrenia negative symptoms have a significant effect. For the treatment of schizophrenia, the development of Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., in November 15, 2002 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in the U.S., domestic aripiprazole has (Booz clear (brisking, manufacturers : Chengdu Nakasone Pharmaceutical), Austrian (Manufacturer: Shanghai Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. and Western)) have been approved by the listing in China. On sale in the United States where the law by Bristol-Myers Squibb is responsible. An law where the main patent protection in the United States, and more than three-quarters of its sales from the U.S., patent will expire in April 2015.

Aripiprazole synthetic route

7 – hydroxy-3 ,4. Dihydro -2 (1H) – quinolinone as a starting material, 1,4. Dibromobutane ether to give 7 – (4 – Bromo-butoxy) -3,4 – dihydro – 2 (1H) quinolinone, and then with 1 – (2,3 – dichlorophenyl) piperazine acid condensation aripiprazole (7 – [4 – [4 – (2,3 – dichlorophenyl) -1 – piperazinyl] butoxy] -3,4 – dihydro -2 (1H) – quinolinone)

Aripiprazole preparation method

7 – (4 – Bromo-butoxy) -3,4 – dihydro -2 (1H) – quinolone
A reaction flask was added 7 – hydroxy – 3,4 – dihydro -2 (1H) – quinolone 32.6 g (0.2mol), 1,4 – dibromo butane 129.5g (0.6mol), 11.2% KOH solution 250ml (0.5mol) and DMF975ml, was heated to 60 º C for 2h diluted with 1L water, the aqueous layer with ethyl acetate. acetate (300ml × 2) and the combined organic layers were washed with water, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, filtered, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to recover the solvent, the residue was recrystallized from isopropanol, to give 7 – (4 – Bromo-butoxy) – 3,4 – dihydro -2 (1H) – quinolone 38.7g, yield 68%, mp108 ~ 110 º C.

Synthesis of aripiprazole
in the reaction flask was added 7 – (4 – Bromo-butoxy) -3,4 – dihydro -2 (1H) – quinolone, 29.8g (0.1mol), KI25g (0.15mol) 95% Ethanol 596ml, stirred and heated to 60 º C, was added N-2 30min after 3 – dichlorophenyl piperazine 23.1g (0.1mol) and triethylamine 20ml (0.15mol), stirred for 8h at 60 º C the mixture is filtered. crystallization filtrate was cooled, filtered and the filter cake was recrystallized twice from ethanol and dried to obtain aripiprazole 25.6g, yield 57%, mp138.9 ~ 139.6 º C.

 

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  68. Roache JD (2013). “Role of the human laboratory in the development of medications for alcohol and drug dependence”. In Johnson BA. Addiction medicine: science and practice. New York: Springer. p. 145. ISBN 978-1461439899.

External links

WO2006079548A1 * Jan 27, 2006 Aug 3, 2006 Sandoz Ag Organic compounds
WO2006079549A1 Jan 27, 2006 Aug 3, 2006 Sandoz Ag Salts of aripiprazole
WO2014060324A1 Oct 11, 2013 Apr 24, 2014 Sanovel Ilac Sanayi Ve Ticaret A.S Aripiprazole formulations
EP1844036A1 * Jan 27, 2006 Oct 17, 2007 Sandoz AG Salts of aripiprazole
EP2093217A1 * Jan 27, 2006 Aug 26, 2009 Sandoz AG Polymorph and solvates of aripiprazole
EP2233471A1 * Feb 6, 2009 Sep 29, 2010 Adamed Sp. z o.o. A salt of 7-{4-[4-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl]butoxy}-3,4.dihydro-2(1h)-quinolinone with 5-sulfosalicylic acid and its preparation process
EP2359816A1 Feb 8, 2011 Aug 24, 2011 Sanovel Ilac Sanayi ve Ticaret A.S. Aripiprazole formulations
US7504504 Dec 16, 2004 Mar 17, 2009 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Methods of preparing aripiprazole crystalline forms
US7714129 Sep 29, 2006 May 11, 2010 Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Methods of preparing anhydrous aripiprazole form II
US8008490 Jan 27, 2006 Aug 30, 2011 Sandoz Ag Polymorphic forms of aripiprazole and method
US8188076 Feb 26, 2010 May 29, 2012 Reviva Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Compositions, synthesis, and methods of utilizing arylpiperazine derivatives
US8207163 May 27, 2009 Jun 26, 2012 Reviva Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Compositions, synthesis, and methods of using piperazine based antipsychotic agents
US8247420 May 21, 2008 Aug 21, 2012 Reviva Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Compositions, synthesis, and methods of using quinolinone based atypical antipsychotic agents
US8431570 May 7, 2012 Apr 30, 2013 Reviva Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Methods of utilizing arylpiperazine derivatives
US8461154 May 7, 2012 Jun 11, 2013 Reviva Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Methods of utilizing arylpiperazine derivatives
US8575185 Feb 26, 2010 Nov 5, 2013 Reviva Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Compositions, synthesis, and methods of utilizing quinazolinedione derivatives

SUMATRIPTAN …Avanir files new drug application for migraine drug


SUMATRIPTAN, GR-43175

1-[3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl]- N-methyl-methanesulfonamide

3-[2-(Dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-1H-indole-5-methanesulfonamide

Formula C14H21N3O2S 
Mol. mass 295.402 g/mol
CAS number 103628-46-2 
 
Melting point: mp 169-171°
Therap-Cat: Antimigraine.
Keywords: Antimigraine; Serotonin Receptor Agonist.
NDA 020626,GSK, IMITREX, 1997

Avanir Pharmaceuticals has filed a new drug application (NDA) with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of its new breath-powered investigational drug-device combination product, ‘AVP-825’, for the acute treatment of migraines.  click on title  Avanir files new drug application for migraine drug 

Sumatriptan moleculeSUMATRIPTAN

SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE

CAS Registry Number:
103628-48-4 ((1:1) salt), 103628-47-3 ((2:1) salt), 103628-46-2 (free base)
GlaxoSmithKline (Originator), Atrix (Formulation), Nastech (Formulation), NovaDel Pharma (Formulation)
Manufacturers’ Codes: GR-43175C
Trademarks: Imigran (GSK); Imitrex (GSK); Imiject (GSK)
Molecular Formula: C14H21N3O2S.C4H6O4
Molecular Weight: 413.49
Percent Composition: C 52.28%, H 6.58%, N 10.16%, O 23.22%, S 7.75%
Properties: mp 165-166°.
Melting point: mp 165-166°
Launched-1991, Acute Attacks of Migraine, Treatment of, Analgesic and Anesthetic Drugs, Antimigraine Drugs, 5-HT1B Agonists, 5-HT1D Agonists

AVP-825 is an investigational drug-device combination product consisting of low-dose sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally utilizing a novel Breath Powered delivery technology. If approved, AVP-825 would be the first and only fast-acting, dry-powder intranasal form of sumatriptan for the treatment of migraine.

The Breath Powered delivery technology is activated by user’s breath to propel medications deep into the nasal cavity where absorption is more efficient and consistent than through most other routes. A user exhales into the device, automatically closing the soft palate and sealing off the nasal cavity completely. Through a sealing nosepiece placed into the nostril, the exhaled breath carries medication from the device directly into one side of the nose. Narrow nasal passages are gently expanded and medication is dispersed deep into the nasal cavity reaching areas where it can be rapidly absorbed. As the medication is delivered, the air flows around to the opposite side of the nasal cavity and exits through the other nostril. Closure of the soft palate helps prevent swallowing or inhalation of sumatriptan powder into the lungs.

Canada 2469019 APPROVED 2005-09-13 EXP 2022-12-04
United States 6135979                  1997-03-21        2017-03-21
United States 5705520                  1994-12-10        2011-12-10
Canada 2098302                  2001-10-16        2011-12-10
Patent No PatentExpiry use code
5307953 Dec 2, 2012  
5307953*PED Jun 2, 2013  
5554639 Sep 10, 2013 U-232…METHOD OF TREATING MIGRAINE
5554639*PED Mar 10, 2014

Sumatriptan is a synthetic drug belonging to the triptan class, used for the treatment of migraine headaches. Structurally, it is an analog of the naturally occurring neuro-active alkaloids dimethyltryptamine (DMT), bufotenine, and 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine, with an N-methyl sulfonamidomethyl- group at position C-5 on the indole ring.[1]

Sumatriptan is produced and marketed by various drug manufacturers with many different trade names such as Sumatriptan, Imitrex, Treximet, Imigran, Imigran recovery.

Large doses of sumatriptan can cause sulfhemoglobinemia, a rare condition in which the blood changes from red to greenish-black, due to the integration of sulfur into the hemoglobin molecule.[2] If sumatriptan is discontinued, the condition reverses within a few weeks.

Serious cardiac events, including some that have been fatal, have occurred following the use of sumatriptan injection or tablets. Events reported have included coronary artery vasospasm, transient myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarctionventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.

The most common side-effects[3] reported by at least 2% of patients in controlled trials of sumatriptan (25, 50, and 100 mg tablets) for migraine are atypical sensations (paresthesias and warm/cold sensations) reported by 4% in the placebo group and 5–6% in the sumatriptan groups, pain and other pressure sensations (including chest pain) reported by 4% in the placebo group and 6–8% in the sumatriptan groups, neurological events (vertigo) reported by less than 1% in the placebo group and less than 1% to 2% in the sumatriptan groups. Malaise/fatigue occurred in less than 1% of the placebo group and 2–3% of the sumatriptan groups. Sleep disturbance occurred in less than 1% in the placebo group to 2% in the sumatriptan group.

SUMATRIPTAN

Sumatriptan is structurally similar to serotonin (5HT), and is a 5-HT (types 5-HT1D and 5-HT1B[4]agonist. The specific receptor subtypes it activates are present on the cranial arteries and veins. Acting as an agonist at these receptors, sumatriptan reduces the vascular inflammation associated with migraines.

The specific receptor subtype it activates is present in the cranial and basilar arteries. Activation of these receptors causes vasoconstriction of those dilated arteries. Sumatriptan is also shown to decrease the activity of the trigeminal nerve, which, it is presumed, accounts for sumatriptan’s efficacy in treating cluster headaches. The injectable form of the drug has been shown to abort a cluster headache within fifteen minutes in 96% of cases.[5]

 

Sumatriptan is administered in several forms; tablets, subcutaneous injection, and nasal spray. Oral administration (as succinate) suffers from poorbioavailability, partly due to presystemic metabolism—some of it gets broken down in the stomach and bloodstream before it reaches the target arteries. A new rapid-release tablet formulation has the same bioavailability, but the maximum concentration is achieved on average 10–15 minutes earlier. When injected, sumatriptan is faster-acting (usually within 10 minutes), but the effect lasts for a shorter time. Sumatriptan is metabolised primarily by monoamine oxidase A into an indole acetic acid analogue, part of which is further conjugated with glucuronic acid. These metabolites are excreted in the urine and bile. Only about 3% of the active drug may be recovered unchanged.

There is no simple, direct relationship between sumatriptan concentration (pharmacokinetics) per se in the blood and its anti-migraine effect (pharmacodynamics). This paradox has, to some extent, been resolved by comparing the rates of absorption of the various sumatriptan formulations, rather than the absolute amounts of drug that they deliver.[6][7]

 

Sumatriptan was the first clinically available triptan (in 1991). In the United States, it is available only by medical prescription. However, it can be bought over the counter in the UK and Sweden in 50 mg dosage. Several dosage forms for sumatriptan have been approved, including tablets, solution for injection, and nasal inhalers.

On April 15, 2008, the US FDA approved Treximet, a combination of sumatriptan and naproxen, an NSAID.[8] This combination has shown a benefit over either medicine used separately.[9]

In July 2009, the US FDA approved a single-use jet injector formulation of sumatriptan. The device delivers a subcutaneous injection of 6 mg sumatriptan, without the use of a needle.Autoinjectors with needles have been previously available in Europe and North America for several years.[10]

Phase III studies with a iontophoretic transdermal patch (Zelrix/Zecuity) started in July 2008.[11] This patch uses low voltage controlled by a pre-programmed microchip to deliver a single dose of sumatriptan through the skin within 30 minutes.[12][13]Zecuity was approved by the US FDA in January 2013.[14]

 

Sumatriptan vials 100 5509

On November 6, 2008, Par Pharmaceutical announced that it would begin shipping generic versions of sumatriptan injection (sumatriptan succinate injection) 4 mg and 6 mg starter kits and 4 mg and 6 mg pre-filled syringe cartridges to the trade immediately. In addition, Par anticipates launching the 6 mg vials early in 2009.[15]

Mylan Laboratories Inc., Ranbaxy, Sandoz, Dr. Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals and other companies have received FDA approval for generic versions of Imitrex tablets in 25-, 50-, and 100-milligram doses since 2009. The drug is available in U.S. and European markets, since Glaxo’s patent protections have expired in those jurisdictions. However, sales of a generic delivered via nasal spray are still restricted in the United States.

See also Sumavel DosePro (above).[10]

Chemistry

hydrogenation of nitrile with pd/c in presence of dimethyl amine

…………………

Sumatriptan synth.png

U.S. Patent 4,785,016

The diazotation of 4-amino-N-methylbenzenemethanesulfonamide (I) with NaNO2-HCl followed by reduction with SnCl2 gives the 4-hydrazino compound (II), which is condensed with (phenylthio)acetaldehyde (III) in ethanol yielding the ethylideneamino compound (IV). The cyclization of (IV) with HCl in ethanol affords N-methyl-3-(phenylthio)-1H-indole-5-methansulfonamide (V), which is desulfurized with RaNi in refluxing ethanol-water to give N-methyl-1H-indole-5-methanesulfonamide (VI). The reaction of (VI) with oxalyl chloride and dimethylamine yields the oxalyl derivative (VII), which is finally reduced with LiAlH4 in refluxing THF.

The condensation of hydrazine (II) with 4,4-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylbutylamine (VIII) by means of HCl in water gives the butylidenehydrazino compound (IX), which is cyclized with polyphosphate ester (PPE) in CHCl3.

……………………

Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2011, 7, 442–495.

http://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjoc/single/articleFullText.htm?publicId=1860-5397-7-57#S9

ref are below article

Indoles

The neuroamine transmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, so it is not surprising that indoles are a recurring theme in many drugs affecting central nervous system (CNS) function including antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and antimigraine drugs, as well as psychedelic agents. Indole is also one of the best represented heterocyclic motifs present in the top selling pharmaceuticals, being found in eight of the top 200 drugs, with five of these belonging to the triptan family of antimigraine treatments. The classical Fischer indole synthesis is usually reported as one of the first choice routes to prepare these scaffolds. Drugs such as GSK’s serotonin receptor modulators sumatriptan (49, Imitrex) and zolmitriptan (50, Zomig) use the Fischer indole synthesis at a late stage in order to form the desired compound albeit in only low to moderate yields (Scheme 9).

[1860-5397-7-57-i9]
Scheme 9: Key steps in the syntheses of sumatriptan and zolmitriptan.

However, in sumatriptan the indole product resulting from the Fischer synthesis can still react further which leads to the formation of by-products and significantly reduced yields. One way to minimise this was to protect the nitrogen of the sulfonamide group prior to indole formation [11]. This leads not only to an increased yield in the indole forming step (to 50%) but also facilitates chromatographic purification. The dimethylamino group can be present from the beginning of the synthesis or can be introduced via displacement of chloride or reduction of a cyano moiety. Alternatively, the dimethyl ethylene amine side chain can be introduced in position 3 via a Friedel–Crafts-type acylation. The resulting acid chloride is transformed in situ to the corresponding amide which on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride affords sumatriptan (Scheme 10) [12].

[1860-5397-7-57-i10]
Scheme 10: Introduction of the N,N-dimethylaminoethyl side chain.

In the standard Fischer indole synthesis a hydrazine, which is most commonly derived from the corresponding diazonium salt, is reacted with a suitable carbonyl compound. Alternatively, the Japp–Klingemann reaction can be used to directly couple the diazonium salt with a β-ketoester to obtain a hydrazone which can then undergo indole ring formation (Scheme 11) [13].

[1860-5397-7-57-i11]
Scheme 11: Japp–Klingemann reaction in the synthesis of sumatriptan.

As can be seen from Scheme 11 the indole 59 prepared via the Japp–Klingemann reaction is substituted at position 2 by an ester group which prevents reaction with electrophiles, thereby reducing the amount of undesired by-products. A simple sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation then affords sumatriptan [14].

All the reported methods for the synthesis of sumatriptan begin with the sulfonamide group already present on the aromatic ring and several routes are possible to introduce this functional group. The scalable route to the sulfonamides inevitably involves the preparation of the sulfonyl chloride intermediate which is then trapped with the desired amine. The sulfonyl chloride can also be prepared from the corresponding hemithioacetal 61 by treatment with NCS in wet acetic acid (Scheme 12). This efficient oxidation produces only methanol and formaldehyde as by-products [15].

[1860-5397-7-57-i12]
Scheme 12: Synthesis of the intermediate sulfonyl chlorides 62 and 63.
  1. 11. Pete, B.; Bitter, I.; Szántay, C., Jr.; Schön, I.; Töke, L. Heterocycles 1998, 48, 1139–1149. doi:10.3987/COM-97-8087
  2. 12…Oxford, A. W. Indole Derivative. U.S. Patent 5,037,845, Aug 6, 1991.
  3. 13…Japp, F. R.; Klingemann, F. Chem. Ber. 1887, 20, 2942–2944. doi:10.1002/cber.188702002165
  4. Pete, B.; Bitter, I.; Harsányi, K.; Töke, L. Heterocycles 2000, 53, 665–673. doi:10.3987/COM-99-8815
  5. Kim, D.-W.; Ko, Y. K.; Kim, S. H. Synthesis 1992, 12, 1203–1204. doi:10.1055/s-1992-26333
    [15

 

References for full article

 
  1.  The presence of the sulfonamide group in the molecule does not make sumatriptan a “sulfa drug”, since it does not have any anti-microbial properties.
  2.  “Patient bleeds dark green blood”BBC News. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
  3.  Tablets
  4.  Razzaque Z, Heald MA, Pickard JD, et al. (1999). “Vasoconstriction in human isolated middle meningeal arteries: determining the contribution of 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1F-receptor activation”.Br J Clin Pharmacol 47 (1): 75–82. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.1999.00851.xPMC 2014192.PMID 10073743.
  5.  Treatment of acute cluster headache with sumatriptan. The Sumatriptan Cluster Headache Study Group. N Engl J Med 1991;325:322-6.
  6.  Fox, A. W. (2004). “Onset of effect of 5-HT1B/1D agonists: a model with pharmacokinetic validation”. Headache 44 (2): 142–147. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2004.04030.x.PMID 14756852edit
  7.  Freidank-Mueschenborn, E.; Fox, A. (2005). “Resolution of concentration-response differences in onset of effect between subcutaneous and oral sumatriptan”. Headache 45 (6): 632–637. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.05129a.xPMID 15953294edit
  8.  GSK press release – Treximet (sumatriptan and naproxen sodium) tablets approved by FDA for acute treatment of migraine
  9.  Brandes JL, Kudrow D, Stark SR, et al. (April 2007). “Sumatriptan-naproxen for acute treatment of migraine: a randomized trial”JAMA 297 (13): 1443–54.doi:10.1001/jama.297.13.1443PMID 17405970.
  10.  Brandes, J.; Cady, R.; Freitag, F.; Smith, T.; Chandler, P.; Fox, A.; Linn, L.; Farr, S. (2009). “Needle-free subcutaneous sumatriptan (Sumavel DosePro): bioequivalence and ease of use.”. Headache 49 (10): 1435–1444. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2009.01530.x.PMID 19849720edit
  11.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00724815 The Efficacy and Tolerability of NP101 Patch in the Treatment of Acute Migraine (NP101-007)
  12.  SmartRelief -electronically assisted drug delivery (iontophoresis)
  13.  Pierce, M; Marbury, T; O’Neill, C; Siegel, S; Du, W; Sebree, T (2009). “Zelrix: a novel transdermal formulation of sumatriptan”. Headache 49 (6): 817–25. doi:10.1111/j.1526-4610.2009.01437.xPMID 19438727.
  14.  Zecuity Approved by the FDA for the Acute Treatment of Migraine
  15.  “PAR PHARMACEUTICAL BEGINS SHIPMENT OF SUMATRIPTAN INJECTION”Par Pharmaceutical. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2008-11-25.
  16. Serotonin 5HT1-receptor agonist. Prepn: M. D. Dowle, I. H. Coates, DE 3320521eidem, US 4816470; A. W. Oxford, GB 2162522 (1983, 1989, 1986 all to Glaxo).
  17. Receptor binding studies: P. P. A. Humphrey et al., Br. J. Pharmacol.94, 1123 (1988); P. Schoeffter, D. Hoyer, Arch. Pharmacol. 340, 135 (1989).
  18. LC-MS determn in plasma: J. Oxford, M. S. Lant, J. Chromatogr. 496, 137 (1989).
  19. Clinical evaluations in migraine: A. Doenicke et al., Lancet 1, 1309 (1988);
  20. Subcutaneous Sumatriptan International Study Group, N. Engl. J. Med. 325, 316 (1991); in acute cluster headache: Sumatriptan Cluster Headache Study Group, ibid. 322.
  21. Review of pharmacology and clinical experience: S. J. Peroutka, Headache 30 (Suppl. 2), 554-560 (1990).
  22. Drugs Fut 1989,14(1),35
     
1-4-2012
Noncardiotoxic pharmaceutical compounds
7-9-2010
NON-MUCOADHESIVE FILM DOSAGE FORMS
1-22-2010
Fixed Combination Dosage Forms for the Treatment of Migraine
12-11-2009
ACTIVE AGENT DELIVERY SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PROTECTING AND ADMINISTERING ACTIVE AGENTS
10-9-2009
PHARMACEUTICAL COMPOSITIONS COMPRISING A TRIPTAN AND A NONSTEROIDAL ANTI-INFLAMMATORY DRUG
10-9-2009
ACTIVE AGENT DELIVERY SYSTEMS AND METHODS FOR PROTECTING AND ADMINISTERING ACTIVE AGENTS
5-7-2009
Patient controlled drug delivery device
3-20-2009
DEUTERIUM-ENRICHED SUMATRIPTAN
3-13-2009
Rapid dissolution of combination products
2-19-2009
A METHOD OF IDENTIFYING MODULATORS OF CELL SURFACE MEMBRANE RECEPTORS USEFUL IN THE TREATMENT OF DISEASE
4-8-1992
PREPARATION OF INDOLE DERIVATIVES
1-10-1992
PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS
10-32-1991
SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR DETERMINING THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURES OF PROTEINS
8-7-1991
Indole derivative
7-4-1990
Pharmaceutical formulations
8-8-1984
Fuel and water homogenizer

Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on bringing innovative medicines to patients with central nervous system disorders of high unmet medical need. As part of our commitment, we have extensively invested in our pipeline and are dedicated to advancing medicines that can substantially improve the lives of patients and their loved ones. For more information about Avanir, please visit http://www.avanir.com.

AVANIR® is a trademark or registered trademark of Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. licensed exclusive rights for the development and commercialization of AVP-825, a novel Breath Powered intranasal system containing a low-dose sumatriptan powder from OptiNose Inc. of Yardley, PA.

IMITREX Tablets contain sumatriptan succinate, a selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist. Sumatriptan succinate is chemically designated as 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-indole- 5-methanesulfonamide succinate (1:1), and it has the following structure:

IMITREX Tablets contain sumatriptan succinate, a selective 5-HT1B/1Dreceptor agonist. Sumatriptan succinate is chemically designated as 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-indole- 5-methanesulfonamide succinate (1:1), and it has the following structure:

IMITREX (sumatriptan succinate) Structural Formula Illustration

The empirical formula is C14H21N3O2S•C4H6O4, representing a molecular weight of 413.5. Sumatriptan succinate is a white to off-white powder that is readily soluble in water and in saline.

Each IMITREX Tablet for oral administration contains 35, 70, or 140 mg of sumatriptan succinate equivalent to 25, 50, or 100 mg of sumatriptan, respectively. Each tablet also contains the inactive ingredients croscarmellose sodium, dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium bicarbonate. Each 100-mg tablet also contains hypromellose, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.

New Drug Application for Belinostat in Relapsed or Refractory PTCL Submitted to the FDA


Copenhagen, December 10, 2013
Topotarget announces the submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) for belinostat for the treatment of relapsed or refractory (R/R) peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The NDA has been filed for Accelerated Approval with a request for Priority Review. Response from the FDA regarding acceptance to file is expected within 60 days from the FDA receipt date.
read all this here
Structure

File:Belinostat.svg

 

 

 

Belinostat (PXD101)

Belinostat (PXD101) is a novel HDAC inhibitor with IC50 of 27 nM, with activity demonstrated in cisplatin-resistant tumors.

Belinostat inhibits the growth of tumor cells (A2780, HCT116, HT29, WIL, CALU-3, MCF7, PC3 and HS852) with IC50 from 0.2-0.66 μM. PD101 shows low activity in A2780/cp70 and 2780AD cells. Belinostat inhibits bladder cancer cell growth, especially in 5637 cells, which shows accumulation of G0-G1 phase, decrease in S phase, and increase in G2-M phase. Belinostat also shows enhanced tubulin acetylation in ovarian cancer cell lines. A recent study shows that Belinostat activates protein kinase A in a TGF-β signaling-dependent mechanism and decreases survivin mRNA.

MW 318.07
Molecular Formula: C15H14N2O4S

414864-00-9  cas no

(2E)-N-hydroxy-3-[3-(phenylsulfamoyl)phenyl]acrylamide

A novel HDAC inhibitor

…………………………

SPECTRUM

Tiny Biotech With Three Cancer Drugs Is More Alluring Takeover Bet Now
Forbes
The drug is one of Spectrum’s two drugs undergoing phase 3 clinical trials. Allergan paid Spectrum $41.5 million and will make additional payments of up to $304 million based on achieving certain milestones. So far, Raj Shrotriya, Spectrum’s chairman, 

http://www.forbes.com/sites/genemarcial/2013/07/14/tiny-biotech-with-three-cancer-drugs-is-more-alluring-takeover-bet-now/

 

 

 

 

Belinostat (PXD101) is experimental drug candidate under development byTopoTarget for the treatment of hematological malignancies and solid tumors. It is a histone deacetylase inhibitor.[1]

In 2007 preliminary results were released from the Phase II clinical trial of intravenous belinostat in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel for relapsedovarian cancer.[2] Final results in late 2009 of a phase II trial for T cell lymphomawere encouraging.[3] Belinostat has been granted orphan drug and fast trackdesignation by the FDA.[4]

 

  1.  Plumb, Jane A.; Finn, Paul W.; Williams, Robert J.; Bandara, Morwenna J.; Romero, M. Rosario; Watkins, Claire J.; La Thangue, Nicholas B.; Brown, Robert (2003). “Pharmacodynamic Response and Inhibition of Growth of Human Tumor Xenografts by the Novel Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor PXD101″. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2 (8): 721–728. PMID 12939461.
  2.  “CuraGen Corporation (CRGN) and TopoTarget A/S Announce Presentation of Belinostat Clinical Trial Results at AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference”. October 2007.
  3.  Final Results of a Phase II Trial of Belinostat (PXD101) in Patients with Recurrent or Refractory Peripheral or Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma, December 2009
  4.  “Spectrum adds to cancer pipeline with $350M deal.”. February 2010.

 

 

 

PXD101/Belinostat®

(E)-N-hydroxy-3-(3-phenylsulfamoyl-phenyl)-acrylamide, also known as PXD101 and Belinostat®, shown below, is a well known histone deacetylate (HDAC) inhibitor. It is being developed for treatment of a range of disorders mediated by HDAC, including proliferative conditions (such as cancer and psoriasis), malaria, etc.

Figure US20100286279A1-20101111-C00001

PXD101 was first described in WO 02/30879 A2. That document describes a multi-step method of synthesis which may conveniently be illustrated by the following scheme.

Figure US20100286279A1-20101111-C00002
Figure US20100286279A1-20101111-C00003

…………

US20100286279

Figure US20100286279A1-20101111-C00034

 

 

 

SEE COMPILATION ON SIMILAR COMPOUNDS AT …………..http://drugsynthesisint.blogspot.in/p/nostat-series.html

Durata Therapeutics Announces FDA’s Acceptance for Priority Review of NDA for Dalvance (dalbavancin hydrochloride)


CAS No. 171500-79-1
Chemical Name: Dalbavancin
Synonyms: MDL 63397;Dalbavancin
CBNumber: CB41028737
Molecular Formula: C88H100Cl2N10O28
Formula Weight: 1816.71

CHICAGO, Nov 26, 2013 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE via COMTEX) — Durata Therapeutics, Inc. DRTX +6.48% today announced that the New Drug Application (NDA) for its investigational drug, Dalvance (dalbavancin hydrochloride) for injection, has been accepted for priority review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with an action date of May 26, 2014. Durata is seeking FDA approval of Dalvance(TM) for the treatment of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by susceptible Gram-positive microorganisms, including MRSA (methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureushttp://www.drugs.com/nda/dalbavancin_131126.html

Dalbavancin, V-Glycopeptide, VER-001, BI-397 factor B0, BI-397
Vicuron Pharmaceuticals (Originator)
5,31-Dichloro-38-de(methoxycarbonyl)-7-demethyl-19-deoxy-56-O-[2-deoxy-2-(10-methylundecanamido)-beta-D-glucopyranuronosyl]-38-[N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbamoyl]-42-O-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl-N15-methylristomycin A aglycone; (3S,15R,18R,34R,35S,48S,50aR
Dalbavancin, which is also referred to in the scientific literature as BI397 or VER001, is a semi=synthetic glycopeptide mixture, the properties of which have been reported in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,606,036, 5,750,509, 5,843,679, and 5,935,238.
U.S. Publication No. 20040224908;
J Antibiot1995,48,(8):869
Drugs Fut1999,24,(8):839

Dalbavancin is prepared by chemical modification of the natural glycopeptide complex A-40,926 as described in Malabarba and Donadio (1999) Drugs of the Future 24(8):839-846. The predominant component of dalbavancin is Factor Bo, which accounts for >75% of the whole complex.

[0042] The amount of each of the components present in a dalbavancin composition is dictated by a variety of factors, including, for example, the fermentation conditions employed in the preparation of the natural glycopeptide complex A-40926, which is the precursor to dalbavancin (see, e.g., U.S. Pat. No.5,843,679), the conditions employed to recover A-40926 from the fermentation broth, the chemical reactions employed to selectively esterify the caxboxyl group of the sugar moiety of A-40926, the conditions employed to amidate the peptidyl carboxyl group, the conditions employed to saponify the ester of the carboxyl group of the N-acylaminoglucuronic acid function, the conditions employed to recover dalbavancin from the synthetic mixture, and the like.

the semisynthetic glycopeptide dalbavancin was synthesized from the natural antibiotic A 40926, originally isolated from an Actinomadura culture (Malabarba et al., 1998, U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,509). Dalbavancin has shown greater efficacy against various bacterial strains than vancomycin or the antibiotic linezolid and represents a promising new treatment for skin and soft tissue infections (see, e.g., Jabés et al., 2004, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:1118-1123). According to U.S. Pat. No. 5,750,509, dalbavancin is a glycopeptide antibiotic with a monomethyl moiety at its N15 amino (see FIG. 1 for numbering), and this N15-monomethyl amino could be free (i.e. —NHCH3) or protected with an amino protecting group such as t-butoxycarbonyl, carbobenzyloxy, arylalkyl or benzyl. The method for making certain of the dalbavancin components reported in the ‘509 patent also produced N15,N15-dialkyl analogs of dalbavancin in minor-quantities, but these molecules were not characterized.

Dalbavancin (INN, trade name Zeven) is a novel second-generation lipoglycopeptideantibiotic. It belongs to the same class as vancomycin, the most widely used and one of the few treatments available to patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[1]

Dalbavancin (BI397) is a novel semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide that was designed to improve upon the natural glycopeptides currently available, vancomycin and teicoplanin.[2]

It possesses in vitro activity against a variety of Gram-positive pathogens[3][4] includingMRSA and MRSE.[5] It is a once-weekly, two-dose antibiotic that Pfizer acquired when it bought Vicuron Pharmaceuticals in 2005.[6]

Dalbavancin has undergone a phase III clinical trial for adults with complicated skin infections, but in Dec 2007 the FDA said more data was needed before approval.[6] On September 9, 2008, Pfizer announced that it will withdraw all marketing applications in order to conduct another Phase 3 clinical trial.[7] Durata Therapeutics acquired the rights to dalbavancin in December 2009 and has initiated two new Phase III clinical trials for treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections.[8] Preliminary results in Dec 2012 looked good.[9]

  1.  Vicuron Pharmaceuticals Submits New Drug Application for Dalbavancin to U.S. Food and Drug Administration
  2.  Scheinfeld NS. (May 2006). “Dalbavancin: A review for dermatologists.”. Dermatology Online Journal 12 (6). Unknown parameter |numero= ignored (helpPMID 17083861
  3.  Chen AY, Zervos MJ, Vazquez JA (2007). “Dalbavancin: a novel antimicrobial”. Int. J. Clin. Pract. 61 (5): 853–63. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2007.01318.xPMC 1890846.PMID 17362476.
  4.  Das B, Sarkar C, Biswas R, Pandey S (2008). “Review: dalbavancin-a novel lipoglycopeptide antimicrobial for gram positive pathogens”. Pak J Pharm Sci 21 (1): 78–88. PMID 18166524.
  5.  Dalbavancin: A Novel Lipoglycopeptide Antibacterial
  6.  UPDATE 1-Pfizer says US FDA wants more data on antibiotic. Dec 2007
  7.  “Pfizer Will Withdraw Global Marketing Applications for Dalbavancin to Conduct a New Trial” (Press release). Pfizer Inc. 2008-09-09. Retrieved 2008-09-11.
  8.  Durata Begins Dalbavancin Study Enrollment. Drug Discovery & Development – October 05, 2011.
  9.  Durata Therapeutics Announces Phase 3 Clinical Trial Results for Dalbavancin in the Treatment of ABSSSI

DAPTOMYCIN

VANCOMYCIN

Aeterna Zentaris Submits New Drug Application to FDA for Macimorelin Acetate (AEZS-130) for Evaluation of AGHD


Macimorelin

CAS  381231-18-1

Chemical Formula: C26H30N6O3

Exact Mass: 474.23794

Molecular Weight: 474.55480

Elemental Analysis: C, 65.80; H, 6.37; N, 17.71; O, 10.11

945212-59-9 (Macimorelin acetate)

AEZS-130
ARD-07
D-87875
EP-01572
EP-1572
JMV-1843

USAN (ab-26)
MACIMORELIN ACETATE

THERAPEUTIC CLAIM
Diagnostic agent for adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD)
CHEMICAL NAMES
1. D-Tryptophanamide, 2-methylalanyl-N-[(1R)-1-(formylamino)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]-, acetate (1:1)
2. N2-(2-amino-2-methylpropanoyl-N1-[(1R)-1-formamido-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]- D-tryptophanamide acetate

MOLECULAR FORMULA
C26H30N6O3.C2H4O2
MOLECULAR WEIGHT
534.6

SPONSOR
Aeterna Zentaris GmbH
CODE DESIGNATIONS
D-87575, EP 1572, ARD 07
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER
945212-59-9

Macimorelin (also known as AEZS-130, EP-1572) is a novel synthetic small molecule, acting as a ghrelin agonist, that is orally active and stimulates the secretion of growth hormone (GH). Based on results of Phase 1 studies, AEZS-130 has potential applications for the treatment of cachexia, a condition frequently associated with severe chronic diseases such as cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and AIDS. In addition to the therapeutic application, a Phase 3 trial with AEZS-130 as a diagnostic test for growth hormone deficiencies in adults has been completed.

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/macimorelin-acetate.pdf

QUEBEC, Nov. 5, 2013 /PRNewswire/ – Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (the “Company”) today announced that it has submitted a New Drug Application (“NDA”) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) for its ghrelin agonist, macimorelin acetate (AEZS-130). Phase 3 data have demonstrated that the compound has the potential to become the first orally-approved product that induces growth hormone release to evaluate adult growth hormone deficiency (“AGHD”), with accuracy comparable to available intravenous and intramuscular testing procedures.  read at

http://www.drugs.com/nda/macimorelin_acetate_131105.html

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/macimorelin-acetate.pdf

macimorelin (JMV 1843), a ghrelin-mimetic growth hormone secretagogue in Phase III for adult growth hormone deficiency (AGHD)

Macimorelin, a growth hormone modulator, is currently awaiting registration in the U.S. by AEterna Zentaris as an oral diagnostic test of adult growth hormone deficit disorder. The company is also developing the compound in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of cancer related cachexia. The compound was being codeveloped by AEterna Zentaris and Ardana Bioscience; however, the trials underway at Ardana were suspended in 2008 based on a company strategic decision. AEterna Zentaris owns the worldwide rights of the compound. In 2007, orphan drug designation was assigned by the FDA for the treatment of growth hormone deficit in adults.

New active series of growth hormone secretagogues
J Med Chem 2003, 46(7): 1191

WO 2001096300

WO 2007093820

…………………………

J Med Chem 2003, 46(7): 1191

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jm020985q

Abstract Image

Figure

Synthetic Pathway for JMV 1843 and Analoguesa

a Reagents and conditions:  (a) IBCF, NMM, DME, 0 °C; (b) NH4OH; (c) H2, Pd/C, EtOH, HCl; (d) BOP, NMM, DMF, Boc-(d)-Trp-OH; (e) Boc2O, DMAP cat., anhydrous CH3CN; (f) BTIB, pyridine, DMF/H2O; (g) 2,4,5-trichlorophenylformate, DIEA, DMF; (h) TFA/anisole/thioanisole (8:1:1), 0 °C; (i) BOP, NMM, DMF, Boc-Aib-OH; (j) TFA/anisole/thioanisole (8:1:1), 0 °C; (k) RP preparative HPLC.

TFA, H-Aib-(d)-Trp-(d)-gTrp-CHO (7). 6 (1 g, 1.7 mmol) was dissolved in a mixture of trifluoroacetic acid (8 mL), anisole (1 mL), and thioanisole (1 mL) for 30 min at 0 °C. The solvents were removed in vacuo, the residue was stirred in ether, and the precipitated TFA, H-Aib-(d)-Trp-(d)-gTrp-CHO was filtered. 7 was purified by preparative HPLC and obtained in 52% yield. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) + correlation 1H−1H:  δ 1.21 (s, 3H, CH3 (Aib)), 1.43 (s, 3H, CH3 (Aib)), 2.97 (m, 2H, (CH2)β), 3.1 (m, 2H, (CH2)β), 4.62 (m, 1H, (CH)αA and (CH)αB), 5.32 (q, 0.4H, (CH)α‘B), 5.71 (q, 0.6H, (CH)α‘A), 7.3 (m, 4H, H5 and H6 (2 indoles)), 7.06−7.2 (4d, 2H, H2A and H2B (2 indoles)), 7.3 (m, 2H, H4 or H7 (2 indoles)), 7.6−7.8 (4d, 2H, H4A and H4B or H7A and H7B), 7.97 (s, 3H, NH2 (Aib) and CHO (formyl)), 8.2 (d, 0.4H, NH1B (diamino)), 8.3 (m,1H, NHA and NHB), 8.5 (d, 0.6H, NH1A (diamino)), 8.69 (d, 0.6H, NH2A (diamino)), 8.96 (d, 0.4H, NH2B (diamino)), 10.8 (s, 0.6H, N1H1A (indole)), 10.82 (s, 0.4H, N1H1B (indole)), 10.86 (s, 0.6H, N1H2A (indole)), 10.91 (s, 0,4H, N1H2B (indole)). MS (ES), m/z:  475 [M + H]+, 949 [2M + H]+. HPLC tR:  16.26 min (conditions A).

…………………………..

http://www.google.com/patents/US8192719

The inventors have now found that the oral administration of growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs) EP 1572 and EP 1573 can be used effectively and reliably to diagnose GHD.

EP 1572 (Formula I) or EP 1573 (Formula II) are GHSs (see WO 01/96300, Example 1 and Example 58 which are EP 1572 and EP 1573, respectively) that may be given orally.

EP 1572 and EP 1573 can also be defined as H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO and H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-C(O)NHCH2CH3. Wherein, His hydrogen, Aib is aminoisobutyl, D is the dextro isomer, Trp is tryptophan and gTrp is a group of Formula III:

…………………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/US6861409

H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO: Figure US06861409-20050301-C00007

 

Example 1 H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO

Total synthesis (percentages represent yields obtained in the synthesis as described below):

Z-D-Tr-NH2

Z-D-Trp-OH (8.9 g; 26 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in DME (25 ml) and placed in an ice water bath to 0° C. NMM (3.5 ml; 1.2 eq.), IBCF (4.1 ml; 1.2 eq.) and ammonia solution 28% (8.9 ml; 5 eq.) were added successively. The mixture was diluted with water (100 ml), and the product Z-D-Trp-NH2 precipitated. It was filtered and dried in vacuo to afford 8.58 g of a white solid.

Yield=98%.

C19H19N3O3, 337 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.46 {Chloroform/Methanol/Acetic Acid (180/10/5)}.

1H NMR (250 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 2.9 (dd, 1H, Hβ, Jββ′=14.5 Hz; Jβα=9.8 Hz); 3.1 (dd, 1H, Hβ′, Jβ′β=14.5 Hz; Jβ′α=4.3 Hz); 4.2 (sextuplet, 1H, Hα); 4.95 (s, 2H, CH2 (Z); 6.9-7.4 (m, 11H); 7.5 (s, 1H, H2); 7.65 (d, 1H, J=7.7 Hz); 10.8 (s, 1H, N1H).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 338 [M+H]+, 360 [M+Na]+, 675 [2M+H]+, 697 [2M+Na]+.

Boc-D-Trp-D-Trp-NH2

Z-D-Trp-NH2 (3 g; 8.9 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in DMF (100 ml). HCl 36% (845 μl; 1.1 eq.), water (2 ml) and palladium on activated charcoal (95 mg, 0.1 eq.) were added to the stirred mixture. The solution was bubbled under hydrogen for 24 hr. When the reaction went to completion, the palladium was filtered on celite. The solvent was removed in vacuo to afford HCl, H-D-Trp-NH2 as a colorless oil.

In 10 ml of DMF, HCl, H-D-Trp-NH2 (8.9 mmol; 1 eq.), Boc-D-Trp-OH (2.98 g; 9.8 mmol; 1.1 eq.), NMM (2.26 ml; 2.1 eq.) and BOP (4.33 g; 1.1 eq.) were added successively. After 1 hr, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (100 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo to afford 4.35 g of Boc-D-Trp-D-Trp-NH2 as a white solid.

Yield=85%.

C27H31N5O4, 489 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.48 {Chloroform/Methanol/Acetic Acid (85/10/5)}.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.28 (s, 9H, Boc); 2.75-3.36 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β; 4.14 (m, 1H, CHα); 4.52 (m, 1H, CHα′); 6.83-7.84 (m, 14H, 2 indoles (10H), NH2, NH (urethane) and NH (amide)); 10.82 (d, 1H, J=2 Hz, N1H); 10.85 (d, 1H, J=2 Hz, N1H).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 490 [M+H]+, 512 [M+Na]+, 979 [2M+H]+.

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-(NiBoc)Trp-NH2

Boc-D-Trp-D-Trp-NH2 (3 g; 6.13 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in acetonitrile (25 ml).

To this solution, di-tert-butyl-dicarbonate (3.4 g; 2.5 eq.) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (150 mg; 0.2 eq.) were successively added. After 1 hr, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate/hexane {5/5} to afford 2.53 g of Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-(NiBoc)Trp-NH2 as a white solid.

Yield=60%.

C37H47N5O8, 689 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.23 {ethyl acetate/hexane (5/5)}.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.25 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.58 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.61 (s, 9H, Boc); 2.75-3.4 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β); 4.2 (m, 1H, CHα′); 4.6 (m, 1H, CHα); 7.06-8 (m, 14H, 2 indoles (10H), NH (urethane), NH and NH2 (amides)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 690 [M+H]+, 712 [M+Na]+, 1379 [2M+H]+, 1401 [2M+Na]+.

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-H

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-(NiBoc)Trp-NH2 (3 g; 4.3 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in the mixture DMF/water (18 ml/7 ml). Then, pyridine (772 μl; 2.2 eq.) and Bis(Trifluoroacetoxy)IodoBenzene (2.1 g; 1.1 eq.) were added. After 1 hr, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and aqueous saturated sodium chloride (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo. Boc-D-NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-H was used immediately for the next reaction of formylation.

Rf=0.14 {ethyl acetate/hexane (7/3)}.

C36H47N5O7, 661 g.mol−1.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.29 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.61 (s, 18H, 2 Boc); 2.13 (s, 2H, NH2 (amine)); 3.1-2.8 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β); 4.2 (m, 1H, CHα′); 4.85 (m, 1H, CHα); 6.9-8 (m, 12H, 2 indoles (10H), NH (urethane), NH (amide)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 662 [M+H]+, 684 [M+Na]+.

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-CHO

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-H (4.3 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in DMF (20 ml). Then, N,N-diisopropylethylamine (815 μl; 1.1 eq.) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenylformate (1.08 g; 1.1 eq.) were added. After 30 minutes, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate/hexane {5/5} to afford 2.07 g of Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-CHO as a white solid.

Yield=70%.

C37H47N5O8, 689 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.27 {ethyl acetate/hexane (5/5)}.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.28 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.6 (s, 9H, Boc); 1.61 (s, 9H, Boc); 2.75-3.1 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β); 4.25 (m, 1H, (CH)αA&B); 5.39 (m, 0.4H, (CH)α′B); 5.72 (m, 0.6H, (CH)α′A); 6.95-8.55 (m, 14H, 2 indoles (10H), NH (urethane), 2 NH (amides), CHO (formyl)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 690 [M+H]+, 712 [M+Na]+, 1379 [2M+H]+.

Boc-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO

Boc-D-(NiBoc)Trp-D-g(NiBoc)Trp-CHO (1.98 g; 2.9 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in a -mixture of trifluoroacetic acid (16 ml), anisole (2 ml) and thioanisole (2 ml) for 30 minutes at 0° C. The solvents were removed in vacuo, the residue was stirred with ether and the precipitated TFA, H-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO was filtered.

TFA, H-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO (2.9 mmol; 1 eq.), Boc-Aib-OH (700 mg; 1 eq.), NMM (2.4 ml; 4.2 eq.) and BOP (1.53 g; 1.2 eq.) were successively added in 10 ml of DMF. After 1 hr, the mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (100 ml) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium hydrogen carbonate (200 ml), aqueous potassium hydrogen sulfate (200 ml, 1M), and saturated aqueous sodium chloride (200 ml). The organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and the solvent removed in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography on silica gel eluting with ethyl acetate to afford 1.16 g of Boc-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO as a white solid.

Yield=70%.

C31H38N6O5, 574 g.mol−1.

Rf=0.26 {Chloroform/Methanol/Acetic Acid (180/10/5)}.

1H NMR (200 MHZ, DMSO-d6): δ 1.21 (s, 6H, 2 CH3(Aib)); 1.31 (s, 9H, Boc); 2.98-3.12 (m, 4H, 2 (CH2)β); 4.47 (m, 1H, (CH)αA&B); 5.2 (m, 0.4H, (CH)α′B); 5.7 (m, 0.6H, (CH)α′A); 6.95-8.37 (m, 15H, 2 indoles (10H), 3 NH (amides), 1 NH (urethane) CHO (formyl)); 10.89 (m, 2H, 2 N1H (indoles)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), ml/z 575 [M+H]+, 597 [M+Na]+, 1149 [2M+H]+, 1171 [2M+Na]+.

H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrT-CHO

Boc-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO (1 g; 1.7 nmmol) was dissolved in a mixture of trifluoroacetic acid (8 ml), anisole (1 ml) and thioanisole (1 ml) for 30 minutes at 0° C. The solvents were removed in vacuo, the residue was stirred with ether and the precipitated TFA, H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO was filtered.

The product TFA, H-Aib-D-Trp-D-gTrp-CHO was purified by preparative HPLC (Waters, delta pak, C18, 40×100 mm, 5 μm, 100 A).

Yield=52%.

C26H30N6O3, 474 g.mol−1.

1H NMR (400 MHZ, DMSO-d6)+1H/1H correlation: δ 1.21 (s, 3H, CH3 (Aib)); 1.43 (s, 3H, CH3 (Aib)); 2.97 (m, 2H, (CH2)β); 3.1 (m, 2H, (CH2)β′); 4.62 (m, 1H, (CH)αA&B); 5.32 (q, 0.4H, (CH)α′B); 5.71 (q, 0.6H, (CH)α′A); 7.3 (m, 4H5 and H6 (2 indoles)); 7.06-7.2 (4d, 2H, H2A et H2B (2 indoles)); 7.3 (m, 2H, H4 or H7 (2 indoles)); 7.6-7.8 (4d, 2H, H4A and H4B or H7A et H7B); 7.97 (s, 3H, NH2 (Aib) and CHO (Formyl));8.2 (d, 0.4H, NH1B (diamino)); 8.3 (m,1H, NHA&B); 8.5 (d, 0.6H, NH1A (diamino)); 8.69 (d, 0.6H, NH2A (diamino)); 8.96 (d, 0.4H, NH2B (diamino)); 10.8 (s, 0.6H, N1H1A (indole)); 10.82 (s, 0.4H, N1H1B (indole)); 10.86 (s, 0.6H, N1H2A (indole)); 10.91 (s, 0.4, N1H2B (indole)).

Mass Spectrometry (Electrospray), m/z 475 [M+H]+, 949 [2M+H]+.

………………………………

UPDATED INFO AS ON JAN 6 2014

Aeterna Zentaris NDA for Macimorelin Acetate in AGHD Accepted for Filing by the FDA

Quebec City, Canada, January 6, 2014 – Aeterna Zentaris Inc. (NASDAQ: AEZS) (TSX: AEZS) (the “Company”) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) has accepted for filing the Company’s New Drug Application (“NDA”) for its ghrelin agonist, macimorelin acetate, in Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency (“AGHD”). The acceptance for filing of the NDA indicates the FDA has determined that the application is sufficiently complete to permit a substantive review.

The Company’s NDA, submitted on November 5, 2013, seeks approval for the commercialization of macimorelin acetate as the first orally-administered product that induces growth hormone release to evaluate AGHD. Phase 3 data have demonstrated the compound to be well tolerated, with accuracy comparable to available intravenous and intramuscular testing procedures. The application will be subject to a standard review and will have a Prescription Drug User Fee Act (“PDUFA”) date of November 5, 2014. The PDUFA date is the goal date for the FDA to complete its review of the NDA.

David Dodd, President and CEO of Aeterna Zentaris, commented, “The FDA’s acceptance of this NDA submission is another significant milestone in our strategy to commercialize macimorelin acetate as the first approved oral product for AGHD evaluation. We are finalizing our commercial plan for this exciting new product. We are also looking to broaden the commercial application of macimorelin acetate in AGHD for use related to traumatic brain injury victims and other developmental areas, which would represent significant benefit to the evaluation of growth hormone deficiency, while presenting further potential revenue growth opportunities for the Company.”

About Macimorelin Acetate

Macimorelin acetate, a ghrelin agonist, is a novel orally-active small molecule that stimulates the secretion of growth hormone. The Company has completed a Phase 3 trial for use in evaluating AGHD, and has filed an NDA to the FDA in this indication. Macimorelin acetate has been granted orphan drug designation by the FDA for use in AGHD. Furthermore, macimorelin acetate is in a Phase 2 trial as a treatment for cancer-induced cachexia. Aeterna Zentaris owns the worldwide rights to this novel patented compound.

About AGHD

AGHD affects about 75,000 adults across the U.S., Canada and Europe. Growth hormone not only plays an important role in growth from childhood to adulthood, but also helps promote a hormonally-balanced health status. AGHD mostly results from damage to the pituitary gland. It is usually characterized by a reduction in bone mineral density, lean mass, exercise capacity, and overall quality of life.

About Aeterna Zentaris

Aeterna Zentaris is a specialty biopharmaceutical company engaged in developing novel treatments in oncology and endocrinology. The Company’s pipeline encompasses compounds from drug discovery to regulatory approval.

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GLENMARK SCIENTIST , NAVIMUMBAI, INDIA

Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it has submitted a NDA to the U.S. FDA for approval of its investigational antibiotic tedizolid phosphate (TR-701).


TEDIZOLID PHOSPHATE
PRONUNCIATION ted” eye zoe’ lid
THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections
CHEMICAL NAMES
1. 2-Oxazolidinone, 3-[3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-3-pyridinyl]phenyl]-5- [(phosphonooxy)methyl]-, (5R)-
2. [(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl]phenyl}-2-oxooxazolidin-5- yl]methyl hydrogen phosphate

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/tedizolid-phosphate.pdf

MOLECULAR FORMULA C17H16FN6O6P
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 450.3
TRADEMARK None as yet
SPONSOR Trius Therapeutics
CODE DESIGNATION TR-701 FA
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER 856867-55-5
Note: This adoption statement supersedes the USAN torezolid phosphate (N09/81), which is hereby rescinded and replaced by the USAN tedizolid phosphate (N10/118).

Cubist Announces Submission of New Drug Application for Investigational Antibiotic Tedizolid for Treatment of Serious Skin Infections

LEXINGTON, Mass.–(BUSINESS WIRE)– Cubist Pharmaceuticals, Inc. today announced that it has submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of its investigational antibiotic tedizolid phosphate (TR-701). Cubist is seeking approval of tedizolid phosphate for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). Tedizolid phosphate is a once daily oxazolidinone being developed for both intravenous (I.V.) and oral administration for the treatment of serious Gram-positive infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

http://www.drugs.com/nda/tedizolid_131023.html

Emergence of bacterial resistance to known antibacterial agents is becoming a major challenge in treating bacterial infections. One way forward to treat bacterial infections, and especially those caused by resistant bacteria, is to develop newer antibacterial agents that can overcome the bacterial resistance. Coates et al. (Br. J. Pharmacol. 2007; 152(8), 1147-1154.) have reviewed novel approaches to developing new antibiotics. However, the development of new antibacterial agents is a challenging task. For example, Gwynn et al. (Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2010, 1213: 5-19) have reviewed the challenges in the discovery of antibacterial agents.

Several antibacterial agents have been described in the prior art (for example, see PCT International Application Nos. PCT/US2010/060923, PCT/EP2010/067647, PCT/US2010/052109, PCT/US2010/048109, PCT/GB2009/050609, PCT/EP2009/056178 and PCT/US2009/041200). However, there remains a need for potent antibacterial agents for preventing and/or treating bacterial infections, including those caused by bacteria that are resistant to known antibacterial agents.

my old article cut paste

ChemSpider 2D Image | Torezolid | C17H15FN6O3

Tedizolid, 856866-72-3

(5R)-3-{3-fluoro-4-[6-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridin-3-yl]phenyl}-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one

  • Molecular Formula: C17H15FN6O3
  • Average mass: 370.337799

 

Torezolid (also known as TR-701 and now tedizolid[1]) is an oxazolidinone drug being developed by Trius Therapeutics (originator Dong-A Pharmaceuticals) for complicated skin and skin-structure infections (cSSSI), including those caused by Methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA).[2]

As of July 2012, tedizolid had completed one phase III trial, with another one under way. [3]Both trials compare a six-day regimen of tedizolid 200mg once-daily against a ten-day regimen of Zyvox (linezolid) 600mg twice-daily.

The prodrug of tedizolid is called “TR-701″, while the active ingredient is called “TR-700″.[4][5]

March 5 2013

Trius Therapeutics will soon be reporting data from its second phase III trial (ESTABLILSH-2) and the recently announced publication of the data from its first phase III trial (ESTABLISH-1) in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)

  1. “Trius grows as lead antibiotic moves forward”. 31 Oct 2011.
  2. “Trius Completes Enrollment In Phase 2 Clinical Trial Evaluating Torezolid (TR-701) In Patients With Complicated Skin And Skin Structure Infections”. Jan 2009.
  3. http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?flds=Xf&flds=a&flds=b&term=tedizolid&phase=2&fund=2&show_flds=Y
  4. PMID 19528279 In vitro activity of TR-700, the active ingredient of the antibacterial prodrug TR-701, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agent.
  5. PMID 19218276 TR-700 in vitro activity against and resistance mutation frequencies among Gram-positive pathogens.

Monoclonal antibody (mAbs) 2013


2013——-29 monoclonal antibody (mAbs) drugs are in Phase III clinical development.

While around 350 therapeutic mAbs are currently in clinical development globally, only 28 had entered active Phase 2/3 or Phase 3 studies as of January 2013,  Additionally one mAb mixture was under evaluation in Phase III.

Historically, mAbs that target antigens relevant to cancer have comprised approximately 50% of the mAb clinical pipeline,

but in 2013 the picture has changed: 66% or 19 of the antibodies to watch in 2013 are for non-cancer indications.

The non-cancer mAbs include alirocumab (Regeneron; Sanofi, hypercholesterinemia);

AMG 145 (Amgen, hypercholesterinemia),

epratuzumab (UCB, SLE),

gantenerumab (Roche; Alzheimer’s disease),

gevokizumab (Xoma/Servier, Non-infectious uveitis),

itolizumab (Biocon, Plaque psoriasis), ixekizumab (Eli Lilly and Co., psoriasis),

lebrikizumab (Roche/Genentech, rheumatoid arthritis),

mepolizumab (GSK, Asthma, COPD etc.),

ocrelizumab (Roche/Genentech, multiple sclerosis),

reslizumab (Teva, Eosinophilic asthma), romosozumab (Amgen, Postmenopausal osteoporosis),

sarilumab (Regeneron; Sanofi, rheumatoid arthritis),

secukinumab (Novartis, rheuma, psoriasis),

sirukumab (Janssen R&D LLC, rheumatoid arthritis),

solanezumab (Eli Lilly and Co., Alzheimer’s disease),

tabalumab (Eli Lilly and Co., rheuma, SLE)

and

vedolizumab (Millenium, Ulcerative colitis; Crohn disease).

The mixture of actoxumab and bezlotoxumab (MK-3415A, Merck & Co.) is being evaluated in two Phase 3 studies as a treatment for Clostridium difficile infection.

The ten cancer mAbs are:

elotuzumab (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Abbott, multiple myeloma),

farletuzumab (Morphotek, ovarian cancer),

inotuzumab ozogamicin (Pfizer; UCB, ALL, NHL),

naptumomab estafenatox (Active Biotech, renal cell carcinoma),

necitumumab (ImClone LLC, NSCL),

nivolumab (Bristol-Myers Squibb, NSCL, renal cell carcinoma),

obinutuzumab (Roche/Genetech, Diffuse large B cell lymphoma, CLL, NHL),

onartuzumab (Roche/Genetech, NSCL cancer; gastric cancer),

racotumomab (CIMAB; Laboratorio Elea S.A.C.I.F. y A, NSCL),

and ramucirumab (ImClone LLC, Gastric; liver, breast, colorectal, NSCL cancers).

Gilead Submits New Drug Application to U.S. FDA for Idelalisib for the Treatment of Indolent Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma


CAL 101, IDELALISIB

SEPT 2013

Gilead Submits New Drug Application to U.S. FDA for Idelalisib for the Treatment of Indolent Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

FOSTER CITY, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Sep. 11, 2013– Gilead Sciences, Inc. today announced that the company has submitted a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of idelalisib, an investigational, targeted, oral inhibitor of PI3K delta, for the treatment of indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (iNHL). The data submitted in this NDA support the use of idelalisib for patients with iNHL that is refractory (non-responsive) to rituximab and to alkylating-agent-containing chemotherapy.

read all at

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-botox-cosmetic-improve-appearance-crow-s-feet-lines-3893.html

………………………………………….
January 2013 updated

Idelalisib ….US FDA Accepts NDA for Gilead’s Idelalisib for the Treatment of Refractory Indolent Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

JANUARY 14, 2014 8:35 AM / LEAVE A COMMENT

 

Idelalisib

An antineoplastic agent and p110delta inhibitor

(S)-2-(1-(9H-purin-6-ylamino)propyl)-5-fluoro-3-phenylquinazolin-4(3H)-one

Icos (Originator)

  • CAL-101
  • GS-1101
  • Idelalisib
  • UNII-YG57I8T5M0

M.Wt: 415.43
Formula: C22H18FN7O

CAS No.: 870281-82-6
CAL-101 Solubility: DMSO ≥80mg/mL Water <1.2mg/mL Ethanol ≥33mg/mL

5-Fluoro-3-phenyl-2-[(1S)-1-(7H-purin-6-ylamino)propyl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone

idelalisib

Idelalisib (codenamed GS-1101 or CAL-101) is a drug under investigation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia. It is in Phase III clinical trials testing drug combinations with rituximab and/or bendamustine as of 2013. The substance acts as aphosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor; more specifically, it blocks P110δ, the delta isoform of the enzyme phosphoinositide 3-kinase.[1][2]

GDC-0032 is a potent, next-generation beta isoform-sparing PI3K inhibitor targeting PI3Kα/δ/γ with IC 50 of 0.29 nM/0.12 nM/0.97nM,> 10 fold over Selective PI3K [beta].

GS-1101 is a novel, orally available small molecule inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta (PI3Kdelta) develop by Gilead and is waiting for registration in U.S. for the treatment of patients with indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma that is refractory (non-responsive) to rituximab and to alkylating-agent-containing chemotherapy and for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The compound is also in phase III clinical evaluation for the treatment of elderly patients with previously untreated small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) and acute myeloid leukemia. Clinical trials had been under way for the treatment of inflammation and allergic rhinitis; however, no recent development has been reported. Preclinical studies have shown that GS-1101 has desirable pharmaceutical properties. The compound was originally developed by Calistoga Pharmaceuticals, acquired by Gilead on April 1, 2011.

clinical trials, click link

http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=CAL-101%20OR%20GS-1101%20OR%20Idelalisib

FOSTER CITY, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Jan. 13, 2014– Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review the company’s New Drug Application (NDA) for idelalisib, a targeted, oral inhibitor of PI3K delta, for the treatment of refractory indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (iNHL). FDA has granted a standard review for the iNHL NDA and has set a target review date under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) of September 11, 2014.

The NDA for iNHL, submitted on September 11, 2013, was supported by a single arm Phase 2 study (Study 101-09) evaluating idelalisib in patients with iNHL that is refractory (non-responsive) to rituximab and to alkylating-agent-containing chemotherapy. Following Gilead’s NDA submission for iNHL, FDA granted idelalisib a Breakthrough Therapy designation for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The FDA grants Breakthrough Therapy designation to drug candidates that may offer major advances in treatment over existing options. Gilead submitted an NDA for idelalisib for the treatment of CLL on December 6, 2013.

About Idelalisib

Idelalisib is an investigational, highly selective oral inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) delta. PI3K delta signaling is critical for the activation, proliferation, survival and trafficking of B lymphocytes and is hyperactive in many B-cell malignancies. Idelalisib is being developed both as a single agent and in combination with approved and investigational therapies.

Gilead’s clinical development program for idelalisib in iNHL includes Study 101-09 in highly refractory patients and two Phase 3 studies of idelalisib in previously treated patients. The development program in CLL includes three Phase 3 studies of idelalisib in previously treated patients. Combination therapy with idelalisib and GS-9973, Gilead’s novel spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor, also is being evaluated in a Phase 2 trial of patients with relapsed or refractory CLL, iNHL and other lymphoid malignancies.

Additional information about clinical studies of idelalisib and Gilead’s other investigational cancer agents can be found at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Idelalisib and GS-9973 are investigational products and their safety and efficacy have not been established.

About Indolent Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

Indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma refers to a group of largely incurable slow-growing lymphomas that run a relapsing course after therapy and can lead ultimately to life-threatening complications such as serious infections and marrow failure. Most iNHL patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage of disease, and median survival from time of initial diagnosis for patients with the most common form of iNHL, follicular lymphoma, is 8 to 10 years. The outlook for refractory iNHL patients is significantly poorer.

About Gilead Sciences

Gilead Sciences is a biopharmaceutical company that discovers, develops and commercializes innovative therapeutics in areas of unmet medical need. The company’s mission is to advance the care of patients suffering from life-threatening diseases worldwide. Headquartered in Foster City, California, Gilead has operations in North and South America, Europe and Asia Pacific.

The delta form of PI3K is expressed primarily in blood-cell lineages, including cells that cause or mediate hematologic malignancies, inflammation, autoimmune diseases and allergies. By specifically inhibiting only PI3K delta, a therapeutic effect is exerted without inhibiting PI3K signalling that is critical to the normal function of healthy cells. Extensive studies have shown that inhibition of other PI3K forms can cause significant toxicities, particularly with respect to glucose metabolism, which is essential for normal cell activity.

In 2011, orphan drug designation was assigned to GS-1101 in the U.S. for the treatment of CLL. In 2013, several orphan drug designations were assigned to the compound in the E.U. and U.S.: for the treatment of follicular lymphoma, for the treatment of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma (MALT), for the treatment of nodal marginal zone lymphoma, for the treatment of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, and for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma. Orphan drug designation was also assigned in the U.S. for the treatment of lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma with or without Walenstom’s macroglobulinemia and, in the E.U., for the treatment of Waldenstrom’s macroglobulinemia (lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma).

Later in 2013, some of these orphan drug designations were withdrawn in the E.U.; for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia / small lymphocytic lymphoma, for the treatment of extranodal marginal-zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), for the treatment of of nodal marginal-zone lymphoma and for the treatment of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma. In 2013, the FDA granted a breakthrough therapy designation for the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

  1.  H. Spreitzer (13 May 2013). “Neue Wirkstoffe – Ibrutinib und Idelalisib”. Österreichische Apothekerzeitung (in German) (10/2013): 34.
  2.  Wu, M.; Akinleye, A.; Zhu, X. (2013). “Novel agents for chronic lymphocytic leukemia”.Journal of Hematology & Oncology 6: 36. doi:10.1186/1756-8722-6-36.PMC 3659027PMID 23680477.

idelalisib

CAL-101 is an Oral Delta Isoform-Selective PI3 Kinase Inhibitor.

CAL-101 (GS 1101) is a potent PI3K p110δ inhibitor with an IC50 of 65 nM. PI3K-delta inhibitor CAL-101 inhibits the production of the second messenger phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), preventing the activation of the PI3K signaling pathway and thus inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, motility, and survival. Unlike other isoforms of PI3K, PI3K-delta is expressed primarily in hematopoietic lineages. The targeted inhibition of PI3K-delta is designed to preserve PI3K signaling in normal, non-neoplastic cells. [3][4]
Reference:
[3] Blood 2011, 117, 591-594.
[4] Blood, 2010, 116, 2078-2088.
5. WO 2005113556
6. WO 2005113554
7. WO 2010057048
8. WO 2011156759
9. WO 2012125510
10. WO 2013134288
11. US 2013274198
12. J Med Chem. 2013 Mar 14;56(5):1922-39. doi: 10.1021/jm301522m
US8207153 6-27-2012 QUINAZOLINONES AS INHIBITORS OF HUMAN PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE DELTA
US2012015964 1-20-2012 QUINAZOLINONES AS INHIBITORS OF HUMAN PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE DELTA
US2011306622 12-16-2011 METHODS OF TREATING HEMATOLOGICAL DISORDERS WITH QUINAZOLINONE COMPOUNDS IN SELECTED SUBJECTS
US7932260 4-27-2011 Quinazolinones as Inhibitors of Human Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Delta
US2011044942 2-25-2011 METHODS OF TREATMENT FOR SOLID TUMORS
US2010256167 10-8-2010 QUINAZOLINONES AS INHIBITORS OF HUMAN PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE DELTA
US2010202963 8-13-2010 THERAPIES FOR HEMATOLOGIC MALIGNANCIES
WO2005113556A1 * 12 May 2005 1 Dec 2005 Icos Corp Quinazolinones as inhibitors of human phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase delta
WO2005117889A1 * 12 Nov 2004 15 Dec 2005 Didier Bouscary Methods for treating and/or preventing aberrant proliferation of hematopoietic
WO2005120511A1 * 4 Jun 2005 22 Dec 2005 Joel S Hayflick Methods for treating mast cell disorders
WO2006089106A2 * 16 Feb 2006 24 Aug 2006 Icos Corp Phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors for inhibiting leukocyte accumulation
US20060106038 * 25 May 2005 18 May 2006 Icos Corporation Methods for treating and/or preventing aberrant proliferation of hematopoietic cells
……………………….
synthesis

The synthesis of a compound in accordance with formula I is first exemplified using steps A-E below, which provide a synthetic procedure for compound 107, the structure of which is shown below.

Figure imgf000150_0001

(107) is idelalisib

……………….

Synthesis of 2-fluoro-6-nitro-N-phenyl-benzamide (108)

Step A: A solution of 2-fluoro-6- nitrobenzoic acid (100 g, 0.54 mol) and dimethylformamide (5 mL) in dichloromethane (600 mL) was treated dropwise with oxalyl chloride (2 M in dichloromethane, 410 mL, 0.8 mol, 1.5 eq) over 30 min. After stirring 2 h at room temperature, the reaction was concentrated to an orange syrup with some solids present. The syrup was dissolved in dry dioxane (80 mL) and slowly added to a suspension of aniline (49 mL, 0.54 mol, 1 eq) and sodium bicarbonate (90 g, 1.08 mol, 2 eq) in a mixture of dioxane (250 mL) and water (250 mL) at 6 0C. The temperature reached 27°C at the end of the addition. After 30 min, the reaction mixture was treated with water (1.2 L). The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration, washed with water (300 mL) , air dried in the funnel, and dried in vacuo at 50°C for 24 h to afford an off-white solid product (139 g, 99%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.82 (s, IH), 8.12 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, IH), 7.91-7.77 (m, 2H), 7.64 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 2H), 7.38 (t, J = 7.9 Hz, 2H), 7.15 > (t, J = 7.4 Hz, IH), ESI-MS m/z 261 (MH+). The reaction described above and compound 108 are shown below.

Figure imgf000151_0001

………………………..

Synthesis of(S) – [1- (2-fluoro-6-nitro-benzoyl) -phenyl-aminocarbonyl] – propyl-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (109)

Step B: A suspension of compound 108 (0.5 mol) and dimethylformamide (5 mL) in thionyl chloride (256 mL, 2.5 mol, 5 eq) was stirred at 85°C for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo to a brown syrup. The syrup was dissolved in dichloromethane (200 mL) and was slowly added to a solution of N-BOC-L-2-aminobutyric acid (112 g, 0.55 mol, 1.1 eq) and triethylamine (77 mL, 0.55 mol, 1.1 eq) in dichloromethane (600 mL) at 10 0C. After stirring at room temperature for 3 h, salts were removed by filtration, and the solution was washed with 100 mL of water, saturated sodium bicarbonate, water, 5% citric acid, and saturated sodium chloride. The organic phase was dried with magnesium sulfate and concentrated to a red syrup. The syrup was dissolved in dichloromethane (450 mL) and purified by flash chromatography on a silica gel plug (15 x 22 cm, 4 L dry silica) eluted with hexanes/ethyl acetate (10%, 8 L; 15%, 8 L; 20%, 8 L; 25%, 4 L) to yield the compound 109 as an off-white solid (147 g, 66%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 8.13 (d, J = 8.0 Hz, IH), 7.84 (t, J = 8.6 Hz, IH), 7.78- 7.67 (m, IH), 7.65-7.49 (m, 3H), 7.40-7.28 ( m, 2H), 7.19 (d, J = 7.5 Hz, IH), 4.05 (broad s, IH), 1.75- 1.30 (m, 2H), 1.34 (s, 9H), 0.93 (broad s, 3H). ESI- MS m/z 446.3 (MH+) . The reaction described above and compound 109 are shown below.

Figure imgf000152_0001
…………………….

Synthesis of(S) – [1- (5-fluoro-4-oxo-3-phenyl-3 , 4-dihydro-quinazolin-2- yl) -propyl] -carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (110)

Step C: A solution of compound 109 (125 mmol, 1 eq) in acetic acid (500 mL) was treated with zinc dust (48.4 g, 740 mmol, 6 eq) added in 3 portions, and the reaction mixture was allowed to cool to below 35°C between additions. After stirring for 2 h at ambient temperature, solids were filtered off by vacuum filtration and washed with acetic acid (50 mL) . The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo, dissolved in EtOAc (400 mL) , washed with water (300 mL) , and the water layer was extracted with EtOAc (300 mL) . The combined organic layers were washed with water (200 mL) , sat’d sodium bicarbonate (2 x 200 mL) , sat’d NaCl (100 mL) , dried with MgSO4, and concentrated to a syrup. The syrup was dissolved in toluene (200 mL) and purified by flash chromatography on a silica gel plug (13 x 15 cm, 2 L dry silica) eluted with hexanes/ethyl acetate (10%, 4 L; 15%, 4 L; 17.5%, 8 L; 25%, 4 L) to yield compound 110 as an off-white foamy solid (33.6 g, 69%). 1H NMR (300 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 7.83 (td, J = 8.2, 5.7 Hz, IH), 7.64-7.48 (m, 5H), 7.39 (broad d, J = 7.6 Hz, IH), 7.30 (dd, J = 8.3 Hz, IH), 7.23 (d, J = 7.6 Hz, IH), 4.02-3.90 (m, IH), 1.76-1.66 (m, IH), 1.62-1.46 (m, IH), 1.33 (s, 9H), 0.63 (t, J= 7.3 Hz, 3H). ESI-MS m/z 398.3 (MH+). The reaction described above and compound 110 are shown below.

Figure imgf000153_0001

…………..

Syn of (S) -2- (1-amino-propyl) -5-fluoro-3-phenyl-3H-quinazolin-4- one (111)

Step D: A solution of compound 110 (85 mmol) in dichloromethane (60 mL) was treated with trifluoroacetic acid (60 mL) . The reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h, concentrated in vacuo, and partitioned between dichloromethane (150 mL) and 10% K2CO3 (sufficient amount to keep the pH greated than 10) . The aqueous layer was extracted with additional dichloromethane (100 raL) , and the combined organic layers were washed with water (50 mli) and brine (50 mL) . After drying with Mg SO4, the solution was concentrated to provide compound 111 as an off-white solid (22 g, 88%) . 1H NMR (300 MHz,

CDCl3) δ 7.73-7.65 (m, IH), 7.62-7.49 (m, 4H), 7.32- 7.22 (m, 2H), 7.13-7.06 (m, IH), 3.42 (dd, J= 7.5, 5.2 Hz, IH), 1.87-1.70 (m, IH), 1.58-1.43 (m, IH), 0.80 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 3H) . ESI-MS m/z 298.2 (MH+) . The reaction described above and compound 111 are shown below.

Figure imgf000154_0001

………………

syn of (S) -5-fluoro-3-phenyl-2- [1- (9H-purin-6-ylamino) -propyl] – 3H-quinazolin-4-one (107)

Step E: A suspension of compound 111(65.6 mmol, 1 eq) , 6-bromopurine (14.6 g, 73.4 mmol, 1.1 eq) , and DIEA (24.3 mL, 140 mmol, 2 eq) in tert- butanol (40 mL) was stirred for 24 h at 800C. The reaction mixture was concentrated in vacuo and treated with water to yield a solid crude product that was collected by vacuum filtration, washed with water, and air dried. Half of the obtained solid crude product was dissolved in MeOH (600 mL) , concentrated onto silica gel (300 mL dry) , and purified by flash chromatography (7.5 x 36 cm, eluted with 10 L of 4% MeOH/CH2Cl2) to yield a solid product. The solid product was then dissolved in EtOH (250 mL) and concentrated in vacuo to compound 107 idelalisib as a light yellow solid (7.2 g, 50%).

1H NMR (300 MHz, 80 0C, DMSO-d5) δ 12.66 (broad s, IH), 8.11 (s, IH), 8.02 (broad s, IH), 7.81-7.73 (m, IH),7.60-7.42 (m, 6H), 7.25-7.15 (m, 2H), 4.97 (broad s, IH), 2.02-1.73 (m, 2H), 0.79 (t, J= 7.3 Hz, 3H).

ESI-MS m/z 416.2 (MH+).

C, H, N elemental analysis (C22Hi8N7OF-EtOH- 0.4 H2O).

Chiral purity 99.8:0.2 (S:R) using chiral HPLC (4.6 x 250 mm Chiralpak ODH column, 20 °C, 85:15 hexanes : EtOH, 1 rnL/min, sample loaded at a concentration of 1 mg/mL in EtOH) . The reaction described above and compound 107 idelalisib are shown below.

Figure imgf000155_0001
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8-1-2013
Identification of potent Yes1 kinase inhibitors using a library screening approach.
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
 
3-14-2013
Synthesis and cancer stem cell-based activity of substituted 5-morpholino-7H-thieno[3,2-b]pyran-7-ones designed as next generation PI3K inhibitors.
Journal of medicinal chemistry
 
10-25-2012
PI3Kδ and PI3Kγ as targets for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
Journal of medicinal chemistry

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