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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

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NEW PATENT, WO 2016108172, OSPEMIFENE AND FISPEMIFENE, OLON S.P.A.


Ospemifene.svg

Ospemifene is useful for treating menopause-induced vulvar and vaginal atrophy; while fispemifene is useful for treating symptoms related with male androgen deficiency and male neurological disorders.

In July 2016, Newport Premium™ reported that Olon was potentially interested in ospemifene and holds an active US DMF for ospemifene since September 2015. Olon’s website also lists ospemifene under R&D APIs portfolio.

WO2016108172

PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF OSPEMIFENE AND FISPEMIFENE

OLON S.P.A. [IT/IT]; Strada Rivoltana, Km. 6/7 20090 Rodano (MI) (IT)

CRISTIANO, Tania; (IT).
ALPEGIANI, Marco; (IT)

 

WO2016108172

Process for preparing ospemifene or fispemifene, by reacting a phenol with an alkylating agent.

Ospemifene, the chemical name of which is 2-{4-[(lZ)-4-chloro-l,2-diphenyl-l-buten-l-yl]phenoxy}ethanol (Figure), is a non-steroidal selective oestrogen-receptor modulator (SERM) which is the active ingredient of a medicament recently approved for the treatment of menopause-induced vulvar and vaginal atrophy.

The preparation of ospemifene, which is disclosed in WO96/07402 and WO97/32574, involves the reaction sequence reported in Scheme 1 :

Ospemifene

Scheme 1

The first step involves alkylation of 1 with benzyl-(2-bromoethyl)ether under phase-transfer conditions. The resulting product 2 is reacted with triphenylphosphine and carbon tetrachloride to give chloro-derivative 3, from which the benzyl protecting group is removed by hydrogenolysis to give ospemifene.

A more direct method of preparing ospemifene is disclosed in WO2008/099059 and illustrated in Scheme 2.

Ospemifene

Scheme 2

Intermediate 5 (PG = protecting group) is obtained by alkylating 4 with a compound X-CH2-CH2-O-PG, wherein PG is a hydroxy protecting group and X is a leaving group (specifically chlorine, bromine, iodine, mesyloxy or tosyloxy), and then converted to ospemifene by removing the protecting group.

Alternatively (WO2008/099059), phenol 4 is alkylated with a compound of formula X-CH2-COO-R wherein X is a leaving group and R is an alkyl, to give a compound of formula 6, the ester group of which is then reduced to give ospemifene (Scheme 3)

Ospemifene

Scheme 3

Processes for the synthesis of ospemifene not correlated with those reported in schemes 2 and 3 are also disclosed in the following documents: CN104030896, WO2014/060640, WO2014/060639, CN103242142 and WO201 1/089385.

Fispemifene, the chemical name of which is (Z)-2-[2-[4-(4-chloro-l,2-diphenylbut-l-enyl)phenoxy]ethoxy]ethanol (Figure) is a non-steroidal selective oestrogen-receptor modulator (SERM), initially disclosed in WOO 1/36360. Publications WO2004/108645 and WO2006/024689 suggest the use of the product in the treatment and prevention of symptoms related with male androgen

deficiency. The product is at the clinical trial stage for the treatment of male neurological disorders.

According to an evaluation of the synthesis routes for ospemifene and fispemifene described in the literature, those which use compound 4 (Schemes 2 and 3) are particularly interesting, as 4 is also a key intermediate in the synthesis of toremifene, an oestrogen-receptor antagonist (ITMI20050278).

Leaving group X of the compound of formula 7 is preferably a halogen, such as chlorine, bromine or iodine, or an alkyl or arylsulphonate such as mesyloxy or tosyloxy.

In one embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula 7, X is a leavmg group as defined above and Y is -(OCH2CH2)nOH wherein n is zero, and the reaction of 7 with 4 provides ospemifene, as reported in Scheme 4.

Scheme 4

In another embodiment of the invention, in the compound of formula 7, X and Y, taken together, represent an oxygen atom, the compound of formula 7 is ethylene oxide, and the reaction of 7 with 4 provides ospemifene, as reported in Scheme 5.

Scheme 5

In another embodiment of the invention, X is a leaving group as defined above and n is 1, and the reaction of 7 with 4 provides fispemifene, as reported in Scheme 6.

Scheme 6

The reaction between phenol 4 and alkylating reagent 7, wherein X is a leaving group as defined above and Y is the -(OCHbCEh^OH group as defined above, can be effected in an aprotic solvent preferably selected from ethers such as tetrahydrofuran, dioxane, dimethoxyethane, tert-butyl methyl ether, amides such as N,N-dimethylformamide, Ν,Ν-dimethylacetamide and N-methylpyrrolidone, nitriles such as acetonitrile, and hydrocarbons such as toluene and xylene, in the presence of a base preferably selected from alkoxides, amides, carbonates, oxides or hydrides of an alkali or alkaline-earth metal, such as potassium tert-butoxide, lithium bis-trimethylsilylamide, caesium and potassium carbonate, calcium oxide and sodium hydride.

The reaction can involve the formation in situ of an alkali or alkaline earth salt of phenol 4, or said salt can be isolated and then reacted with alkylating reagent 7. Examples of phenol 4 salts which can be conveniently isolated are the sodium salt and the potassium salt. Said salts can be prepared by known methods, for example by treatment with the corresponding hydroxides (see preparation of the potassium salt of phenol 4 by treatment with aqueous potassium hydroxide as described in document ITMI20050278), or from the corresponding alkoxides, such as sodium methylate in methanol for the preparation of the sodium salt of phenol 4, as described in the examples of the present application.

Example 1

Sodium hydride (4.2 g) is loaded in portions into a solution of 4-(4-chloro-l,2-diphenyl-buten-l-yl)phenol (10 g) in tetrahydrofuran (120 ml) in an inert gas environment, and the mixture is maintained under stirring at room temperature for 1 h. 2-Iodoethanol (11 ml) is added dropwise, and the reaction mixture is refluxed for about 9 h. Water is added, and the mixture is concentrated and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase is washed with sodium carbonate aqueous solution and then with water, and then concentrated under vacuum. After crystallisation of the residue from methanol-water (about 5: 1), 9.9 g of crude ospemifene is obtained.

Example 2

A solution of sodium methylate in methanol (6.25 ml) is added to a solution of 4-(4-chloro-l,2-diphenyl-buten-l-yl)phenol (10 g) in methanol (100 ml) in an inert gas environment, and maintained under stirring at room temperature for 1 h. The mixture is concentrated under vacuum and taken up with tetrahydrofuran (100 ml). A solution of 2-iodoethanol (3.5 ml) in tetrahydrofuran (30 ml) is added dropwise, and the reaction mixture is refluxed for about 3 h. Water is added, and the mixture is concentrated and extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic phase is washed with a saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, and finally with water. The resulting solution is then concentrated under vacuum and crystallised from methanol-water to obtain 5.8 g of crude ospemifene.

Example 3

Potassium tert-butylate (2.0 g) is added to a solution of 4-(4-chloro-l,2-diphenyl-buten-l-yl)phenol (5 g) in tert-butanol (75 ml) in an inert gas environment, and maintained under stirring at room temperature for 1 h. The solvents are concentrated under vacuum, and the concentrate is taken up with tetrahydrofuran (50 ml). A solution of 2-iodoethanol (1.7 ml) in tetrahydrofuran (15 ml) is added in about 30 minutes, and the reaction mixture is then refluxed for about 2 h. The process then continues as described in Example 1, and 2.9 g of crude ospemifene is obtained.

Example 4

A 50% potassium hydroxide aqueous solution (4.4 ml) is added to a solution of 4-(4-chloro-l,2-diphenyl-buten-l-yl)phenol (2 g) in toluene (20 ml) in an inert gas environment, and maintained under stirring at room temperature for 15

minutes. 2-Iodoethanol (2.2 ml) is added in about 30 minutes, and the reaction mixture is refluxed and maintained at that temperature for about 7 h. After the addition of water, the phases are separated. The organic phase is washed with a saturated sodium hydrogen carbonate aqueous solution, and finally with water. The organic phase is then concentrated under vacuum. After crystallisation of the residue from methanol-water (about 5:1), 0.85 g of crude ospemifene is obtained.

 

//////NEW PATENT, WO 2016108172, OSPEMIFENE,  FISPEMIFENE, OLON S.P.A.

Fispemifene for hypogonadism


Fispemifene.png

 

 

Fispemifene, HM 101

Fispemifene; UNII-3VZ2833V08;

cas 341524-89-8

Molecular Formula: C26H27ClO3
Molecular Weight: 422.94378 g/mol

2-[2-[4-[(Z)-4-chloro-1,2-diphenylbut-1-enyl]phenoxy]ethoxy]ethanol

Treatment of Hypogonadism

Androgen Decline in the Aging Male (Andropause) in phase 2

Fispemifene is the Z-isomer of the compound of formula (I)

 

Figure US07504530-20090317-C00004

WO 01/36360 describes a group of SERMs, which are tissue-specific estrogens and which can be used in women in the treatment of climacteric symptoms, osteoporosis, Alzheimer’s disease and/or cardiovascular diseases without the carcinogenic risk. Certain compounds can be given to men to protect them against osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and Alzheimer’s disease without estrogenic adverse events (gynecomastia, decreased libido etc.). Of the compounds described in said patent publication, the compound (Z)-2-{2-[4-(4-chloro-1,2-diphenylbut-1-enyl)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethanol (also known under the generic name fispemifene) has shown a very interesting hormonal profile suggesting that it will be especially valuable for treating disorders in men. WO 2004/108645 and WO 2006/024689 suggest the use of fispemifene for treatment or prevention of age-related symptoms in men, such as lower urinary tract symptoms and diseases or disorders related to androgen deficiency in men.

Quatrx had been conducting phase II clinical development for the treatment of androgen decline in the aging male. Unlike testosterone replacement therapies that are typically topical or injection therapies, fispemifene is an oral treatment and is not a formulation of testosterone. Fispemifene utilizes the body’s normal feedback mechanism to increase testosterone levels. Originally developed at Hormos, QuatRx gained rights to the drug candidate following a merger of the companies pursuant to which Hormos became a wholly-owned subsidiary of QuatRx.

Known methods for the syntheses of compounds like ospemifene and fispemifene include rather many steps. WO 02/090305 describes a method for the preparation of fispemifene, where, in a first step, a triphenylbutane compound with a dihydroxysubstituted butane chain is obtained. This compound is in a second step converted to a triphenylbutene where the chain is 4-chlorosubstituted. Then the desired Z-isomer is crystallized. Finally, the protecting group is removed to release the ethanol-ethoxy chain of the molecule.

Fispemifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) studied in phase II clinical trials at Forendo Pharma for the treatment low testosterone in men. The compound is also in phase II clinical studies at Apricus for the treatment of men with secondary hypogonadism.

In 2013, Forendo Pharma acquired the drug from Hormos Medical for the treatment of male low testosterone.

In 2014, Apricus Biosciences acquired U.S. rights for development and commercialization

PATENT

https://www.google.com/patents/US7504530

EXAMPLE 2 2-{2-[4-(4-Chloro-1,2-diphenyl-but-1-enyl)-phenoxy]-ethoxy}-ethanol (Compound I)

{2-[4-(4-Chloro-1,2-diphenyl-but-1-enyl)-phenoxy]-ethoxy}-acetic acid ethyl ester was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere. Lithium aluminium hydride was added to the solution in small portions until the reduction reaction was complete. The reaction was quenched with saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution. The product was extracted into toluene, which was dried and evaporated in vacuo. The residue was purified with flash chromatography with toluene/triethyl amine (9.5:0.5) as eluent. Yield 68%.

1H NMR (200 MHz, CDCl3):

2.92 (t, 2H, ═CH 2CH2Cl),

3.42 (t, 2H, ═CH2 CH2 Cl),

3.59-3.64 (m, 2H, OCH2CH2O CH2CH 2OH),

3.69-3.80 (m, 4H, OCH2 CH 2OCH CH2OH),

3.97-4.02 (m, 2H, OCH2CH2OCH2CH2OH),

6.57 (d, 2H, aromatic proton ortho to oxygen),

6.78 (d, 2H, aromatic proton meta to oxygen),

7.1-7.43 (m, 10H, aromatic protons).

………….

PATENT

WO 2001036360

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2001036360A1?cl=en

……………

PATENT

WO 2002090305

 http://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2002090305A1?cl=en

EXAMPLE

a) [2-(2-chloroethoxy)ethoxymethyl]benzene

is prepared from benzyl bromide and 2-(2-chloroethoxy)ethanol by the method described in literature (Bessodes, 1996).

b) {4-[2-(2-Benzyloxyethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl}phenylmethanone

The mixture of 4-hydroxybenzophenone (16.7 g, 84.7 mmol) and 48 % aqueous sodium hydroxide solution (170 ml) is heated to 80 °C. Tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBABr) (1.6 g, 5.1 mmol) is added and the mixture is heated to 90 °C. [2-(2-Chloroethoxy)ethoxymethyl]benzene (18. g, 84.7 mmol) is added to the mixture during 15 min and the stirring is continued for additional 3.5 h at 115-120 °C. Then the mixture is cooled to 70 °C and 170 ml of water and 170 ml of toluene are added to the reaction mixture and stirring is continued for 5 min. The layers are separated and the aqueous phase is extracted twice with 50 ml of toluene. The organic phases are combined and washed with water, dried with sodium sulphate and evaporated to dryness. Yield 31.2 g.

Another method to prepare {4-[2-(2-benzyloxyethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl}phenyl- methanone is the reaction of 2-(2-benzyloxyethoxy)ethyl mesylate with 4- hydroxybenzophenone in PTC-conditions.

Η NMR (CDCI3): 3.64-3.69 (m, 2H), 3.74-3.79 (m, 2H), 3.90 (dist.t, 2H), 4.22 (dist.t, 2H), 4.58 (s, 2H), 6.98 (d, 2H), 7.28-7.62 (m, 8H), 7.75 (td, 2H), 7.81 (d, 2H).

 

 

c) 1- {4-[2-(2-Benzyloxyethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl} – 1 ,2-diphenyl -butane- 1 ,4-diol

Figure imgf000013_0002R = BENZYL

Lithium aluminum hydride (1.08 g, 28.6 mmol) is added into dry tetrahydrofuran (60 ml) under nitrogen atmosphere. Cinnamaldehyde (6.65 g, 50 mmol) in dry tetrahydrofuran (16 ml) is added at 24-28 °C. The reaction mixture is stirred at ambient temperature for 1 h. {4-[2-(2- Benzyloxyethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl}-phenyl-methanone (14.0 g, 37 mmol) in dry tetrahydrofuran (16 ml) is added at 50-55 °C. The reaction mixture is stirred at 60 °C for 3 h. Most of tetrahydrofuran is evaporated. Toluene (70 ml) and 2 M aqueous hydrogen chloride (50 ml) are added. The mixture is stirred for 5 min and the aqueous layer is separated and extracted with toluene (30 ml). The toluene layers are combined and washed with 2M HC1 and water, dried and evaporated. The product is crystallized from isopropanol as a mixture of stereoisomers (8.8 g, 50 %).

Η NMR (CDCI3 ): 1.75-2.10 (m, 2H), 3.20-4.16 (m, 1 OH), 4.52 and 4.55 (2s, together 2H), 6.61 and 6.88 (2d, together 2H), 6.95-7.39 (m, 15H), 7.49 and 7.57 (2d, together 2H).

 

d) Z- 1 – {4-[2-(2-Benzyloxyethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl} -4-chloro- 1 ,2-diphenyl-but- 1-ene

Figure imgf000013_0003R = BENZYL

1 – {4- [2-(2-Benzyloxy-ethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl} – 1 ,2-diphenyl -butane- 1 ,4-diol (10.0 g, 19.5 mmol) is dissolved in toluene (50 ml). Triethylamine (2.17 g, 21.4 mmol) is added to the solution and the mixture is cooled to -10 °C. Thionyl chloride (6.9 g, 58.5 mmol) is added to the mixture at -10 – ±0 °C. The mixture is stirred for 1 hour at 0-5 °C, warmed up to 70 °C and stirred at this temperature for 4 hours. Solvent is evaporated, the residue is dissolved to toluene, washed three times with 1M HC1 solution and twice with water. The Z-isomer of the product is crystallized from isopropanol-ethyl acetate. Yield 3.0 g. The filtrate is purified by flash chromatography to give E-isomer.

Z-isomer: Η NMR (CDCI3): 2.91 (t, 2H), 3.41 (t, 2H), 3.55-3.85 (m, 6H), 3.99 (dist.t, 2H), 4.54 (s, 2H), 6.40 (s, 1H), 6.56 (d, 2H), 6.77 (d, 2H), 7.10- 7.50 (m, 15H)

E-isomer: 1H NMR (CDCI3): 2.97 (t, 2H), 3.43 (t, 2H), 3.65-3.82 (m, 4H), 3.88 (dist.t, 2H), 4.15 (dist.t, 2H), 4.58 (s, 2H), 6.86 -7.45 (m, 19H)

FINAL STEP

e) 2- {2-[4-(4-Chloro- 1 ,2-diphenyl-but- 1 -enyl)phenoxy]ethoxy } ethanol:

Z- 1 – {4-[2-(2-Benzyloxy-ethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl} -4-chloro- 1 ,2-diphenyl -but- 1-ene (3.8 g, 7.4 mmol) is dissolved in ethyl acetate under nitrogen atmosphere , Zn powder (0.12 g, 1.85 mmol) and acetyl chloride (1.27 g, 16.3 mmol) are added and the mixture is stirred at 50 °C for 3 h (Bhar, 1995). The reaction mixture is cooled to room temperature, water (10 ml) is added and stirring is continued for additional 10 min. The aqueous layer is separated and the organic phase is washed with 1 M aqueous hydrogen chloride solution and with water. Ethyl acetate is evaporated and the residue is dissolved in methanol (16 ml) and water (4 ml). The acetate ester of the product is hydrolysed by making the mixture alkaline with sodium hydroxide (1 g) and stirring the mixture at room temperature for 1 h. Methanol is evaporated, water is added and the residue is extracted in ethyl acetate and washed with 1 M hydrogen chloride solution and with water. Ethyl acetate is evaporated and the residue is dissolved in toluene (25 ml), silica gel (0.25 g) is added and mixture is stirred for 15 min. Toluene is filtered and evaporated to dryness. The residue is crystallised from heptane-ethyl acetate (2:1). The yield is 71 %.

Z-isomer: 1H NMR (CDCI3): 2.92 (t, 2H), 3.41 (t, 2H), 3.58-3.63 (m, 2H), 3.69-3.80 (m, 4H), 3.96-4.01 (m, 2H), 6.56 (d, 2H), 6.78 (d, 2H), 7.10-7.40 (m, 10H).

Figure imgf000003_0001Z ISOMER IE FISPEMIFENE

E-2- {2- [4-(4-Chloro- 1 ,2-diphenyl-but- 1 -enyl)phenoxy]ethoxy} ethanol is prepared analogously starting from E-l-{4-[2-(2-benzyloxy- ethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl} -4-chloro- 1,2-diphenyl-but-l-ene. The product is purified by flash chromatography with toluene-methanol (10:0.5) as eluent.

E-isomer: 1H NMR (CDCI3): 2.97 (t, 2H), 3.43 (t, 2H), 3.65-3.79 (m, 4H), 3.85-3.90 (m, 2H), 4.13-4.17 (m, 2H), 6.85-7.25 (m, 2H).

Debenzylation of 1 – {4-[2-(2-benzyloxy-ethoxy)ethoxy]phenyl} -4-chloro- 1 ,2- diphenyl-but- 1-ene is also carried out by hydrogenation with Pd on carbon as a catalyst in ethyl acetate-ethanol solution at room temperature.

………….

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/US5491173

 

 

Patent Submitted Granted
Method for the preparation of 2-{2-[4-(4-chloro-1,2-diphenylbut-1-enyl)phenoxy]ethoxy}ethanol and its isomers [US6891070] 2004-06-17 2005-05-10
Formulations of fispemifene [US2007104743] 2007-05-10
METHODS FOR THE PREPARATION OF FISPEMIFENE FROM OSPEMIFENE [US7504530] 2008-09-04 2009-03-17
METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF THERAPEUTICALLY VALUABLE TRIPHENYLBUTENE DERIVATIVES [US2011015448] 2011-01-20
METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF THERAPEUTICALLY VALUABLE TRIPHENYLBUTENE DERIVATIVES [US7812197] 2008-08-28 2010-10-12
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EP0095875A2 * May 20, 1983 Dec 7, 1983 Farmos Group Ltd. Novel tri-phenyl alkane and alkene derivatives and their preparation and use

 

 

सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से जिंदगी चल जाये। औकात बस इतनी देना, कि औरों का भला हो जाये।

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09b37-misc2b027LIONEL MY SON
He was only in first standard in school when I was hit by a deadly one in a million spine stroke called acute transverse mylitis, it made me 90% paralysed and bound to a wheel chair, Now I keep him as my source of inspiration and helping millions, thanks to millions of my readers who keep me going and help me to keep my son happy
सुकून उतना ही देना प्रभू, जितने से
जिंदगी चल जाये।
औकात बस इतनी देना,
कि औरों का भला हो जाये।

 

 

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