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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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FDA Approves Tybost (cobicistat) for use in the treatment of HIV-1 Infection


Cobicistat, GS-9350


40 H 53 N 7 O 5 S 2

N-[1(R)-Benzyl-4(R)-[2(S)-[3-(2-isopropylthiazol-4-ylmethyl)-3-methyl]ureido]-4-(4-morpholinyl)butyramido]-5-phenylpentyl]carbamic acid thiazol-5-ylmethyl ester

(1,3-thiazol-5-yl) methyl (5S, 8R, 11R) -8,11-dibenzyl-2-methyl-5-[2 – (morpholin-4-yl) ethyl] -1 – [2 – (propan-2-yl) -1,3-thiazol-4-yl] -3,6-dioxo-2 ,4,7,12-tetraazatridecan-13-oate

cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitor

Gilead Sciences, Inc.

FDA Approves Tybost (cobicistat) for use in the treatment of HIV-1 Infection
September 24, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Tybost (cobicistat), a CYP3A inhibitor used in combination with atazanavir or darunavir for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection

Cobicistat is a pharmacokinetic enhancer that works by inhibiting the enzyme (CYP3A) that metabolizes atazanavir and darunavir. It increases the systemic exposure of these drugs and prolongs their effect. Cobicistat is also one of the ingredients in the combination HIV drug Stribild, which was approved by the FDA in August, 2012.

Tybost comes in 150 mg tablets and is administered once daily in combination with the protease inhibitors atazanavir (Reyataz), or darunavir (Prezista).

Because Tybost inhibits CYP3A, other medications metabolized by CYP3A may result in increased plasma concentrations and potentially severe side effects, which may be life-threatening or even fatal. Extra care should be exercised by healthcare professionals to ensure than other medications are reviewed and their concentrations monitored, especially when initiating new medicines or changing doses.

The approval of Tybost was based on the following clinical trials:
•The data to support the use of atazanavir and Tybost were from a phase 2 and 3 trial in treatment-naïve adults comparing atazanavir/cobicistat 300/150 mg and atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once daily each in combination with Truvada. The atazanavir/cobicistat based regimen was non-inferior to the atazanavir/ritonavir based regimen.
•The data to support the use of cobicistat with darunavir is from a multiple dose trial in healthy subjects comparing the relative bioavailability of darunavir/cobicistat 800/150 mg to darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg.

The most common adverse drug reactions observed with Tybost (in combination with atazanavir) in clinical trials were jaundice, ocular icterus, and nausea.

Tybost is a product of Gilead Sciences, Foster City, CA.

Cobicistat (formerly GS-9350) is a licensed drug for use in the treatment of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

Like ritonavir (Norvir), cobicistat is of interest not for its anti-HIV properties, but rather its ability to inhibit liver enzymes that metabolize other medications used to treat HIV, notablyelvitegravir, an HIV integrase inhibitor currently under investigation itself. By combining cobicistat with elvitegravir, higher concentrations of elvitgravir are achieved in the body with lower dosing, theoretically enhancing elvitgravir’s viral suppression while diminishing its adverse side-effects. In contrast with ritonavir, the only currently approved booster, cobicistat has no anti-HIV activity of its own.[1]

Cobicistat, a cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 inhibitor, was approved in the E.U. in 2013 as a pharmacokinetic enhancer of the HIV-1 protease inhibitors atazanavir and darunavir in adults. First launch took place in 2014 in United Kingdom. In 2012, Gilead filed a New Drug Application in the U.S. for the same indication. In April 2013, the FDA issued a Complete Response Letter from the FDA. In 2014 the FDA accepted Gilead’s resubmission.

Cobicistat is a component of the four-drug, fixed-dose combination HIV treatmentelvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir (known as the “Quad Pill” or Stribild).[1][2] The Quad Pill/Stribild was approved by the FDA in August 2012 for use in the United States and is owned by Gilead Sciences.
Cobicistat is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes, including the importantCYP3A4 subtype. It also inhibits intestinal transport proteins, increasing the overall absorption of several HIV medications, including atazanavirdarunavir and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate.[3]

The drug candidate acts as a pharmaco-enhancer to boost exposure of HIV protease inhibitors. In 2011, cobicistat was licensed to Japan Tobacco by Gilead for development and commercialization in Japan as a stand-alone product for the treatment of HIV infection. In 2012, orphan drug designation was assigned in Japan for the pharmacokinetic enhancement of anti-HIV agent.

Oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes is one of the primary mechanisms of drug metabolism.. It can be difficult to maintain therapeutically effective blood plasma levels of drugs which are rapidly metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Accordingly, the blood plasma levels of drugs which are susceptible to cytochrome P450 enzyme degradation can be maintained or enhanced by co-administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors, thereby improving the pharmacokinetics of the drug.

While certain drugs are known to inhibit cytochrome P450 enzymes, more and/or improved inhibitors for cytochrome P450 monooxygenase are desirable. Particularly, it would be desirable to have cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitors which do not have appreciable biological activity other than cytochrome P450 inhibition. Such inhibitors can be useful for minimizing undesirable biological activity, e.g., side effects. In addition, it would be desirable to have P450 monooxygenase inhibitors that lack significant or have a reduced level of protease inhibitor activity. Such inhibitors could be useful for enhancing the effectiveness of antiretroviral drugs, while minimizing the possibility of eliciting viral resistance, especially against protease inhibitors.


Cobicistat (GS-9350): A potent and selective inhibitor of human CYP3A as a novel pharmacoenhancer
ACS Med Chem Lett 2010, 1(5): 209

Abstract Image

Cobicistat (3, GS-9350) is a newly discovered, potent, and selective inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. In contrast to ritonavir, 3 is devoid of anti-HIV activity and is thus more suitable for use in boosting anti-HIV drugs without risking selection of potential drug-resistant HIV variants. Compound 3 shows reduced liability for drug interactions and may have potential improvements in tolerability over ritonavir. In addition, 3 has high aqueous solubility and can be readily coformulated with other agents.

1-Benzyl-4-{2-[3-(2-isopropyl-thiazol-4-ylmethyl)-3-methyl-ureido]-4-morpholin-4-yl-butyrylamino}-5-phenyl-pentyl)-carbamic acid thiazol-5-ylmethyl ester (GS-9350)
HPLC (Chiral CelROD-H, Chiral Technologies Inc;heptane/iPrOH = 70/30).
δ8.98 (1 H, s), 7.82 (1 H, s), 7.25-7.05
(11 H, m), 5.25-5.10 (2 H, m), 4.60-4.50 (2 H, m), 4.21-4.03 (2 H, m), 3.82-3.72 (1
H, m), 3.65-3.65 (4 H, m), 3.35-3.25 (1 H, m), 2.98 (3 H, s), 2.8-2.6 (4 H, m), 2.4-2.2
(6 H, m), 1.95-1.8 (1 H, m), 1.8-1.6 (1 H, m), 1.6-1.4 (4 H, m), 1.42-1.32 (6 H, m).
MS (ESI) m/z: 776.2 (M+H)+.
HRMS calc. for C40H53N7O5S2: 775.355, found: 775.353.


 CN 103694196

oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes is one of the main mechanisms of drug metabolism, generally by administration of cytochrome P450 inhibitors to maintain or increase the degradation of cytochrome P450 enzymes are sensitive to the drug plasma levels, in order to improve the pharmacokinetics of drugs dynamics, can be used to enhance the effectiveness of anti-retroviral drugs. For example W02008010921 discloses compounds of formula I as a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase specific compounds (Cobicistat):


Figure CN103694196AD00051

  W02008010921 discloses the synthesis of compounds of formula I with a variety of, as one of the methods of the following routes



Figure CN103694196AD00061

The reagents used in the method is expensive, and more difficult to remove by-products, long reaction time, high cost, is not conducive to industrial


W02010115000 on these routes has been improved:


Figure CN103694196AD00062

The first step in the route used for the ring-opening reaction reagent trimethylsilyl iodide, trimethylsilyl iodide expensive. W02010115000 reports this step and the subsequent ring-opening reaction of morpholine substitution reaction yield of two steps is not high, only 71%, so that only iodotrimethylsilane a high cost of raw material is not suitable for industrial production.


Figure CN103694196AC00023


Figure CN103694196AC00031

Figure CN103694196AC00041

Preparation of compounds of formula I

Example [0126] Implementation

[0127] I1-a (20g) was dissolved in dichloromethane, was added 50% K0H (5.5g) solution, control the internal temperature does not exceed 25 ° C, TLC analysis ΙΙ-a disappears. Was cooled to O ~ 10 ° C, was added (2R, 5R) -5 – amino-1 ,6 – diphenyl-2 – hexyl-carbamic acid 5 – methyl-thiazole ester hydrochloride (14.8g), stirred for I ~ 2 h, 1 – hydroxybenzotriazole triazole (5.5g), stirred for I h, 1 – ethyl – (3 – dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (15g), and incubated for 5 ~ 10 hours, TLC analysis of the starting material disappeared, the reaction was completed. The reaction was quenched with aqueous acetic acid, methylene chloride layer was separated, washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3, washed with water, dried and concentrated. By HPLC purity of 99.1%. Adding ethanol, the ethanol was evaporated to give the product compound of part I of a solution in ethanol. Molar yield 88%, LC-MS: M +1 = 777.1 [0128] All publications mentioned in the present invention are incorporated by reference as if each reference was individually incorporated by reference, as cited in the present application. It should also be understood that, after reading the foregoing teachings of the present invention, those skilled in the art that various modifications of the present invention or modifications, and these equivalents falling as defined by the appended claims scope of claims of the present application.



US 2014088304

International Patent Application Publication Number WO 2008/010921 and International Patent Application Publication Number WO 2008/103949 disclose certain compounds that are reported to be useful to modify the pharmacokinetics of a co-administered drug, e.g. by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenase. One specific compound identified therein is a compound of the following formula I:

There is currently a need for improved synthetic methods and intermediates that can be used to prepare the compound of formula I and its salts

Schemes 1-4 below.

Preparation of a Compound of Formula IV

Scheme V.


Example 14Preparation of Compound I

To the solution of L-thiazole morpholine ethyl ester oxalate salt XIVa (35.6 kg) in water (66.0 kg) was charged dichloromethane (264 kg), followed by a slow addition of 15 wt % KHCO3 solution (184.8 kg). The resulting mixture was agitated for about 1 hour. The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed with water (132 kg). The organic layer was concentrated under vacuum to dryness. Water (26.5 kg) was charged and the content temperature was adjusted to about 10° C., followed by slow addition of 45% KOH solution (9.8 kg) while maintaining the content temperature at less than or equal to 20° C. The mixture was agitated at less than or equal to 20° C. until the reaction was judged complete by HPLC. The reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum to dryness and co-evaporated five times with dichloromethane (132 kg each time) under reduced pressure to dryness. Co-evaporation with dichloromethane (132 kg) was continued until the water content was <4% by Karl Fischer titration. Additional dichloromethane (264 kg) was charged and the content temperature was adjusted to −18° C. to −20° C., followed by addition of monocarbamate.HCl salt IXa (26.4 kg). The resulting mixture was agitated at −18° C. to −20° C. for about 1 hour. HOBt (11.4 kg) was charged and the reaction mixture was again agitated at −18° C. to −20° C. for about 1 hour. A pre-cooled solution (−20° C.) of EDC.HCl (21.4 kg) in dichloromethane (396 kg) was added to the reaction mixture while the content temperature was maintained at less than or equal to −20° C. The reaction mixture was agitated at −18° C. to −20° C. until the reaction was judged complete. The content temperature was adjusted to about 3° C. and the reaction mixture quenched with a 10 wt % aqueous citric acid solution (290 kg). The layers were separated and the organic layer was washed once with 15 wt % potassium bicarbonate solution (467 kg) and water (132 kg). The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure and then co-evaporated with absolute ethanol.

The product I was isolated as the stock solution in ethanol (35.0 kg product, 76.1% yield).

1H NMR (dDMSO) δ□ 9.05 (s, 1H), 7.85 (s, 1H), 7.52 (d, 1H), 7.25-7.02 (m, 12H), 6.60 (d, 1H), 5.16 (s, 2H), 4.45 (s, 2H), 4.12-4.05 (m, 1H), 3.97-3.85 (m, 1H), 3.68-3.59 (m, 1H), 3.57-3.45 (m, 4H), 3.22 (septets, 1H), 2.88 (s, 3H), 2.70-2.55 (m, 4H), 2.35-2.10 (m, 6H), 1.75 (m, 1H), 1.62 (m, 1H), 1.50-1.30 (m, 4H), 1.32 (d, 6H).

13C NMR (CD3OD) δ 180.54, 174., 160.1, 157.7, 156.9, 153.8, 143.8, 140.1, 140.0, 136.0, 130.53, 130.49, 129.4, 127.4, 127.3, 115.5, 67.7, 58.8, 56.9, 55.9, 54.9, 53.9, 51.6, 49.8, 42.7, 42.0, 35.4, 34.5, 32.4, 32.1, 29.1, 23.7.

Example 13Preparation of L-Thiazole Morpholine Ethyl Ester Oxalate Salt XIVa

To a solution of (L)-thiazole amino lactone XII (33.4 kg) in dichloromethane (89.5 kg) was charged dichloromethane (150 kg) and absolute ethanol (33.4 kg). The content temperature was then adjusted to about 10° C., followed by slow addition of TMSI (78.8 kg) while the content temperature was maintained at less than or equal to 22° C. and agitated until the reaction was judged complete. The content temperature was adjusted to about 10° C., followed by a slow addition of morpholine (49.1 kg) while the content temperature was maintained at less than or equal to 22° C. Once complete, the reaction mixture was filtered to remove morpholine.HI salt and the filter cake was rinsed with two portions of dichloromethane (33.4 kg). The filtrate was washed twice with water (100 kg). The organic layer was concentrated under vacuum to dryness. Acetone (100 kg) was then charged to the concentrate and the solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. Acetone (233.8 kg) was charged to the concentrate, followed by a slow addition of the solution of oxalic acid (10 kg) in acetone (100 kg). The resulting slurry was refluxed for about 1 hour before cooling down to about 3° C. for isolation. The product XIVa was filtered and rinsed with acetone (66.8 kg) and dried under vacuum at 40° C. to afford a white to off-white solid (40 kg, 71% yield). 1H NMR (CDCl3) δ □7.00 (s, 1H), 6.35 (broad s, 1H), 4.60-4.40 (m, 3H), 4.19 (quartets, 2H), 4.00-3.90 (m, 4H), 3.35-3.10 (m, 7H), 3.00 (s, 3H), 2.40-2.30 (m, 1H), 2.15-2.05 (m, 1H), 1.38 (d, 6H), 1.25 (triplets, 3H).



Preparation of Example A

Scheme 1

Example A Compound 2

To a solution of Compound 1 (ritonavir) (1.8 g, 2.5 mmol) in 1,2- dichloroethane (15 mL) was added l,l’-thiocarbonyldiimidazole (890 mg, 5.0 mmol). The mixture was heated at 75 SC for 6 hours and cooled to 25 SC. Evaporation under reduced pressure gave a white solid. Purification by flash column chromatography (stationary phase: silica gel; eluent: EtOAc) gave Compound 2 (1.6 g). m/z: 831.1 (M+H)+. Example A

To the refluxing solution of tributyltin hydride (0.78 mL, 2.9 mmol) in toluene (130 mL) was added a solution of Compound 2 (1.6 g, 1.9 mmol) and 2,2′- azobisisobutyronitrile (31 mg, 0.19 mmol) in toluene (30 mL) over 30 minutes. The mixture was heated at 1152C for 6 hours and cooled to 25 BC. Toluene was removed under reduced pressure. Purification by flash column chromatography (stationary phase: silica gel; eluent: hexane/EtOAc = 1/10) gave Example A (560 mg). m/z: 705.2 (M+H)+. 1H-NMR (CDCl3) δ 8.79 (1 H, s), 7.82 (1 H, s), 7.26-7.05 (10 H, m), 6.98 (1 H, s), 6.28 (1 H, m), 6.03 (1 H, m), 5.27 (1 H7 m), 5.23 (2 H, s), 4.45-4.22 (2 H, m), 4.17 (1 H, m), 3.98 (1 H, m), 3.75 (1 H, m), 3.25 (1 H7 m), 2.91 (3 H, s), 2.67 (4 H, m), 2.36 (1 H, m), 1.6-1.2 (10 H, m), 0.85 (6 H, m).


EP1183026A2 * 25 May 2000 6 Mar 2002 Abbott Laboratories Improved pharmaceutical formulations
US20060199851 * 2 Mar 2006 7 Sep 2006 Kempf Dale J Novel compounds that are useful for improving pharmacokinetics


Thiazol-5-ylmethyl N-[1-benzyl-4-[[2-[[(2-isopropylthiazol-4-yl)methyl-methyl-carbamoyl]amino]-4-morpholino-butanoyl]amino]-5-phenyl-pentyl]carbamate
Clinical data
Legal status
fda approved sept 2014
CAS number 1004316-88-4 Yes
ATC code V03AX03
PubChem CID 25151504
ChemSpider 25084912 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C40H53N7O5S2 
Mol. mass 776.023 g/mol
US7939553 * Jul 6, 2007 May 10, 2011 Gilead Sciences, Inc. co-administered drug (as HIV protease inhibiting compound, an HIV (non)nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitor of reverse transcriptase, capsid polymerization inhibitor, interferon, ribavirin analog) by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenase; ureido- or amido-amine derivatives; side effect reduction
       Highleyman, L.

Elvitegravir “Quad” Single-tablet Regimen Shows Continued HIV Suppression at 48 Weeks

  1.  R Elion, J Gathe, B Rashbaum, and others. The Single-Tablet Regimen of Elvitegravir/Cobicistat/Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (EVG/COBI/FTC/TDF; Quad) Maintains a High Rate of Virologic Suppression, and Cobicistat (COBI) is an Effective Pharmacoenhancer Through 48 Weeks. 50th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC 2010). Boston, September 12–15, 2010.
  2. Lepist, E. -I.; Phan, T. K.; Roy, A.; Tong, L.; MacLennan, K.; Murray, B.; Ray, A. S. (2012). “Cobicistat Boosts the Intestinal Absorption of Transport Substrates, Including HIV Protease Inhibitors and GS-7340, in Vitro”Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 56 (10): 5409–5413. doi:10.1128/AAC.01089-12PMC 3457391PMID 22850510.
  3. Patent No

    all US

    5814639 Sep 29, 2015
    5814639*PED Mar 29, 2016
    5914331 Jul 2, 2017
    5914331*PED Jan 2, 2018
    5922695 Jul 25, 2017
    5922695*PED Jan 25, 2018
    5935946 Jul 25, 2017
    5935946*PED Jan 25, 2018
    5977089 Jul 25, 2017
    5977089*PED Jan 25, 2018
    6043230 Jul 25, 2017
    6043230*PED Jan 25, 2018
    6642245 Nov 4, 2020
    6642245*PED May 4, 2021
    6703396 Mar 9, 2021
    6703396*PED Sep 9, 2021
    7176220 Nov 20, 2023
    7635704 Oct 26, 2026
    8148374 Sep 3, 2029

WHO publishes New Version of the Draft on “Hold-Time” Studies


WHO publishes New Version of the Draft on “Hold-Time” Studies,8526,9086,9087,Z-PEM_n.html

The 2nd revision for comment was published already in February this year (we reported). Now, a 3rd version is available – also for comment. The document describes the design of hold-time studies for the determination of time limits which have to be determined according to the generally applicable intermediate and bulk products. This should avoid that the storage of intermediate or bulk products from having any negative influence on their quality or the quality of a finished before processing to the next stage.

Chapter 2 which defines what intermediate and bulk products are has been added. It is now explicitly pointed out that hold-time investigations are part of the process validation. In turn, the reference to retrospective observation has been removed from the current version as well as – fortunately – the incomprehensible paragraph on the ‚most probable /…

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How to identify Out-of-Trend Results in Stability Studies?


How to identify Out-of-Trend Results in Stability Studies?,8348,8430,Z-QCM_n.html

An article in PharmTech from June 2013 (by Trajkovic-Jolevska et. al) deals with the methods to identify Out-of-Trend (OOT) results in ongoing stability studies.

With regard to stability studies, it is important to make the difference between Out-of-Specification (OOS) and Out-of-Trend (OOT). Both the pharmaceutical industry and authorities often misuse these two terms.

The article defines OOT results as those results which don’t follow the expected trend, either in comparison with other stability batches or compared to previous results collected during a stability study. OOT results aren’t necessarily OOS, but they don’t look like a typical data point.
Although OOT results are a serious problem, neither the scientific literature nor regulatory guidelines fully address them.

The aim of the study described in this Pharmtech article by Trajkovic-Jolevska et. al was to perform a statistical evaluation of the statistical methods used in…

View original post 112 more words

Pirenperone, R 47465

Figure imgf000044_0003




3-(2- {4-[(4-fluorophenyl)carbonyl]piperidin- 1 -yl} ethyl)-2-methyl-4H-pyrido[ 1 ,2- α]pyrimidin-4-one


3-[2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-2-methyl-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyri- midin-4-one

pirenperone CAS 75444-65-4

C23 H24 F N3 O2
4H-​Pyrido[1,​2-​a]​pyrimidin-​4-​one, 3-​[2-​[4-​(4-​fluorobenzoyl)​-​1-​piperidinyl]​ethyl]​-​2-​methyl-
R 47465


Cardiovascular disease; Inflammatory disease; Neoplasm; Pain

Calcium channel modulator T-type


Example XXIV

  • A solution of 2 parts of 3-[2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1 -piperidinyl]ethyl]-2 -methyl-4H -pyricio[1, 2 -a]pyrimidin-4-one in 64 parts of 2-propanol is warm acidified with 2-propanol saturated with hydrogen chloride. The formed hydrochloride salt is allowed to crystallize. It is filtered off and dried, yielding 2 parts (85. 5%) of 3-[2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1-piperidinyl]ethyl]-2-methyl-4H-pyrido[1,2-a]pyri- midin-4-one dihydrochloride; mp. + 300°C.
  • In a similar manner there are also prepared:

    • 3-[2 -[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1-piperidiny]yethyl7-2 -methyl-4H-pyrido-[1, 2 -a]pyrimidin-4-one sulfate (1 : 2); mp. 254. 7°C; and
    • 3-[2-[4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-1 -piperidinyl]ethyl]-2-methyl-4H-pyrido-[1, 2-a]pyrimidin-4-one phosphate (1 : 2) ; mp. 243.8°C.






Vm Therapeutics Llc

Novelcrystalline polymorphic forms of pirenperone, useful for treating disorders associated with T-type calcium ion channels such as pain syndrome, neoplasm, cardiovascular disease or inflammation. VM Discovery, from which VM Therapeutics was spun out, was investigating the VMD-C300 series of compounds which act as T-type calcium channel modulators, including VMD-3816 and VMD-3222, for treating cancer, pain, neurological diseases and cardiovascular diseases; but as of September 2014, this program was assumed to be discontinued. See WO2009108798, (by the inventor, assigned to VM Discovery) claiming use of the same compound for treating same indications.

It was first disclosed in the now-expired US Patent No. 4,342,870 (Claim 5), and intended to be used as potential anti-anxiety drug. However, the early human clinical studies has shown that the compound did not show any dose-related anti-anxiety effects as hoped, but otherwise the compound was safe in human (ref. Ansseau M, Doumo t A, Thlry D, Gelders Y. “Pilot study of a specific serotonergic antagonist, pirenperone, in the treatment of anxiety disorders”, Acta Psychiatr Belg, 1983 Sep-Oct;83(5):517-24). in the US Patent No. 4,342,870, there is no crystalline polymorphic form disclosed, nor disclosure of potential uses for management of pain and treatment of other related diseases or disorders.

It was further disclosed in the PCT patent application WO/2009/108798 as “Compound 10 (pirenperone)” to be used for novel T-type calcium ion channel antagonist for management of pain and treatment of other diseases or disorders associated to the T-type calcium ion channels.

Surprisingly, we have found that there are many crystalline polymorphic forms of this compound which may affect the compound’s pharmaceutical safety and pharmacology properties.



Amgen files ‘breakthrough’ leukaemia drug Blinatumomab (AMG103) in the US


Biotechnology giant Amgen has filed its investigational cancer immunotherapy blinatumomab in the US for the treatment of certain forms of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).

Specifically, the Biologic License Application seeks approval to market the drug for patients with Philadelphia-negative (Ph-) relapsed/refractory B-precursor forms of the aggressive blood/bone marrow cancer.

Blinatumomab (AMG103) is a drug that has anti-cancer properties. It belongs to a new class of constructed monoclonal antibodies, bi-specific T-cell engagers (BiTEs), that exert action selectively and direct the human immune system to act against tumor cells. Blinatumomab specifically targets the CD19 antigen present on B cells.[1]

The drug was developed by a German-American company Micromet, Inc. in cooperation with Lonza; Micromet was later purchases byAmgen, which has furthered the drug’s clinical trials.

Structure and mechanism of action

Blinatumomab linking a T cell to a malignant B cell.

Blinatumomab enables a patient’s T cells to recognize malignant B cells. A molecule of blinatumomab combines two binding sites: a CD3 site for T cells and a CD19 site for the target B cells. CD3 is part of the T cell receptor. The drug works by linking these two cell types and activating the T cell to exert cytotoxic activity on the target cell.[2]

Therapeutic use

Clinical trials

In a phase 1 clinical study with blinatumomab, patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma showed tumor regression, and in some cases completeremission.[3] There are ongoing phase 1 and phase 2 clinical trials of blinatumomab in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL),[4]lung or gastrointestinal cancers.[citation needed] One phase II trial for ALL reported good results in 2010 and another is starting.[5]

Monoclonal antibody
Type Bi-specific T-cell engager
Source Mouse
Target CD19, CD3
Clinical data
Legal status
CAS number 853426-35-4 
ATC code None
Chemical data
Formula C2367H3577N649O772S19 
Mol. mass 54.1 kDa


  1.  Statement on a Nonproprietary Name adopted by the USAN Council: Blinatumomab
  2.  Mølhøj, M; Crommer, S; Brischwein, K; Rau, D; Sriskandarajah, M; Hoffmann, P; Kufer, P; Hofmeister, R; Baeuerle, PA (March 2007). “CD19-/CD3-bispecific antibody of the BiTE class is far superior to tandem diabody with respect to redirected tumor cell lysis”. Mol Immunol 44 (8): 1935–43. doi:10.1016/j.molimm.2006.09.032. PMID 17083975.
  3.  Bargou, R; et al. (2008). “Tumor regression in cancer patients by very low doses of a T cell-engaging antibody”. Science 321 (5891): 974–977. doi:10.1126/science.1158545.PMID 18703743.
  4. NCT00560794 Phase II Study of the BiTE Blinatumomab (MT103) in Patients With Minimal Residual Disease of B-precursor Acute ALL
  5.  “Micromet initiates MT103 phase 2 trial in adult ALL patients”. 20 Sep 2010.

External links MAKE IN INDIA

Pharmaceuticals; Make in India

Indian PM Narendra Modi: Understanding an enigma PM,  MODI
Brand India Pharma aims to make the most of a booming domestic pharma industry
India’s pharma exports stood at 90,000 crore rupees ($15 billion) for the year 2013-2014, and are set to cross the 1 lakh crore rupees ($16.4 billion) mark in the current financial year. The Brand India Pharma campaign aims to tap into this value proposition, under the guidance of the Indian Ministry of Commerce and Industry, aiming to showcase the strengths of the Indian pharma industry.

With more than 10,500 manufacturing units and more than 3,000 pharma companies, India is ranked among the top six producers of pharmaceuticals worldwide, and is well-positioned to take advantage of its place in a global landscape.




List of WHO Approved Pharma Plant in India


India’s spacecraft cost $74 million, a fraction of the $671 million spent by NASA’s MAVEN ……….SEPT 24 2014

Indian Pharma Sector

India is already among the top six producers of pharmaceuticals of the world. The Government of India has announced a host of measures to create a facilitating environment for the Indian pharmaceutical industry. The policies of the Government of India are aimed at building more hospitals, boosting local access to healthcare, improving the quality of medical training, increasing public expenditure on healthcare to 2-3 per cent of GDP, up from the current level of 1 per cent. At the same time, the growth in healthcare insurance industry in India is also expected to complement the overall growth in the pharmaceutical market.



India’s spacecraft reaches Mars orbit … and history

India’s spacecraft cost $74 million, a fraction of the $671 million spent by NASA’s MAVEN

24 sept 2014

India’s Mars Orbiter Mission successfully entered Mars’ orbit Wednesday morning, becoming the first nation to arrive on its first attempt and the first Asian country to reach the Red Planet.

“We have gone beyond the boundaries of human enterprise and human imagination,” declared India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who watched from the space agency’s nerve center in Bangalore. “We have accurately navigated our spacecraft through a route known to a very few.”

The staff at the Indian Space Research Organization erupted into applause and cheers after learning that the Mars Orbiter Mission, also known as Mangalyaan, reached the planet’s orbit and made history.

Before Wednesday, only the United States, Europe and the Soviets have successfully sent spacecraft to Mars.

India\'s space agency and Prime Minister Narendra Modi cheer the Mars mission.
India’s space agency and Prime Minister Narendra Modi cheer the Mars mission.

Photos: India\'s first Mars orbiter Photos: India’s first Mars orbiter

“The odds were stacked against us,” Modi said. “Of the 51 missions attempted so far, a mere 21 had succeeded. But we have prevailed.”

And India reached Mars with significantly less money.

With a price tag of $74 million, the Mars Orbiter Mission cost a mere fraction of the $671 million NASA spent on its MAVEN spacecraft, which arrived to Mars earlier this week. Some space observers noted that India’s Mars orbiter cost less than the $100 million budget for the space thriller film “Gravity.”

Interactive: Exploring Mars from Viking to MAVEN

“It shows how optimal is the design, that way we’re able to cut cost and we’re not compromising quality,” said S. Satish, a space expert based in Bangalore.

The groundbreaking Mars mission wasn’t without controversy — with some critics who said India should spend the money on other issues.

The spacecraft launched on November 5, and has traveled over 650 million kilometers to enter Mars orbit. Its mission is to orbit the Red Planet, mapping its surface and studying the atmosphere. The Mars Orbiter kicked off its interplanetary debut with its own Twitter account.

The mission has been freighted with patriotic significance for India since its inception and is seen as a symbolic coup over its rival, China, which is also ramping up its space ambitions.

India launches mission to Mars

China’s joint mission with Russia in 2011, which contained the Chinese Mars satellite Yinhuo-1, stalled and eventually fell back to Earth. Japan’s 1998 attempt with the spacecraft Nozomi was also unsuccessful due to fuel problems.

Once nears Mars’ orbit, India’s spacecraft had to execute a series of complicated and critical maneuvers. About half of all spacecraft sent on missions to the planet have veered off course, malfunctioned or crashed.

India’s Mars Orbiter Mission is in the company of NASA’s two Mars rovers on the ground, a European orbiter and NASA orbiters including the MAVEN, which has been there since Sunday.

The United States has expressed interest in cooperating with India as their spacecraft gather data about the planet.





A CASE OF ICHCHTHYOSIS ; A TYPICAL SKIN DISORDER ; E.T.G AYURVEDASCAN TEST EVALUATION ; “इक्थियासिस” जैसे लाइलाज चर्म रोग का ई०टी०जी० आयुर्वेदास्कैन आधारित आन्कलन

****आयुर्वेद : आयुष**** ई०टी०जी० आयुर्वेदास्कैन ****AYURVEDA : E.T.G. AyurvedaScan **** ****आयुष आविष्कार**** ई० एच० जी० ****होम्योपैथीस्कैन **** E.H.G. Homoeopathy Scan

चर्म रोग ICHCHTHYOSIS  या इख्तोयासिस एक तरह की ऐसी तकलीफ है जो त्वचा के टिश्यूज से जुड़ी हुयी बीमारी है / इस बीमारी मे त्वचा का रन्ग काला पड़ जाता है और त्वचा मोटी हो जाती है / इसके अलावा त्वचा का रन्ग काला और वर्ण cracks यानी फटी हुयी और आकार मछली की खाल जैसा हो जाता है /

जिस मरीज का नीचे दिया गया चित्र  है उसे लगभग चार साल से यह तकलीफ रही है / अन्ग्रेजी और देशी और होम्योपैथी का इलाज कराने के बाद इसे आराम नही मिला / हमारे यहा से इलाज करा चुके एक मरीज द्वारा हमारे सन्स्थान मे इलाज कराने के लिये प्रोत्साहित किये जाने के बाद यह मरीज इलाज के लिये हमारे यहां आया है /

मरीज के दोनो पैरो और शरीर के लगभग सभी हिस्सो मे इसी तरह के scabs  मौजूद है /.OLYMPUS DIGITAL CAMERA

नीचे दिये गये चित्र मे यह चर्म रोग…

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Ibritumomab tiuxetan


Ibritumomab tiuxetan, sold under the trade name Zevalin, is a monoclonal antibody radioimmunotherapy treatment for relapsed or refractory, low grade or transformed B cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, a lymphoproliferative disorder. The drug uses the monoclonal mouse IgG1 antibody ibritumomab (pronounced as <ih bri TYOO mo mab>)[1] in conjunction with the chelator tiuxetan, to which a radioactive isotope (either yttrium-90 or indium-111) is added. Tiuxetan is a modified version of DTPA whose carbon backbone contains an isothiocyanatobenzyl and a methyl group.[2][3]


Mechanism of action

The antibody binds to the CD20 antigen found on the surface of normal and malignant B cells (but not B cell precursors), allowing radiation from the attached isotope (mostly beta emission) to kill it and some nearby cells. In addition, the antibody itself may trigger cell death via antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC), and apoptosis. Together, these actions eliminate B cells from the body, allowing a new population of healthy B cells to develop from lymphoid stem cells.

Zevalin (Ibritumomab tiuxetan) is a radio-labeled antibody.  The antibody seeks and binds to cells that have a receptor called CD20 — present on both normal and malignant mature b-cells. 

Once bound to the target cells, Zevalin delivers radiation, which enhances the killing effect of the antibody.  

Because immature b-cells do not have the CD20 receptor, normal b-cells will recover in about nine months after treatment.

Rituxan (the naked antibody) is administered prior to Zevalin with the goal of clearing the majority of normal b-cells so that the therapeutic dose (the radio-labeled antibody) is more focused on tumor cells.




Zevalin is supplied as a single dosage kit supplied by IDEC Pharmaceuticals Corp. It consists of Ibritumomab covalently conjugated to the metal chelator tiuxetan, which forms a stable complex with indium-111 for imaging and yttrium-90 for therapy.

The kit is supplied with four vials – a vial containing 3.2 mg of conjugated antibody in 2 ml saline, a vial containing 2 ml 50mM sodium acetate, a vial containing phosphate buffer, and a fourth empty reaction vial. Prior to labeling, a volume of sodium acetate buffer equivalent to 1.2 times the volume of the tracer solution is transferred to the reaction vial. Then 5.5 mCi (203.5 MBq) indium-111 or 40mCi (1.48 GBq) yttrium-90 is added to the reaction vial and mixed thoroughly without shaking. Next, 1.3 ml of conjugated antibody is added. The mixture is incubated for exactly 30min for indium-111 and for 5 min with yttrium-90 labeling, followed by the addition of enough phosphate buffer to make the final volume 10 ml. The labeling yield is determined by ITLC-SG with 0.9% saline as the mobile phase. Labeling efficiency should be greater than 95%.[4]!divAbstract

A cartoon depiction of the radiolabelled monoclonal antibody 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan 18.



In order to qualify for ibritumomab, a patient needs to have bone marrow involvement of < 25% and > 15% bone marrow cellularity. Since ibritumomab is known to cause cytopenia, platelet and neutrophil counts are also taken pretreatment. Refractory/relapsed patients should have platelet counts of 100,000 per cubic millimetre (100,000/cmm) or greater; consolidation patients should have counts of 150,000/cmm or greater. Since a murine antibody is used, the patient might also be tested for human anti mouse antibodies (HAMA). Having bulky disease does not disqualify a patient.

The ibritumomab regimen takes 7–9 days. An imaging dose of the drug is no longer required in the U.S. Rituxan 250 mg/sq.m is given day 1, then on day 7-9 the Rituxan dose is repeated and Zevalin given within four hours. The dose of Zevalin 0.4 mCi/kg (= 14.8MBq/kg) if platelet counts are above 150,000/cmm; 0.3 mCi/kg (= 11.1MBq/kg) if 100,000-150,000/cmm. The Zevalin dose never exceeds 32 mCi (= 1184MBq).[5]

Ibritumomab tiuxetan is administered by intravenous infusion which usually lasts around 10 minutes. Only acrylic shielding is needed, not lead. A trained nuclear medicine technologist performs the infusion and safely disposes of waste.


Treatment with ibritumomab showed higher response rates in clinical trials compared to treatment with only rituximab (similar to ibritumomab, but without the attached radioisotope), and showed very promising results for patients who no longer respond to rituximab.

In patients with relapsed or refractory low-grade, follicular, or transformed B-cell NHL, where no prior anti-CD20 therapy was allowed, the ORR was 83% / 55% and CR was 38% / 18%, comparing ibritumomab to rituximab. [6]

Recently, extended follow-up data for the ZEVALIN ([90Y]-ibritumomab tiuxetan) First-line Indolent (FIT) study presented at the American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting demonstrated the continued improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) following ibritumomab consolidation therapy for patients with follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma who achieved a response to first-line therapy over chemotherapy alone. Additionally, ibritumomab consolidation did not adversely affect the use of various effective second-line treatments including stem cell transplants in patients who relapsed.[7]

In a Phase II study on patients with relapsed and refractory mantle cell lymphoma, the OR was 42% and CR was 26%.[8]

A study demonstrated that rituximab followed by single agent ibritumomab in a front-line setting for patients with MALT lymphoma and low-grade follicular lymphoma that primarily involved the conjunctiva or orbit, produced a complete response rate of 83 percent.[9]


Developed by the IDEC Pharmaceuticals, which is now part of Biogen Idec, ibritumomab tiuxetan was the first radioimmunotherapy drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2002 to treat cancer. It was approved for the treatment of patients with relapsed or refractory, low‑grade or follicular B‑cell non‑Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), including patients with rituximab refractory follicular NHL.

In December 2007, Cell Therapeutics Inc acquired the U.S. rights to sell, market, and distribute this radioimmunotherapy antibody from Biogen for approximately US$30 million, or the equivalent of about two years’ net sales revenue in the U.S. for the drug.[10] Outside of the U.S., Bayer Schering Pharma continues to have the rights to the drug.

In March 2009, Spectrum Pharmaceuticals acquired 100% control of RIT Oncology, LLC, to commercialize Zevalin in the US. Now Spectrum Pharmaceuticals is responsible for all activities relating to Zevalin in the US.

In September 2009, ibritumomab received approval from the FDA for an expanded label for the treatment of patients with previously untreated follicular non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (NHL), who achieve a partial or complete response to first-line chemotherapy.


Ibritumomab which is not available in a generic form because it is still under patent protection, is currently the most expensive drug available given in a single dose, costing over US$ 37,000 (€ 30,000) for the average dose. However, ibritumomab is essentially an entire course of lymphoma therapy which is delivered in 7–9 days, with one visit for pre-dosing Rituxan, and one visit a week later for the actual Zevalin therapeutic dose preceded by Rituxan. Compared to other monoclonal antibody treatments (many of which are well over US$ 40,000 for a course of therapy), this drug is priced in the middle for many of these therapies.

Ibritumomab tiuxetan ?
Ibritumomab tiuxetan structure.svg
Monoclonal antibody
Type Whole antibody
Source Mouse
Target CD20
Clinical data
Trade names Zevalin
AHFS/ monograph
Licence data US FDA:link
Legal status
Routes intravenous
CAS number 174722-31-7 Yes
ATC code V10XX02 (90Y)
DrugBank DB00078

External links


  1. Ibritumomab: Pronunciation
  2. Milenic, Diane E.; Brady, Erik D.; Brechbiel, Martin W. (June 2004). “Antibody-targeted radiation cancer therapy”. Nat Rev Drug Discov 3 (6): 488–499. doi:10.1038/nrd1413. ISSN 1474-1776. PMID 15173838.
  3.  WHO Drug Information
  5.  Ibritumomab: Indications
  6.  Ibritumomab: Efficacy
  7.  ZEVALIN Consolidation in First-Line Therapy in Patients with Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Resulted in a Progression-Free Survival of Greater Than 67 Months
  8.  Zevalin and mantle cell
  9.  ZEVALIN(R) Produced 83 Percent Complete Response Rate in Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Orbital Lymphoma Study
  10.  [1]

// // // // //

September 23, 2014

// CASI Signs China Licensing Deal With Spectrum For 3 Cancer Drugs…

// CASI Signs China Licensing Deal With Spectrum For 3 Cancer Drugs// // // // //

CASI Pharmaceuticals and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals (SPPI) announced the signing of a license agreement that gives CASI exclusive rights to develop three cancer drugs from Spectrum and market them in China, including Macau, Hong Kong, and Taiwan.

The agreement concerns the two approved cancer drugs Zevalin (ibritumomab tiuxetan) Injection non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) and Marqibo (vinCRIStine sulfate LIPOSOME injection) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) as well as the investigational Phase 3 drug Captisol-Enabled Melphalan (CE melphalan) being studied as a conditioning treatment before autologous stem cell transplant in patients with multiple myeloma. Spectrum recently reported that Melphalan met its primary endpoint in its pivotal safety and efficacy trial. In view of the results, Spectrum said it intends to file a New Drug Application (NDA) with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the drug in the second half of 2014.

// // // // //

Synthesis, biological evaluation and docking analysis of 3-methyl-1-phenylchromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-ones as potential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors


COMPD HAS  cas no 1616882-93-9

MF……….C18 H11 F3 N2 O2
[1]​Benzopyrano[4,​3-​c]​pyrazol-​4(1H)​-​one, 3-​methyl-​1-​[4-​(trifluoromethyl)​phenyl]​-



Synthesis, biological evaluation and docking analysis of 3-methyl-1-phenylchromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-ones as potential cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors

DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.08.050

Jagdeep Grover, Vivek Kumar, M. Elizabeth Sobhia, Sanjay M. Jachak


As a part of our continued efforts to discover new COX inhibitors, a series of 3-methyl-1-phenylchromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-ones were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro COX inhibitory potential. Within this series, seven compounds (3ad, 3h, 3k and 3q) were identified as potential and selective COX-2 inhibitors (COX-2 IC50’s in 1.79–4.35 μM range; COX-2 selectivity index (SI) = 6.8–16.7 range). Compound 3b emerged as most potent (COX-2 IC50 = 1.79 μM; COX-1 IC50 >30 μM) and selective COX-2 inhibitor (SI >16.7). Further, compound 3b displayed superior anti-inflammatory activity (59.86% inhibition of edema at 5 h) in comparison to celecoxib (51.44% inhibition of edema at 5 h) in carrageenan-induced rat paw edema assay. Structure–activity relationship studies suggested that N-phenyl ring substituted with p-CF3 substituent (3b, 3k and 3q) leads to more selective inhibition of COX-2. To corroborate obtained experimental biological data, molecular docking study was carried out which revealed that compound 3b showed stronger binding interaction with COX-2 as compared to COX-1.


  • a Department of Natural Products, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar (Mohali) 160062, Punjab, India
  • b Department of Pharmacoinformatics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar 160062, Punjab, India

Sanjay Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 172 2214683; fax: +91 172 2214692.


Cyclooxygenase (COX) or prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase (PGHS), catalyzes the conversion of arachidonic acid to inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandins (PGs), prostacyclins and thromboxanes. COX exists in mainly two isoforms: COX-1 and COX-2. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), widely used for relief of fever, pain and inflammation, act by inhibiting COX catalyzed biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators.

However, the therapeutic use of classical NSAIDs is associated with well-known side effects at the gastrointestinal level (mucosal damage, bleeding) and, less frequently, at the renal level.

Two decades after the discovery of COX isoforms, it was recognized that selective inhibition of COX-2 might be endowed with improved anti-inflammatory properties and reduced gastrointestinal toxicity profiles than classical NSAIDs.

Overall, these selective COX-2 inhibitors (coxibs) have fulfilled the hope of possessing reduced risk in gastrointestinal events, but unfortunately cardiovascular concerns regarding the use of these agents have emerged that led to the withdrawal of rofecoxib (Vioxx) and valdecoxib (Bextra) from the market in 2004 and 2005, respectively.

Ongoing safety concerns pertaining to the use of non-selective NSAIDs have spurred development of coxibs with improved safety profile.


cas no 1616882-93-9

mf……….C18 H11 F3 N2 O2
[1]​Benzopyrano[4,​3-​c]​pyrazol-​4(1H)​-​one, 3-​methyl-​1-​[4-​(trifluoromethyl)​phenyl]​-


Full-size image (21 K)

Scheme 1.

Reagent and conditions: (a) Piperidine, rt, 20 min; (b) ArNHNH2, EtOH, reflux, 5 h; (c) K2CO3, acetone, reflux, 24 h.


3b R1=H R2= H 4-CF3-C6H4 90
3-Methyl-1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenylchromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one (3b):
White solid; yield 90%; mp: 224–225 °C;
1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz): δ ppm 7.89 (d, 2H, J = 8.32 Hz, Ar-H), 7.73 (d, 2H, J = 8.24 Hz, Ar-H), 7.45–7.52 (m, 2H, H-6, H-7), 7.16 (dd, 1H, J = 1.4, 8.2 Hz, H-9), 7.10 (td, 1H, J = 1.56, 7.38 Hz, H-8), 2.69 (s, 3H, CH3);
13C NMR (CDCl3, 100 MHz): δ ppm 157.7, 153.3, 151.5, 142.3, 141.8, 131.9, 127.2, 127.1, 127.0, 124.0, 122.2, 118.3, 111.5, 107.1, 12.8;
HRMS (ESI) m/z: Calcd for C18H11F3N2O2Na [M + Na]+ 367.0670; found 367.0676.

Synthetic Communications (2014), 44(13), 1914-1923


Jagdeep Grovera, Somendu Kumar Roya & Sanjay Madhukar Jachaka*

pages 1914-1923


Unprecedented cyclization was observed during N-sulfonylation of 3-[1-(phenylhydrazono)-ethyl]-chromen-2-one in pyridine, affording 3-methyl-1-phenylchromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-ones. To avoid use of noxious pyridine, reaction was tried in different basic conditions and the best results were obtained with potassium carbonate in acetone. A wide range of substrates bearing either electron-donating or electron-withdrawing substituents on phenylhydrazine ring were compatible with the developed methodology. Rapid access of starting material, 3-acetylcoumarin, excellent yields of products, and use of environmentally benign base and solvent for the cyclization make this strategy an efficient and convenient method for synthesis of 3-methyl-1-phenylchromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-ones.


Methyl-1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenylchromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-4(1H)-one (4b):
yield 90%; mp: 224–225 °C;
1H NMR (CDCl3, 400 MHz):δppm 2.69 (s, 3H, CH3),
7.10(td, 1H,J= 1.56, 7.38 Hz, H-8),
7.16 (dd, 1H,J= 1.4, 8.2 Hz, H-9),
7.45–7.52 (m, 2H, H-6, H-7),
7.73 (d, 2H,J= 8.24 Hz, Ar-H),
7.89 (d, 2H,J= 8.32 Hz, Ar-H);
13C NMR (CDCl3, 100MHz):
δppm 12.8, 107.1, 111.5, 118.3, 122.2, 124.0,
127.0, 127.1, 127.2, 131.9, 141.8, 142.3,
151.5, 153.3, 157.7;
HRMS (ESI)m/z: Calcd for C18H11F3N2O2Na [M + Na]+367.0670; found367.0676.





1. Jones, G.; Willett, P.; Glen, R. C.; Leach, A. R.; Taylor, R. J. Mol. Biol. 1997, 267, 727.
2. Bernstein, F. C.; Koetzle, T. F.; Williams, G. J. B.; Meyer, E. F.; Brice, M. D.; Rodgers, J. R.; Kennard, O.; Shimanouchi, T.; Tasumi, M. J. Mol. Biol. 1977, 112, 535.

Selective inhibitors of the Janus kinase Jak3—Are they effective?

Full-size image (30 K)

Selective inhibitors of the Janus kinase Jak3—Are they effective?

Volume 24, Issue 19, 1 October 2014, Pages 4617–4621


Jak3, together with Jak1, is involved in signal transduction initiated by cytokines signaling through the common gamma chain which are important in immune homeostasis and immune pathologies. Based on genetic evidence Jak3 has been considered to be an attractive target for immunosuppression. The Jak inhibitor tofacitinib (CP-690,550) which is an approved drug for rheumatoid arthritis was originally introduced as a selective Jak3 inhibitor, however, it also inhibits Jak1 and Jak2. The search for new selective Jak3 inhibitors has yielded several compounds whose profiles will be reviewed here. Implications on Jak3 as a therapeutic target are also discussed.


JAnus Kinase 3 (JAK3) is a member of the JAK family of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that include the closely related isoforms—namely, JAK1, JAK2 and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2). The realization that human defects in JAK3 signaling result in the clinical manifestation of a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) phenotype has suggested that selective JAK3 inhibitors may be useful as therapeutic agents in the areas of organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases. In addition, the promising clinical efficacy reported for the JAK3 inhibitor CP-690,550 in rheumatoid arthritis patients is noteworthy and suggests that obtaining efficacy comparable to, or perhaps better than, the current marketed biologic therapies in this disease may be possible with a small molecule. Although the highly selective inhibition of JAK3 for immunosuppression is particularly attractive from a safety perspective, it remains to be convincingly demonstrated in the clinic. While CP-690,550 does potently inhibit JAK3, it has been shown to inhibit to some extent other JAK family members—namely, JAK1 and JAK2, which may contribute to enhance efficacy in the clinic relative to purely selective JAK3 inhibition.

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