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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Enasidenib, Энасидениб , إيناسيدينيب ,伊那尼布 ,


Enasidenib.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | Enasidenib | C19H17F6N7OEnasidenib.png

AG-221 (Enasidenib), IHD2 Inhibitor

Enasidenib

  • Molecular Formula C19H17F6N7O
  • Average mass 473.375
2-Propanol, 2-methyl-1-[[4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]-6-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)-4-pyridinyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-[ACD/Index Name]
  • 2-Methyl-1-[[4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]-6-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)-4-pyridinyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-2-propanol
  • 2-Methyl-1-(4-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-(2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-ylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)propan-2-ol
AG-221
CC-90007
1446502-11-9[RN]
enasidenib
Enasidenib
énasidénib
enasidenibum
UNII:3T1SS4E7AG
Энасидениб[Russian]
إيناسيدينيب[Arabic]
伊那尼布[Chinese]
2-methyl-1-[(4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]-6-{[2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl]amino}-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]propan-2-ol
2-methyl-1-[[4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]-6-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]propan-2-ol
2-methyl-1-(4-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-(2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-ylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)propan-2-ol
Originator Agios Pharmaceuticals
Developer Celgene Corporation
Mechanism Of Action Isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 inhibitor
Who Atc Codes L01 (Antineoplastic Agents)
Ephmra Codes L1 (Antineoplastics)
Indication Cancer

2D chemical structure of 1650550-25-6

Enasidenib mesylate [USAN]
RN: 1650550-25-6
UNII: UF6PC17XAV

Molecular Formula, C19-H17-F6-N7-O.C-H4-O3-S

Molecular Weight, 569.4849

2-Propanol, 2-methyl-1-((4-(6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl)-6-((2-(trifluoromethyl)-4-pyridinyl)amino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino)-, methanesulfonate (1:1)

Enasidenib (AG-221) is an experimental drug in development for treatment of cancer. It is a small molecule inhibitor of IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2). It was developed by Agios Pharmaceuticals and is licensed to Celgene for further development.

Image result for Enasidenib

LC MS

https://file.medchemexpress.com/batch_PDF/HY-18690/Enasidenib_LCMS_18195_MedChemExpress.pdf

NMR FROM INTERNET SOURCES

SEE http://www.medkoo.com/uploads/product/Enasidenib__AG-221_/qc/QC-Enasidenib-TZC60322Web.pdf

see also

https://file.medchemexpress.com/batch_PDF/HY-18690/Enasidenib_HNMR_18195_MedChemExpress.pdf ……….NMR CD3OD

str1

NMR FROM INTERNET SOURCES

SEE http://www.medkoo.com/uploads/product/Enasidenib__AG-221_/qc/QC-Enasidenib-TZC60322Web.pdf

Patent

http://www.google.com/patents/US20130190287

Compound 409—2-methyl-1-(4-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-(2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-ylamino)-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)propan-2-ol

Figure US20130190287A1-20130725-C00709

1H NMR (METHANOL-d4) δ 8.62-8.68 (m, 2H), 847-8.50 (m, 1H), 8.18-8.21 (m, 1H), 7.96-7.98 (m, 1H), 7.82-7.84 (m, 1H), 3.56-3.63 (d, J=28 Hz, 2H), 1.30 (s, 6H). LC-MS: m/z 474.3 (M+H)+.

The FDA granted fast track designation and orphan drug status for acute myeloid leukemia in 2014.[1]

An orally available inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase type 2 (IDH2), with potential antineoplastic activity. Upon administration, AG-221 specifically inhibits IDH2 in the mitochondria, which inhibits the formation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). This may lead to both an induction of cellular differentiation and an inhibition of cellular proliferation in IDH2-expressing tumor cells. IDH2, an enzyme in the citric acid cycle, is mutated in a variety of cancers; It initiates and drives cancer growth by blocking differentiation and the production of the oncometabolite 2HG.

Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) catalyze the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to 2-oxoglutarate (i.e., a-ketoglutarate). These enzymes belong to two distinct subclasses, one of which utilizes NAD(+) as the electron acceptor and the other NADP(+). Five isocitrate dehydrogenases have been reported: three NAD(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, which localize to the mitochondrial matrix, and two NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases, one of which is mitochondrial and the other predominantly cytosolic. Each NADP(+)-dependent isozyme is a homodimer.

IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP+), mitochondrial) is also known as IDH; IDP; IDHM; IDPM; ICD-M; or mNADP-IDH. The protein encoded by this gene is the

NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase found in the mitochondria. It plays a role in intermediary metabolism and energy production. This protein may tightly associate or interact with the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. Human IDH2 gene encodes a protein of 452 amino acids. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences for IDH2 can be found as GenBank entries NM_002168.2 and NP_002159.2 respectively. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence for human IDH2 are also described in, e.g., Huh et al., Submitted (NOV-1992) to the

EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases; and The MGC Project Team, Genome Res.

14:2121-2127(2004).

Non-mutant, e.g., wild type, IDH2 catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate to a-ketoglutarate (a- KG) thereby reducing NAD+ (NADP+) to NADH (NADPH), e.g., in the forward reaction:

Isocitrate + NAD+ (NADP+)→ a-KG + C02 + NADH (NADPH) + H+.

It has been discovered that mutations of IDH2 present in certain cancer cells result in a new ability of the enzyme to catalyze the NAPH-dependent reduction of α-ketoglutarate to R(-)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). 2HG is not formed by wild- type IDH2. The production of 2HG is believed to contribute to the formation and progression of cancer (Dang, L et al, Nature 2009, 462:739-44).

The inhibition of mutant IDH2 and its neoactivity is therefore a potential therapeutic treatment for cancer. Accordingly, there is an ongoing need for inhibitors of IDH2 mutants having alpha hydroxyl neoactivity.

Mechanism of action

Isocitrate dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the citric acid cycle. Mutated forms of IDH produce high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate and can contribute to the growth of tumors. IDH1 catalyzes this reaction in the cytoplasm, while IDH2 catalyzes this reaction in mitochondria. Enasidenib disrupts this cycle.[1][2]

Development

The drug was discovered in 2009, and an investigational new drug application was filed in 2013. In an SEC filing, Agios announced that they and Celgene were in the process of filing a new drug application with the FDA.[3] The fast track designation allows this drug to be developed in what in markedly less than the average 14 years it takes for a drug to be developed and approved.[4]

PATENT

WO 2013102431

Image result

Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Giovanni Cianchetta
Giovanni Cianchetta
Associate Director/Principal Scientist at Agios Pharmaceuticals
Inventors Giovanni CianchettaByron DelabarreJaneta Popovici-MullerFrancesco G. SalituroJeffrey O. SaundersJeremy TravinsShunqi YanTao GuoLi Zhang
Applicant Agios Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Compound 409 –

2-methyl-l-(4-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-(2-(trifluoromethyl)pyri^

ίαζίη-2- lamino ropan-2-ol

Figure imgf000135_0001

1H NMR (METHANOL-d4) δ 8.62-8.68 (m, 2 H), 847-8.50 (m, 1 H), 8.18-8.21 (m, 1 H), 7.96-7.98 (m, 1 H), 7.82-7.84 (m, 1 H), 3.56-3.63 (d, J = 28 Hz, 2 H), 1.30 (s, 6 H). LC-MS: m/z 474.3 (M+H)+.

WO 2017066611

WO 2017024134

WO 2016177347

PATENT

WO 2016126798

Example 1: Synthesis of compound 3

Example 1, Step 1: preparation of 6-trifluoromethyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid

Diethyl ether (4.32 L) and hexanes (5.40 L) are added to the reaction vessel under N2 atmosphere, and cooled to -75 °C to -65 °C. Dropwise addition of n-Butyl lithium (3.78 L in 1.6 M hexane) under N2 atmosphere at below -65 °C is followed by dropwise addition of dimethyl amino ethanol (327.45 g, 3.67 mol) and after 10 min. dropwise addition of 2-trifluoromethyl pyridine (360 g, 2.45 mol). The reaction is stirred under N2 while maintaining the temperature below -65 °C for about 2.0-2.5 hrs. The reaction mixture is poured over crushed dry ice under N2, then brought to a temperature of 0 to 5 °C while stirring (approx. 1.0 to 1.5 h) followed by the addition of water (1.8 L). The reaction mixture is stirred for 5-10 mins and allowed to warm to 5-10 °C. 6N HC1 (900 mL) is added dropwise until the mixture reached pH 1.0 to 2.0, then the mixture is stirred for 10-20 min. at 5-10 °C. The reaction mixture is diluted with ethyl acetate at 25-35 °C, then washed with brine solution. The reaction is concentrated and rinsed with n-heptane and then dried to yield 6-trifluoromethyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid.

Example 1, Step 2: preparation of 6-trifluoromethyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester Methanol is added to the reaction vessel under nitrogen atmosphere. 6-trifluoromethyl- pyridine-2-carboxylic acid (150 g, 0.785 mol) is added and dissolved at ambient temperature. Acetyl chloride (67.78 g, 0.863 mol) is added dropwise at a temperature below 45 °C. The reaction mixture is maintained at 65-70 °C for about 2-2.5 h, and then concentrated at 35-45 °C under vacuum and cooled to 25-35 °C. The mixture is diluted with ethyl acetate and rinsed with saturated NaHC03 solution then rinsed with brine solution. The mixture is concentrated at temp 35-45 °C under vacuum and cooled to 25-35 °C, then rinsed with n-heptane and concentrated at temp 35-45 °C under vacuum, then degassed to obtain brown solid, which is rinsed with n-heptane and stirred for 10-15 minute at 25-35 °C. The suspension is cooled to -40 to -30 °C while stirring, and filtered and dried to provide 6-trifluoromethyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester.

Example 1, Step 3: preparation of 6-(6-Trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-lH-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione

1 L absolute ethanol is charged to the reaction vessel under N2 atmosphere and Sodium Metal (11.2 g, 0.488 mol) is added in portions under N2 atmosphere at below 50 °C. The reaction is stirred for 5-10 minutes, then heated to 50-55 °C. Dried Biuret (12.5 g, 0.122 mol) is added to the reaction vessel under N2 atmosphere at 50-55 °C temperature, and stirred 10-15 minutes. While maintaining 50-55 °C 6-trifluoromethyl-pyridine-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (50.0 g, 0.244 mol) is added. The reaction mixture is heated to reflux (75-80 °C) and maintained for 1.5-2 hours. Then cooled to 35-40 °C, and concentrated at 45-50 °C under vacuum. Water is added and the mixture is concentrated under vacuum then cooled to 35-40 °C more water is added and the mixture cooled to 0 -5 °C. pH is adjusted to 7-8 by slow addition of 6N HC1, and solid precipitated out and is centrifuged and rinsed with water and centrifuged again. The off white to light brown solid of 6-(6-Trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-lH-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione is dried under vacuum for 8 to 10 hrs at 50 °C to 60 °C under 600mm/Hg pressure to provide 6-(6-Trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-lH-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione.

Example 1, Step 4: preparation of 2, 4-Dichloro-6-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-l, 3, 5-triazine

POCI3 (175.0 mL) is charged into the reaction vessel at 20- 35 °C, and 6-(6-Trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-lH-l,3,5-triazine-2,4-dione (35.0 g, 0.1355 mol) is added in portions at below 50 °C. The reaction mixture is de-gassed 5-20 minutes by purging with N2 gas. Phosphorous pentachloride (112.86 g, 0.542 mol) is added while stirring at below 50 °C and the resulting slurry is heated to reflux (105-110 °C) and maintained for 3-4 h. The reaction mixture is cooled to 50-55 °C, and concentrated at below 55 °C then cooled to 20-30 °C. The reaction mixture is rinsed with ethyl acetate and the ethyl acetate layer is slowly added to cold water (temperature ~5 °C) while stirring and maintaining the temperature below 10 °C. The mixture is stirred 3-5 minutes at a temperature of between 10 to 20 °C and the ethyl acetate layer is collected. The reaction mixture is rinsed with sodium bicarbonate solution and dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate. The material is dried 2-3 h under vacuum at below 45 °C to provide 2, 4-Dichloro-6-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-l, 3, 5-triazine. Example 1, Step 5: preparation of 4-chloro-6-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N-(2-(trifluoro-methyl)- pyridin-4-yl)-l,3,5-triazin-2-amine

A mixture of THF (135 mL) and 2, 4-Dichloro-6-(6-trifluoromethyl-pyridin-2-yl)-l, 3, 5-triazine (27.0 g, 0.0915 mol) are added to the reaction vessel at 20 – 35 °C, then 4-amino-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine (16.31 g, 0.1006 mol) and sodium bicarbonate (11.52 g, 0.1372 mol) are added. The resulting slurry is heated to reflux (75-80 °C) for 20-24 h. The reaction is cooled to 30-40 °C and THF evaporated at below 45 °C under reduced pressure. The reaction mixture is cooled to 20-35 °C and rinsed with ethyl acetate and water, and the ethyl acetate layer collected and rinsed with 0.5 N HC1 and brine solution. The organic layer is concentrated under vacuum at below 45 °C then rinsed with dichloromethane and hexanes, filtered and washed with hexanes and dried for 5-6h at 45-50 °C under vacuum to provide 4-chloro-6-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N-(2-(trifluoro-methyl)- pyridin-4-yl)-l,3,5-triazin-2-amine.

Example 1, Step 6: preparation of 2-methyl-l-(4-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-(2-(trifluoromethyl)- pyridin-4-ylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)propan-2-ol

THF (290 mL), 4-chloro-6-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-N-(2-(trifluoro-methyl)-pyridin-4-yl)-l,3,5-triazin-2-amine (29.0 g, 0.06893 mol), sodium bicarbonate (8.68 g, 0.1033 mol), and 1, 1-dimethylaminoethanol (7.37 g, 0.08271 mol) are added to the reaction vessel at 20-35 °C. The resulting slurry is heated to reflux (75-80 °C) for 16-20 h. The reaction is cooled to 30-40 °C and THF evaporated at below 45 °C under reduced pressure. The reaction mixture is cooled to 20-35 °C and rinsed with ethyl acetate and water, and the ethyl acetate layer collected. The organic layer is concentrated under vacuum at below 45 °C then rinsed with dichlorom ethane and hexanes, filtered and washed with hexanes and dried for 8-1 Oh at 45-50 °C under vacuum to provide 2-methyl-l-(4-(6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl)-6-(2-(trifluoromethyl)- pyridin-4-ylamino)-l,3,5-triazin-2-ylamino)propan-2-ol.

PATENT

US 20160089374

PATENT

WO 2015017821


References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Enasidenib”AdisInsight. Retrieved 31 January 2017.
  2. Jump up^ https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Enasidenib
  3. Jump up^ https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1439222/000119312516758835/d172494d10q.htm
  4. Jump up^ http://www.xconomy.com/boston/2016/09/07/celgene-plots-speedy-fda-filing-for-agios-blood-cancer-drug/
  5. 1 to 3 of 3
    Patent ID

    Patent Title

    Submitted Date

    Granted Date

    US2013190287 THERAPEUTICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR METHODS OF USE 2013-01-07 2013-07-25
    US2016089374 THERAPEUTICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR METHODS OF USE 2015-09-28 2016-03-31
    US2016194305 THERAPEUTICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS AND THEIR METHODS OF USE 2014-08-01 2016-07-07
 Image result for Enasidenib
08/01/2017
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Idhifa (enasidenib) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation. The drug is approved for use with a companion diagnostic, the RealTime IDH2 Assay, which is used to detect specific mutations in the IDH2 gene in patients with AML.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Idhifa (enasidenib) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation. The drug is approved for use with a companion diagnostic, the RealTime IDH2 Assay, which is used to detect specific mutations in the IDH2 gene in patients with AML.

“Idhifa is a targeted therapy that fills an unmet need for patients with relapsed or refractory AML who have an IDH2 mutation,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “The use of Idhifa was associated with a complete remission in some patients and a reduction in the need for both red cell and platelet transfusions.”

AML is a rapidly progressing cancer that forms in the bone marrow and results in an increased number of abnormal white blood cells in the bloodstream and bone marrow. The National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health estimates that approximately 21,380 people will be diagnosed with AML this year; approximately 10,590 patients with AML will die of the disease in 2017.

Idhifa is an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 inhibitor that works by blocking several enzymes that promote cell growth. If the IDH2 mutation is detected in blood or bone marrow samples using the RealTime IDH2 Assay, the patient may be eligible for treatment with Idhifa.

The efficacy of Idhifa was studied in a single-arm trial of 199 patients with relapsed or refractory AML who had IDH2 mutations as detected by the RealTime IDH2 Assay. The trial measured the percentage of patients with no evidence of disease and full recovery of blood counts after treatment (complete remission or CR), as well as patients with no evidence of disease and partial recovery of blood counts after treatment (complete remission with partial hematologic recovery or CRh). With a minimum of six months of treatment, 19 percent of patients experienced CR for a median 8.2 months, and 4 percent of patients experienced CRh for a median 9.6 months. Of the 157 patients who required transfusions of blood or platelets due to AML at the start of the study, 34 percent no longer required transfusions after treatment with Idhifa.

Common side effects of Idhifa include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased levels of bilirubin (substance found in bile) and decreased appetite. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Idhifa because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or a newborn baby.

The prescribing information for Idhifa includes a boxed warning that an adverse reaction known as differentiation syndrome can occur and can be fatal if not treated. Sign and symptoms of differentiation syndrome may include fever, difficulty breathing (dyspnea), acute respiratory distress, inflammation in the lungs (radiographic pulmonary infiltrates), fluid around the lungs or heart (pleural or pericardial effusions), rapid weight gain, swelling (peripheral edema) or liver (hepatic), kidney (renal) or multi-organ dysfunction. At first suspicion of symptoms, doctors should treat patients with corticosteroids and monitor patients closely until symptoms go away.

Idhifa was granted Priority Review designation, under which the FDA’s goal is to take action on an application within six months where the agency determines that the drug, if approved, would significantly improve the safety or effectiveness of treating, diagnosing or preventing a serious condition. Idhifa also received Orphan Drugdesignation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Idhifa to Celgene Corporation. The FDA granted the approval of the RealTime IDH2 Assay to Abbott Laboratories

 1H AND 13C NMR PREDICT

///////// fda 2017, Idhifa, enasidenib, Энасидениб , إيناسيدينيب ,伊那尼布 , AG 221, fast track designation,  orphan drug status ,  acute myeloid leukemiaCC-90007

CC(C)(CNC1=NC(=NC(=N1)NC2=CC(=NC=C2)C(F)(F)F)C3=NC(=CC=C3)C(F)(F)F)O

Enasidenib

Enasidenib.png

Image result for EnasidenibImage result for Enasidenib

Idhifa FDA

8/1/2017

To treat relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia
Press Release
Drug Trials Snapshot

Image result for Enasidenib

LINK……https://newdrugapprovals.org/2017/08/02/enasidenib-%D1%8D%D0%BD%D0%B0%D1%81%D0%B8%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B1-%D8%A5%D9%8A%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%AF%D9%8A%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A8-%E4%BC%8A%E9%82%A3%E5%B0%BC%E5%B8%83/

Enasidenib
Enasidenib.svg
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H17F6N7O
Molar mass 473.38 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

FDA approves new targeted treatment Idhifa (enasidenib)for relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia


Enasidenib.svg
08/01/2017
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Idhifa (enasidenib) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation. The drug is approved for use with a companion diagnostic, the RealTime IDH2 Assay, which is used to detect specific mutations in the IDH2 gene in patients with AML.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Idhifa (enasidenib) for the treatment of adult patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have a specific genetic mutation. The drug is approved for use with a companion diagnostic, the RealTime IDH2 Assay, which is used to detect specific mutations in the IDH2 gene in patients with AML.

“Idhifa is a targeted therapy that fills an unmet need for patients with relapsed or refractory AML who have an IDH2 mutation,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the FDA’s Oncology Center of Excellence and acting director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “The use of Idhifa was associated with a complete remission in some patients and a reduction in the need for both red cell and platelet transfusions.”

AML is a rapidly progressing cancer that forms in the bone marrow and results in an increased number of abnormal white blood cells in the bloodstream and bone marrow. The National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health estimates that approximately 21,380 people will be diagnosed with AML this year; approximately 10,590 patients with AML will die of the disease in 2017.

Idhifa is an isocitrate dehydrogenase-2 inhibitor that works by blocking several enzymes that promote cell growth. If the IDH2 mutation is detected in blood or bone marrow samples using the RealTime IDH2 Assay, the patient may be eligible for treatment with Idhifa.

The efficacy of Idhifa was studied in a single-arm trial of 199 patients with relapsed or refractory AML who had IDH2 mutations as detected by the RealTime IDH2 Assay. The trial measured the percentage of patients with no evidence of disease and full recovery of blood counts after treatment (complete remission or CR), as well as patients with no evidence of disease and partial recovery of blood counts after treatment (complete remission with partial hematologic recovery or CRh). With a minimum of six months of treatment, 19 percent of patients experienced CR for a median 8.2 months, and 4 percent of patients experienced CRh for a median 9.6 months. Of the 157 patients who required transfusions of blood or platelets due to AML at the start of the study, 34 percent no longer required transfusions after treatment with Idhifa.

Common side effects of Idhifa include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, increased levels of bilirubin (substance found in bile) and decreased appetite. Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should not take Idhifa because it may cause harm to a developing fetus or a newborn baby.

The prescribing information for Idhifa includes a boxed warning that an adverse reaction known as differentiation syndrome can occur and can be fatal if not treated. Sign and symptoms of differentiation syndrome may include fever, difficulty breathing (dyspnea), acute respiratory distress, inflammation in the lungs (radiographic pulmonary infiltrates), fluid around the lungs or heart (pleural or pericardial effusions), rapid weight gain, swelling (peripheral edema) or liver (hepatic), kidney (renal) or multi-organ dysfunction. At first suspicion of symptoms, doctors should treat patients with corticosteroids and monitor patients closely until symptoms go away.

Idhifa was granted Priority Review designation, under which the FDA’s goal is to take action on an application within six months where the agency determines that the drug, if approved, would significantly improve the safety or effectiveness of treating, diagnosing or preventing a serious condition. Idhifa also received Orphan Drugdesignation, which provides incentives to assist and encourage the development of drugs for rare diseases.

The FDA granted the approval of Idhifa to Celgene Corporation. The FDA granted the approval of the RealTime IDH2 Assay to Abbott Laboratories

 

ChemSpider 2D Image | Enasidenib | C19H17F6N7O

Enasidenib

  • Molecular FormulaC19H17F6N7O
  • Average mass473.375
2-Propanol, 2-methyl-1-[[4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]-6-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)-4-pyridinyl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]- [ACD/Index Name]
AG-221
CC-90007
1446502-11-9 [RN]
enasidenib [Spanish] [INN]
énasidénib [French] [INN]
enasidenibum [Latin] [INN]
UNII:3T1SS4E7AG
Энасидениб [Russian] [INN]
إيناسيدينيب [Arabic] [INN]
伊那尼布 [Chinese] [INN]
2-methyl-1-[(4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]-6-{[2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl]amino}-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino]propan-2-ol
2-methyl-1-[[4-[6-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-2-yl]-6-[[2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl]amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]propan-2-ol
Enasidenib
Enasidenib.svg
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H17F6N7O
Molar mass 473.38 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

///////// fda 2017, Idhifa, enasidenib,

Enasidenib (AG-221) is an experimental drug in development for treatment of cancer. It is a small molecule inhibitor of IDH2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2). It was developed by Agios Pharmaceuticals and is licensed to Celgene for further development.

The FDA granted fast track designation and orphan drug status for acute myeloid leukemia in 2014.[1]

Mechanism of action

Isocitrate dehydrogenase is a critical enzyme in the citric acid cycle. Mutated forms of IDH produce high levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate and can contribute to the growth of tumors. IDH1 catalyzes this reaction in the cytoplasm, while IDH2 catalyzes this reaction in mitochondria. Enasidenib disrupts this cycle.[1][2]

Development

The drug was discovered in 2009, and an investigational new drug application was filed in 2013. In an SEC filing, Agios announced that they and Celgene were in the process of filing a new drug application with the FDA.[3] The fast track designation allows this drug to be developed in what in markedly less than the average 14 years it takes for a drug to be developed and approved.[4]

References

Eravacycline


File:Eravacycline-.png

Eravacycline structure.svg

TP-434.png

Eravacycline

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/eravacycline.pdf

1-Pyrrolidineacetamide, N-[(5aR,6aS,7S,10aS)-9-(aminocarbonyl)-7-(dimethylamino)-
4-fluoro-5,5a,6,6a,7,10,10a,12-octahydro-1,8,10a,11-tetrahydroxy-10,12-dioxo-2-
naphthacenyl]-
(4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-4-(dimethylamino)-7-fluoro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-9-
[(pyrrolidin-1-ylacetyl)amino]-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide

1207283-85-9  CAS
1334714-66-7 dihydrochloride TP 434-046
1-Pyrrolidineacetamide, N-[(5aR,6aS,7S,10aS)-9-(aminocarbonyl)-7-(dimethylamino)-4-fluoro-5,5a,6,6a,7,10,10a,12-octahydro-1,8,10a,11-tetrahydroxy-10,12-dioxo-2-naphthacenyl]

MOLECULAR FORMULA C27H31FN4O8
MOLECULAR WEIGHT 558.6

SPONSOR Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
CODE DESIGNATION TP-434
CAS REGISTRY NUMBER 1207283-85-9
WHO NUMBER 9702

Eravacycline (TP-434) is a synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in development by Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals. It is closely related to the glycylglycine antibiotic tigecycline and the tetracycline class of antibiotics. It has a broad spectrum of activity including many multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria. Phase III studies in complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) [1] and complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI)[2] were recently completed with mixed results. Eravacylcine has been designated as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP), as well as for fast track approval by the FDA.[3]

ChemSpider 2D Image | Eravacycline | C27H31FN4O8

WO2010017470A1

Inventors Jingye ZhouXiao-Yi XiaoLouis PlamondonDiana Katharine HuntRoger B. ClarkRobert B. Zahler
Applicant Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Example 1. Synthesis of Compounds of Structural Formula (I).

The compounds of the invention can be prepared according the synthetic scheme shown in Scheme 1.

Figure imgf000048_0001

Compound 34

Figure imgf000063_0002

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8 22 (d, J= 1 1.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.33 (s, 2H), 4.10 (S3 1H), 3 83-3.72 (m, 2H), 3.25-2.89 (m, 12H), 2.32-2.00 (m, 6H), 1.69-1.56 (m, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z 559.39 (M+H).

Medical Uses

Eravacycline has shown broad spectrum of activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including multi-drug resistant strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae.[4] It is currently being formulated as for intravenous and oral administration.

Image result for Eravacycline

PATENT

WO 2016065290Image result for Eravacycline

Eravacylme is a tetracycline antibiotic that has demonstrated broad spectrum activity against a wide variety of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative, Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria in humans. In Phase I and Phase II clinical trials, eravacycline also demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile. In view of its attractive

pharmacological profile, synthetic routes to eravacycline and, in particular, synthetic routes that result in suitable quantities of eravacycline for drag development and manufacturing, are becoming increasingly important.

As described in International Publication No . WO 2010/017470, eravacycline is conveniently synthesized from 7-fluorosancycline, another tetracycline. 7-Fluorosancycline can be synthesized, in turn, from commercially available 7-ammosancycline or a protected derivative thereof. However, very few procedures for the conversion of (^-ammo-substituted tetracyclines, such as 7-aminosancycline, to C7-fiuoro-substituted tetracyclines, such as 7-fluorosancycline, have been reported, and those that have are not suitable to be deployed at production-scale.

Therefore, there is a need for improved processes, particularly improved production -scale processes, for converting C7-amino-substituted tetracyclines to C7-fluoro-substituted tetracyclines.

Example 3. Preparation of Eravacycline From 9-Aminosancycline Using a Photolytic Fluorination

[00158] Sancycline (0.414 g, 1.0 mmol) was dissolved in trifiuoroacetic acid (TFA). The solution was cooled to 0 °C. To the solution was added N-bromosuccinimide (NBS, 0.356 g, 2.1 mmol). The reaction was complete after stirring at 0 °C for 1 h. The reaction mixture was allowed to warm to rt. Solid NO3 (0.1 Ig, 0.11 mrnoi) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 1 h. The reaction solution was added to 75 mL cold diethyl ether. The precipitate was collected by filtration and dried to give 0.46 g of compound 6. Compound 6 can then be reduced to compounds 7, 8, or 9 using standard procedures.

13

[00159] 9-Aminosancycline (7, 1 g, 0233 mmol) was dissolved in 20 mL sulfuric acid and the reaction was cooled using an ice bath. Potassium nitrate (235 mg, 0.233 mmol) was added in several portions. After stirring for 15 min, the reaction mixture was added to 400 mL MTBE followed by cooling using an ice bath. The solid was collected by filtration. The filter cake was dissolved in 10 mL water and the pH of the aqueous solution was adjusted to 5.3 using 25% aqueous NaOH. The resulting suspension was filtered, and the filter cake was dried to give 1 g compound 10: MS (ESI) m/z 475.1 (M+l).

[00160] Compound 10 (1.1 g) was dissolved in 20 mL of water and 10 mL of acetonitrile. To the solution was added acyl chloride 3 (in two portions: 600 mg and 650 mg). The pH of the reaction mixture was adjusted to 3.5 using 25% aqueous NaOH. Another portion of acyl chloride (800 mg) was added. The reaction was monitored by HPLC analysis. Product 11 was isolated from the reaction mixture by preparative HPLC. Lyophilization gave 1.1 g of compound 11: MS (ESI) m/z 586.3 (M+l).

[00161] Compound 11 (1.1 g) was dissolved in methanol. To the solution was added concentrated HC1 (0.5 mL) and 10% Pd-C (600 mg). The reaction mixture was stirred under a hydrogen atmosphere (balloon). After the reaction was completed, the catalyst was removed by filtration. The filtrate was concentrated to give 1 g of compound 12: ‘H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO), 8.37 (s, 1H), 4.38-4.33 (m, 3H), 3.70 (br s, 2H), 3.30-2.60 (m, 1211), 2.36-2.12 (m, 2H), 2.05-1.80 (m, 4H), 1.50-1.35 (m, 1H); MS (ESI) m/z 556.3 (M+l).

[00162] Compound 12 (150 mg) was dissolved in 1 mL of 48% HBF4. To the solution was added 21 mg of NaN02. After compound 12 was completely converted to compound 13 (LC/MS m/z 539.2), the reaction mixture was irradiated with 254 nm light for 6 h while being cooled with running water. The reaction mixture was purified by preparative HPLC using acetonitrile and 0.05 N aqueous HCl as mobile phases to yield the compound 4 (eravacyclme, 33 mg) as a bis-HCl salt (containing 78% of 4 and 10% of the 7-H byproduct, by HPLC): MS (ESI) m/z 559.3 (M+l).

PAPER

Exploring the Boundaries of “Practical”: De Novo Syntheses of Complex Natural Product-Based Drug Candidates

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California−Los Angeles, 607 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, California 90095-1569, United States
Chem. Rev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.7b00126
Publication Date (Web): June 12, 2017
Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society
This review examines the state of the art in synthesis as it relates to the building of complex architectures on scales sufficient to drive human drug trials. We focus on the relatively few instances in which a natural-product-based development candidate has been manufactured de novo, rather than semisynthetically. This summary provides a view of the strengths and weaknesses of current technologies, provides perspective on what one might consider a practical contribution, and hints at directions the field might take in the future.

PAPER

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 55(2), 597-605

Fluorocyclines. 1. 7-Fluoro-9-pyrrolidinoacetamido-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline: A Potent, Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Agent

Discovery Chemistry, Microbiology, and §Process Chemistry R&D, Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, 480 Arsenal Street, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472, United States
J. Med. Chem.201255 (2), pp 597–605
DOI: 10.1021/jm201465w
Publication Date (Web): December 9, 2011
Copyright © 2011 American Chemical Society
*Phone: 617-715-3553. E-mail: xyxiao@tphase.com.
Abstract Image

This and the accompanying report (DOI: 10.1021/jm201467r) describe the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new generation of tetracycline antibacterial agents, 7-fluoro-9-substituted-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracyclines (“fluorocyclines”), accessible through a recently developed total synthesis approach. These fluorocyclines possess potent antibacterial activities against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens. One of the fluorocyclines, 7-fluoro-9-pyrrolidinoacetamido-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline (17j, also known as TP434, 50th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Conference, Boston, MA, September 12–15, 2010, poster F12157), is currently undergoing phase 2 clinical trials in patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI).

(4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-4-(Dimethylamino)-7-fluoro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-9-[2-(pyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamido]-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide (17j)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CD3OD) δ 8.22 (d, J = 11.0 Hz, 1 H), 4.33 (s, 2 H), 4.10 (s, 1 H), 3.83–3.72 (m, 2 H), 3.25–2.89 (m, 1 2 H), 2.32–2.00 (m, 6 H), 1.69–1.56 (m, 1 H).
MS (ESI) m/z 559.39 (M + H).

PAPER

Journal of Organic Chemistry (2017), 82(2), 936-943

A Divergent Route to Eravacycline

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 480 Arsenal Way, Suite 110, Watertown, Massachusetts 02472, United States
J. Org. Chem.201782 (2), pp 936–943
DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b02442

Abstract

Abstract Image

A convergent route to eravacycline (1) has been developed by employing Michael–Dieckmann cyclization between enone 3 and a fully built and protected left-hand piece (LHP, 2). After construction of the core eravacycline structure, a deprotection reaction was developed, allowing for the isoxazole ring opening and global deprotection to be achieved in one pot. The LHP is synthesized from readily available 4-fluoro-3-methylphenol in six steps featuring a palladium-catalyzed phenyl carboxylation in the last step.

Eravacycline di-HCl salt (1) as a yellow solid: purity 97.9%; mp 197–199 °C dec. The spectral data matched those from original sample as reported in our previous publication.(3)

3 RonnM.ZhuZ.HoganP. C.ZhangW.-Y.NiuJ.KatzC. E.DunwoodyN.GilickyO.DengY.;HuntD. K.HeM.ChenC.-L.SunC.ClarkR. B.XiaoX.-Y. Org. Process Res. Dev. 201317838845DOI: 10.1021/op4000219

PAPER

WO 2016065290

PAPER

Organic Process Research & Development (2013), 17(5), 838-845

 Abstract Image

Process research and development of the first fully synthetic broad spectrum 7-fluorotetracycline in clinical development is described. The process utilizes two key intermediates in a convergent approach. The key transformation is a Michael–Dieckmann reaction between a suitable substituted aromatic moiety and a key cyclohexenone derivative. Subsequent deprotection and acylation provide the desired active pharmaceutical ingredient in good overall yield.

Free base of 7. HPLC (248 nm) showed 97.1% purity with 0.80% of the corresponding impurity from 19, 1.2% of epimer of 7, and 0.80% the corresponding impurity from 20 (102g, 88.7% yield) product as a yellow solid.

1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz, δ): 9.81 (d, 1H), 3.29 (s, 2H), 3.04 (m, 3H); 2.68 (bs, 4H), 2.62 (m, 1H), 2.44 (bs, 6H), 2.23 (t, 1H), 1.99 (s, 1H), 1.84 (bs, 4H), 1.5 (bs, 1H).

MS (ES) m/z calcd for +H: 559.2 (100.0), 560.2 (29.9), 561.2 (5.9); found: 559.3, 560.2, 561.3.

Give 7·2HCl (531 g containing 6.9% by weight water, ∼ 784 mmol). HPLC (248 nm) indicated a 96.6% purity with 0.64% of the corresponding impurity from 19, 1.3% of epimer of 7, and 1.3% the corresponding impurity from 20.

1H NMR, (d6-DMSO, 400 MHz, δ): 11.85 (s, 1H), 10.28 (s, 1H), 9.56 (s, 1H); 8.99 (s, 1H), 8.04 (d, J = 10.95 Hz, 1H), 4.32 (m, 1H), 4.30 (s, 1H), 3.58 (bs, 2H), 3.09 (bs, 2H), 3.007 (m, 1H); 2.94 (m, 2H), 2.8 (s, 6H), 2.15–2.32 (m, 2H), 1.92 (bd, 4H), 1.44 (m, 1H).

13C NMR (d6-DMSO, 100 MHz)193.74, 191.84, 187.45, 175.72, 171.88, 164.45, 152.12, 151.26, 148.93, 148.86, 125.13, 125.03, 122.79, 122.60, 116.00, 115.72, 115.25, 108.12, 95.38, 74.06, 67.78, 55.47, 53.91, 34.95, 33.98, 31.41, 26.45, 22.9.

MS (ES) m/zcalcd for +H: 559.2 (100.0), 560.2 (29.9), 561.2 (5.9); found: 559.3, 560.2, 561.3.

PAPER

Natural product synthesis in the age of scalability – Natural …

RSC Publishing – Royal Society of Chemistry

… tetracycline analogues; B. Practical route to the key AB enone; C. Process route to the fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic eravacycline (11).

10.1039/C3NP70090A

Natural product synthesis in the age of scalability

 Author affiliations

Image result for Eravacycline

Tetracycline (Myers/Tetraphase, 2005–2013). Myers’ convergent approach to the tetracyclines is a great example of how a scalable synthesis of a key intermediate en route to a natural product can fuel the discovery of entirely new drug candidates. These broad-spectrum polyketide antibiotics have been widely used in human and veterinary medicine, but, due to the development of tetracycline-resistant strains, there is an unmet need for novel tetracycline drugs. Pioneering work in this eld has been achieved by the Myers’ group, who published a landmark synthetic approach to the tetracycline class of antibiotics in 2005.16 Using this route, over 3,000 fully synthetic tetracyclines have been prepared to date. Central to their strategy was the synthesis of a highly versatile intermediate, AB enone 7, 17 which enabled the convergent construction of novel tetracycline antibiotics (Scheme 3, A).18 Naturally, the route to 7 had to be practical and amenable to large-scale synthesis and consequently, the synthetic approaches to this building block have become more and more practical and efficient with every new generation. In 2007, Myers published their rst practical and enantioselective approach to 7 (Scheme 3, B).17 The route started from 8, which can be accessed in multi-hundred gram amounts from commercially available 3-hydroxy-5-isoxazolecarboxylate (not shown) by O-benzylation followed by DIBAL reduction. In a three-step sequence, 8 was transformed into carbinol 9. In the key step of the sequence, 9 underwent an intramolecular Diels–Alder reaction to give a mixture of 4 diastereomeric cycloadducts, which, aer Swern oxidation, could be readily separated by ash column chromatography to afford 10. Finally, boron trichloride mediated opening of the oxabicyclic ring system and demethylation, followed by TBS protection of the tertiary hydroxyl-group, afforded 40 g of the AB enone 7 in 21% overall yield, over nine steps from commercial material. Slight modications of this route have allowed for the preparation of >20 kg batches of the AB enone. The availability of large-scale batches of 7 has both enabled the discovery and the development of eravacycline (11), the rst fully synthetic tetracycline analog in clinical development, from Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals. In their process route,19 the key Michael– Dieckmann cyclization between 7 and 12 was carried out on kg-scale and afforded 13 in 93.5% yield. This compound was transformed into eravacycline (11) in 3 more steps, including TBS-cleavage, hydrogenolysis and amide bond formation. Using this process, several kg of 11 have been prepared to date to support clinical studies. Finally, a third- and fourth-generation route to 7 has recently been published by Myers that is not only shorter than previous routes, but also amenable of structural modications of the AB-ring enone.20

16 M. G. Charest, C. D. Lerner, J. D. Brubaker, D. R. Siegel and A. G. Myers, Science, 2005, 308, 395–398. 17 J. D. Brubaker and A. G. Myers, Org. Lett., 2007, 9, 3523–3525. 18 (a) C. Sun, Q. Wang, J. D. Brubaker, P. M. Wright, C. D. Lerner, K. Noson, M. Charest, D. R. Siegel, Y.-M. Wang and A. G. Myers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17913–17927; (b) X.-Y. Xiao, D. K. Hunt, J. Zhou, R. B. Clark, N. Dunwoody, C. Fyfe, T. H. Grossman, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, M. R¨onn, C. Sun, W.-Y. Zhang and J. A. Sutcliffe, J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55, 597–605; (c) R. B. Clark, M. He, C. Fyfe, D. Loand, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, J. A. Sutcliffe and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54, 1511–1528; (d) R. B. Clark, D. K. Hunt, M. He, C. Achorn, C.-L. Chen, Y. Deng, C. Fyfe, T. H. Grossman, P. C. Hogan, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, M. R¨onn, J. A. Sutcliffe, Z. Zhu and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55, 606–622; (e) C. Sun, D. K. Hunt, R. B. Clark, D. Loand, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54, 3704–3731. 19 M. Ronn, Z. Zhu, P. C. Hogan, W.-Y. Zhang, J. Niu, C. E. Katz, N. Dunwoody, O. Gilicky, Y. Deng, D. K. Hunt, M. He, C.-L. Chen, C. Sun, R. B. Clark and X.-Y. Xiao, Org. Process Res. Dev., 2013, 17, 838–845. 20 D. A. Kummer, D. Li, A. Dion and A. G. Myers, Chem. Sci., 2011, 2, 1710–1718. 21 (a) G. R. Pettit, Z. A. Chicacz, F. Gao, C. L. Herald, M. R. Boyd, J. M. Schmidt and J. N. A. Hooper, J. Org. Chem., 1993, 58, 1302–1304; (b) M. Kobayashi, S. Aoki, H. Sakai, K. Kawazoe, N. Kihara, T. Sasaki and I. Kitagawa, Tetrahedron Lett., 1993, 34, 2795–2798. 22 (a) J. Guo, K. J. Duffy, K. L. Stevens, P. I. Dalko, R. M. Roth, M. M. Hayward and Y. Kishi, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 1998, 37, 187–190; (b) M. M. Hayward, R. M. Roth, K. J. Duffy, P. I. Dalko, K. L. Stevens, J. Guo and Y. Kishi, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 1998, 37, 190–196; (c) I. Paterson, D. Y. K. Chen, M. J. Coster, J. L. Acena, J. Bach, ˜ K. R. Gibson, L. E. Keown, R. M. Oballa, T. Trieselmann, D. J. Wallace, A. P. Hodgson and R. D. Norcross, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2001, 40, 4055–4060; (d) M. T. Crimmins, J. D. Katz, D. G. Washburn, S. P. Allwein and L. F. McAtee, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2002, 124, 5661–5663; (e) M. Ball, M. J. Gaunt, D. F. Hook, A. S. Jessiman, S. Kawahara, P. Orsini, A. Scolaro, A. C. Talbot, H. R. Tanner, S. Yamanoi and S. V. Ley, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2005, 44, 5433–5438. 23 A. B. Smith, T. Tomioka, C. A. Risatti, J. B. Sperry and C. Sfouggatakis, Org. Lett., 2008, 10, 4359–4362. 24 (a) U. Eder, G. Sauer and R. Wiechert, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. Engl., 1971, 10, 496–497; (b) Z. G. Hajos and D. R. Parrish, J. Org. Chem., 1974, 39, 1615–1621; (c) B. List, Tetrahedron, 2002, 58, 5573–5590; (d) A. B. Northrup and D. W. C. MacMillan, Science, 2004, 305, 1752–1755; (e) A. B. Northrup, I. K. Mangion, F. Hettche and D. W. C. MacMillan, Angew. Chem., Int. Ed., 2004, 43, 2152– 2154. 25 A. B. Smith, C. Sfouggatakis, D. B. Gotchev, S. Shirakami, D. Bauer, W. Zhu and V. A. Doughty, Org. Lett., 2004, 6, 3637–3640. 26 A. B. Smith, C. A. Risatti, O. Atasoylu, C. S. Bennett, J. Liu, H. Cheng, K. TenDyke and Q. Xu, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2011, 133, 14042–14053. 27 A. R. Carroll, E. Hyde, J. Smith, R. J. Quinn, G. Guymer and P. I. Forster, J. Org. Chem., 2005, 70, 1096–1099. 2W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, M. R¨onn, C. Sun, W.-Y. Zhang and J. A. Sutcliffe, J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55, 597–605; (c) R. B. Clark, M. He, C. Fyfe, D. Loand, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, J. A. Sutcliffe and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54, 1511–1528; (d) R. B. Clark, D. K. Hunt, M. He, C. Achorn, C.-L. Chen, Y. Deng, C. Fyfe, T. H. Grossman, P. C. Hogan, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, M. R¨onn, J. A. Sutcliffe, Z. Zhu and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55, 606–622; (e) C. Sun, D. K. Hunt, R. B. Clark, D. Loand, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54, 3704–3731. 19 M. Ronn, Z. Zhu, P. C. Hogan, W.-Y. Zhang, J. Niu, C. E. Katz, N. Dunwoody, O. Gilicky, Y. Deng, D. K. Hunt, M. He, C.-L. Chen, C. Sun, R. B. Clark and X.-Y. Xiao, Org. Process Res. Dev., 2013, 17, 838–845. 20 D. A. Kummer, D. Li,

PAPER

Applications of biocatalytic arene ipso,ortho cis-dihydroxylation in synthesis

 Author affiliations

10.1039/C3CC49694E

Image result for Eravacycline

In 2005, Myers and co-workers reported the first use of 4 in complex natural product total synthesis.13 From their previously reported building block 43, tricyclic diketone 59 was accessible in a further 7 steps (10% overall yield from benzoate,   Scheme 7). Diketone 59 serves as a common precursor to the tetracycline AB-ring system and may be coupled with D-ring precursors such as 60 by a Michael–Dieckmann cascade cyclisation that forms the C-ring. Thus, after deprotection, the natural product ()-6-deoxytetracycline 61 is accessible in 14 steps and 7.0% overall yield from benzoate. Several points about the synthesis are noteworthy. The yield represents an improvement of orders of magnitude over the yields for all previously reported total syntheses of tetracyclines. Thus, for the first time, novel tetracycline analogues became accessible in useful quantities; union of 62 with 59 to access 63 is a representative example. Secondly, previous total syntheses of tetracyclines had been bedevilled by the difficulty of installing the C12a tertiary alcohol at a late stage.14c The Myers approach is conceptually distinct in that the C12a hydroxyl group is installed in the very first step, i.e. it is the hydroxyl group deriving from the microbial ipso hydroxylation. Finally, apart from the C12a stereocentre, all other stereocentres in the final tetracyclines are set under substrate control. Thus, all the stereochemical information in the final products may be considered ultimately to be of enzymatic origin. In the years following the Myers group’s initial disclosure, the methodology has been extended and improved to allow for the preparation of a greater diversity of novel tetracycline analogues.14 This has culminated in the development of eravacycline 65 (accessed from 59 and 64) by Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals.15 Eravacycline is indicated for treatment of multidrug-resistant infections and is currently in phase III trials.

13 (a) M. G. Charest, C. D. Lerner, J. D. Brubaker, D. R. Siegel and A. G. Myers, Science, 2005, 308, 395; (b) M. G. Charest, D. R. Siegel and A. G. Myers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2005, 127, 8292.

14 (a) J. D. Brubaker and A. G. Myers, Org. Lett., 2007, 9, 3523; (b) C. Sun, Q. Wang, J. D. Brubaker, P. M. Wright, C. D. Lerner, K. Noson, M. Charest, D. R. Siegel, Y.-M. Wang and A. G. Myers, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17913; (c) D. A. Kummer, D. Li, A. Dion and A. G. Myers, Chem. Sci., 2011, 2, 1710; (d) P. M. Wright and A. G. Myers, Tetrahedron, 2011, 67, 9853.

15 (a) R. B. Clark, M. He, C. Fyfe, D. Lofland, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, J. A. Sutcliffe and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54, 1511; (b) C. Sun, D. K. Hunt, R. B. Clark, D. Lofland, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2011, 54, 3704; (c) X.-Y. Xiao, D. K. Hunt, J. Zhou, R. B. Clark, N. Dunwoody, C. Fyfe, T. H. Grossman, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, M. Ro¨nn, C. Sun, W.-Y. Zhang and J. A. Sutcliffe, J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55, 597; (d) R. B. Clark, D. K. Hunt, M. He, C. Achorn, C.-L. Chen, Y. Deng, C. Fyfe, T. H. Grossman, P. C. Hogan, W. J. O’Brien, L. Plamondon, M. Ro¨nn, J. A. Sutcliffe, Z. Zhu and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2012, 55, 606; (e) M. Ronn, Z. Zhu, P. C. Hogan, W.-Y. Zhang, J. Niu, C. E. Katz, N. Dunwoody, O. Gilicky, Y. Deng, D. K. Hunt, M. He, C.-L. Chen, C. Sun, R. B. Clark and X.-Y. Xiao, Org. Process Res. Dev., 2013, 17, 838; ( f ) R. B. Clark, M. He, Y. Deng, C. Sun, C.-L. Chen, D. K. Hunt, W. J. O’Brien, C. Fyfe, T. H. Grossman, J. A. Sutcliffe, C. Achorn, P. C. Hogan, C. E. Katz, J. Niu, W.-Y. Zhang, Z. Zhu, M. Ro¨nn and X.-Y. Xiao, J. Med. Chem., 2013, 56, 8112.

WO 2017125557, Crystalline forms of eravacycline dihydrochloride or its solvates or hydrates. Also claims a process for the preparation of an eravacycline intended for oral or parenteral use, for the treatment of bacterial infections, preferably intra-abdominal and urinary tract infections caused by multidrug resistant gram negative pathogens. Follows on from WO2017097891 .

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals is developing eravacycline, a fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic and the lead from a series of tetracycline analogs which includes TP-221 and TP-170, for treating bacterial infections.

Eravacycline is a tetracycline antibiotic chemically designated (4S,4aS,5aR,l2aS)-4-(Dimethylamino)-7-fluoro-3 ,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy- 1,11 -dioxo-9-[2-(-pyrrolidin- 1 -yl)acetamido]-l,4,4a,5,5a,6,l l ,12a-octahydrotetracene-2-carboxamide and can be represented by the following chemical structure according to formula (I).

str1

formula (I)

Eravacycline possesses antibacterial activity against Gram negative pathogens and Gram positive pathogens, in particular against multidrug resistant (MDR) Gram negative pathogens and is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials in patients suffering from complicated intraabdominal infections (cIAI) and urinary tract infections (cUTI).

WO 2010/017470 Al discloses eravacycline as compound 34. Eravacycline is described to be prepared according to a process, which is described in more detail only for related compounds.

The last step of this process involves column chromatography with diluted hydrochloric acid/ acetonitrile, followed by freeze drying.

WO 2012/021829 Al discloses pharmaceutically acceptable acid and base addition salts of eravacycline in general and a general process for preparing the same involving reacting eravacycline free base with the corresponding acids and bases, respectively. On page 15, lines 3 to 6, a lyophilized powder containing an eravacycline salt and mannitol is disclosed.

Xiao et. al. “Fluorocyclines. 1. 7-Fluoro-9-pyrrolidinoacetamido-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline: A Potent, Broad Spectrum Antibacterial Agent” J. Med. Chem. 2012, 55, 597-605 synthesized eravacycline following the procedure for compounds 17e and 17i on page 603. After preparative reverse phase HPLC, compounds 17e and 17i were both obtained as bis-hydrochloride salts in form of yellow solids.

Ronn et al. “Process R&D of Eravacycline: The First Fully Synthetic Fluorocycline in Clinical Development” Org. Process Res. Dev. 2013, 17, 838-845 describe a process yielding eravacycline bis-hydrochloride as the final product. The last step involves precipitation of eravacycline bis-hydrochloride salt by adding ethyl acetate as an antisolvent to a solution of eravacycline bis-hydrochloride in an ethanol/ methanol mixture. The authors describe in some detail the difficulties during preparation of the bis-hydrochloride salt of eravacycline. According to Ronn et al. “partial addition of ethyl acetate led to a mixture containing suspended salt and a gummy form of the salt at the bottom of the reactor. At this stage, additional ethanol was added, and the mixture was aged with vigorous stirring until the gummy material also became a suspended solid.” In addition, after drying under vacuum the solid contained “higher than acceptable levels of ethanol”. “The ethanol was then displaced by water by placing a tray containing the solids obtained in a vacuum oven at reduced pressure (…) in the presence of an open vessel of water.” At the end eravacycline bis-hydrochloride salt containing about 4 to 6% residual moisture was obtained. The authors conclude that there is a need for additional improvements to the procedure along with an isolation step suitable for large scale manufacturing.

It is noteworthy that eravacycline or its salts are nowhere described as being a crystalline solid and that the preparation methods used for the preparation of eravacycline are processes like lyophilization, preparative column chromatography and precipitation, which typically yield amorphous material.

The cumbersome process of Ronn et al. points towards problems in obtaining eravacycline bis-hydrochloride in a suitable solid state, problems with scaleability of the available production process as well as problems with the isolation and drying steps of eravacycline.

In addition, amorphous solids can show low chemical stability, low physical stability, hygroscopicity, poor isolation and powder properties, etc.. Such properties are drawbacks for the use as an active pharmaceutical ingredients.

Thus, there is a need in pharmaceutical development for solid forms of an active pharmaceutical ingredient which demonstrate a favorable profile of relevant properties for formulation as a pharmaceutical composition, such as high chemical and physical stability, improved properties upon moisture contact, low(er) hygroscopicity and improved powder properties.

WO2010017470

WO 2017125557

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2017125557&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

The invention relates to crystalline eravacycline bis-hydrochloride and to a process for its preparation. Furthermore, the invention relates to the use of crystalline eravacycline bis-hydrochloride for the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions. The invention further relates to pharmaceutical compositions comprising an effective amount of crystalline eravacycline bis-hydrochloride. The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention can be used as medicaments, in particular for treatment and/ or prevention of bacterial infections e.g. caused by Gram negative pathogens or Gram positive pathogens, in particular caused by multidrug resistant Gram negative pathogens. The pharmaceutical compositions of the present invention can thus be used as medicaments for e.g. the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal and urinary tract infection

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Patent Title

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Granted Date

US2010105671 C7-fluoro substituted tetracycline compounds 2010-04-29
US2014194393 TETRACYCLINE COMPOSITIONS 2014-03-11 2014-07-10
US2013040918 TETRACYCLINE COMPOSITIONS 2012-10-17 2013-02-14
US8796245 C7-fluoro substituted tetracycline compounds 2012-12-18 2014-08-05
US8501716 C7-fluoro substituted tetracycline compounds 2012-08-09 2013-08-06
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2015094282 TETRACYCLINE COMPOSITIONS 2014-12-05 2015-04-02
US2015274643 C7-FLUORO SUBSTITUTED TETRACYCLINE COMPOUNDS 2014-11-04 2015-10-01

References

  1. Jump up to:a b Solomkin, Joseph; Evans, David; Slepavicius, Algirdas; Lee, Patrick; Marsh, Andrew; Tsai, Larry; Sutcliffe, Joyce A.; Horn, Patrick (2016-11-16). “Assessing the Efficacy and Safety of Eravacycline vs Ertapenem in Complicated Intra-abdominal Infections in the Investigating Gram-Negative Infections Treated With Eravacycline (IGNITE 1) Trial: A Randomized Clinical Trial”. JAMA surgeryISSN 2168-6262PMID 27851857doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2016.4237.
  2. Jump up to:a b “Tetraphase Announces Top-Line Results From IGNITE2 Phase 3 Clinical Trial of Eravacycline in cUTI (NASDAQ:TTPH)”ir.tphase.com. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  3. Jump up^ “FDA Grants QIDP Designation to Eravacycline, Tetraphase’s Lead Antibiotic Product Candidate | Business Wire”http://www.businesswire.com. Retrieved 2016-11-20.
  4. Jump up to:a b Zhanel, George G.; Cheung, Doris; Adam, Heather; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Golden, Alyssa; Schweizer, Frank; Gorityala, Bala; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R. S.; Walkty, Andrew (2016-04-01). “Review of Eravacycline, a Novel Fluorocycline Antibacterial Agent”. Drugs76 (5): 567–588. ISSN 1179-1950PMID 26863149doi:10.1007/s40265-016-0545-8.
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  7. Jump up^ Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David; Quale, John (2015-03-01). “Activity of eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, including multidrug-resistant isolates, from New York City”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy59 (3): 1802–1805. ISSN 1098-6596PMC 4325809Freely accessiblePMID 25534744doi:10.1128/AAC.04809-14.
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  14. Jump up to:a b “Efficacy and Safety Study of Eravacycline Compared With Ertapenem in Participants With Complicated Urinary Tract Infections – Full Text View – ClinicalTrials.gov”http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
  15. Jump up to:a b “Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Doses First Patient in IGNITE3 Phase 3 Clinical Trial of Once-daily IV Eravacycline in cUTI (NASDAQ:TTPH)”ir.tphase.com. Retrieved 2017-07-27.
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External links

Notes

Eravacycline
Eravacycline structure.svg
Names
IUPAC name

(4S,4aS,5aR,12aS)-4-(Dimethylamino)-7-fluoro-3,10,12,12a-tetrahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-9-[(1-pyrrolidinylacetyl)amino]-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-2-tetracenecarboxamide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
KEGG
PubChem CID
Properties
C27H31FN4O8
Molar mass 558.555

///////////////////////

OLD DATA FROM PREVIOUS BLOG POST

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc. (NASDAQ:TTPH) today announced that it will present two posters at IDWeek 2013 that examine the potential of its lead antibiotic candidate eravacycline to treat serious multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections. The first will highlight positive results of a Phase 1 study assessing the bronchopulmonary disposition safety and tolerability of eravacycline in healthy men and women; this study represents the first clinical assessment of eravacycline for potential use in treating pneumonia. The second poster will provide the results of a study that examined the activity of eravacycline in vitro against multiple Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens to set quality-control limits for monitoring eravacycline activity in future testing programs.
http://www.pharmiweb.com/pressreleases/pressrel.asp?ROW_ID=79335#.Uk6MOoanonU
More: http://www.pharmiweb.com/pressreleases/pressrel.asp?ROW_ID=79335#.Uk6MOoanonU#ixzz2gkEMTtQm

Eravacycline (TP-434) is a synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in development.

Eravacycline (TP-434 or 7-fluoro-9-pyrrolidinoacetamido-6-demethyl-6-deoxytetracycline) is a novel fluorocycline that was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against panels of recent aerobic and anaerobic Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Eravacycline showed potent broad spectrum activity against 90% of the isolates (MIC90) in each panel at concentrations ranging from ≤0.008 to 2 μg/mL for all species panels except Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cenocepacia (MIC90 values of 32 μg/mL for both organisms). The antibacterial activity of eravacycline was minimally affected by expression of tetracycline-specific efflux and ribosomal protection mechanisms in clinical isolates. Further, eravacycline was active against multidrug-resistant bacteria, including those expressing extended spectrum β-lactamases and mechanisms conferring resistance to other classes of antibiotics, including carbapenem resistance. Eravacycline has the potential to be a promising new IV/oral antibiotic for the empiric treatment of complicated hospital/healthcare infections and moderate-to-severe community-acquired infections.

Tetraphase’s lead product candidate, eravacycline, has also received an award from Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) that provides for funding  to develop eravacycline as a potential counter-measure to certain biothreat pathogens. It is worth up to USD 67 million.

Process R&D of Eravacycline: The First Fully Synthetic Fluorocycline in Clinical Development

Eravacycline (TP-434)

We are developing our lead product candidate, eravacycline, as a broad-spectrum intravenous and oral antibiotic for use as a first-line empiric monotherapy for the treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections, including MDR Gram-negative bacteria. We developed eravacycline using our proprietary chemistry technology. We completed a successful Phase 2 clinical trial of eravacycline with intravenous administration for the treatment of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI) and have initiated the Phase 3 clinical program.

Eravacycline is a novel, fully synthetic tetracycline antibiotic. We selected eravacycline for development from tetracycline derivatives that we generated using our proprietary chemistry technology on the basis of the following characteristics of the compound that we observed in in vitro studies of the compound:

  • potent antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of susceptible and multi-drug resistant bacteria, including Gram-negative, Gram-positive, atypical and anaerobic bacteria;
  • potential to treat the majority of patients as a first-line empiric monotherapy with convenient dosing; and
  • potential for intravenous-to-oral step-down therapy.

In in vitro studies, eravacycline has been highly active against emerging multi-drug resistant pathogens like Acinetobacter baumannii as well as clinically important species ofEnterobacteriaceae, including those isolates that produce ESBLs or are resistant to the carbapenem class of antibiotics, and anaerobes.

Based on in vitro studies we have completed, eravacycline shares a similar potency profile with carbapenems except that it more broadly covers Gram-positive pathogens like MRSA and enterococci, is active against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria and unlike carbapenems like Primaxin and Merrem is not active against Pseudomanas aeruginosa. Eravacycline has demonstrated strong activity in vitro against Gram-positive pathogens, including both nosocomial and community-acquired methicillin susceptible or resistantStaphylococcus aureus strains, vancomycin susceptible or resistant Enterococcus faecium andEnterococcus faecalis, and penicillin susceptible or resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. In in vitro studies for cIAI, eravacycline consistently exhibited strong activity against enterococci and streptococci. One of the most frequently isolated anaerobic pathogens in cIAI, either as the sole pathogen or often in conjunction with another Gram-negative bacterium, is Bacteroides fragilis. In these studies eravacycline demonstrated activity against Bacteroides fragilis and a wide range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative anaerobes.

Key Differentiating Attributes of Eravacycline
The following key attributes of eravacycline, observed in clinical trials and preclinical studies of eravacycline, differentiate eravacycline from other antibiotics targeting multi-drug resistant infections, including multi-drug resistant Gram-negative infections. These attributes will make eravacycline a safe and effective treatment for cIAI, cUTI and other serious and life-threatening infections for which we may develop eravacycline, such as ABSSSI and acute bacterial pneumonias.

  • Broad-spectrum activity against a wide variety of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative, Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. In our recently completed Phase 2 clinical trial of the intravenous formulation of eravacycline, eravacycline demonstrated a high cure rate against a wide variety of multi-drug resistant Gram-negative, Gram-positive and anaerobic bacteria. In addition, in in vitro studies eravacycline demonstrated potent antibacterial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, including E. coli; ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniaeAcinetobacter baumannii; Gram-positive bacteria, including MSRA and vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, or VRE; and anaerobic pathogens. As a result of this broad-spectrum coverage, eravacycline has the potential to be used as a first-line empiric monotherapy for the treatment of cIAI, cUTI, ABSSSI, acute bacterial pneumonias and other serious and life-threatening infections.
  • Favorable safety and tolerability profile. Eravacycline has been evaluated in more than 250 subjects in the Phase 1 and Phase 2 clinical trials that we have conducted. In these trials, eravacycline demonstrated a favorable safety and tolerability profile. In our recent Phase 2 clinical trial of eravacycline, no patients suffered any serious adverse events, and safety and tolerability were comparable to ertapenem, the control therapy in the trial. In addition, in the Phase 2 clinical trial, the rate at which gastrointestinal adverse events such as nausea and vomiting that occurred in the eravacycline arms was comparable to the rate of such events in the ertapenem arm of the trial.
  • Convenient dosing regimen. In our recently completed Phase 2 clinical trial we dosed eravacycline once or twice a day as a monotherapy. Eravacycline will be able to be administered as a first-line empiric monotherapy with once- or twice-daily dosing, avoiding the need for complicated dosing regimens typical of multi-drug cocktails and the increased risk of negative drug-drug interactions inherent to multi-drug cocktails.
  • Potential for convenient intravenous-to-oral step-down. In addition to the intravenous formulation of eravacycline, we are also developing an oral formulation of eravacycline. If successful, this oral formulation would enable patients who begin intravenous treatment with eravacycline in the hospital setting to transition to oral dosing of eravacycline either in hospital or upon patient discharge for convenient home-based care. The availability of both intravenous and oral administration and the oral step-down will reduce the length of a patient’s hospital stay and the overall cost of care.

Additionally, in February 2012, Tetraphase announced a contract award from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) worth up to $67 million for the development of eravacycline, from which Tetraphase may receive up to approximately $40 million in funding. The contract includes pre-clinical efficacy and toxicology studies; clinical studies; manufacturing activities; and associated regulatory activities to position the broad-spectrum antibiotic eravacycline as a potential empiric countermeasure for the treatment of inhalational disease caused by Bacillus anthracisFrancisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis.\

PAPERAbstract Image

Process research and development of the first fully synthetic broad spectrum 7-fluorotetracycline in clinical development is described. The process utilizes two key intermediates in a convergent approach. The key transformation is a Michael–Dieckmann reaction between a suitable substituted aromatic moiety and a key cyclohexenone derivative. Subsequent deprotection and acylation provide the desired active pharmaceutical ingredient in good overall yield.

Process R&D of Eravacycline: The First Fully Synthetic Fluorocycline in Clinical Development

Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals Inc., 480 Arsenal Street, Suite 110, Watertown, Massachusetts, 02472, United States
Org. Process Res. Dev., 2013, 17 (5), pp 838–845
DOI: 10.1021/op4000219
Publication Date (Web): April 6, 2013
Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society
PAPER

FDA Grants QIDP Designation to Eravacycline, Tetraphase’s Lead Antibiotic Product Candidate

– Eravacycline designated as a QIDP for complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) indications –

July 15, 2013 08:30 AM Eastern Daylight Time

WATERTOWN, Mass.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (NASDAQ: TTPH) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has designated the company’s lead antibiotic product candidate, eravacycline, as a Qualified Infectious Disease Product (QIDP). The QIDP designation, granted for complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) and complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) indications, will make eravacycline eligible to benefit from certain incentives for the development of new antibiotics provided under the Generating Antibiotic Incentives Now Act (GAIN Act). These incentives include priority review and eligibility for fast-track status. Further, if ultimately approved by the FDA, eravacycline is eligible for an additional five-year extension of Hatch-Waxman exclusivity.

http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20130715005237/en/FDA-Grants-QIDP-Designation-Eravacycline-Tetraphase%E2%80%99s-Lead

/////////Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals,  TP-434,  1207283-85-9, eravacycline

CN(C)C1C2CC3CC4=C(C=C(C(=C4C(=C3C(=O)C2(C(=C(C1=O)C(=O)N)O)O)O)O)NC(=O)CN5CCCC5)F

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