- Molecular FormulaC13H19NO3
- Average mass237.295 Da
, Hcl 35604-67-2
Viloxazine (trade names Vivalan, Emovit, Vivarint and Vicilan) is a morpholine derivative and is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI). It was used as an antidepressant in some European countries, and produced a stimulant effect that is similar to the amphetamines, except without any signs of dependence. It was discovered and brought to market in 1976 by Imperial Chemical Industries and was withdrawn from the market in the early 2000s for business reasons.
Viloxazine ((R,S)-2-[(2-ethoxyphenoxy)methyl]morpholine]) is a bicyclic morpholine derivative, assigned CAS No. 46817-91-8 (CAS No. 35604-67-2 for the HCl salt). It is characterized by the formula C 13H 19NO 3, with a molecular mass of 237.295 g/mol. Viloxazine has two stereoisomers, (S)-(−)- and (R)-(+)-isomer, which have the following chemical structures:
Viloxazine is known to have several desirable pharmacologic uses, including treatment of depression, nocturnal enuresis, narcolepsy, sleep disorders, and alcoholism, among others. In vivo, viloxazine acts as a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (“NRI”).
Between the two stereoisomers, the (S)-(−)-isomer is known to be five times as pharmacologically active as the (R)-(+)-isomer. See, e.g., “Optical Isomers of 2-(2-ethoxyphenoxymethyl)tetrahydro-1,4 oxazine (viloxazine) and Related Compounds” (Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Jan. 9, 1976, 19(8); 1074) in which it is disclosed that optical isomers of 2-(2-ethoxyphenoxymethyl)tetrahydro-1,4-oxazine (viloxazine) and 2-(3-methoxyphenoxymethyl)tetrahydro-1,4-oxazine were prepared and absolute configurations assigned. The synthesis of optical isomers of viloxazine analogs of known configuration was accomplished by resolution of the intermediate 4-benzyl-2-(p-toluenesulfonyloxymethyl)tetrahydro-1,4-oxazine isomers.
Some unsatisfactory methods of synthesizing viloxazine are known in the art. For example, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,714,161, viloxazine is prepared by reacting ethoxyphenol with epichlorohydrin to afford the epoxide intermediate 1-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane. This epoxide intermediate is then treated with benzylamine followed with chloroacetyl chloride. The resulting morpholinone is then reduced by lithium aluminum hydride and then by Pd/C-catalyzed hydrogenation to yield viloxazine free base.
Yet another unsatisfactory synthesis of viloxazine is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,712,890, which describes a process to prepare viloxazine HCl, wherein the epoxide intermediate, 1-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane, is reacted with 2-aminoethyl hydrogen sulfate in ethanol in the presence of sodium hydroxide to form viloxazine free base. The product is extracted with diethyl ether from the aqueous solution obtained by evaporating the solvent in the reaction mixture then adding water to the residue. The ethereal extract is dried over a drying agent and the solvent is removed. Viloxazine HCl salt is finally obtained by dissolving the previous residue in isopropanol, concentrated aqueous HCl, and ethyl acetate followed by filtration.
The foregoing methods of synthesizing viloxazine suffer from a number of deficiencies, such as low reaction yield and unacceptably large amount of impurities in the resulting product. Effective elimination or removal of impurities, especially those impurities possessing genotoxicity or other toxicities, is critical to render safe pharmaceutical products. For example, certain reagents traditionally utilized in viloxazine HCl preparation, such as epichlorohydrin and 2-aminoethyl hydrogen sulfate, present a special problem due to their toxicity. There is a need for effective methods to remove or limit harmful impurities down to a level that is appropriate and safe according to contemporary sound medical standards and judgment. Accordingly, a continuing and unmet need exists for new and improved methods of manufacturing viloxazine and its various salts to yield adequate quantities of pharmacologically desirable API with predictable and reliable control of impurities.
Polymorph control is also an important aspect of producing APIs and their associated salts that are used in pharmaceutical products. However, no polymorphs of viloxazine HCl have previously been disclosed. A need therefore exists for new polymorphic forms of viloxazine that have improved pharmacological properties.
For the sake of convenience and without putting any limitations thereof, the methods of manufacture of viloxazine have been separated into several steps, each step being disclosed herein in a multiplicity of non-limiting embodiments. These steps comprise Step 1, during which 2-ethoxyphenol and epichlorhydrin are reacted to produce l-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane (Epoxide 1); Step 2, during which l-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane (Epoxide 1) is converted into viloxazine base which is further converted into viloxazine salt, and Step 3, during which viloxazine salt is purified/recrystallized, and various polymorphic forms of viloxazine salt are prepared.
The above-mentioned steps will be considered below in more details.
 The process of the Step 1 may be advantageously carried out in the presence of a phase-transfer catalyst to afford near quantitative yield of l-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane. Alternatively, the process may make use of a Finkelstein catalyst described in more details below. Additionally, the reaction may take place without the use of the catalyst.
FIG. 1, depicted below, schematically illustrates the preparation of l-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane (“Epoxide 1”) in accordance with Step I of an exemplary synthesis of viloxazine:
In one embodiment of the Step 1, the preparation of l-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane (epoxide 1) can be effected by the use of a phase transfer catalyst in the presence of a solid or liquid base with a solution of a corresponding phenol and epichlorohydrin in one or more solvents (Fig. 1). The phase transfer catalyst can be selected from ammonium salts, such as benzyltriethylammonium salts, benzyltrimethylammonium salts, and tetrabutylammonium salts, phosphonium salts, guanidinium salts, crown ether, polyethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol ether, or polyethylene glycol ester, or other phase transfer catalysts know in the art. The solid or liquid base can be a carbonate such as alkali carbonate, NaOH, KOH, LiOH, LiOH/LiCl, amines such as mono-, di- or tri-substituted amines (such as diethylamine, triethylamine, dibutylamine, tributylamine), DMAP, or other appropriate base. The solvents used in the solution of a corresponding phenol and epichlorohydrin include but are not limited to ethers such as methyl t-butyl ether, ketones, non-substituted or substituted aromatic solvents (xylene), halo-substituted hydrocarbons (e.g. CH2C12, CHC13), THF, DMF, dioxanes, non-substituted and substituted pyridines, acetonitrile, pyrrolidones, nitromethane , or other appropriate solvent. Additional catalyst, such as, for example, Finkelstein catalyst, can also be used in the process of this embodiment. This reaction preferably takes place at an elevated temperature. In one variation of the embodiment, the temperature is above 50°C. In another variation, epichlorohydrin, potassium carbonate, and a phase transfer catalyst are mixed with a solution of 2-ethoxyphenol in a solvent at an elevated temperature, such as 50 – 60°C. After the reaction is complete, the reaction mixture can be washed with water, followed by work-up procedures known in the art. Variations of this embodiment of the invention are further disclosed in Examples 1-8.
 In one variation of the above embodiment of the Step 1 , Epoxide 1 is prepared by reacting 2-ethoxyphenol and epichlorohydrin in a solvent in the presence of two different catalysts, and a base in a solid state. The first catalyst is a phase transfer catalyst as described above; the second catalyst is a Finkelstein reaction catalyst. Without putting any limitation
hereon, metal iodide and metal bromide salts, such as potassium iodide, may be used as an example of a Finkelstein catalyst. The phase transfer catalyst and a solvent may be selected from any phase transfer catalysts and solvents known in the art. Potassium carbonate may be used as a non-limiting example of a solid base. Using the solid base in a powdered form may be highly beneficial due to the greatly enhanced interface and limiting the side reactions. This variation of the embodiment is further illustrated by Example 9. In another variation of the embodiment, liquid base such as triethylamine can be used to replace the solid base.
 In a different embodiment of Step 1 , 2-ethoxyphenol and epichlorohydrin are reacted in a solvent-free system that comprises a solid or liquid base, a phase transfer catalyst as listed above and a Finkelstein catalyst.
 FIG. 2, depicted below, schematically illustrates the preparation of l-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane (“Epoxide 1”) in accordance with the Step I of another exemplary synthesis of viloxazine ( biphasic):
STEP I (alternative embodiment):
In this embodiment of Step 1, illustrated in Fig. 2, Epoxide 1 can be prepared by reacting epichlorohydrin with 2-ethoxyphenol in the presence of a catalytic amount of a phase transfer catalyst without the use of solvents at elevated temperatures in a two-stage process to afford near quantitative yield of l-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane with very few side products. This embodiment of the invention is further illustrated by a non-limiting Example 12. The phase transfer catalyst for this embodiment can be selected from ammonium salts such as benzyltriethylammonium salts, benzyltrimethylammonium salts, tetrabutylammonium salts, etc; phosphonium salts, guanidinium salts, crown ether, polyethylene glycol, polyethylene glycol ether, or polyethylene glycol ester, or other phase transfer catalysts know in the art. The first stage of the process of this embodiment may take place without a solvent in a presence of a large excess of epichlorohydrin. This stage is followed by a de-chlorination stage, before or after
removal of excess epichlorohydrin, using a base and a solvent. The reaction produces l-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane in high yield. Example of the bases used herein include but are not limited to NaOH, KOH, LiOH, LiOH/LiCl, K2C03, Na2C03, amines such as mono-, di-or tri-substituted amines (such as diethylamine, triethylamine, dibutylamine, tributylamine etc.), DMAP. In one variation of this embodiment of Step 1, the phase transfer catalyst may be used only at the de-chlorination stage of the process. The de-chlorination stage can be carried out in a biphasic system or in a single phase system. For a biphasic system, it can be an organic-aqueous liquid biphasic system, or a liquid-solid biphasic system. Solvents that are useful for the process include but are not limited to non-substituted and substituted aromatic solvents (e.g. toluene, benzene, chlorobenzene, dimethylbenzene, xylene), halo-substituted hydrocarbons (e.g. CH2C12, CHC13), THF, dioxanes, DMF, DMSO, non-substituted and substituted pyridines, ketones, pyrrolidones, ethers, acetonitrile, nitromethane. As mentioned above, this process takes place at the elevated temperature. In one variation of the embodiment, the temperature is above 60°C. In another variation, 2-ethoxyphenol and epichlorohydrin are heated to 60 – 90°C for a period of time in the presence of phase transfer catalyst. Excess of epichlorohydrin is removed and the residue is dissolved in a solvent such as toluene or benzene treated with an aqueous base solution, such as NaOH, KOH, LiOH, LiOH/LiCl. In yet another variation of the embodiment, the residue after epichlorohydrin removal can be dissolved in one or more of the said solvent and treated with a base (solid or liquid but not an aqueous solution) and optionally a second phase transfer catalyst, optionally at elevated temperatures.
 In yet another embodiment of Step 1 , Epoxide 1 can also be prepared by using a catalyst for a so-called Finkelstein reaction in the presence of a Finkelstein catalyst but without the need to use a phase transfer catalyst. Finkelstein catalysts useful herein include metal iodide salts and metal bromide salts, among others. In one variation of this embodiment, 2-ethoxyphenol and epichlorohydrin are dissolved in a polar aprotic solvent such as DMF, and a catalytic amount of an iodide such as potassium iodide and a base, as solid or liquid, are used. Preferably, the base is used as a solid, such as potassium carbonate powder. This embodiment is further illustrated by the Example 11.
 In the alternative embodiment of Step 1 , Epoxide 1 can also be prepared by a different method that comprises reacting epichlorohydrin and the corresponding phenol in the presence of a base at a temperature lower than the ambient temperature, especially when a base solution is used, and without the use of a phase transfer catalyst. This embodiment is illustrated by the Example 10.
 A very high, almost quantitative, yield of 1 -(2-ethoxyphenoxy)-2,3-epoxypropane can be obtained through realizing the above-described embodiments of Step 1 , with less impurities generated in Epoxide 1.
 Epoxide 1 , produced in Step 1 as described above, is used to prepare viloxazine base (viloxazine), which is further converted into viloxazine salt through the processes of Step 2.
 FIG. 3, depicted below, schematically illustrates the preparation of viloxazine
(“Step Ila”) and the preparation of viloxazine hydrochloride (“Step lib”), as well as their purification (“Step III”) in accordance with another example embodiment hereof:
Viloxazine free base ► Viloxazine salt
Purified viloxazine salt
In the embodiment of Step 2, illustrated in Fig. 3, the preparation of viloxazine base is achieved by reacting the Epoxide 1 intermediate prepared in Step 1 and aminoethyl hydrogen sulfate in presence of a large excess of a base as illustrated by the Examples 5-7 and 14. The base may be present as a solid or in a solution. Preferably, the molar ratio of the base to Epoxide 1 is more than 10. More preferably the ratio is more than 12. Even more preferably, the ratio is between 15 and 40. It was unexpectedly discovered that the use of a higher ratio of a base results in a faster reaction, less impurities, and lower reaction temperature.
 Further advantages may be offered by a specific variation of this embodiment, wherein the base is added to the reaction mixture in several separate steps. For example, a third of the base is added to the reaction mixture, and the mixture is stirred for a period of time. Then the rest of the base is added followed by additional stirring. Alternatively, half of the base is added initially followed by the second half after some period of time, or the base is added in three different parts separated by periods of time. The bases used herein include but are not limited to NaOH, KOH, LiOH, LiOH/LiCl, K2C03, Na2C03, amines such as mono-, di- or tri-substituted amines (such as diethylamine, triethylamine, dibutylamine, tributylamine), DMAP, and combinations thereof. . In one embodiment of the invention, the base is KOH. In another embodiment, the base is NaOH. In a further embodiment, the base is K2C03 powder. In yet further embodiment, the base is triethylamine. This embodiment is illustrated further by
Examples 13,15 and 16.
 In another exemplary embodiment of Step 2, viloxazine is produced by cyclization of novel intermediate compound “Diol 1 ,” which is made from Epoxide 1 and N-benzyl-aminoethanol. This method allows one to drastically reduce the use of potentially toxic materials in the manufacturing process, completely eliminating some of them such as aminoethyl hydrogen sulfate. The first stage of the reaction results in the formation of an intermediate of Formula 3 (Diol 1), which is a new, previously unidentified compound.
 Formula 3
FIG. 4, depicted below, schematically illustrates the preparation of viloxazine and its salts via “Diol 1” in accordance with another exemplary embodiment hereof (Bn = benzyl, Et = ethyl):
As illustrated in Fig. 4, Diol 1 is turned into N-benzyl viloxazine by cyclization. Removal of the benzyl protective group yields viloxazine base. Similarly, FIG. 5, depicted below, schematically illustrates the cyclization of Diol 1, as well as some side-reactions thereof.
Viloxazine hydrochloride was used in some European countries for the treatment of clinical depression.
Side effects included nausea, vomiting, insomnia, loss of appetite, increased erythrocyte sedimentation, EKG and EEG anomalies, epigastric pain, diarrhea, constipation, vertigo, orthostatic hypotension, edema of the lower extremities, dysarthria, tremor, psychomotor agitation, mental confusion, inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone, increased transaminases, seizure, (there were three cases worldwide, and most animal studies (and clinical trials that included epilepsy patients) indicated the presence of anticonvulsant properties, so was not completely contraindicated in epilepsy,) and increased libido.
Viloxazine increased plasma levels of phenytoin by an average of 37%. It also was known to significantly increase plasma levels of theophylline and decrease its clearance from the body, sometimes resulting in accidental overdose of theophylline.
Mechanism of action
Viloxazine, like imipramine, inhibited norepinephrine reuptake in the hearts of rats and mice; unlike imipramine, it did not block reuptake of norepinephrine in either the medullae or the hypothalami of rats. As for serotonin, while its reuptake inhibition was comparable to that of desipramine (i.e., very weak), viloxazine did potentiate serotonin-mediated brain functions in a manner similar to amitriptyline and imipramine, which are relatively potent inhibitors of serotonin reuptake. Unlike any of the other drugs tested, it did not exhibit any anticholinergic effects.
It was also found to up-regulate GABAB receptors in the frontal cortex of rats.
It is a racemic compound with two stereoisomers, the (S)-(–)-isomer being five times as pharmacologically active as the (R)-(+)-isomer.
Viloxazine was discovered by scientists at Imperial Chemical Industries when they recognized that some beta blockers inhibited serotonin reuptake inhibitor activity in the brain at high doses. To improve the ability of their compounds to cross the blood brain barrier, they changed the ethanolamine side chain of beta blockers to a morpholine ring, leading to the synthesis of viloxazine.:610:9 The drug was first marketed in 1976. It was never approved by the FDA, but the FDA granted it an orphan designation (but not approval) for cataplexy and narcolepsy in 1984. It was withdrawn from markets worldwide in 2002 for business reasons.
As of 2015, Supernus Pharmaceuticals was developing formulations of viloxazine as a treatment for ADHD and major depressive disorder under the names SPN-809 and SPN-812.
Viloxazine has undergone two randomized controlled trials for nocturnal enuresis (bedwetting) in children, both of those times versus imipramine. By 1990, it was seen as a less cardiotoxic alternative to imipramine, and to be especially effective in heavy sleepers.
In narcolepsy, viloxazine has been shown to suppress auxiliary symptoms such as cataplexy and also abnormal sleep-onset REM without really improving daytime somnolence.
In a cross-over trial (56 participants) viloxazine significantly reduced EDS and cataplexy.
Viloxazine has also been studied for the treatment of alcoholism, with some success.
While viloxazine may have been effective in clinical depression, it did relatively poorly in a double-blind randomized controlled trial versus amisulpride in the treatment of dysthymia.
It is also under investigation as a treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
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/////////////////Viloxazine, ヴィロキサジン , Emovit, Vivalan, Emovit, Vivarint, Vicilan