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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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BQ-788


BQ-788.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | BQ-788 | C34H50N5NaO7

Image result for bq-788

Image result for bq-788

BQ-788

  • Molecular FormulaC34H50N5NaO7
  • Average mass663.780 Da

SP ROT +3.8 ° Conc: 1.032 g/100mL; methanol; Wavlenght: 589.3 nm, Development of an efficient strategy for the synthesis of the ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 and some related analogues
Peptides (New York, NY, United States) (2005), 26, (8), 1441-1453., https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2005.03.022

FOR FREE FORM +19.6 °, Conc: 0.998 g/100mL; : N,N-dimethylformamide; 589.3 nm

CAS 156161-89-6 [RN]
CAS 173326-37-9 FREE ACID
2,6-Dimethylpiperidinecarbonyl-γ-Methyl-Leu-Nin-(Methoxycarbonyl)-D-Trp-D-Nle
BQ 788 sodium salt
BQ788
D-Norleucine, N-(((2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)carbonyl)-4-methyl-L-leucyl-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-D-tryptophyl-, monosodium salt
D-Norleucine, N-((cis-2,6-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)carbonyl)-4-methyl-L-leucyl-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-D-tryptophyl-, monosodium salt
D-Norleucine, N-[[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]carbonyl]-4-methyl-L-leucyl-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-D-tryptophyl-, sodium salt (1:1)
MFCD00797882
N-[N-[N-[(2,6-Dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)carbonyl]-4-methyl-L-leucyl]-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-D-tryptophyl]-D-norleucine sodium salt
 
Sodium N-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethylpiperidin-1-yl]carbonyl}-4-methyl-L-leucyl-N-[(1R)-1-carboxylatopentyl]-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-D-tryptophanamide
2,6-Dimethylpiperidinecarbonyl-γ-Methyl-Leu-Nin-(Methoxycarbonyl)-D-Trp-D-Nle

BQ-788 is a selective ETB antagonist.[1]

presumed to be under license from Banyu , was investigating BQ-788, a selective endothelin receptor B (ETRB) antagonist, for treating metastatic melanoma. By December 2009, the drug was in validation.

Also claimed is their use as an ETBR antagonist and for treating cancers, such as brain cancer, pancreas cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, ovary cancer, prostate cancer, glioblastoma, solid tumor, melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Represent a first filing from ENB Therapeutics Inc and the inventors on these deuterated forms of BQ-788. Melcure SarL ,

SYN

By Brosseau, Jean-Philippe et alFrom Peptides (New York, NY, United States), 26(8), 1441-1453; 2005

CONTD…………

PAPER

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jo00130a028

N-(cw-2,6-Dimethylpiperidinocarbonyl)-y-methylleucylD-l-(methoxycarbonyl)tryptophanyl-D-norleucine Sodium Salt (1, BQ-788). To a solution of 15 (3.5 g, 5.5 mmol) in methanol (50 mL) was slowly added 5% aqueous NaHCOs (300 mL) over a period of 30 min. The solution was stirred until clarity was achieved (30 min, 23 °C). The solution was diluted with water (200 mL), and the resulting solution was passed through a C18 (60 mL) cartridge preequilbrated in water. BQ-788 (1) was eluted with methanol (2 x 50 mL), concentrated under reduced pressure, resuspended in water (50 mL), and lyophilized to quantitatively yield compound 1 as a white powder:

HPLC £r = 16.4 (gradient A, > 99%);

NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) ó 0.80 (s, 9H), 0.74-0.85 (m, 3H), 1.00 (d, 3H), 1.02 (d, 3H), 1.10-1.25 (m, 6H), 1.30-1.55 (m, 6H), 1.60-1.75 (m, 2H), 2.92 (dd, 1H), 3.12 (dd, 1H), 3.78 (m, 1H), 3.95 (s, 3H), 4.08 (m, 1H), 4.13 (m, 1H), 4.29 (m, 1H), 4.50 (m, 1H), 5.98 (d, 1H), 7.22 (t, 1H), 7.32 (t, 1H), 7.50 (s, 1H), 7.58 (br d, 1H), 7.65 (d, 1H), 8.05 (d, 1H), 8.15 (br d, 1H) ESMS m/z 640.6 (M).

PATENT

WO-2019140324

Novel deuterated analogs of a substituted heterocyclic compound, particularly BQ-788 , processes for their preparation and compositions and combinations comprising them are claimed.

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019140324&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P22-JYJK98-13819-1

PAPER

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0196978105001415

Image result for bq-788

PAPER

By He, John X.; Cody, Wayne L.; Doherty, Annette M., From Journal of Organic Chemistry (1995), 60(25), 8262-6

Journal of medicinal chemistry (1996), 39(12), 2313-30.

References

  1. ^ Okada, M; Nishikibe, M (Winter 2002). “BQ-788, a selective endothelin ET(B) receptor antagonist”. Cardiovascular drug reviews20 (1): 53–66. PMID 12070534.
BQ-788
BQ-788.svg
Names
Systematic IUPAC name

Sodium N-{[(2R,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl]carbonyl}-4-methyl-L-leucyl-N-[(1R)-1-carboxylatopentyl]-1-(methoxycarbonyl)-D-tryptophanamide
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChemSpider
PubChem CID
Properties
C34H50N5NaO7
Molar mass 663.792 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

///////////BQ-788, BQ 788, BQ788, ETBR antagonist, cancers,  brain cancer, pancreas cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, ovary cancer, prostate cancer, glioblastoma, solid tumor, melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, PEPTIDE

CCCC[C@H](C(=O)O)NC(=O)[C@@H](Cc1cn(c2c1cccc2)C(=O)OC)NC(=O)[C@H](CC(C)(C)C)NC(=O)N3[C@@H](CCC[C@@H]3C)C

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HS 10340


HS-10340

CAS 2156639-66-4

MF C26 H31 N7 O5
MW 521.57
1,8-Naphthyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide, N-[5-cyano-4-[[(1R)-2-methoxy-1-methylethyl]amino]-2-pyridinyl]-7-formyl-3,4-dihydro-6-[(tetrahydro-2-oxo-1,3-oxazepin-3(2H)-yl)methyl]-
(R)-N-(5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2-carbonyl)-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide

CAS 2307670-65-9

Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical Group Co Ltd

Being investigated by Jiangsu Hansoh, Shanghai Hansoh Biomedical and Changzhou Hengbang Pharmaceutical ; in June 2018, the product was being developed as a class 1 chemical drug in China.

Useful for treating liver cancer, gastric cancer and prostate cancer.

Use for treating cancers, liver cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovary cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, glioma and rhabdomyosarcoma

The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor and includes four receptor subtypes, namely FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. FGFR regulates various functions such as cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration, and plays an important role in human development and adult body functions. FGFR is abnormal in a variety of human tumors, including gene amplification, mutation and overexpression, and is an important target for tumor-targeted therapeutic research.
FGFR4, a member of the FGFR receptor family, forms dimers on the cell membrane by binding to its ligand, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and the formation of these dimers can cause critical tyrosine in FGFR4’s own cells. The phosphorylation of the amino acid residue activates multiple downstream signaling pathways in the cell, and these intracellular signaling pathways play an important role in cell proliferation, survival, and anti-apoptosis. FGFR4 is overexpressed in many cancers and is a predictor of malignant invasion of tumors. Decreasing and reducing FGFR4 expression can reduce cell proliferation and promote apoptosis. Recently, more and more studies have shown that about one-third of liver cancer patients with continuous activation of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling pathway are the main carcinogenic factors leading to liver cancer in this part of patients. At the same time, FGFR4 expression or high expression is also closely related to many other tumors, such as gastric cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and the like.
The incidence of liver cancer ranks first in the world in China, with new and dead patients accounting for about half of the total number of liver cancers worldwide each year. At present, the incidence of liver cancer in China is about 28.7/100,000. In 2012, there were 394,770 new cases, which became the third most serious malignant tumor after gastric cancer and lung cancer. The onset of primary liver cancer is a multi-factor, multi-step complex process with strong invasiveness and poor prognosis. Surgical treatments such as hepatectomy and liver transplantation can improve the survival rate of some patients, but only limited patients can undergo surgery, and most patients have a poor prognosis due to recurrence and metastasis after surgery. Sorafenib is the only liver cancer treatment drug approved on the market. It can only prolong the overall survival period of about 3 months, and the treatment effect is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a liver cancer system treatment drug targeting new molecules. FGFR4 is a major carcinogenic factor in liver cancer, and its development of small molecule inhibitors has great clinical application potential.
At present, some FGFR inhibitors have entered the clinical research stage as anti-tumor drugs, but these are mainly inhibitors of FGFR1, 2 and 3, and the inhibition of FGFR4 activity is weak, and the inhibition of FGFR1-3 has hyperphosphatemia. Such as target related side effects. Highly selective inhibitor of FGFR4 can effectively treat cancer diseases caused by abnormal FGFR4 signaling pathway, and can avoid the side effects of hyperphosphatemia caused by FGFR1-3 inhibition. Highly selective small molecule inhibitors against FGFR4 in tumor targeted therapy The field has significant application prospects.
SYN

PATENT

WO2017198149

where it is claimed to be an FGFR-4 inhibitor for treating liver and prostate cancers, assigned to Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical Group Co Ltd and Shanghai Hansoh Biomedical Co Ltd .

PATENT

WO2019085860

Compound (R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2-carbonyl-) 1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (shown as Formula I). The compound of formula (I) is disclosed in Hausen Patent PCT/CN2017/084564, the compound of formula I is a fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor, and the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor. The body includes four receptor subtypes, namely FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. FGFR regulates various functions such as cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration, and plays an important role in human development and adult body functions. FGFR is abnormal in a variety of human tumors, including gene amplification, mutation and overexpression, and is an important target for tumor-targeted therapeutic research.

[0003]
Example 1: Preparation of a compound of formula (I)

[0048]
First step 4-(((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)butane Preparation of 1-propanol

[0049]

[0050]
2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-carbaldehyde (1.0 g, 4.2 mmol), 4-aminobutyl at room temperature l-ol (0.45g, 5.1mmol) was dissolved in DCE (15mL), stirred for 2 hours, followed by addition of NaBH (OAc) . 3 (1.35 g of, 6.4 mmol), stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was treated with CH 2 CI 2 was diluted (100 mL), the organic phase was washed with water (10mL) and saturated brine (15mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated by column chromatography to give compound 4 – (((2- ( Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)butan-1-ol (0.9 g, 69%) .

[0051]
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 7.13 (S, IH), 5.17 (S, IH), 4.84 (S, IH), 3.73 (S, 2H), 3.66-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.42 ( s, 6H), 3.40-3.36 (m, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.68-2.56 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.74-1.55 (m, 4H);

[0052]
MS m/z (ESI): 310.2 [M+H] + .

[0053]
The second step is 3-((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)-1,3- Preparation of oxazepine-2 ketone

[0054]

[0055]
4-(((2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino) in an ice water bath Butan-1-ol (0.6 g, 1.94 mmol) was dissolved in DCE (15 mL), then bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate (0.22 g, 0.76 mmol) was added and triethylamine (0.78 g, 7.76) was slowly added dropwise. Methyl) and then stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The reaction temperature was raised to 80 ° C, and the reaction was carried out at 80 ° C for 6 hours. After the reaction was cooled to room temperature, it was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 (100 mL), and the organic phase was washed sequentially with water (10 mL) and brine (15 mL) Drying with sodium sulfate, concentration and column chromatography to give the compound 3-((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl) )methyl)-1,3-oxazepin-2-one (0.37 g, 57%).

[0056]
MS m/z (ESI): 336.2 [M+H] + .

[0057]
The third step is phenyl 7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1, Preparation of 8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate

[0058]

[0059]
3-((2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)-1,3-oxan -2-one (670mg, 2mmol), diphenyl carbonate (643mg, 3mmol) mixing in of THF (15 mL), N 2 in an atmosphere, cooled to -78 deg.] C, was added dropwise LiHMDS in THF (4mL, 4mmol) was Naturally, it was allowed to react to room temperature overnight. After adding saturated aqueous NH 4 Cl (100 mL), ethyl acetate (100 mL×2), EtOAc. Methyl)-6-((3-carbonylmorpholino)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate (432 mg, 47%) .

[0060]
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 7.56 (S, IH), 7.38 (m, 2H), 7.21 (m, 3H), 5.22 (S, IH), 4.77 (S, 2H), 4.16 (m, 2H), 3.95 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 6H), 3.25 (m, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.87 (m, 2H), 1.64 (m, 4H);

[0061]
MS m/z (ESI): 456.2 [M+H] + .

[0062]
The fourth step: (R)-N-(5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl) -6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide synthesis

[0063]

[0064]
(R)-6-Amino-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino) nicotinenitrile (30 mg, 0.14 mmol), phenyl 7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6- ( (2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate (60 mg, 0.13 Methyl acetate was dissolved in THF (5 mL), cooled to -78 ° C under N 2atmosphere, and a solution of THF (0.3 mL, 0.3 mmol) of LiHMDS was added dropwise to the reaction mixture. After adding a saturated aqueous solution of NH 4 Cl (50 mL), EtOAc (EtOAc) (5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-((2-carbonyl-1) 3-oxoheptyl-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (65 mg, 86%).

[0065]
1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 13.70 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 7.60 (s, 2H), 5.41 (s, 1H), 5.12 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (s, 2H), 4.20-4.11 (m, 2H), 4.06-3.99 (m, 2H), 3.93 (s, 1H), 3.52-3.48 (m, 7H), 3.46-3.42 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.26-3.21 (m, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 2.03-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.91-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.62 (m , 2H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H);

[0066]
MS m/z (ESI): 568.3 [M+H] + .

[0067]
Step 5: (R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2) Synthesis of -carbonyl-1,3-oxoheptyl-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide

[0068]

[0069]
(R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-( (2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (65 mg, 0.12 mmol) Dissolved in THF/water (volume ratio: 11/4, 4.5 mL), concentrated HCl (0.45 mL, 5.4 mmol), and allowed to react at room temperature for 2 h. Saturated NaHC03 . 3 solution (50mL), (50mL × 2 ) and extracted with ethyl acetate, the organic phases were combined and washed with saturated brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated by column chromatography to give the title compound (R) -N- ( 5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine) 3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1 (2H)-carboxamide (30 mg, 51%).

[0070]
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 13.57 (S, IH), 10.26 (S, IH), 8.17 (S, IH), 7.71 (S, IH), 7.63 (S, IH), 5.27 (S, 1H), 4.95 (s, 2H), 4.19-4.12 (m, 2H), 4.11-4.04 (m, 2H), 3.94 (s, 1H), 3.52 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.37 (m, 4H) , 3.33 – 3.28 (m, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.04 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.73 (m, 2H), 1.39-1.28 (m , 3H);

[0071]
MS m/z (ESI): 522.2 [M+H] + .

PATENT

WO-2019085927

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019085927&tab=FULLTEXT

Novel crystalline salt (such as hydrochloride, sulfate, methane sulfonate, mesylate, besylate, ethanesulfonate, oxalate, maleate, p-toluenesulfonate) forms of FGFR4 inhibitor, particularly N-[5-cyano-4-[[(1R)-2-methoxy-1-methyl-ethyl]amino]-2-pyridyl]-7-formyl-6-[(2-oxo-1,3-oxazepan-3-yl)methyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,8-naphthyridine-1-carboxamide (designated as Forms I- IX), compositions comprising them and their use as an FGFR4 inhibitor for the treatment of cancer such as liver cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and glioma or rhabdomyosarcoma are claimed.

Example 1: Preparation of a compound of formula (I)
First step 4-(((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)butane Preparation of 1-propanol
2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-carbaldehyde (1.0 g, 4.2 mmol), 4-aminobutyl at room temperature l-ol (0.45g, 5.1mmol) was dissolved in DCE (15mL), stirred for 2 hours, followed by addition of NaBH (OAc) . 3 (1.35 g of, 6.4 mmol), stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was treated with CH 2 CI 2 was diluted (100 mL), the organic phase was washed with water (10mL) and saturated brine (15mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated by column chromatography to give compound 4 – (((2- ( Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)butan-1-ol (0.9 g, 69%) .
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 7.13 (S, IH), 5.17 (S, IH), 4.84 (S, IH), 3.73 (S, 2H), 3.66-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.42 ( s, 6H), 3.40-3.36 (m, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.68-2.56 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.74-1.55 (m, 4H);
MS m/z (ESI): 310.2 [M+H] + .
The second step is 3-((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)-1,3- Preparation of oxazepine-2 ketone
4-(((2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino) in an ice water bath Butan-1-ol (0.6 g, 1.94 mmol) was dissolved in DCE (15 mL), then bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate (0.22 g, 0.76 mmol) was added and triethylamine (0.78 g, 7.76) was slowly added dropwise. Methyl) and then stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The reaction temperature was raised to 80 ° C, and the reaction was carried out at 80 ° C for 6 hours. After the reaction was cooled to room temperature, it was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 (100 mL), and the organic phase was washed sequentially with water (10 mL) and brine (15 mL) Drying with sodium sulfate, concentration and column chromatography to give the compound 3-((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl) )methyl)-1,3-oxazepin-2-one (0.37 g, 57%).
MS m/z (ESI): 336.2 [M+H] + .
The third step is phenyl 7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1, Preparation of 8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate
3-((2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)-1,3-oxan -2-one (670mg, 2mmol), diphenyl carbonate (643mg, 3mmol) mixing in of THF (15 mL), N 2 in an atmosphere, cooled to -78 deg.] C, was added dropwise LiHMDS in THF (4mL, 4mmol) was Naturally, it was allowed to react to room temperature overnight. After adding saturated aqueous NH 4 Cl (100 mL), ethyl acetate (100 mL×2), EtOAc. Methyl)-6-((3-carbonylmorpholino)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate (432 mg, 47%) .
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 7.56 (S, IH), 7.38 (m, 2H), 7.21 (m, 3H), 5.22 (S, IH), 4.77 (S, 2H), 4.16 (m, 2H), 3.95 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 6H), 3.25 (m, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.87 (m, 2H), 1.64 (m, 4H);
MS m/z (ESI): 456.2 [M+H] + .
The fourth step: (R)-N-(5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl) -6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide synthesis
(R)-6-Amino-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino) nicotinenitrile (30 mg, 0.14 mmol), phenyl 7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6- ( (2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate (60 mg, 0.13 Methyl acetate was dissolved in THF (5 mL), cooled to -78 ° C under N 2atmosphere, and a solution of THF (0.3 mL, 0.3 mmol) of LiHMDS was added dropwise to the reaction mixture. After adding a saturated aqueous solution of NH 4 Cl (50 mL), EtOAc (EtOAc) (5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-((2-carbonyl-1) 3-oxoheptyl-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (65 mg, 86%).
1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 13.70 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 7.60 (s, 2H), 5.41 (s, 1H), 5.12 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (s, 2H), 4.20-4.11 (m, 2H), 4.06-3.99 (m, 2H), 3.93 (s, 1H), 3.52-3.48 (m, 7H), 3.46-3.42 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.26-3.21 (m, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 2.03-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.91-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.62 (m , 2H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H);
MS m/z (ESI): 568.3 [M+H] + .
Step 5: (R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2) Synthesis of -carbonyl-1,3-oxoheptyl-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide
(R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-( (2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (65 mg, 0.12 mmol) Dissolved in THF/water (volume ratio: 11/4, 4.5 mL), concentrated HCl (0.45 mL, 5.4 mmol), and allowed to react at room temperature for 2 h. Saturated NaHC03 . 3 solution (50mL), (50mL × 2 ) and extracted with ethyl acetate, the organic phases were combined and washed with saturated brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated by column chromatography to give the title compound (R) -N- ( 5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine) 3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1 (2H)-carboxamide (30 mg, 51%).
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 13.57 (S, IH), 10.26 (S, IH), 8.17 (S, IH), 7.71 (S, IH), 7.63 (S, IH), 5.27 (S, 1H), 4.95 (s, 2H), 4.19-4.12 (m, 2H), 4.11-4.04 (m, 2H), 3.94 (s, 1H), 3.52 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.37 (m, 4H) , 3.33 – 3.28 (m, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.04 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.73 (m, 2H), 1.39-1.28 (m , 3H);
MS m/z (ESI): 522.2 [M+H] + .

///////////HS-10340 , HS 10340 , HS10340, CANCER, Jiangsu Hansoh, Shanghai Hansoh Biomedical,  Changzhou Hengbang, CHINA,  liver cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovary cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, glioma,  rhabdomyosarcoma

C[C@H](COC)Nc1cc(ncc1C#N)NC(=O)N4CCCc3cc(CN2CCCCOC2=O)c(C=O)nc34

CCS(=O)(=O)O.C[C@H](COC)Nc1cc(ncc1C#N)NC(=O)N4CCCc3cc(CN2CCCCOC2=O)c(C=O)nc34

SEVITERONEL, севитеронел , سيفيتيرونيل , 赛维罗奈 ,


VT-464.svg

SEVITERONEL

CAS Registry Number 1610537-15-9

Molecular formulaC18 H17 F4 N3 O3, MW 399.34

1H-1,2,3-Triazole-5-methanol, α-[6,7-bis(difluoromethoxy)-2-naphthalenyl]-α-(1-methylethyl)-, (αS)-

(αS)-α-[6,7-Bis(difluoromethoxy)-2-naphthalenyl]-α-(1-methylethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-5-methanol

8S5OIN36X4

севитеронел [Russian] [INN]
سيفيتيرونيل [Arabic] [INN]
赛维罗奈 [Chinese] [INN]
  • Mechanism of ActionAndrogen receptor antagonists; Estrogen receptor antagonists; Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase inhibitors; Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase modulators
  • WHO ATC codeL01 (Antineoplastic Agents)L01X-X (Other antineoplastic agents)
  • EPhMRA codeL1 (Antineoplastics)L1X9 (All other antineoplastics)

1H-1,2,3-Triazole-5-methanol, alpha-(6,7-bis(difluoromethoxy)-2-naphthalenyl)-alpha-(1-methylethyl)-, (alphaS)-

Seviteronel (developmental codes VT-464 and, formerly, INO-464) is an experimental cancer medication which is under development by Viamet Pharmaceuticals and Innocrin Pharmaceuticals for the treatment of prostate cancer and breast cancer.[1] It is a nonsteroidalCYP17A1 inhibitor and works by inhibiting the production of androgens and estrogens in the body.[1] As of July 2017, seviteronel is in phase II clinical trials for both prostate cancer and breast cancer.[1] In January 2016, it was designated fast-track status by the United States Food and Drug Administration for prostate cancer.[1][2] In April 2017, seviteronel received fast-track designation for breast cancer as well.[1]

  • Originator Viamet Pharmaceuticals
  • Developer Innocrin Pharmaceuticals
  • Clas sAntiandrogens; Antineoplastics; Fluorine compounds; Naphthalenes; Propanols; Small molecules; Triazoles
  • Mechanism of Action Androgen receptor antagonists; Estrogen receptor antagonists; Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase inhibitors; Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase modulators
  • Phase II Breast cancer; Prostate cancer; Solid tumours
  • 31 Jan 2019 Innocrin Pharmaceutical completes a phase II trial in Prostate Cancer (Second-line therapy or greater, Hormone refractory) in the US (NCT02445976)
  • 31 Jan 2019 Innocrin Pharmaceutical completes a phase II trial for Prostate Cancer (Hormone refractory) in the US, UK, Switzerland and Greece (NCT02012920)
  • 31 Jan 2019 Innocrin Pharmaceuticals completes the phase I/II CLARITY-01 trial for Breast cancer (Late stage disease) in USA (NCT02580448)
  • CYP-17 useful for treating fungal infections, prostate cancer, and polycystic ovary syndrome, assigned to Viamet Pharmaceuticals Inc , naming Hoekstra and Rafferty. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals , a spin-out of Viamet is developing oral seviteronel, the lead dual selective inhibitors of the 17,20-lyase activity of P450c17 (CYP17) and androgen receptor antagonist, which also includes VT-478 and VT-489, developed using the company’s Metallophile technology, for treating castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in men, breast cancer and androgen (AR) related cancers.

Pharmacology

Pharmacodynamics

Seviteronel is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen, acting specifically as an androgen synthesis inhibitor via inhibition of the enzyme CYP17A1, for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer.[3][4][5][6][7][8] It has approximately 10-fold selectivity for the inhibition of 17,20-lyase (IC50 = 69 nM) over 17α-hydroxylase (IC50 = 670 nM), which results in less interference with corticosteroid production relative to the approved CYP17A1 inhibitor abiraterone acetate (which must be administered in combination with prednisone to avoid glucocorticoid deficiency and mineralocorticoid excess due to 17α-hydroxylase inhibition) and hence may be administerable without a concomitant exogenous glucocorticoid.[4][5][6][7][8] Seviteronel is 58-fold more selective for inhibition of 17,20-lyase than abiraterone (the active metabolite of abiraterone acetate), which has IC50 values for inhibition of 17,20-lyase and 17α-hydroxylase of 15 nM and 2.5 nM, respectively.[7] In addition, in in vitro models, seviteronel appears to possess greater efficacy as an antiandrogen relative to abiraterone.[6] Similarly to abiraterone acetate, seviteronel has also been found to act to some extent as an antagonist of the androgen receptor.[6]

Society and culture

Generic names

Seviteronel is the generic name of the drug and its INN.[9]

PATENT

WO2012064943

PATENT

WO-2019113312

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019113312&redirectedID=true

The present invention relates to a process for preparing compound 1 that is useful as an anticancer agent. In particular, the invention seeks to provide a new methodology for preparing compound 1 and substituted derivatives thereof.

Living organisms have developed tightly regulated processes that specifically import metals, transport them to intracellular storage sites and ultimately transport them to sites of use. One of the most important functions of metals such as zinc and iron in biological systems is to enable the activity of metalloenzymes. Metalloenzymes are enzymes that incorporate metal ions into the enzyme active site and utilize the metal as a part of the catalytic process. More than one-third of all characterized enzymes are metalloenzymes.

The function of metalloenzymes is highly dependent on the presence of the metal ion in the active site of the enzyme. It is well recognized that agents which bind to and inactivate the active site metal ion dramatically decrease the activity of the enzyme. Nature employs this same strategy to decrease the activity of certain metalloenzymes during periods in which the enzymatic activity is undesirable. For example, the protein TIMP (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteases) binds to the zinc ion in the active site of various matrix metalloprotease enzymes and thereby arrests the enzymatic activity. The pharmaceutical industry has used the same strategy in the design of therapeutic agents. For example, the azole antifungal agents fluconazole and voriconazole contain a l-( 1,2, 4-triazole) group that binds to the heme iron present in the active site of the target enzyme lanosterol demethylase and thereby inactivates the enzyme.

In the design of clinically safe and effective metalloenzyme inhibitors, use of the most appropriate metal-binding group for the particular target and clinical indication is critical. If a weakly binding metal-binding group is utilized, potency may be suboptimal. On the other hand, if a very tightly binding metal-binding group is utilized, selectivity for the target enzyme versus related metalloenzymes may be suboptimal. The lack of optimal selectivity can be a cause for clinical toxicity due to unintended inhibition of these off-target metalloenzymes.

One example of such clinical toxicity is the unintended inhibition of human drug metabolizing enzymes such as CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 by the currently-available azole antifungal agents such as fluconazole and voriconazole. It is believed that this off-target inhibition is caused primarily by the indiscriminate binding of the currently utilized l-(l,2,4-triazole) to iron in the active site of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4. Another example of this is the joint pain that has been observed in many clinical trials of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors. This toxicity is considered to be related to inhibition of off-target metalloenzymes due to indiscriminate binding of the hydroxamic acid group to zinc in the off-target active sites.

Therefore, the search for metal-binding groups that can achieve a better balance of potency and selectivity remains an important goal and would be significant in the realization of therapeutic agents and methods to address currently unmet needs in treating and preventing diseases, disorders and symptoms thereof. Similarly, methods of synthesizing such therapeutic agents on the laboratory and, ultimately, commercial scale is needed. Addition of metal-based nucleophiles (Zn, Zr, Ce, Ti, Mg, Mn, Li) to azole-methyl substituted ketones have been effected in the synthesis of voriconazole (M. Butters, Org. Process Res. Dev. 2001, 5, 28-36). The nucleophile in these examples was an ethyl-pyrimidine substrate. Similarly, optically active azole-methyl epoxide has been prepared as precursor electrophile toward the synthesis of ravuconazole (A. Tsuruoka, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 1998, 46, 623-630). Despite this, the development of methodology with improved efficiency and selectivity is desirable

Preparation of Compound 4:

de 

Acetone (850 L), 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (85.00 kg, 530.7 moles), and potassium carbonate (219.3 kg, 1,586.7 moles) were charged to a clean, fixed reactor with stirring and with the temperature maintained at 20 – 35 °C. Dimethyl sulfate (200.6 kg, 2131.09) was added to the stirred reaction at a rate that maintains the internal temperature of the exothermic reaction below 60 °C. This addition typically requires about 3 hours. At the end of the dimethyl sulfate addition, the reaction is continued to allow to stir while maintaining the internal temperature at 50 – 60 °C. After about 3 hours, the reaction was analyzed by HPLC. The reaction was concentrated by atmospheric pressure distillation of acetone. The distillation was continued until 340 – 425 L of distillate was collected. This represents 40 – 50 % of the initial charge of acetone. At the end of the distillation, the reaction mass is present as a thick suspension. While maintaining the internal temperature below 60 °C, the reactor contents were slowly diluted with water (850 L). When the addition is complete, the reaction was cooled to an internal temperature of 25 – 35 °C and stirring was continued for 1 – 2 hours after the designated internal temperature was reached. Compound 2 was isolated by filtration and the cake was washed with water (at least 3 X 85 L). Compound 2 was dried at 40 – 45 °C and full vacuum until the water content by Karl Fisher titration is found to be NMT 2.0 %. Typically, greater than 90 kg of dry product is obtained with an assay of >99.5% AUC by HPLC.

Dichloromethane (with a water content by Karl Fisher Titration of NMT 0.50%) (928 L) and 2,3-dimethoxynaphthalene (2, 116.00 kg, 616.3 moles) were charged to a clean, fixed reactor with stirring and with the temperature maintained at 20 – 35 °C. The reactor contents were cooled to an internal temperature of -5 to 0 °C. Aluminum chloride (164.72 kg, 1235.3 moles, 2.00 molar equivalents) was carefully added in portions to the reaction, while maintaining the internal temperature at -5 to +5 °C. This addition typically requires 5 – 6 hours. At the end of the addition, the reactor contents were cooled to an internal temperature of -15 to -5 °C. Isobutyryl chloride (102.08 kg, 958.05 moles, 1.55 molar equivalents) was slowly added to the reaction while maintaining the internal temperature at -15 to -5 °C. The addition typically requires about 3 hours. At the end of the isobutyryl chloride addition, the reaction was warmed to an internal temperature of 20 – 35 °C. When the temperature was reached, these conditions were maintained for 2 – 3 hours until the IPC indicated a level of residual starting material of NMT 2.0 % AUC by HPLC. The reactor contents were then cooled to 0 – 5 °C. The reaction was quenched by adding the reaction to a precooled (0 – 5 °C) 3M aqueous solution of hydrochloric hcid (Water, 754 L: cone. HC1, 406 L). The mixture was vigorously stirred for 15 – 20 minutes then the layers were allowed to settle. The lower, dichloromethane, product-containing layer was washed sequentially with 10 % aqueous sodium bicarbonate (1044 L), water (1160 L), then 10 % aqueous sodium chloride (1044 L). The reaction was concentrated by distillation under full vacuum and at an internal temperature of NMT 40 °C. The reaction concentrate was cooled to 20 – 35 °C and diluted with hexanes (812 L). The resultant slurry was warmed to 45 – 50 °C and these conditions were maintained for 1 – 2 hours. The reactor contents were cooled to 20 – 35 °C for 1 – 2 hours. Compound 3 was isolated by filtration. The cake was washed with fresh hexanes (232 L) twice, the filter was cooled, and the cake was washed an additional two times with hexanes. Compound 3 was dried under full vacuum at a jacket temperature of 45 °C. Typically, about 95 kg of dry product was isolated with a product purity of >90% by HPLC.

Acetic acid (212.5 L L) and l-(6,7-dimethoxynaphthalene-2-yl)-2-methylpropane-l- one (42.5 kg, 164.5 moles) were charged to a clean, fixed reactor with stirring and with the temperature maintained at 25 – 45 °C. Concentrated hydrochloric acid (425.0 L) was added carefully to the stirring reactor contents while maintaining reactor contents at an internal temperature of 25 – 45 °C. When the addition was complete, the internal temperature of the reaction was raised to 100 – 105 °C. Note that the reaction is a heterogeneous mixture. The reaction was stirred under these conditions for 6 – 8 hours. The reaction was cooled to 85 – 90 °C to which was carefully added a fresh portion of hydrochloric acid (127.5 L). The reaction was warmed to 100 – 105 °C and stirred for another 6 – 8 hours. The reaction was cooled to 85 – 90 °C. The reaction was cooled further to 70 – 80 °C. Water (212.5 L) was added to the well stirred reaction and the reactor contents were cooled to an internal temperature of 35 – 45 °C and stirred for 3 – 4 hours. Compound 4 was collected by filtration. The wet cake was washed with water (212.5 L). The wet cake was added to a clean reactor with a 5% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution and stirred at an internal temperature of 35 – 45 °C for 1 – 2 hours.

Compound 4 was collected by filtration and washed with water (212.5 L). Compound 4 was dried under full vacuum and a temperature of < 50 °C until the water content of the dried material was found to be NMT 5.0% by Karl Fisher Titration. The yield is typically >31 kg with a purity >99.5 %.

Preparation of Compound 5:

The following difluoromethylation conditions listed in Table 1 were investigated:

Preparation 1:

The reaction flask was dried under an argon flow at 120 °C. (lS,2R)-l-Phenyl-2-(l- pyrrolidinyl)propan-l-ol (ligand 45) (196.6 g, 0.96 mol, 2.2 eq.) was added into the flask and then toluene (195 mL) was added. The solution was cooled to <12 °C. A solution of diethyl zinc (716.4 g, 0.87 mol, 15 wt%, 2 eq.) in toluene was added through a septum over 30 min at 0-10 °C. Further, a solution of ((Trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)-magnesium bromide in THF (1.81 kg; 0.87 mol, 9.7 wt%, 2 eq.) was added over 30 min at 0-10 °C. Finally, trifluoroethanol (87.0 g; 0.87 mol; 2 eq.) was added over 10 min at 0-10 °C. The reaction solution was stirred at 10-12 °C for 3 h. Compound 5 (143.4 g; 0.434 mol; 1 eq.) was added (as a solid) at room

temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 h and at 55 °C for 17 h. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature and dosed with aqueous HC1 (3600 mL; 7.5 wt%) within 20 min. The temperature of the mixture was kept below 25 °C. Toluene (1250 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 min. The aqueous phase was separated and stored for the recycling of ligand 45. The organic phases were washed with water (638 mL) and concentrated via distillation under reduced pressure (50 mbar). The residue (approx. 184 g) was treated with heptane (200 mL), which was removed

via distillation. The residue was dissolved in heptane (2050 mL) at 50 °C. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and subsequently to -8 °C within 2 hours. The obtained suspension was stirred at -8 °C for 1 h. Crystallized compound 5 (20.0 g; 14%) was isolated via filtration, washed twice with cold (0 °C) heptane (2×20 mL) and dried under vacuum at 50 °C for 12 hours. The combined heptane phases were concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a 48 wt% solution of compound 18b in heptane (yield: 83.0%). The solution was directly used for the next step.

1H-NMR (600.6 MHz, DMSO-D6) d: 0.23 (s, 9H), 0.77 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.93 (d, 7 = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 2.04 (sept., 7 = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 6.11 (s, 1H), 7.32 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (dd, 7 = 8.6, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.84 (s, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 7.93 (d, 7 = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (s (broad), 1H);

HPLC (purity): 94%;

chiral HPLC: e.r. = 18:82.

Preparation 2:

(7S,2R)-l-Phenyl-2-(l-pyrrolidinyl)propan-l-ol (ligand 45) (13.0 kg, 63.3 mol, 2.2 eq.) was charged into the reactor and toluene (60 L) was added. The solution was cooled to < 12 °C. A solution of diethyl zinc (35.6 kg, 57.3 mol, 20 wt%, 2 eq.) in toluene was added via mass flow controller at 8-16 °C. Further, a solution of ((trimethylsilyl)ethynyl)-magnesium bromide in THF (11.5 kg; 57.3 mol, 9.7 wt%, 2 eq.) was added at 8-16 °C. Finally, trifluoroethanol (5.7 kg; 57.3 mol; 2 eq.) was added over 10 min at 8-16 °C.The reaction solution was stirred at 22-25 °C for 3 h. A solution of compound 5 (9.5 kg; 28.7 mol; 1 eq.) in toluene (20 L) was added at room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at 25 °C for 1 h and at 55 °C for 17 h. The reaction solution was cooled to room temperature and dosed in aqueous HC1 (225L; 7.5 wt%) within 20 min. The temperature of the mixture should be kept below 25 °C. Toluene (80 L) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 min. The organic phases was washed with water (50 L) and concentrated via distillation under reduced pressure (50 mbar). The residue was treated with heptane (100 L), which was removed via distillation. The residue was dissolved in heptane (100 L) at 50°C, which was removed via distillation. The residue was dissolved in heptane (25 L). Heptane (110 L) was added, the mixture was cooled to room temperature and subsequently to 0-5 °C and seeded with compound 5 (0.15 kg). The obtained suspension was cooled to -8 °C within 1 h and stirred at this temperature for 2 h. Crystallized compound 5 was removed via filtration. The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a 48 wt% solution of compound 18b in heptane (calculated 8.8 kg, 71.6%). This solution was directly used for the next step.

1H-NMR (600.6 MHz, DMSO-D6) d: 0.23 (s, 9H), 0.77 (d, J = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 0.93 (d, 7 = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 2.04 (sept., 7 = 6.7 Hz, 1H), 6.11 (s, 1H), 7.32 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.68 (dd, 7 = 8.6, 1.5 Hz, 1H), 7.84 (s, 1H), 7.87 (s, 1H), 7.93 (d, 7 = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 8.03 (s (broad), 1H);

HPLC (purity): 94%;

chiral HPLC: e.r. = 18:82.

Recovery of the chiral ligand ( lS,2R)-l-Phenvl-2- 
-l-ol from the

Preparation 1:

The above acidic aqueous phase was diluted with toluene (1000 mL) and the mixture was treated with sodium hydroxide (50 wt% solution) to adjust the pH to 12. The mixture was warmed to 50 °C and sodium chloride (100 g) was added. The aqueous phase was separated and washed with toluene (1000 mL). The combined organic phases were washed with water (200 mL). The combined toluene phases were treated with water (1000 mL) and the pH was adjusted to 2 by the addition of a cone. HC1 solution. The aqueous phase was separated and the mixture was treated with sodium hydroxide (50 wt% solution) at 5 °C to adjust the pH to 12. After seeding, the suspension was stirred at 5 °C for 30 min. The solids were isolated, washed with cold (0 °C) water (4×100 mL) and dried under vacuum at 30 °C for 24 hours. Ligand 45 (178.9g; 91%) was obtained as slightly yellow crystalline solid.

HPLC (purity): 99%.

Preparation 2:

The acidic aqueous phase containing ligand 45 (500 L) was diluted with toluene (125 L) and treated with“Kieselgur” (20 L). The mixture was treated with sodium hydroxide (40 L; 50 wt% solution) to adjust the pH to 12 whereas the temperature was kept <55 °C. The suspension was stirred for 15-20 min and filtered to remove all solids. Toluene (80 L) was added and the aqueous phase was separated. The organic phase was treated with water (150 mL) and the pH was adjusted to 1.5-2 by the addition of an aqueous HC1 solution (10 L; 32 wt%). The aqueous phase was separated, toluene (150 L) was added, and the mixture was treated with sodium hydroxide (5 L; 50 wt% solution) at 5 °C to adjust the pH to 12-12.5. The organic phase was separated, washed with water (30 L), and concentrated under reduced

pressure at 50 °C. Approx. 100L of distillate was removed. A sample of the solution of ligand 45 in toluene was analyzed:

The NMR results indicated a 21.6 wt% solution of ligand 45 in toluene which corresponds to a calculated amount of 118.4 kg (83.6%) of ligand 45.

Preparation of Compound 18a

Preparation 1:

A solution of tertiary alcohol 18b (320 g; 48 wt%; 0.36 mol; 1 eq.) in heptane was dissolved in methanol (800 mL). Potassium carbonate (219 g; 1.58 mol; 4.4 eq.) was added (temperature was kept < 30 °C) and the suspension was stirred at room temperature for 3 h. Water (1250 mL) was added and the mixture was treated with a cone. HC1 solution (approx. 130 mL) to adjust the pH to 7.8. The reaction mixture was extracted twice with methyl- /-butyl ether (MTBE; 2×465 mL). The combined MTBE phases were washed with water (155 mL). Water (190 mL) was added to the MTBE phase and the organic solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure (50 mbar). The obtained emulsion of compound 18a (yield: 99%) was directly used for the next step.

1H-NMR (600.6 MHz, CDC13) d: 0.87 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.09 (d, / = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 2.20 (sept. / = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 2.47 (s, 1H), 2.77 (s, 1H), 6.63 (t, 27H,F = 73.5 Hz, 1H), 6.63 (t, 2/H,F = 73.5 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.69 (s, 1H), 7.74 (dd, 7 = 8.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, / =

8.6 Hz, 1H), 8.06 (s (broad), 1H);

HPLC (purity): 95%.

Preparation 2:

The solution of tertiary alcohol 18b (48 wt%; 57.5 mol; 1 eq.) in heptane was dissolved in methanol (128 L). Potassium carbonate (35.0 kg; 253 mol; 4.4 eq.) was added (temperature was kept < 30 °C) and the suspension was stirred at 20-30 °C for 3 h. Water (200 L) was added and the mixture was treated with an aqueous HC1 solution (approx. 25 L; 32 wt%) to adjust the pH to 7.5 – 7.8. The reaction mixture was extracted twice with MTBE

(2×66.6 L). The combined MTBE phases were washed with water (25 L). Water (30 L) was added to the MTBE phase and the organic solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure (<80 mbar; 55°C). The residue was dissolved in tert-butanol (25 L). The resulting 18a was cooled to <30°C and used directly in the next step.

^-NMR (600.6 MHz, CDC13) d: 0.87 (d, / = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 1.09 (d, / = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 2.20 (sept. / = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 2.47 (s, 1H), 2.77 (s, 1H), 6.63 (t, 27H,F = 73.5 Hz, 1H), 6.63 (t, 2/H,F = 73.5 Hz, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.69 (s, 1H), 7.74 (dd, 7 = 8.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.79 (d, / = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 8.06 (s (broad), 1H);

HPLC (purity): 95%.

Preparation of Compound 31

Preparation 1:

Benzyl bromide (39.4 g; 0.23 mol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in water (177 mL) and t-BuOH (200 mL). Diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA; 59.4 g; 0.46 mol; 2 eq.) and sodium azide (15.0 g; 0.23 mol; 1 eq.) were added. The suspension was stirred for 5 min at room temperature. A suspension of compound 18a (82 g; 0.23 mol; 1 eq.) in water (123 mL) was treated with t-BuOH (100 mL) and copper (I) iodide (8.8 g; 46 mmol; 0.2 eq.) was added and the temperature was kept below 30 °C. The yellow-brown suspension was stirred for 5 h at room temperature. Zinc powder (5.0 g; 76 mmol) and ammonium chloride (7.4 g; 0.14 mol) were added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The mixture was diluted with MTBE (800 mL), water (280 mL), and an aqueous ammonia solution (120 g; 25 wt%). Solids were removed by filtration and additional MTBE (200 mL) and brine (200 mL) were added. The aqueous phase was separated and extracted with MTBE (400 mL). The combined organic phases were treated with water (150 mL) and MTBE was distilled off under reduced pressure (100 mbar). The obtained suspension of compound 31 (113 g; 50 wt%) in water (approx. 113 mL) was directly used for the next step.

Ή-NMEI (600.6 MHz, DMSO-D6) d: 0.66 (d, / = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (d, / = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 2.78 (sept. / = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (s, 2H), 5.68 (s, 1H), 7.29 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.36 – 7.26 (m, 5H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.82 (s, 1H), 7.82 (dd, 7 = 8.8, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (d, / = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (s, 1H), 8.10 (s (broad), 1H);

HPLC (purity): 87%.

Preparation 2:

Benzyl bromide (11.0 kg g; 64.4 mol; 1,12 eq.) was dissolved in water (40 L) and t-BuOH (60 L). DIPEA (16.4 kg; 126.5 mol; 2,2 eq.) and sodium azide (4.12 kg; 63.3 mol; 1 eq.) were added. The suspension was stirred 5 min at room temperature. A mixture of compound 18a (20.5 kg; 57.5 mol; 1 eq.) in ieri-butanol (see previous step) was added together with water (5 L) and copper (I) iodide (2.2 kg; 11.5 mol; 0.2 eq.) at a temperature < 30 °C. The yellow-brown suspension was stirred for 5 h at room temperature. Zinc powder (1.25 kg; 19 mol, 0.33 eq.) and an aqueous solution of ammonium chloride (2.14 kg; 20 wt%; 40 mol; 0.7 eq.) were added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 20-30 °C for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated under vacuum (<200 mbar, 55 °C). The residue was diluted with MTBE (200 L), water (30 L), and an aqueous ammonia solution (30 kg; 25 wt%). Solids were removed by filtration over a pad of“Kieselgur NF” (2 kg). Brine (50 L) was added for a better phase separation. The aqueous phase was separated and washed with MTBE (200 L). The combined organic phases were washed with an aqueous HC1 solution (1 N, 52 L) and water (50 L). MTBE was distilled off under reduced pressure (<400 mbar, 55°C; distillate min. 230L). The oily residue was dissolved in ethanol (150 L), which was distilled off under reduced pressure (<300 mbar; 55°C; distillate min. 150-155L) and the residue was dissolved in additional ethanol (60 L). To the resulting solution of compound 31 was added water (24 L) and the mixture was warmed to 50-55 °C. The mixture was cooled to 30 °C and crystallization started. The suspension was stirred at 30 °C for 1 h, cooled to <0 °C within 2 hours, and stirred at -5-0 °C for an additional 2 hours. The solids were isolated and washed with ethanol/water (1/1; v/v) (2 x 12 L). The wet product was dissolved in ethanol (115L) at 60 °C and water (24 L) was added. The mixture was cooled to 40 °C and the crystallization started. The suspension was stirred at 30 °C for 1 h, cooled to <0 °C within 2 hours, and stirred at -5-0 °C for additional 2 hours. The solids were isolated and washed (without stirring) with ethanol/water (1/1; v/v) (3 x 8 L). Pure, wet compound 31 was isolated as a white solid, which was used for the next step without drying. 14.0 kg of wet 31 were obtained with a 31 content of 81.6 wt%. Based on the determined content, the calculated amount of pure 31 was 11.4 kg with a yield of 41% over two steps (from 18b).

1H-NMR (600.6 MHz, DMSO-D6) d: 0.66 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (d, / = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 2.78 (sept. / = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (s, 2H), 5.68 (s, 1H), 7.29 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 HZ, 1H), 7.36 – 7.26 (m, 5H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.82 (s, 1H), 7.82 (dd, 7 = 8.8, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (d, / = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (s, 1H), 8.10 (s (broad), 1H);

HPLC (purity): 87%.

Preparation 3: Synthesis of compound 31 directly from compound 18b

Benzyl bromide (1.64 g, 9.59 mmol, 1.12 eq) was dissolved in water (2.4 mL) and

MeOH (2.4 mL). K2CO3 (2.38 g, 17.2 mmol, 2.00 eq), sodium ascorbate (0.34 g, 1.72 mmol, 0.20 eq) and finally sodium azide (0.62 g, 9.40 mmol, 1.10 eq.) were added. The suspension was stirred for 5 min at room temperature. A suspension of 18b (3.08 g; 8.64 mmol, 1.00 eq) in water (2.5 mL) and MeOH (2.5 mL) and the resulting mixture was stirred for 10 min.

CuS04 (0.21 g, 1.30 mmol, 0.15 eq) were added (slightly exothermic reaction). The reaction mixture was stirred for 19 h and the conversion was determined by HPLC (conv. 100%, purity of compound 31 by HPLC: 83 area%). To the yellow-green suspension was added zinc powder (0.24 g, 4.13 mmol, 0.43 eq) and ammonium chloride (0.34 g, 6.36 mmol, 0.74 eq) were added and the reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure (150 mbar, 50 °C). The mixture was diluted with MTBE (40 mL), water (15 mL), and an aqueous ammonia solution (6.5 mL). Solids were removed by filtration and brine (5.5 mL) was added. The aqueous phase was separated and extracted with MTBE (20 mL). The combined organic phases were treated with water (10 mL) and the pH was adjusted to a pH of 1 by addition of cone. HC1. After phase separation, the organic layer was washed with water (10 mL). MTBE was distilled off under reduced pressure (100 mbar, 50°C) to give the crude compound 31 as an oil. Water (2.5 mL) and EtOH (30 mL) were added and the mixture was warmed to 50 °C. After cooling to 30 °C, the mixture was seeded with compound 31 and compound 31 started to precipitate. The mixture was kept for 1 h at 30 °C, then cooled to 0 °C over 2 h and kept at 0 °C for 2 h. The resulting product, 31, was collected by filtration and the filter cake was washed with small portions of EtOH/water (1:1). After drying, the product (2.97 g) was obtained as a pale yellow, crystalline solid with an HPLC purity of 79 area% and a NMR content of ca. 70 wt%.

Recrystallization of 
31

Preparation 1:

To a suspension of compound 31 (96 g; 0.196 mol; 50 wt%) in water (96 mL) was added ethanol (480 mL) and the mixture was warmed to 50 °C. The mixture was cooled to 30 °C and crystallization started. The suspension was stirred at 30 °C for 1 h, cooled to 0 °C within 2 hours and stirred at 0 °C for additional 2 hours. The solids were isolated and washed with ethanol/water (1/1; v/v) (3 x 40 mL). The wet product was dissolved in ethanol (280 mL) at 60 °C and water (56 mL) was added. The mixture was cooled to 40 °C and crystallization started. The suspension was stirred at 30 °C for 1 h, cooled to 0 °C within 2 hours, and stirred at 0 °C for an additional 2 hours. The solids were isolated and washed with ethanol/water (1/1; v/v) (3 x 28 mL). Pure, wet compound 31 (46.8 g on dried basis; 49 % over 2 steps) was isolated as a white solid, which was used for the next step without drying.

1H-NMR (600.6 MHz, DMSO-D6) d: 0.66 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (d, / = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 2.78 (sept. / = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (s, 2H), 5.68 (s, 1H), 7.29 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 HZ, 1H), 7.36 – 7.26 (m, 5H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.82 (s, 1H), 7.82 (dd, 7 = 8.8, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (d, / = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (s, 1H), 8.10 (s (broad), 1H);

HPLC (purity): 99.5%;

chiral HPLC: e.r.: 0.2:99.8%.

mp of dried product: 110 °C.

Preparation 2:

14 kg of ethanol-wet 31 (content 81.6 wt%, calculated 11.4 kg, 23.7 mol) were suspended in ethanol (46 L) and the mixture was warmed to 50-55 °C, forming a homogenous solution at this temperature. Water (9 L) was added at 50-55 °C and the mixture was cooled to 40-45 °C. After the crystallization had started, the suspension was stirred at 40-45 °C for 1 h, cooled to 0 °C within 2 hours, and stirred at 0 °C for additional 2 hours. The solids were isolated and washed with ethanol/water (1/1; v/v) (3 x 8 L). Pure, wet compound 31 (14.5 kg) was isolated as a white solid, which was used for the next step without drying.

1H-NMR (600.6 MHz, DMSO-D6) d: 0.66 (d, / = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.83 (d, / = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 2.78 (sept. / = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 5.55 (s, 2H), 5.68 (s, 1H), 7.29 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.32 (t, 27H,F = 73.4 Hz, 1H), 7.36 – 7.26 (m, 5H), 7.79 (s, 1H), 7.82 (s, 1H), 7.82 (dd, 7 = 8.8, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 7.86 (d, / = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.94 (s, 1H), 8.10 (s (broad), 1H);

HPLC (purity): 99.8%;

chiral HPLC: e.r.: 0.2:99.8%.

mp of dried product: 110 °C.

Preparation of Azidomethyl Pivalate Protected Triazole (6) from Compound 18a

1

Azidomethyl pivalate (1.42 g, 9.00 mmol, 1.05 eq) was suspended in water (6.0 mL) and t-BuOH (7.2 mL) and the suspension was stirred for 5 min. Compound 18a (theor. 3.08 g, 8.64 mmol, 1.00 eq), sodium ascorbate (0.48 g, 2.4 mmol, 0.30 eq), and CuS04 (0.08 g, 0.40 mmol, 0.05 eq.) were added. The reaction mixture was stirred for 19 h and conversion was determined by HPLC (conv. 98%, purity of the product by HPLC: 81 area%). To the green suspension was added MTBE (20 mL), water (10 mL), and an aqueous ammonia solution (2 g). A biphasic turbid mixture was formed. To improve phase separation, additional MTBE (20 mL) and water (10 mL) were added. The aqueous phase was separated and extracted with MTBE (20 mL). The combined organic phases were concentrated under reduced pressure (100 mbar, 50 °C) to give the crude product as a brown oil that solidified upon standing. HPLC purity: ca. 65 area%; NMR content of ca. 73 wt%.

1H-NMR (600.6 MHz, CDCL) d: 0.79 (d, 3H), 0.93 (d, 3H), 1.15 (s. 9H), 2.86 (sept, 1H), 3.12 (s, 1H), 6.20 (s, 2H), 6.59 (t/t, 27H,F = 73.5 Hz, 2H), 7.61 (1, 1H), 7.64 (s, 1H), 7.70 – 7.82 (m, 3H), 8.04 (s, 1H).

Preparation of Azidomethyl Pivalate Protected Triazole (6) from 18b

In a reaction flask, sodium ascorbate (277 mg, 1.4 mmol, 1.20 eq) and CuS04 (37 mg, 0.23 mmol, 0.20 eq.) were suspended in MeOH (11 mL). Azidomethyl pivalate (183 mg, 1.16 mmol, 1.00 eq) and 18b (183 mg, 1.16 mmol, 1.00 eq) were added and the mixture was warmed to 60 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 19 h and worked up. To the green suspension was added an aq NH4Cl solution (2 mL) and zinc powder, and the mixture was stirred for 2 h. MTBE (2 mL) was added and the aqueous phase was separated and extracted with MTBE (2 mL). The combined organic phases were concentrated under reduced pressure (100 mbar, 50 °C) to give 6 as a brown oil that solidified upon standing. HPLC purity: ca. 81 area%; NMR content of ca. 57 wt%.

1H-NMR (600.6 MHz, CDCL) d: 0.79 (d, 3H), 0.93 (d, 3H), 1.15 (s. 9H), 2.86 (sept, 1H), 3.12 (s, 1H), 6.20 (s, 2H), 6.59 (t/t, 27H,F = 73.5 Hz, 2H), 7.61 (1, 1H), 7.64 (s, 1H), 7.70 – 7.82 (m, 3H), 8.04 (s, 1H).

Preparation of Compound 1

Preparation 1:

Compound 31 (26 g; 53 mmol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in ethanol (260 mL) and Noblyst Pl 155 (2.2 g; 10 % Pd; 54 wt% water) was added. The autoclave was flushed with nitrogen and hydrogen (5 bar) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 32 hours. The reaction mixture was treated with charcoal (2 g), stirred for 15 min, and the charcoal was filtered off. The filtrate was concentrated via distillation and the residue (approximately 42 g) was diluted with heptane (200 mL). The mixture was heated to reflux to

obtain a clear solution. The solution was cooled to room temperature within 1 h and the resulting suspension was cooled to 0 °C and stirred for 2 hours at 0 °C. The solids were isolated via filtration and washed with heptane/ethanol (10:1; v/v; 3×10 mL). Compound 1 (18.0 g; 85 %) was dried under vacuum at 60 °C for 24 hours and obtained as a white, crystalline solid.

1H-NMR (600 MHz) d: 0.80 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.97 (d, / = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 2.83 (sept. / = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 6.60 (t, 27H,F = 73.5 Hz, 1H), 6.61 (t, 27H,F = 73.5 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (s, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.68 (dd, / = 8.7, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.75 (d, / = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 8.02 (s (broad), 1H); HPLC (purity): 100%.

Preparation 2:

Compound 31 (26.5 kg; 53.5 mol; 1 eq.) was dissolved in ethanol (265 L) and Pd/C (2.0 kg; 10 % Pd; 54 wt% water) was added. The reactor was flushed with nitrogen, and hydrogen (4.5 bar) was added. The reaction mixture was stirred at 28-32 °C until the reaction was complete. The reaction mixture was treated with charcoal (1.3 kg) at a temperature of <

33 °C, stirred for 10 min, and the charcoal was filtered off, and the filter was washed with ethanol (10 L).The filtrates from two reactions were combined and concentrated via distillation under reduced pressure (max. 65 °C; distillate: min 480 L). The residue (approx. 50-60 L) was diluted with isopropylacetate (250 L). The mixture was again concentrated via distillation under reduced pressure (max. 65 °C; distillate: min 240-245 L). The residue (approx. 60-70 L) was cooled to 35-40 °C and isopropylacetate (125 L) and heptane (540 L) were added. The suspension was heated to reflux (approx. 88 °C) and stirred under reflux for 15-20 min. Subsequently, the mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C within 2 h and stirred at 0-5 °C for 2 hours. The solids were isolated via filtration and washed with heptane/isopropylacetate (5:1; v/v; 2×30 L; 0-5 °C). Wet 1 was dried under vacuum at 60 °C and was obtained as a white, crystalline solid (35.4 kg, 81.9%).

1H-NMR (600 MHz) d: 0.80 (d, / = 6.8 Hz, 3H), 0.97 (d, / = 6.7 Hz, 3H), 2.83 (sept. / = 6.8 Hz, 1H), 6.60 (t, 27H,F = 73.5 Hz, 1H), 6.61 (t, 27H,F = 73.5 Hz, 1H), 7.61 (s, 1H), 7.65 (s, 1H), 7.68 (dd, / = 8.7, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 7.75 (d, / = 8.7 Hz, 1H), 8.02 (s (broad), 1H); HPLC (purity): 100%.

Preparation 3: Preparation of Compound 1 from Compound 6

At room temperature, 6 (3.00 g, 5.84 mmol) was dissolved in MeOH (19.8 mL). NaOH (1.0 M, 19.8 mL) was added in one portion and the reaction mixture was stirred for 1 h at room temperature. The reaction progress was monitored by HPLC, which showed 98% conversion after 1 h. Aq. HC1 (19.8 mL) was added and the mixture was diluted with water (120 mL) and MTBE (60 mL), resulting in a clear biphasic solution. After phase separation, the organic phase was washed with aq NaHC03 (20 mL). The organic layer was concentrated under high vacuum (25 mbar, 45 °C) to yield 2.77 g of 1 as a greenish oil. The identity was confirmed by comparison of HPLC retention time with an authentic sample of 1 as well as by 1H NMR.

Recrystallization of Compound 1

Wet 1 (40 kg; isopropylacetate/heptane wet) was treated with isopropylacetate (110 L) and heptane (440 L). The suspension was heated to reflux (approx. 88 °C) and stirred under reflux for 15-20 min. Subsequently, the mixture was cooled to 0-5 °C within 2 h and stirred at 0-5 °C for 2 hours. The solids were isolated via filtration and washed with

heptane/isopropylacetate (5:1; v/v; 2×30 L; 0-5 °C). A sample was taken for analysis

(criterion: a) purity; NLT 99.0 A% by HPLC; b) single impurities, NMT 0.15 A% by HPLC; c) enantiomer VT-463, NMT 1.0 A% by HPLC). Wet 1 was dried under vacuum at 60 °C for not less than 12 h. A sample was taken for analysis: criterion: a) LOD; NMT 0.5 wt% by gravimetry; b) residual toluene, NMT 890 ppm by HS-GC. 1 was obtained as a white, crystalline solid (28.5 kg, 66.7% from 31).

PAPER

 Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2014), 24(11), 2444-2447.

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X14003606

PATENT

WO 2016040896

https://patents.google.com/patent/WO2016040896A1/en

References

  1. Jump up to:a b c d e http://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800035241
  2. ^ http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newsfda-grants-fast-track-status-innocrins-seviteronel-treat-metastatic-crpc-4770025
  3. ^ Yin L, Hu Q, Hartmann RW (2013). “Recent progress in pharmaceutical therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer”Int J Mol Sci14 (7): 13958–78. doi:10.3390/ijms140713958PMC 3742227PMID 23880851.
  4. Jump up to:a b Stein MN, Patel N, Bershadskiy A, Sokoloff A, Singer EA (2014). “Androgen synthesis inhibitors in the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer”Asian J. Androl16 (3): 387–400. doi:10.4103/1008-682X.129133PMC 4023364PMID 24759590.
  5. Jump up to:a b Rafferty SW, Eisner JR, Moore WR, Schotzinger RJ, Hoekstra WJ (2014). “Highly-selective 4-(1,2,3-triazole)-based P450c17a 17,20-lyase inhibitors”. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett24 (11): 2444–7. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.04.024PMID 24775307.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d Toren PJ, Kim S, Pham S, Mangalji A, Adomat H, Guns ES, Zoubeidi A, Moore W, Gleave ME (2015). “Anticancer activity of a novel selective CYP17A1 inhibitor in preclinical models of castrate-resistant prostate cancer”. Mol. Cancer Ther14 (1): 59–69. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-14-0521PMID 25351916.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Stephen Neidle (30 September 2013). Cancer Drug Design and Discovery. Academic Press. pp. 341–342. ISBN 978-0-12-397228-6.
  8. Jump up to:a b Wm Kevin Kelly; Edouard J. Trabulsi, MD; Nicholas G. Zaorsky, MD (17 December 2014). Prostate Cancer: A Multidisciplinary Approach to Diagnosis and Management. Demos Medical Publishing. pp. 342–. ISBN 978-1-936287-59-8.
  9. ^ http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/druginformation/innlists/RL76.pdf

Further reading

External links[

Seviteronel
VT-464.svg
Clinical data
Synonyms VT-464; INO-464
Routes of
administration
By mouth
Drug class Androgen biosynthesis inhibitorNonsteroidal antiandrogen
ATC code
  • None
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
Chemical and physical data
Formula C18H17F4N3O3
Molar mass 399.339 g/mol g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

References

  1. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals Created as a Spin-out of the Prostate Cancer Program from Viamet Pharmaceuticals.

    Media Release 

  2. Viamet Pharmaceuticals and the Novartis Option Fund Enter Agreement for Development of Novel Metalloenzyme Inhibitors.

    Media Release 

  3. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Granted SME Status Designation by the European Medicines Agency.

    Media Release 

  4. A Single arm, open label, signal seeking, Phase II a trial of the activity of seviteronel in patients with androgen receptor (AR) positive solid tumours

    ctiprofile 

  5. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals and the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) Join Forces for Innovative Phase 2 Clinical Study.

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  6. A Phase 2 Open-label Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Seviteronel in Subjects With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Progressing on Enzalutamide or Abiraterone

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  7. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Granted Fast Track Designation by FDA for VT-464 Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer.

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  8. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Begins Phase 2 Study of Seviteronel in Women with Estrogen Receptor-positive or Triple-negative Breast Cancer and Expands Two Phase 2 Studies of Seviteronel in Men with Metastatic Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer.

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  9. A Phase 2 Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of VT-464 in Patients With Metastatic Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer Who Have Previously Been Treated With Enzalutamide, Androgen Receptor Positive Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients, and Men With ER Positive Breast Cancer

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  11. A Phase 1/2 Open-Label Study to Evaluate the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Seviteronel in Subjects With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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  12. A Phase 1/2 Open-Label, Multiple-Dose Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of Once-Daily VT-464 in Patients With Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

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  14. VIAMET PHARMACEUTICALS AND THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH TO JOINTLY DEVELOP NOVEL VIAMET COMPOUND.

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  16. Viamet Pharmaceuticals to Present at the 32nd Annual J.P. Morgan Healthcare Conference.

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  17. VIAMET PHARMACEUTICALS TO PRESENT AT THE 31st Annual J.P. MORGAN HEALTHCARE CONFERENCE.

    Media Release 

  18. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Initiates Phase 2 Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC) Study in Men Who Have Failed Enzalutmaide or Abiraterone.

    Media Release 

  19. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals Appoints Fred Eshelman, PharmD as CEO and is Granted Fast Track Designation by FDA for Seviteronel Treatment of Women with Triple-negative Breast Cancer and Women or Men with Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer.

    Media Release 

  20. Gucalp A, Bardia A, Gabrail N, DaCosta N, Danso M, Elias AD, et al. Phase 1/2 study of oral seviteronel (VT-464), a dual CYP17-lyase inhibitor and androgen receptor (AR) antagonist, in patients with advanced AR positive triple negative (TNBC) or estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer (BC). SABCS-2016 2016; abstr. P2-08-04.

    Available from: URL:http://www.abstracts2view.com/sabcs/view.php?nu=SABCS16L_1479

  21. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals Presents Data from the Ongoing Phase 2 Trial of Seviteronel in Estrogen Receptor-positive or Triple-negative Breast Cancer (CLARITY-01) at the San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium.

    Media Release 

  22. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Appoints Edwina Baskin-Bey, MD as Chief Medical Officer and Expands the Ongoing Phase 2 Study of Seviteronel in Women with Estrogen Receptor-positive or Triple-negative Breast Cancer (TNBC).

    Media Release 

  23. Innocrin Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Raises $28 Million in Series D Financing.

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  27. Viamet Pharmaceuticals Secures $18 Million Financing.

    Media Release 

  28. Viamet Pharmaceuticals Raises $4 Million Round of Financing.

    Media Release 

///////////SEVITERONEL, VT-464, INO-464, VT 464, INO 464, Phase II,  Breast cancer,  Prostate cancer,  Solid tumours, viamet, CANCER, севитеронел سيفيتيرونيل 赛维罗奈 

C1(=CN=NN1)C(C1=CC2=C(C=C1)C=C(C(=C2)OC(F)F)OC(F)F)(C(C)C)O

Design and synthesis of indoline thiohydantoin derivatives based on enzalutamide as antiproliferative agents against prostate cancer


str0

str0

4-(6-chloro-1-oxo-3-thioxo-9,9a-dihydro-1H-imidazo[1,5-a]indol-2(3H)-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile

WILL BE UPDATED………

Prostate cancer, one of the most malignant tumors worldwide, is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in America . Although androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been proved to be effective initially, the tumor will eventually progress and develop into the lethal castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) . The androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily and plays a critical role in the progression of normal prostate cells. However, overexpression of AR was found in most CRPC, which is essential for CRPC to adapt to the low levels of androgens. As AR contributes significantly to the resistance to castration, it has been recognized as an attractive target for the treatment of CRPC

Reagents and conditions: (i) HNO3 , H2SO4 , -5 oC, 3 h; (ii) SOCl2 , MeOH, reflux, 12 h; (iii) H2 , Pd/C, MeOH, rt, 12 h; (iv) (CH3CO)2O, TEA, 50 oC, 6 h; (v) H2 , Pd/C, MeOH, rt, 12 h; (vi) acetone, HCl (6 mol/L), -10 oC, 0.5 h, NaNO2 , H2O, -10 oC, 1 h, CuCl/CuBr/KI, 0 oC, 3 h; (vii) HCl, 50 oC, 3 h; (viii) SOCl2 , MeOH, reflux, 12 h; (ix) 2, DMF, TEA, 60 oC, 1 h.

4-(6-chloro-1-oxo-3-thioxo-9,9a-dihydro-1H-imidazo[1,5-a]indol-2(3H)-yl)-2-(trifluoromethyl)-benzonitrile (48c). It was obtained as a yellow solid

m.p. 220-222 oC;

1H-NMR (300 MHz,DMSO-d6): δ 8.40 (d, J = 8.1 Hz, 1H, Ar-H), 8.19 (s, 1H, Ar-H), 8.02-7.92 (m, 2H, Ar-H), 7.49-7.46 (m, 1H, Ar-H), 7.34-7.32 (m, 1H, Ar-H), 5.56 (t, J = 9.6 Hz, 1H, -CH-), 3.58 (d, J = 9.6 Hz, 2H, -CH2-) ppm;

13C-NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 184.1, 172.1, 142.3, 138.5, 136.8, 134.7, 131.9, 131.5, 128.0, 126.1 (q, J = 267.9 Hz, CF3), 117.2, 115.4, 66.9, 39.9 ppm;

IR (KBr): 3094, 2232, 1763, 1607, 1499, 1270, 1136, 1052, 998, 786 cm-1;

HRMS (ESI): m/z, calculated for C18H9ClF3N3OS 408.0180 (M + H)+ , found 408.0173.

Paper

A series of indoline thiohydantoin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated in vitro.The most potent compound 48c shows comparable ability with enzalutamide in proliferation inhibition of LNCaP cells.Compound 48c has less cytotoxic to AR-negative cells compared with Enzalutamide.

The bicalutamide-resistant mechanism was clarified and overcome by compound 48c.


Abstract

A novel scaffold of indoline thiohydantoin was discovered as potent androgen receptor (AR) antagonist through rational drug designation. Several compounds showed good biological profiles in AR binding and higher selective toxicity than enzalutamide toward LNCaP cells (AR-rich) versus DU145 cells (AR-deficient). In addition, the docking studies supported the rationalization of the biological evaluation. Among these compounds, the representative compound 48c exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on LNCaP growth and also acted as a competitive AR antagonist. Further preliminary mechanism study confirmed that 48c exerted its AR antagonistic activity through impairing AR nuclear translocation. All these results indicated that the novel scaffold compounds demonstrated AR antagonistic behaviour and promising candidates for future development were identified.


Graphical abstract

Image 1
Research paper

Design and synthesis of indoline thiohydantoin derivatives based on enzalutamide as antiproliferative agents against prostate cancer

  • Department of Medicinal Chemistry, China Pharmaceutical University, 24 Tongjiaxiang, Nanjing 210009, PR China
  • zhiyuli@cpu.edu.cn

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0223523416309114

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2016.10.049

////////Prostate cancer, Androgen receptor, Antagonist, Indoline thiohydantoin derivatives, indoline thiohydantoin derivatives, enzalutamide, antiproliferative agents, prostate cancer

c1c(cc(c(c1)C#N)C(F)(F)F)N2C(C3Cc4ccc(cc4N3C2=S)Cl)=O

DAROLUTAMIDE даролутамид , دارولوتاميد , 达罗他胺 , ダロルタミド


STR1

ODM-201.svg

ChemSpider 2D Image | ODM-201 | C19H19ClN6O2

Darolutamide

N-((S)-1-(3-(3-Chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-propan-2-yl)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide

N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5-(l-hydroxyethyl)-lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide

  • MF C19H19ClN6O2
  • MW 398.846

BAY 1841788; ODM-201

даролутамид [Russian] [INN]
دارولوتاميد [Arabic] [INN]
达罗他胺 [Chinese] [INN]
ダロルタミド JAPANESE
ダロルタミド
Darolutamide

C19H19ClN6O2 : 398.85
[1297538-32-9]

1H-Pyrazole-3-carboxamide, N-[(1S)-2-[3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-1-methylethyl]-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-
BAY-1841788
N-{(2S)-1-[3-(3-Chlor-4-cyanphenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-2-propanyl}-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazol-3-carboxamid
N-{(2S)-1-[3-(3-Chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-2-propanyl}-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide
N-{(2S)-1-[3-(3-Chloro-4-cyanophényl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]-2-propanyl}-5-(1-hydroxyéthyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide
ODM-201
1297538-32-9  CAS
UNII:X05U0N2RCO
phase 3 for Hormone refractory prostate cancer; Hormone dependent prostate cancer

Orion and licensee Bayer are codeveloping darolutamide (ODM-201, BAY-1841788), an androgen receptor antagonist, for the potential treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (HSPC) .

In September 2014, a phase III trial (ARAMIS) was initiated for non-metastatic CRPC; in April 2018, the trial was ongoing . In November 2016, a phase III trial in metatstic HSPC (ARASENS) was initiated .

 

PRODUCT PATENT

US-09657003 provides patent protection until May 2032.

Priority date 2009-10-27

InventorGerd WohlfahrtOlli TörmäkangasHarri SaloIisa HöglundArja KarjalainenPia KoivikkoPatrik HolmSirpa RaskuAnniina Vesalainen Current Assignee Orion Corp Original AssigneeOrion Corp

05-May-2011         WO-2011051540-A1, Priority date 2009-10-27

Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US8921378 Androgen receptor modulating carboxamides
2012-04-20
2014-12-30
US8975254 ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATING COMPOUNDS
2010-10-27
2012-09-06
US2017260206 ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATING COMPOUNDS
2017-04-13
US9657003 ANDROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATING COMPOUNDS
2015-01-16
2015-07-23

PHASE III

In September 2014, the double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trial (NCT02200614; ; ARAMIS) began to evaluate the safety and efficacy of darolutamide in patients (expected n = 1500, Taiwanese n = 20) in the US, Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Europe, Israel, Japan, Peru, South Korea, Russian Federation, South Africa, Taiwan and Turkey with non-metastatic CRPC. The primary endpoint was metastasis-free survival (MFS), defined as time between randomization and evidence of metastasis or death from any cause . In April 2018, the trial was expected to complete in September 2018

  • Originator Orion
  • Developer Bayer HealthCare; Orion
  • Class Antineoplastics
  • Mechanism of Action Androgen receptor antagonists
  • Phase III Prostate cancer
  • Most Recent Events

    • 03 Jun 2016 Bayer and Orion plan the phase III ARASENS trial for Prostate cancer
    • 03 Jun 2016 Bayer and Orion expand the licensing agreement to include joint development of ODM 201 for Metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC)
    • 06 May 2016 Long-term combined adverse events data from the the ARADES (phase I/II) and the ARAFOR (phase I) trials in Prostate cancer presented at the 111th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (AUA -2016)

Darolutamide (INN) (developmental code names ODM-201, BAY-1841788) is a non-steroidal antiandrogen, specifically, a full and high-affinity antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR), that is under development by Orion and Bayer HealthCare[1] for the treatment of advanced, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).[2][3]

Orion and licensee Bayer are co-developing darolutamide, an androgen receptor antagonist, for treating castration-resistant prostate cancer and metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. In August 2016, darolutamide was reported to be in phase 3 clinical development. The drug appears to be first disclosed in WO2011051540, claiming novel heterocyclic derivatives as tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators, useful for the treatment of prostate cancer.

Mode of action

Relative to enzalutamide (MDV3100 or Xtandi) and apalutamide (ARN-509), two other recent non-steroidal antiandrogens, darolutamide shows some advantages.[3] Darolutamide appears to negligibly cross the blood-brain-barrier.[3] This is beneficial due to the reduced risk of seizures and other central side effects from off-target GABAA receptor inhibition that tends to occur in non-steroidal antiandrogens that are structurally similar to enzalutamide.[3] Moreover, in accordance with its lack of central penetration, darolutamide does not seem to increase testosterone levels in mice or humans, unlike other non-steroidal antiandrogens.[3] Another advantage is that darolutamide has been found to block the activity of all tested/well-known mutant ARs in prostate cancer, including the recently-identified clinically-relevant F876L mutation that produces resistance to enzalutamide and apalutamide.[3] Finally, darolutamide shows higher affinity and inhibitory efficacy at the AR (Ki = 11 nM relative to 86 nM for enzalutamide and 93 nM for apalutamide; IC50 = 26 nM relative to 219 nM for enzalutamide and 200 nM for apalutamide) and greater potency/efficaciousness in non-clinical models of prostate cancer.[3]

ORM-15341 is the main active metabolite of darolutamide.[3] It, similarly, is a full antagonist of the AR, with an affinity (Ki) of 8 nM and an IC50 of 38 nM.[3]

Clinical trials

Darolutamide has been studied in phase I and phase II clinical trials and has thus far been found to be effective and well-tolerated,[4] with the most commonly reported side effects including fatigue, nausea, and diarrhea.[5][6] No seizures have been observed.[6][7] As of July 2015, darolutamide is in phase III trials for CRPC.[3]

Representative binding affinities of ODM-201, ORM-15341, enzalutamide, and ARN-509 measured in competition with [3H]mibolerone using wtAR isolated from rat ventral prostates (C). All data points are means of quadruplicates ±SEM. Ki values are presented in parentheses. D. Antagonism to wtAR was determined using AR-HEK293 cells treated with ODM-201, ORM-15341, enzalutamide, or ARN-509 together with 0.45 nM testosterone in steroid-depleted medium for 24 hours before luciferase activity measurements. All data points are means of triplicates ±SEM. IC50 values are presented in parentheses.

WHIPPANY, N.J., Sept. 16, 2014 /PRNewswire/ — Bayer HealthCare and Orion Corporation, a pharmaceutical company based in Espoo, Finland, have begun to enroll patients in a Phase III trial with ODM-201, an investigational oral androgen receptor inhibitor in clinical development. The study, called ARAMIS, evaluates ODM-201 in men with castration-resistant prostate cancer who have rising Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) levels and no detectable metastases. The trial is designed to determine the effects of the treatment on metastasis-free survival (MFS).

“The field of treatment options for prostate cancer patients is evolving rapidly.  However, once prostate cancer becomes resistant to conventional anti-hormonal therapy, many patients will eventually develop metastatic disease,” said Dr. Joerg Moeller, Member of the Bayer HealthCare Executive Committee and Head of Global Development. “The initiation of a Phase III clinical trial for ODM-201 marks the starting point for a potential new treatment option for patients whose cancer has not yet spread.  This is an important milestone for Bayer in our ongoing effort to meet the unmet needs of men affected by prostate cancer.”

Earlier this year, Bayer and Orion entered into a global agreement under which the companies will jointly develop ODM-201, with Bayer contributing a major share of the costs of future development. Bayer will commercialize ODM-201 globally, and Orion has the option to co-promote ODM-201 in Europe. Orion will be responsible for the manufacturing of the product.

About the ARAMIS Study
The ARAMIS trial is a randomized, Phase III, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of oral ODM-201 in patients with non-metastatic CRPC who are at high risk for developing metastatic disease. About 1,500 patients are planned to be randomized in a 2:1 ratio to receive 600 mg of ODM-201 twice a day or matching placebo. Randomisation will be stratified by PSA doubling time (PSADT less than or equal to 6 months vs. > 6 months) and use of osteoclast-targeted therapy (yes vs. no).

The primary endpoint of this study is metastasis-free survival (MFS), defined as time between randomization and evidence of metastasis or death from any cause. The secondary objectives of this study are overall survival (OS), time to first symptomatic skeletal event (SSE), time to initiation of first cytotoxic chemotherapy, time to pain progression, and characterization of the safety and tolerability of ODM-201.

About ODM-201
ODM-201 is an investigational androgen receptor (AR) inhibitor that is thought to block the growth of prostate cancer cells. ODM-201 binds to the AR and inhibits receptor function by blocking its cellular function.

About Oncology at Bayer
Bayer is committed to science for a better life by advancing a portfolio of innovative treatments. The oncology franchise at Bayer now includes three oncology products and several other compounds in various stages of clinical development. Together, these products reflect the company’s approach to research, which prioritizes targets and pathways with the potential to impact the way that cancer is treated.

About Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. is the U.S.-based pharmaceuticals business of Bayer HealthCare LLC, a subsidiary of Bayer AG. Bayer HealthCare is one of the world’s leading, innovative companies in the healthcare and medical products industry, and combines the activities of the Animal Health, Consumer Care, Medical Care, and Pharmaceuticals divisions. As a specialty pharmaceutical company, Bayer HealthCare provides products for General Medicine, Hematology, Neurology, Oncology and Women’s Healthcare. The company’s aim is to discover and manufacture products that will improve human health worldwide by diagnosing, preventing and treating diseases.

Bayer® and the Bayer Cross® are registered trademarks of Bayer.

SYNTHESIS

STR1

str1

 

cas 1297538-32-9

Synthesis

WO 2016162604

 

 

POLYMORPH

CRYSTALLINE FORM I,  I’,  I” IN WO-2016120530

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016120530&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescriptionWO-2016120530

str1

PATENTS

WO2011051540

https://www.google.com/patents/WO2011051540A1?cl=en

 

PATENT

US 2015203479

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011051540A1?cl=en

PATENT

WO 2012143599

http://www.google.com/patents/US20140094474?cl=de

 

PATENT

IN 2011KO00570

PATENT

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2016120530&recNum=1&maxRec=&office=&prevFilter=&sortOption=&queryString=&tab=PCTDescription

WO-2016120530

Compound of (I) (5 g) was dissolved in an acetonitrile and distilled water. The reaction mixture was heated at 75 °C and then slowly cooled down at RT and stirred at RT for 3 days. The solid obtained was filtered, washed twice with the acetonitrile: water and dried under vacuum at 40 °C and 60 °C to yield crystalline form of (I) (4.42 g) with 88% of yield (example 1, page 10).

Compound (I) can be synthetized using the procedures described in WO

201 1/051540.

Pure diastereomers (la) and (lb) can be suitably synthetized, for example, using ketoreductase enzymes (KREDs) for both S- and R-selective reduction of compound 1 to compound 2 as shown in Scheme 1, wherein R is H or Ci_6 alkyl.

Scheme 1.

For example, Codexis KRED-130 and KRED -NADH-110 enzymes are useful for obtaining excellent stereoselectivity, even stereospecificity. In Scheme 1 the starting material 1 is preferably an ester (R= Ci_6 alkyl), for example ethyl ester (R=ethyl), such as to facilitate extraction of the product into the organic phase as the compound where R=H has a tendency to remain in the water phase. Intermediate 2 can be protected, preferably with silyl derivatives such as tert-butyldiphenylsilyl, in order to avoid esterification in amidation step. In the case of R=Ci_6 alkyl, ester hydrolysis is typically performed before amidation step, preferably in the presence of LiOH, NaOH or KOH. Amidation from compound 3 to compound 5_is suitably carried out using EDCI HBTU, DIPEA system but using other typical amidation methods is also possible. Deprotection of 5 give pure diastereomers (la) and (lb).

Pyrazole ring without NH substitution is known tautomerizable functionality and is described here only as single tautomer but every intermediate and end product here can exist in both tautomeric forms at the same time.

The stereochemistry of the compounds can be confirmed by using optically pure starting materials with known absolute configuration as demonstrated in Scheme 2, wherein R=H or Ci_6 alkyl, preferably alkyl, for example ethyl. The end products of Scheme 2 are typically obtained as a mixture of tautomers at +300K 1H-NMR analyses in DMSO.

Scheme 2. Synthesis pathway to stereoisomers by using starting materials with known absolute configuration

The crystalline forms I, Γ and Γ ‘ of compounds (I), (la) and (lb), respectively, can be prepared, for example, by dissolving the compound in question in an

acetonitrile: water mixture having volume ratio from about 85: 15 to about 99: 1, such as from about 90: 10 to about 98:2, for example about 95:5, under heating and slowly cooling the solution until the crystalline form precipitates from the solution. The concentration of the compound in the acetonitrile: water solvent mixture is suitably about 1 kg of the compound in 5-25 liters of acetonitrile: water solvent mixture, for example 1 kg of the compound in 10-20 liters of acetonitrile: water solvent mixture. The compound is suitably dissolved in the acetonitrile: water solvent mixture by heating the solution, for example near to the reflux temperature, for example to about 60-80 °C, for example to about 75 °C, under stirring and filtering if necessary. The solution is suitably then cooled to about 0-50 °C, for example to about 5-35 °C, for example to about RT, over about 5 to about 24 hours, for example over about 6 to 12 hours, and stirred at this temperature for about 3 to 72 hours, for example for about 5 to 12 hours. The obtained crystalline product can then be filtered, washed, and dried. The drying is suitably carried out in vacuum at about 40 to 60 °C, for example at 55 °C, for about 1 to 24 hours, such as for about 2 to 12 hours, for example 2 to 6 hours.

The crystalline forms I, Γ and I” of compounds (I), (la) and (lb), respectively, are useful as medicaments and can be formulated into pharmaceutical dosage forms, such as tablets and capsules for oral administration, by mixing with pharmaceutical excipients known in the art.

The disclosure is further illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1. Crystallization of N-((S)- 1 -(3 -(3 -chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- 1 H-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5 -( 1 -hydroxyethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (I)

N-((iS)- 1 -(3 -(3 -chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- 1 H-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5 -( 1 -hydroxyethyl)-! H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (I) (5 g), 71.25 ml of acetonitrile, and 3.75 ml of distilled water were charged to a flask, and the mixture was heated up to 75 °C. The mixture was slowly cooled down to RT and stirred at RT for 3 days. The solid obtained was filtered and washed twice with acetonitrile: water (9.5 ml:0.5 ml). The product was dried under vacuum at 40 °C and finally at 60°C to obtain 4.42 g of crystalline title compound (yield of 88 %) which was used in X-ray diffraction study.

Example 3. Synthesis of N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5-((S)- 1 -hy droxy ethyl)- lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (la)

a) Ethyl-5 -((S) 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

HO

MgS04 x7H20 (341 mg), NADP monosodium salt (596 mg), D(+)-glucose (9.26 g) and optimized enzyme CDX-901 lyophilized powder (142 mg) were added to 0.2 mM of KH2P04 buffer (pH 7.0, 709 ml) to prepare solution I. To this solution I was added solution II which contained ethyl-5 -acetyl- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate (8.509 g; 46.70 mmol), EtOH (28 ml) and K ED-130 (NADPH ketoreductase, 474 mg). The mixture was agitated at 30-32°C for 5.5 h (monitoring by HPLC) and allowed to cool to RT. The mixture was evaporated to smaller volume and the residue was agitated with diatomaceous earth and filtered. The mother liquid was extracted with 3×210 ml of EtOAc and dried. The solution was filtered through silica (83 g) and evaporated to dryness to give 7.40 g of the title compound. The optical purity was 100 % ee.

b) Ethyl 5-((S)-l -((tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

Diphenyl-tert-butyl chlorosilane (7.48 g, 27.21 mmol) was added in 26 ml of DMF to a mixture of compound of Example 3(a) (5.00 g, 27.15 mmol) and imidazole (2.81 g, 41.27 mmol) in DMF (50 ml) at RT. The mixture was stirred at RT for 24 h.

Saturated aqueous NaHC03 (56 ml) and water (56 ml) were added and the mixture was stirred at RT for 20 min. The mixture was extracted with 2×100 ml of EtOAc. Combined organic phases were washed with water (1×100 ml, 1×50 ml), dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated to give 10.92 g of crude title compound.

c) 5-((S)-l -((tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylic acid

2 M NaOH (aq) (38.8 ml; 77.5 mmol) was added to a solution of the compound of Example 3(b) (10.9 g, 25.8 mmol) in 66 ml of THF. The mixture was heated up to reflux temperature. Heating was continued for 2.5 h and THF was removed in vacuum. Water (40 ml) and EtOAc (110 ml) were added. Clear solution was obtained after addition of more water (10 ml). Layers were separated and aqueous phase was extracted with 100 ml of EtOAc. Combined organic phases were dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated to give 9.8 g of the title compound.

d) 5-((S)- 1 -((tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)-N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyano-phenyl)- 1 H-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide

Under nitrogen atmosphere HBTU (0.84 g; 2.22 mmol), EDCIxHCl (3.26 g; 17.02 mmol) and (S)-4-(l-(2-aminopropyl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-2-chlorobenzonitrile (3.86 g; 14.80 mmol) were added to a mixture of crude compound of Example 3(c) (8.68g; purity 77.4 area-%) and DIPEA (2.20 g; 17.02 mmol) in DCM (50 ml). The mixture was stirred at RT for 46 h (6 ml of DCM was added after 20 h). The mixture was washed with 3×20 ml of water, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated to give 13.7 g of crude title compound.

e) N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((S)- 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (la)

TBAF hydrate (Bu4NF x 3H20; 2.34 g; 7.40 mmol) in 10 ml of THF was added to the solution of the compound of Example 3(d) (9.43 g; 14.79 mmol) in THF (94 ml) at 0 °C under nitrogen atmosphere. Stirring was continued at RT for 21.5 h and the mixture was concentrated. DCM (94 ml) was added to the residue and the solution was washed with 3×50 ml of water, dried (Na2S04), filtered and concentrated. Crude product was purified by flash chromatography (EtOAc/n-heptane) to give 2.1 g of the title compound. 1H-NMR (400MHz; d6-DMSO; 300K): Major tautomer (-85 %): δ 1.11 (d, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.24-4.40 (m, 2H), 4.40-4.50 (m, 1H), 6.41(s, 1H), 6.93 (d, 1H), 7.77-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.88-8.01 (m, 2H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.19 (d, 1H), 13.02 (broad s, 1H). Minor tautomer (-15 %) δ 1.07-1.19 (m, 3H), 1.32-1.41 (m, 3H), 4.24-4.40 (m, 2H), 4.40-4.50 (m, 1H), 6.80 (broad s, 1H), 6.91-6-94 (m, 1H), 7.77-7.82 (m, 1H), 7.88-8.01 (m, 2H), 8.05-8.09 (m, 1H), 8.31 (d, 1H), 13.10 (broad s, 1H).

Example 4. Crystallization of N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((S)- 1 -hy droxy ethyl)- lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (la)

N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((S)- 1 -hydroxyethyl)-lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (la) (5.00 g; 12.54 mmol) was mixed with 47.5 ml of ACN and 2.5 ml of water. The mixture was heated until compound (la) was fully dissolved. The solution was allowed to cool slowly to RT to form a precipitate. The mixture was then further cooled to 0 °C and kept in this temperature for 30 min. The mixture was filtered and the precipitate was dried under vacuum to obtain 4.50 g of crystalline title compound which was used in the X-ray diffraction study.

Example 6. Synthesis of N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-propan-2-yl)-5-((R)- 1 -hy droxy ethyl)- lH-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (lb)

a) Ethyl-5 -((R)- 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

Potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (Solution I) was prepared by dissolving potassium dihydrogen phosphate (11.350 g, 54.89 mmol) to water (333 ml) and adjusting pH of the solution to 7.0 by addition of 5 M solution of NaOH. MgS04 x 7 H20 (1.650 g), NAD monosodium salt (0.500 g), D(+)-glucose (10.880 g) and optimised enzyme CDX-901 lyophilised powder (0.200 g) were added to Solution I. To this solution (Solution II) were added KRED-NADH- 110 (0.467 g), ethyl-5-acetyl-1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate (10.00 g; 54.89 mmol) and 2-methyltetrahydro-furan (16 ml). The mixture was agitated at 30° C for 11 h and allowed to cool to RT overnight. The pH of the mixture was kept at 7 by addition of 5 M solution of NaOH. The mixture was evaporated to a smaller volume. The evaporation residue was agitated for 10 min with diatomaceous earth (40 g) and activated charcoal (0.54 g), and filtered. Material on the filter was washed with water (40 ml) and the washings were combined with the filtrate. Layers were separated and aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc (450 ml and 2×270 ml). Combined organic phases were dried over Na2S04, filtered and evaporated to dryness to give 9.85 g of the title compound (100 % ee).

b) Ethyl-5 -((R)- 1 -((tert-butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

Imidazole (5.32 g; 78.08 mmol) was added to a DCM (67 ml) solution of the compound of Example 6(a) (9.85 g; 53.48). The mixture was stirred until all reagent was dissolved and tert-butyldiphenyl chlorosilane (13.21 ml; 50.80 mmol) was added to the mixture. The mixture was stirred for 1.5 h, 70 ml of water was added and stirring was continued for 15 min. Layers were separated and organic phase was washed with 2×70 ml of water and dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated to give 22.07 g of crude title compound.

c) 5 -((R)- 1 -((tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylic acid

Compound of Example 6(b) (11.3 g; 26.74 mmol; theoretical yield from the previous step) was dissolved in 34 ml of THF and 50 ml of 2 M NaOH (aq.) was added. The mixture was heated under reflux temperature for 70 min. The mixture was extracted with 2×55 ml of EtOAc and combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated. Evaporation residue was triturated in 250 ml of n-heptane, filtered and dried to give 17.58 g of crude title compound.

d) 5-((R)- 1 -((tert-Butyldiphenylsilyl)oxy)ethyl)-N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyano-phenyl)- 1 H-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide

A mixture of the compound of Example 6(c) (11.14 g; 26.75 mmol; theoretical yield from the previous step), 91 ml of DCM, HBTU (1.52 g; 4.01 mmol), EDCIxHCl

(5.90 g; 30.76 mmol), (S)-4-(l-(2-aminopropyl)-lH-pyrazol-3-yl)-2-chlorobenzo-nitrile (6.97 g; 26.75 mmol) and DIPEA (3.98 g; 30.76 mmol) was stirred at RT for 3 h and at 30° C for 22 h. The mixture was washed with 2×90 ml of 0.5 M HC1 and 4×90 ml of water, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated. Crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (n-heptane-EtOAc) to give 16.97 g of title compound.

e) N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((R)- 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (lb)

A mixture of the compound of Example 6(d) (6.09 g; 9.56 mmol), 61 ml of THF and TBAF was stirred at 40 °C for 6.5 h. The mixture was concentrated and 61 ml of EtOAc was added to the evaporation residue. Solution was washed with 2×50 ml of 0.5 M HC1 and 4×50 ml of water, dried over Na2S04, filtered and concentrated. Crude product was purified by flash column chromatography (n-heptane-EtOAc) to give 1.71 g of the title compound. 1H-NMR (400MHz; d6-DMSO; 300K): Major tautomer (~85%): 5 1.10 (d, 3H), 1.38 (d, 3H), 4.14-4.57 (m, 2H), 5.42 (d, 1H),

6.39(s, 1H), 6.86-6.98 (m, 1H), 7.74-7.84 (m, 1H), 7.86-8.02 (m, 2H), 8.08 (s, 1H), 8.21 (d, 1H), 13.04 (broad s, 1H). Minor tautomer (-15%) δ 0.95-1.24 (m, 3H), 1.25-1.50 (m, 3H), 4.14-4.57 (m, 2H), 4.60-4.90 (m, 1H), 5.08 (d, 1H), 6.78 (broad s, 1H), 6.86-6.98 (m, 1H), 7.77-7.84 (m, 1H), 7.86-8.02 (m, 2H), 8.02-8.12 (m, 1H), 8.32 (d, 1H), 13.1 1 (broad s, 1H).

Example 7. Crystallization of N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((R)- 1 -hy droxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (lb)

N-((S)- 1 -(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)propan-2-yl)-5-((R)- 1 -hydroxyethyl)-l H-pyrazole-3 -carboxamide (lb) (3.7 g; 9.28 mmol) was mixed with 70 ml of ACN and 3.5 ml of water. The mixture was heated to reflux temperature until compound (lb) was fully dissolved. The solution was allowed to cool slowly. The mixture was filtered at 50 °C to obtain 6.3 mg of the precipitate. Mother liquid was cooled to 41 °C and filtered again to obtain 20.7 mg of the precipitate. Obtained mother liquid was then cooled to 36 °C and filtered to obtain 173 mg of the precipitate. The final mother liquid was cooled to RT, stirred overnight, cooled to 0 °C, filtered, washed with cold ACN: water (1 : 1) and dried to obtain 2.71 g of the precipitate. The precipitates were checked for optical purity and the last precipitate of crystalline title compound (optical purity 100 %) was used in the X-ray diffraction study.

Example 9. Synthesis of Ethyl-5 -((S) 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

HO

Zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate (0.259 g; 0.713 mmol) and (S)-(-)-3-butyn-2-ol (0.25 g; 3.57 mmol) were added to 0.75 ml (5.35 mmol) of Et3N under nitrogen

atmosphere. Ethyldiazoacetate (0.45 ml; 4.28 mmol) was added slowly and the

mixture was heated at 100 °C for 2 h. The mixture was cooled to RT and 5 ml of water was added. The mixture was washed with 15 ml of DCM, 5 ml of water was added and phases were separated. Water phase was washed twice with DCM, all organic layers were combined, dried with phase separator filtration and evaporated to dryness to give 0.523 g of crude material. The product was purified by normal phase column chromatography (0-5 % MeOH:DCM) to give 0.165 mg of the title compound. 1H-NMR (400MHz; d6-DMSO; temp +300 K): Tautomer 1 (major 77%): δ 1.28 (t, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.20-4.28 (m, 2H), (d, 1H), 4.75-4.85 (m, 1H) 5.43 (broad d, 1H), 6.54 (broad s, 1H), 13.28 (broad s, 1H). Tautomer 2 (minor 23%): δ 1.28 (t, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.20-4.28 (m, 2H), 4.66-4.85 (m, 1H), 5.04-5.15 (broad s, 1H), 6.71 (broad s, 1H), 13.60 (broad s, 1H).

Exam le 10. Ethyl-5 -((R)- 1 -hydroxy ethyl)- 1 H-pyrazole-3 -carboxylate

Zinc trifluoromethanesulfonate (1.037 g; 2.85 mmol) and (R)-(+)-3-butyn-2-ol (1.00 g; 14.27 mmol) were added to 2.98 ml (21.40 mmol) of Et3N under nitrogen atmosphere. Ethyldiazoacetate (1.80 ml; 21.40 mmol) was added slowly and then refluxed for 3 h. The mixture was cooled to RT and 45 ml of water was added. The mixture was extracted with 3×50 ml of DCM, organic layers were combined, dried with phase separator filtration and evaporated to dryness to give 2.503 g of crude material which was purified by normal phase column chromatography (0-10 % MeOH:DCM) to give 0.67 lmg of the title compound. 1H-NMR (400MHz; d6-DMSO; temp +300 K): Tautomer 1 (major 78%): δ 1.28 (t, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.18-4.35 (m, 2H), (d, 1H), 4.75-4.85 (m, 1H) 5.42 (broad d, 1H), 6.54 (s, 1H), 13.29 (broad s, 1H). Tautomer 2 (minor 22%): δ 1.28 (t, 3H), 1.39 (d, 3H), 4.18-4.35 (m, 2H), 4.66-4.85 (m, 1H), 5.09 (broad s, 1H), 6.71 (broad s, 1H), 13.61 (broad s, 1H).

References

  1.  “Discovery of ODM-201, a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor targeting resistance mechanisms to androgen signaling-directed prostate cancer therapies.”Sci Rep5: 12007. 2015. doi:10.1038/srep12007PMC 4490394free to readPMID 26137992.
  2.  Fizazi K, Albiges L, Loriot Y, Massard C (2015). “ODM-201: a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor in castration-resistant prostate cancer”. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther15(9): 1007–17. doi:10.1586/14737140.2015.1081566PMID 26313416.
  3.  Moilanen AM, Riikonen R, Oksala R, Ravanti L, Aho E, Wohlfahrt G, Nykänen PS, Törmäkangas OP, Palvimo JJ, Kallio PJ (2015). “Discovery of ODM-201, a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor targeting resistance mechanisms to androgen signaling-directed prostate cancer therapies”Sci Rep5: 12007.doi:10.1038/srep12007PMC 4490394free to readPMID 26137992.
  4.  “ODM-201 is safe and active in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer”. Cancer Discov4 (9): OF10. 2014. doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-RW2014-150PMID 25185192.
  5. Pinto Á (2014). “Beyond abiraterone: new hormonal therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer”Cancer Biol. Ther15 (2): 149–55. doi:10.4161/cbt.26724.PMC 3928129free to readPMID 24100689.
  6. Fizazi K, Massard C, Bono P, Jones R, Kataja V, James N, Garcia JA, Protheroe A, Tammela TL, Elliott T, Mattila L, Aspegren J, Vuorela A, Langmuir P, Mustonen M (2014). “Activity and safety of ODM-201 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ARADES): an open-label phase 1 dose-escalation and randomised phase 2 dose expansion trial”. Lancet Oncol15 (9): 975–85. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70240-2PMID 24974051.
  7.  Agarwal N, Di Lorenzo G, Sonpavde G, Bellmunt J (2014). “New agents for prostate cancer”. Ann. Oncol25 (9): 1700–9. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdu038PMID 24658665.

External links

Fenner A. Prostate cancer: ODM-201 tablets complete phase I. Nat Rev Urol. 2015 Dec;12(12):654. doi: 10.1038/nrurol.2015.268. Epub 2015 Nov 3. PubMed PMID: 26526759.

2: Massard C, Penttinen HM, Vjaters E, Bono P, Lietuvietis V, Tammela TL, Vuorela A, Nykänen P, Pohjanjousi P, Snapir A, Fizazi K. Pharmacokinetics, Antitumor Activity, and Safety of ODM-201 in Patients with Chemotherapy-naive Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: An Open-label Phase 1 Study. Eur Urol. 2015 Oct 10. pii: S0302-2838(15)00964-1. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2015.09.046. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 26463318.

3: Fizazi K, Albiges L, Loriot Y, Massard C. ODM-201: a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2015;15(9):1007-17. doi: 10.1586/14737140.2015.1081566. PubMed PMID: 26313416; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4673554.

4: Bambury RM, Rathkopf DE. Novel and next-generation androgen receptor-directed therapies for prostate cancer: Beyond abiraterone and enzalutamide. Urol Oncol. 2015 Jul 7. pii: S1078-1439(15)00269-0. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.05.025. [Epub ahead of print] Review. PubMed PMID: 26162486.

5: Moilanen AM, Riikonen R, Oksala R, Ravanti L, Aho E, Wohlfahrt G, Nykänen PS, Törmäkangas OP, Palvimo JJ, Kallio PJ. Discovery of ODM-201, a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor targeting resistance mechanisms to androgen signaling-directed prostate cancer therapies. Sci Rep. 2015 Jul 3;5:12007. doi: 10.1038/srep12007. PubMed PMID: 26137992; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4490394.

6: Thibault C, Massard C. [New therapies in metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer]. Bull Cancer. 2015 Jun;102(6):501-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bulcan.2015.04.016. Epub 2015 May 26. Review. French. PubMed PMID: 26022286.

7: Bjartell A. Re: activity and safety of ODM-201 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ARADES): an open-label phase 1 dose-escalation and randomised phase 2 dose expansion trial. Eur Urol. 2015 Feb;67(2):348-9. doi: 10.1016/j.eururo.2014.11.019. PubMed PMID: 25760250.

8: De Maeseneer DJ, Van Praet C, Lumen N, Rottey S. Battling resistance mechanisms in antihormonal prostate cancer treatment: Novel agents and combinations. Urol Oncol. 2015 Jul;33(7):310-21. doi: 10.1016/j.urolonc.2015.01.008. Epub 2015 Feb 21. Review. PubMed PMID: 25708954.

9: Boegemann M, Schrader AJ, Krabbe LM, Herrmann E. Present, Emerging and Possible Future Biomarkers in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC). Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2015;15(3):243-55. PubMed PMID: 25654638.

10: ODM-201 is safe and active in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Discov. 2014 Sep;4(9):OF10. doi: 10.1158/2159-8290.CD-RW2014-150. Epub 2014 Jul 9. PubMed PMID: 25185192.

11: Fizazi K, Massard C, Bono P, Jones R, Kataja V, James N, Garcia JA, Protheroe A, Tammela TL, Elliott T, Mattila L, Aspegren J, Vuorela A, Langmuir P, Mustonen M; ARADES study group. Activity and safety of ODM-201 in patients with progressive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ARADES): an open-label phase 1 dose-escalation and randomised phase 2 dose expansion trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014 Aug;15(9):975-85. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(14)70240-2. Epub 2014 Jun 25. PubMed PMID: 24974051.

12: Agarwal N, Di Lorenzo G, Sonpavde G, Bellmunt J. New agents for prostate cancer. Ann Oncol. 2014 Sep;25(9):1700-9. doi: 10.1093/annonc/mdu038. Epub 2014 Mar 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 24658665.

13: Pinto Á. Beyond abiraterone: new hormonal therapies for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Cancer Biol Ther. 2014 Feb;15(2):149-55. doi: 10.4161/cbt.26724. Epub 2013 Nov 1. Review. PubMed PMID: 24100689; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3928129.

14: Yin L, Hu Q, Hartmann RW. Recent progress in pharmaceutical therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2013 Jul 4;14(7):13958-78. doi: 10.3390/ijms140713958. Review. PubMed PMID: 23880851; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3742227.

15: Leibowitz-Amit R, Joshua AM. Targeting the androgen receptor in the management of castration-resistant prostate cancer: rationale, progress, and future directions. Curr Oncol. 2012 Dec;19(Suppl 3):S22-31. doi: 10.3747/co.19.1281. PubMed PMID: 23355790; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3553559.

Darolutamide
ODM-201.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
N-((S)-1-(3-(3-chloro-4-cyanophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)propan-2-yl)-5-(1-hydroxyethyl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide[1]
Identifiers
ChemSpider 38772320
UNII X05U0N2RCO Yes
Chemical data
Formula C19H19ClN6O2
Molar mass 398.85 g·mol−1

//////////// Bayer HealthCare,  Orion,  Antineoplastics,  Androgen receptor antagonists, Phase III, Prostate cancer, BAY 1841788,  ODM-201, даролутамид , دارولوتاميد , 达罗他胺 , دارولوتاميد , ダロルタミド

O=C(N[C@@H](C)Cn1ccc(n1)c2ccc(C#N)c(Cl)c2)c3cc(nn3)C(O)C

Day 8 of the 2016 Doodle Fruit Games! Find out more at g.co/fruit

AZD 3514 MALEATE


STR1

AZD3514; AZD 3514; AZD-3514.

CAS 1240299-33-5
Chemical Formula: C25H32F3N7O2
Exact Mass: 519.25696

1-(4-(2-(4-(1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl)piperidin-4-yl)phenoxy)ethyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethanone

Ethanone, 1-[4-[2-[4-[1-[7,8-dihydro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]-4-piperidinyl]phenoxy]ethyl]-1-piperazinyl]

6-f4-{4-[2-f4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxylphenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-( trifluoromethyr)-7,8-dihvdro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3-bl pyridazine

6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- vDethoxyl phenyllpiperidin- l-vD-3-f trifluoromethyl)-7.,8-(iihv(iro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3- blpyridazine

  • 1-[4-[2-[4-[1-[7,8-Dihydro-3-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2,4-triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]-4-piperidinyl]phenoxy]ethyl]-1-piperazinyl]ethanone
  • Originator AstraZeneca
  • Class Antineoplastics
  • Mechanism of Action Androgen receptor antagonists

AZD-3514 is a potent androgen receptor downregulator with potential anticancer cancer activity. AZD3514 is being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

AZD3514 is currently in Phase I trail. This trial is looking at a new drug called AZD3514 for men who have prostate cancer that has spread to other parts of the body and is no longer responding to hormone therapy.  Doctors often use hormone therapy to treat prostate cancer. This may keep it under control for long periods of time. But researchers are looking for treatments that will help men who have prostate cancer that stops responding to hormone therapy.  Prostate cancer needs the hormone testosterone to grow. The testosterone locks into receptors on the cancer cells. AZD3514 works by breaking down these receptors so that testosterone canÂ’t tell the prostate cancer cells to grow.

img

6-(4-{4-[2-(4-Acetylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-1-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-ihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine 

as a white, free flowing solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 1.62 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, m), 2.02 (3H, s), 2.49 (4H, m), 2.65 – 2.78 (5H, m), 2.94 (2H, m), 3.15 (2H, t), 3.42 (2H, m), 3.57 (2H, m), 4.03 (2H, t), 4.24 (2H, m), 6.80 (2H, d), 7.06 (2H, d);

m/z = 520 [M+H]+. RT = 0.87: 99% purity.

HRMS found 520.26373,

Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer among men in developed countries, and was projected to account for 25% of newly-diagnosed cases and 9% of deaths due to cancer in the USA in 2010. The androgen receptor (AR), a ligand binding transcription factor in the nuclear hormone receptor super family, is a key molecular target in the etiology and progression of prostate cancer.Binding of the endogenous AR ligand dihydrotestosterone stabilizes and protects the AR from rapid proteolytic degradation. The early stages of prostate cancer tumor growth are androgen dependent and respond well to androgen ablation,  either via surgical castration or by chemical castration with a luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonist in combination with an AR antagonist, such as bicalutamide.

Although introduction of androgen deprivation therapy represented a major advance in prostate cancer treatment, recurrence within 1–2 years typically marks transition to the so-called castrate-resistant state, in which the tumor continues to grow in the presence of low circulating endogenous ligand and is no longer responsive to classical AR antagonists. Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a largely unmet medical need with a 5-year survival rate of less than 15%. Antimitotic agents docetaxel and cabazitaxel, testosterone biosynthesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate and second generation AR antagonist enzalutamide (MDV3100) are the currently approved small-molecule drugs that have been shown to provide survival benefit.

Recent evidence from both pre-clinical and clinical studies is consistent with the importance of re-activation of AR signaling in a majority of castrate-resistant prostate tumors. It is also well established that the functional AR in castrate-resistant tumors is frequently mutated or amplified, and that over-expression can convert hormone-responsive cell lines to hormone refractory. Recent second-generation AR antagonists have been designed that retain antagonism in over-expressing cell lines, and among these agents enzalutamide has recently successfully met efficacy criteria in a large Phase III clinical trial.

By analogy with fulvestrant, an estrogen receptor (ER) downregulator approved by the FDA in 2002 for treatment of advanced breast cancer and initially characterized as a pure ER antagonist, a ligand which downregulates the AR represents one of a number of potential approaches to treatment of CRPC via a sustained reduction in tumor AR content. We recently described derivation from a novel 3-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine ligand of AR inhibitor 1 The compound also causes AR downregulation15 and high plasma levels following oral administration in pre-clinical models compensate for moderate cellular potency

Figure 1.

Structures of lead AR downregulator 1 and chemotype 2.

Structures of lead AR downregulator 1 and chemotype 2.

Scheme 3.

Synthesis of compounds 10, 11a–b, 12. Reagents and conditions: (a) ...

Synthesis of compounds 10, 11ab, 12. Reagents and conditions: (a) 2-(1-Methyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)ethanol,27 Ph3P, diisopropyl azodicarboxylate, THF, 20 °C; (b) 2-(4-acetylpiperazine-1-yl)ethanol,28 Ph3P, diisopropyl azodicarboxylate, THF, 20 °C; (c) H2, 10% Pd-C, MeOH, 50 °C.

PATENT

WO 2010092371

 Robert Hugh Bradbury, Gregory Richard Carr,Alfred Arthur Rabow, Korupoju Srinivasa Rao,Harikrishna Tumma,
Applicant Astrazeneca Ab, Astrazeneca Uk Limited

Preparation of 6-f4-{4-[2-f4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxylphenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-

( trifluoromethyr)-7,8-dihvdro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3-bl pyridazine

Figure imgf000079_0001

A solution of acetyl chloride (0.027 mL, 0.38 mmol) in DCM (0.5 mL) was added dropwise to 6-[4- [4- [2-(piperazin- 1 -yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin- 1 -yl] -3 -(trifluoromethyl)- 7,8-dihydro-[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (150 mg, 0.31 mmol) and triethylamine (0.088 mL, 0.63 mmol) in DCM (1 mL) cooled to 00C under nitrogen. The resulting solution was stirred at 00C for 5 minutes then allowed to warm to room temperature and stirred for 15 minutes. The reaction mixture was diluted with water (2 mL), passed through a phase separating cartridge and then the organic layer was evaporated to afford crude product. The crude product was purified by preparative HPLC (Waters XBridge Prep Cl 8 OBD column, 5μ silica, 19 mm diameter, 100 mm length), using decreasingly polar mixtures of water (containing 1% ammonia) and MeCN as eluents. Fractions containing the desired compound were evaporated to dryness to give 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3- b]pyridazine (80 mg, 49%) as a gum.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.69 (2H, m), 1.95 (2H, m), 2.08 (3H, s), 2.56 (4H, m), 2.71 – 2.84 (5H, m), 3.00 (2H, m), 3.22 (2H, t), 3.48 (2H, m), 3.63 (2H, m), 4.10 (2H, t), 4.31 (2H, m), 6.86 (2H, d), 7.12 (2H, d); m/z = 520 [M+H]+.

The 6-[4-[4-[2-(piperazin- 1 -yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin- 1 -yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8- dihydro-[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine used as starting material was prepared as follows :-

Preparation of tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(l-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4- yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate DIAD (12.60 mL, 64.00 mmol) was added dropwise to benzyl 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6- dihydropyridine-l(2H)-carboxylate (obtained as described in Example 4.1, preparation of starting materials) (16.5 g, 53.34 mmol), tert-butyl 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)piperazine-l- carboxylate (CAS 77279-24-4) (14.74 g, 64.00 mmol) and triphenylphosphine (16.79 g, 64.00 mmol) in THF (150 mL) under nitrogen. The resulting solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 16 hours. The reaction mixture was evaporated to dryness then the residue was stirred in ether (200 mL) for 10 minutes at room temperature. The resulting precipitate was removed by filtration and discarded. The ether filtrate was washed with water (100 mL) followed by saturated brine (100 mL), then dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to give crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 20 to 60% EtOAc in isohexane. Fractions containing the desired product were evaporated to dryness to afford tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(l- (benzyloxycarbonyl)- 1,2,3, 6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l- carboxylate (34.6 g, 82%) as a gum which was contaminated with 34% by weight triphenylphosphine oxide.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.40 (9H, s), 2.42 – 2.47 (6H, m), 2.71 (2H, m), 3.32 (4H, m), 3.62 (2H, m), 4.03 – 4.10 (4H, m), 5.12 (2H, s), 6.06 (IH, m), 6.92 (2H, d), 7.31 – 7.40 (7H, m); m/z = 522 [M+H]+.

Preparation of tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l- carboxylate tert-Butyl 4-[2-[4-(l-(benzyloxycarbonyl)-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridin-4- yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (66% pure by weight) (34.62 g, 43.80 mmol) and 5% palladium on carbon (50% wet) (4.47 g, 1.05 mmol) in MeOH (250 mL) were stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen at 5 bar and 600C for 4 hours. The catalyst was removed by filtration and the solvents evaporated to give crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, eluting with 60% EtOAc in isohexane then 15% 2M ammonia/MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to dryness to afford tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (15.42 g, 90%) as a solid. IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.46 (9H, s), 1.62 (2H, m), 1.81 (2H, m), 2.50 – 2.59 (5H, m), 2.73 (2H, m), 2.80 (2H, t), 3.18 (2H, m), 3.44 (4H, m), 4.09 (2H, t), 6.85 (2H, d), 7.13 (2H, d); m/z = 390 [M+H]+.

Preparation of tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-(3-(trifluoromethyl)-[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3- b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate

DIPEA (2.348 mL, 13.48 mmol) was added to 6-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (obtained as described in Monatsh. Chem. 1972, 103, 1591) (2 g, 8.99 mmol) and tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l- carboxylate (3.68 g, 9.44 mmol) in DMF (30 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at 800C for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and the solvents evaporated to dryness. The resulting solid was triturated with water then collected by filtration, washed with ether and dried to afford tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-(3-(trifluoromethyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l -carboxylate (5.02 g, 97%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.46 (9H, s), 1.76 (2H, m), 2.00 (2H, m), 2.54 (4H, m), 2.75 – 2.86 (3H, m), 3.11 (2H, m), 3.46 (4H, m), 4.11 (2H, m), 4.37 (2H, m), 6.87 (2H, d), 7.13 (3H, m), 7.92 (IH, d); m/z = 576 [M+H]+.

Preparation of tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro-

[1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazin-6-yl)piperidin-4-yl] phenoxy] ethyl] piperazine- 1- carboxylate

10% Palladium on carbon (0.924 g, 0.87 mmol) was added to tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-(3- (trifluoromethyl)-[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4- yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l -carboxylate (2.5 g, 4.34 mmol) and ammonium formate (2.74 g, 43.43 mmol) in ethanol (100 mL). The resulting mixture was stirred at 78°C, with further portions of ammonium formate being added every 5 hours until the reaction was complete. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and the catalyst was removed by filtration. The filtrate was evaporated to dryness, redissolved in DCM (100 mL) and the solution was washed with water (100 mL) followed by brine (50 mL), then the solvents were evaporated to afford tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyπdazin-6-yl)pipeπdin-4-yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (2.02O g, 81%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.46 (9H, s), 1.69 (2H, m), 1.95 (2H, m), 2.52 (4H, m), 2.71 – 2.82 (5H, m), 3.00 (2H, m), 3.22 (2H, t), 3.45 (4H, m), 4.09 (2H, m), 4.31 (2H, m), 6.86 (2H, d), 7.12 (2H, d); m/z = 578 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 6- [4-[4- [2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethoxy] phenyl] piperidin-1-yl] -3- (trifluor omethyl)-7,8-dihydr o- [ 1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine

TFA (10 mL) was added to tert-butyl 4-[2-[4-[l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyπdazin-6-yl)pipeπdin-4-yl]phenoxy]ethyl]piperazine-l-carboxylate (2.02 g, 3.50 mmol) in DCM (10 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at ambient temperature for 1 hour then added to an SCX column. The desired product was eluted from the column using 2M ammonia/MeOH and the solvents were evaporated to afford 6-[4-[4- [2-(piperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (1.660 g, 99%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.68 (2H, m), 1.95 (2H, m), 2.55 (4H, m), 2.70 – 2.80 (5H, m), 2.91 (4H, m), 3.00 (2H, m), 3.22 (2H, t), 4.09 (2H, t), 4.30 (2H, m), 6.87 (2H, d), 7.11 (2H, d); m/z = 478 [M+H]+.

Example 5.2

Larger scale preparation of 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- vDethoxyl phenyllpiperidin- l-vD-3-f trifluoromethyl)-7.,8-dihvdro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3- blpyridazine

Ammonium formate (99 g, 1568.94 mmol) was added to 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin- 1 -yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (81.2 g, 156.89 mmol) and 10% palladium on carbon (8.35 g, 7.84 mmol) in EtOH (810 mL) under nitrogen. The resulting mixture was stirred at 700C for 6 hours, then ammonium formate (50 g) was added. The mixture was stirred at 700C for 2 hours then further portions of 10% palladium on carbon (8.35 g, 7.84 mmol) and ammonium formate (50 g) were added and stirring continued at 700C for a further 10 hours. Ammonium formate (50 g) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred at 700C for 24 hours then cooled to room temperature. The catalyst was removed by filtration and the reaction charged with further 10% palladium on carbon (8.35 g, 7.84 mmol) and stirred at 700C for 16 hours. Further ammonium formate (50 g) was added and the stirring continued for 5 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and a further portion of 10% palladium on carbon (8.35 g, 7.84 mmol) was added. The mixture was heated to 700C for a 30 hours, cooled to room temperature and the catalyst removed by filtration and washed with EtOH. The solvent was evaporated and the residue dissolved in DCM (500 mL) and the solution washed with water (500 mL). The aqueous layer was re-extracted with DCM (500 mL), then EtOAc (500 mL x 2). The combined extracts were dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to give crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 0 to 5% MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to dryness to afford a gum, which was slurried with ether (300 mL) and re-evaporated. Methyl tert-butyl ether (250 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred vigorously for 3 days. The solid was collected by filtration and dried to afford 6-(4-{4-[2-(4- acetylpiperazin- 1 -yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin- 1 -yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8- dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (60.8 g, 75%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, CDC13) δ 1.62 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, m), 2.02 (3H, s), 2.49 (4H, m), 2.65 – 2.78 (5H, m), 2.94 (2H, m), 3.15 (2H, t), 3.42 (2H, m), 3.57 (2H, m), 4.03 (2H, t), 4.24 (2H, m), 6.80 (2H, d), 7.06 (2H, d); m/z = 520 [M+H]+.

The 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3-

(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine used as starting material was prepared as follows :-

Preparation of 4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenol Benzyl 4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5,6-dihydropyridine-l(2H)-carboxylate (obtained as described in Example 4.1, preparation of starting materials) (37.7 g, 121.86 mmol) and 5% palladium on carbon (7.6 g, 3.57 mmol) in methanol (380 mL) were stirred under an atmosphere of hydrogen at 5 bar and 25°C for 2 hours. The catalyst was removed by filtration, washed with MeOH and the solvents evaporated. The crude material was triturated with diethyl ether, then the desired product collected by filtration and dried under vacuum to afford 4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenol (20.36 g, 94%) as a solid. IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.46 (2H, m), 1.65 (2H, m), 2.45 (IH, m), 2.58 (2H, m), 3.02 (2H, m), 6.68 (2H, d), 7.00 (2H, d), 9.15 (IH, s); m/z = 178 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 4- { 1- [3-(trifluor omethyl) [1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazin-6-yl] piperidin- 4-yl}phenol

DIPEA (48.2 mL, 276.86 mmol) was added to 6-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (obtained as described in Monatsh. Chem. 1972, 103, 1591) (24.65 g, 110.74 mmol) and 4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenol (20.61 g, 116.28 mmol) in DMF (200 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at 800C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, then evaporated to dryness and re-dissolved in DCM (1 L) and washed with water (2 x 1 L). The organic layer was washed with saturated brine (500 mL), then dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to afford crude product. The crude product was triturated with ether to afford 4-{l-[3- (trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenol (36.6 g, 91%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.64 (2H, m), 1.87 (2H, m), 2.75 (IH, m), 3.09 (2H, m), 4.40 (2H, m), 6.69 (2H, d), 7.05 (2H, d), 7.65 (IH, d), 8.24 (IH, d), 9.15 (IH, s); m/z = 364 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 2-(4-{l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6- yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenoxy)ethanol

A solution of ethylene carbonate (121 g, 1376.13 mmol) in DMF (200 mL) was added dropwise to a stirred suspension of 4-{l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3- b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenol (100 g, 275.23 mmol) and potassium carbonate (76 g, 550.45 mmol) in DMF (200 mL) at 800C over a period of 15 minutes under nitrogen.

The resulting mixture was stirred at 800C for 20 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature, then concentrated and diluted with DCM (2 L), and washed sequentially with water (1 L) and saturated brine (500 mL). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to afford crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 70 to 100% EtOAc in isohexane. Fractions containing the desired product were evaporated to dryness then triturated with EtOAc (150 mL). The resulting solid was washed with further EtOAc (50 mL) and ether then dried to give 2-(4- { 1 -[3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4- yl}phenoxy)ethanol. The filtrate was evaporated and further purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 70 to 100% EtOAc in isohexane. Fractions containing the desired product were evaporated to dryness then triturated with ether, dried and combined with the material previously collected to afford 2-(4- { 1 -[3-

(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenoxy)ethanol (89 g, 79%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.66 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, m), 2.80 (IH, m), 3.10 (2H, m), 3.70 (2H, m), 3.95 (2H, t), 4.41 (2H, m), 4.85 (IH, t), 6.87 (2H, d), 7.18 (2H, d), 7.67 (IH, d), 8.25 (IH, d); m/z = 408 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 2-(4-{ 1- [3-(trifluoromethyl) [ 1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazin-6- yl] piperidin-4-yl}phenoxy)ethyl methanesulfonate

A solution of methanesulfonyl chloride (20.37 mL, 262.16 mmol) in DCM (300 mL) was added to 2-(4- { 1 -[3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4- yl}phenoxy)ethanol (89 g, 218.46 mmol) and triethylamine (60.9 mL, 436.93 mmol) in DCM (900 mL) at 00C over a period of 30 minutes under nitrogen. The resulting solution was stirred at 00C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was diluted with DCM (1 L), and washed with water (2 L). The organic layer was dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to afford 2-(4- { 1 -[3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4- yl}phenoxy)ethyl methanesulfonate (104 g, 98%) as a solid.

IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 1.67 (2H, m), 1.89 (2H, m), 2.83 (IH, m), 3.11 (2H, m), 3.23 (3H, s), 4.23 (2H, t), 4.41 (2H, m), 4.52 (2H, t), 6.91 (2H, d), 7.21 (2H, d), 7.66 (IH, d), 8.24 (IH, d); m/z = 486 [M+H]+. Preparation of 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3- (trifluor omethyl) [ 1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine DIPEA (107 mL, 613.00 mmol) was added to 2-(4-{l-[3-

(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenoxy)ethyl methanesulfonate (99 g, 204.33 mmol) and N-acetylpiperazine (28.8 g, 224.77 mmol) in DMA (500 mL). The resulting solution was stirred at 1100C for 1 hour. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and the solvents were evaporated. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate (1 L) and the solution was washed with water (1 L). The aqueous was re-extracted with ethyl acetate (1 L) and the combined organics were washed with brine (1 L), dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to give crude product. The aqueous layer was basifϊed to pH 12 with 2M NaOH, then extracted with ethyl acetate (1 L), washed with brine (IL), dried over MgSO4, filtered and evaporated to give further crude product. The crude product was purified by flash silica chromatography, elution gradient 0 to 3% MeOH in DCM then 5% MeOH in DCM. Pure fractions were evaporated to give 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3- (trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (81 g, 77%) as a solid. IH NMR (399.9 MHz, DMS0-d6) δ 1.59-1.73 (2H, m), 1.87 (2H, d), 1.99 (3H, s), 2.42 (2H, t), 2.71 (2H, t), 2.76-2.86 (IH, t), 3.08 (2H, t), 3.38-3.47 (4H, m), 4.08 (2H, t), 4.41 (2H, d), 6.88 (2H, d), 7.18 (2H, d), 7.62 (IH, d), 8.26 (IH, d); m/z = 518 [M+H]+.

Example 5.5

Alternative route for the preparation of 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- vDethoxyl phenyllpiperidin- l-vD-3-f trifluoromethyl)-7.,8-(iihv(iro [ 1 ,2,41 triazolo [4,3- blpyridazine Form A

Methanol (375.0 mL) was added to 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1,2,4] triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (25.0 g, 48 m mol) in a 2.0 L autoclave reactor and to this was added 10% Pd/C (12.5 g, 50% w/w) paste at 22-25°C under nitrogen gas atmosphere. The reaction was performed under hydrogen pressure (5.0 bar) at 500C temperature for 10.0 h. The reaction mass was cooled to room temperature and the catalyst removed by filtration. Filtered cake was washed with methanol. The solvent was evaporated and the residue was azeotropically distilled by ethylacetate (2 x 125.0 mL) at 400C under reduced pressure to 3.0 rel vol (75.0 mL). Drop wise addition of tert-butylmethylether (MTBE, 375.0 mL) to the reaction mass resulted in solid material, which was collected by filtration and washed with MTBE (50.0 mL). The material was dried under reduced pressure with nitrogen gas bleed at 500C to afford the desired product 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3- (trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo [4,3-b]pyridazine (22.3 g, 88%) as a white color free flowing solid. The isolated material was confirmed by XRPD as Form A. IH NMR (400.13 MHz, CDC13): δ 1.62 (2H, m), 1.88 (2H, m), 2.02 (3H, s), 2.49 (4H, m), 2.65 – 2.78 (5H, m), 2.94 (2H, m), 3.15 (2H, t), 3.42 (2H, m), 3.57 (2H, m), 4.03 (2H, t), 4.24 (2H, m), 6.80 (2H, d), 7.06 (2H, d); m/z = 520 [M+H]+.

The 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3- (trifluoromethyl)[ 1,2,4] triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine used as starting material was prepared as follows :-

Preparation of 4- { 1- [3-(trifluor omethyl) [1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazin-6-yl] piperidin- 4-yl}phenol: Dimethylacetamide (250.0 mL) was added to 6-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)- [l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine [CAS: 40971-95-7] (50.0 g, 225 m mol) at 22-25°C in a suitable round bottom flask followed by 4-(piperidin-4-yl)phenol [CAS: 62614-84-0] (60.9 g, 236 m mol) at 22-25°C. The reaction mass was stirred to obtain a clear solution. Triethylamine (79.1 mL, 561 m mol) was slowly added to the reaction mass by drop wise addition over a period of 60 min at 25-300C. Temperature was raised to 400C and the reaction mass stirred for 1.0 h. After completion of reaction, water (500.0 mL) was added to the reaction mass by drop wise addition over a period of 30 min at 40-430C. The slurry mass was stirred for 30 min at 400C and then filtered under reduced pressure. The wet material was slurry washed using water (500.0 mL) for 30 min at 400C. The solid was collected by filtration and the material washed with water (125.0 mL). The material was dried under reduced pressure with nitrogen gas bleed at 500C to afford the desired product 4-{l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin-6-yl]piperidin-4-yl}phenol (75.1 g, 89.9%) as a free flowing solid. IH NMR (400.13 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.64 (2H, m), 1.87 (2H, m), 2.75 (IH, m), 3.09 (2H, m), 4.40 (2H, m), 6.69 (2H, d), 7.05 (2H, d), 7.65 (IH, d), 8.24 (IH, d), 9.15 (IH, s); m/z = 364 [M+H]+.

Preparation of 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin-l-yl]-3- (trifluor omethyl) [ 1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine:

Dichloromethane (225.0 mL) and 4-{l-[3-(trifluoromethyl)[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazin- 6-yl]piperidin-4-yl} phenol (50.0 g, 138 m mol) were charged to a suitable round bottom flask at 22-25°C. Triphenylphosphine (72.2 g, 275 m mol) and l-[4-(2-hydroxy- ethyl)piperazin-l-yl]ethanone [CAS: 83502-55-0] (47.4 g, 275 m mol) were added successively to the reaction mass and stirred for 10 min at 22-25°C. Di-isopropyl azodicarboxylate (55.65 g, 275 m mol) in dichloromethane (75.0 mL) was added to the reaction mass slowly drop wise at 25-300C over a period of 60-90 min. The resulting reaction mass was stirred for 1.0 h at 25-300C to complete the reaction. n-Heptane (600.0 mL) was introduced to the reaction mass by drop wise addition over a period of 15-30 min at 22-25°C and stirred for 30 min at the same temperature. Thus precipitated solid was filtered and washed with n-heptane (150.0 mL). The material was then suck dried for 30 min under reduced pressure. The crude material was purified by slurry washing in methanol (325.0 mL) at 22-25°C. The solid was then collected by filtration and washed with methanol (50.0 mL). The material was dired under reduced pressure with nitrogen gas bleed at 500C to afford the desired product 6-[4-[4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l- yl)ethoxy]phenyl]piperidin- 1 -yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)[ 1 ,2,4] triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (61.2 g, 84%) as a free flowing solid.

IH NMR (400.13 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.59-1.73 (2H, m), 1.87 (2H, d), 1.99 (3H, s), 2.42 (2H, t), 2.71 (2H, t), 2.76-2.86 (IH, t), 3.08 (2H, t), 3.38-3.47 (4H, m), 4.08 (2H, t), 4.41 (2H, d), 6.88 (2H, d), 7.18 (2H, d), 7.62 (IH, d), 8.26 (IH, d); m/z = 518 [M+H]+.

Example 5.8

Preparation of 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-(trifluor omethyl)-7,8-dihydr 0 [1 ,2,4] triazolo [4,3-b] pyridazine maleate

Figure imgf000096_0001

A clear solution of maleic acid (0.445 g, 3.84 m mol) in methanol (1.0 mL) was added to a clear solution of 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3- (trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine, obtained as described in Example 5.5, (2.0 g, 3.84 m mol) in methanol (2.0 mL) at 22-25°C and the resulting clear solution heated to 500C for 30 min. The reaction mass was cooled to 22-25°C and ethylacetate (16.0 mL) added drop wise to the reaction mass at 22-25°C. The reaction mass was then stirred for 60 min at 22-25°C. The resulting white color material was collected by filtration and washed with ethylacetate (5.0 mL). The material was dried under reduced pressure with nitrogen gas bleed at 500C to afford the desired product 6-(4- {4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-l-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-l-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8- dihydro[l,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine maleate (2.21 g, 90.0%) as free flowing white color material.

IH NMR (400.13 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 1.62 (2H, m), 1.77 (2H, m), 2.02 (3H, s), 2.75 (IH, m), 2.77 (2H, m), 2.80 (2H, m), 2.95 (4H, m), 3.16 (2H, t), 3.36 (6H, m), 4.22 (4H, m), 6.08 (2H, s), 6.91 (2H, d), 7.17 (2H, d).

PAPER

Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Apr 1;23(7):1945-8

Discovery of AZD3514, a small-molecule androgen receptor downregulator for treatment of advanced prostate cancer

  • Oncology iMed, AstraZeneca, Mereside, Alderley Park, Macclesfield SK10 4TG, UK

Removal of the basic piperazine nitrogen atom, introduction of a solubilising end group and partial reduction of the triazolopyridazine moiety in the previously-described lead androgen receptor downregulator 6-[4-(4-cyanobenzyl)piperazin-1-yl]-3-(trifluoromethyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (1) addressed hERG and physical property issues, and led to clinical candidate 6-(4-{4-[2-(4-acetylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-1-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine (12), designated AZD3514, that is being evaluated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer.

Image for unlabelled figure

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X13002321

SYNTHESIS

STR1AZD 3514

6-(4-{4-[2-(4-Acetylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy]phenyl}piperidin-1-yl)-3-(trifluoromethyl)-7,8-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-b]pyridazine AZD 3514

STR1

SYNTHETIC ROUTE 2ND GENERATION

STR1

STR1

SYNTHETIC ROUTE 4TH GENERATION

STR1

REFERENCES

1: Bradbury RH, Acton DG, Broadbent NL, Brooks AN, Carr GR, Hatter G, Hayter BR,  Hill KJ, Howe NJ, Jones RD, Jude D, Lamont SG, Loddick SA, McFarland HL, Parveen  Z, Rabow AA, Sharma-Singh G, Stratton NC, Thomason AG, Trueman D, Walker GE, Wells SL, Wilson J, Wood JM. Discovery of AZD3514, a small-molecule androgen receptor downregulator for treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Apr 1;23(7):1945-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.02.056. Epub 2013 Feb 21. PubMed PMID: 23466225.

Some pics, Team at Astrazeneca , Bangalore, INDIA

Vijaykumar Sengodan Chellappan

Vijaykumar Sengodan Chellappan

Jagannath V, PMP®

Jagannath V, PMP®

 

Dr. Vidya Nandialath

Associate Research Scientist II at AstraZeneca India Pvt Ltd

Rifahath Mon

Rifahath Mon

Associate Research Scientist at AstraZeneca

Dr Kagita Veera Babu

Route Scouting, Process Design, Technology Transfer, Trouble shooting, QbD, Green Chemistry

Srinivasa Rao Korupoju

Srinivasa Rao Korupoju

Harikrishna Tumma Ph. D.

Harikrishna Tumma Ph. D.

Rashmi HV

Anandan Muthusamy

Anandan Muthusamy

Partha Pratim Bishi, PMP®

Partha Pratim Bishi,

Ranga Nc

 ASTAZENECA BANGALORE

 

 

///////////////AZD 3514 MALEATE, AZD 3514 , AZD-3514, Prostate cancer, Androgen receptor downregulator, AZD3514, 1240299-33-5

Apalutamide, ARN 509


Apalutamide.svg

Apalutamide,, ARN 509

 

ARN-509;  cas 956104-40-8; ARN 509; UNII-4T36H88UA7;

ARN-509; JNJ-56021927; JNJ-927\

Phase III Prostate cancer

4-(7-(6-CYANO-5-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PYRIDIN-3-YL)-8-OXO-6-THIOXO-5,7-DIAZASPIRO[3.4]OCTAN-5-YL)-2-FLUORO-N-METHYLBENZAMIDE;

4-(7-(6-cyano-5-(trifluoroMethyl)pyridin-3-yl)-8-oxo-6-thioxo-5,7-diazaspirooctan-5-yl)-2-fluoro-N-MethylbenzaMide;

4-[7-[6-cyano-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl]-8-oxo-6-sulfanylidene-5,7-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-5-yl]-2-fluoro-N-methylbenzamide
ARN-509 is a selective and competitive androgen receptor inhibitor with IC50 of 16 nM, useful for prostate cancer treatment.
IC50 value: 16 nM
Target: androgen receptor
Molecular Formula: C21H15F4N5O2S
Molecular Weight: 477.434713 g/mol
  • Originator University of California System
  • Developer Janssen Research & Development, Aragon Pharmaceuticals, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
  • Class Antiandrogens; Antihormones; Antineoplastics; Aza compounds; Benzamides; Pyridines; Small molecules; Spiro compounds; Sulfhydryl compounds; Thiohydantoins
  • Mechanism of Action Androgen receptor antagonists; Hormone inhibitors
  • 03 Nov 2015 Janssen Research & Development plans a drug-interaction and pharmacokinetics phase I trial for Prostate cancer in Moldova (NCT02592317)
  • 01 Nov 2015 Phase-III clinical trials in Prostate cancer (Adjunctive treatment) in United Kingdom, Sweden, Poland, Hungary, Australia, Australia, Spain, Canada, Brazil, USA (PO) (NCT02489318; EudraCT2015-000735-32)
  • 15 Oct 2015 Aragon plans a phase I cardiac safety trial in patients with Prostate cancer in USA, Canada, the Netherlands and United Kingdom (NCT02578797)

 

Clinical Information of ARN-509

Product Name Sponsor Only Condition Start Date End Date Phase Last Change Date
ARN-509 Aragon Pharmaceuticals Inc Hormone refractory prostate cancer 31-JUL-10 30-JUN-13 Phase 2 17-SEP-13
Aragon Pharmaceuticals Inc 31-MAR-13 30-JUN-13 Phase 1 17-SEP-13
Aragon Pharmaceuticals Inc Hormone refractory prostate cancer 31-OCT-13 31-DEC-16 Phase 3 05-NOV-13
Aragon Pharmaceuticals Inc; Johnson & Johnson Hormone refractory prostate cancer 28-FEB-13 01-FEB-14 Phase 1 07-OCT-13
Aragon Pharmaceuticals Inc Hormone dependent prostate cancer 28-FEB-13 28-FEB-18 Phase 2 18-OCT-13

References on ARN-509

Apalutamide, also known as ARN-509 and JNJ-56021927 , is an androgen receptor antagonist with potential antineoplastic activity. ARN-509 binds to AR in target tissues thereby preventing androgen-induced receptor activation and facilitating the formation of inactive complexes that cannot be translocated to the nucleus. This prevents binding to and transcription of AR-responsive genes. This ultimately inhibits the expression of genes that regulate prostate cancer cell proliferation and may lead to an inhibition of cell growth in AR-expressing tumor cells.

Apalutamide (INN) (developmental code name ARN-509, also JNJ-56021927) is a non-steroidal antiandrogen that is under development for the treatment of prostate cancer.[1] It is similar to enzalutamide both structurally and pharmacologically,[2] acting as a selective competitive antagonist of the androgen receptor (AR), but shows some advantages, including greater potency and reduced central nervous system permeation.[1][3][4] Apalutamide binds weakly to the GABAA receptor similarly to enzalutamide, but due to its relatively lower central concentrations, may have a lower risk of seizures in comparison.[1][3][5] The drug has been found to be effective and well-tolerated in clinical trials thus far,[2][4] with the most common side effects reported including fatigue, nausea, abdominal pain, and diarrhea.[6][3][5] Apalutamide is currently in phase III clinical trials for castration-resistant prostate cancer.[7]

Recently, the acquired F876L mutation of the AR identified in advanced prostate cancer cells was found to confer resistance to both enzalutamide and apalutamide.[8][9] A newer antiandrogen, ODM-201, is not affected by this mutation, nor has it been found to be affected by any other tested/well-known AR mutations.[10]

Apalutamide may be effective in a subset of prostate cancer patients with acquired resistance to abiraterone acetate.[2]

The chemical structure of ARN-509 is very similar structure to  that of Enzalutamide (MDV3100) with two minor modifications: (a) two methyl groups in the 5-member ring of MDV3100 is linked by a CH2 group in ARN-509; (b) the carbon atom in the benzene ring of MDV3100 is replaced by a nitrogen atom in ARN-509. ARN-509 is considered as a Me-Too drug of Enzalutamide (MDV3100). ARN-509 was claimed to be more active than Enzalutamide (MDV3100).

ARN-509 is a novel 2nd Generation anti-androgen that is targeted to treat castration resistant prostate cancers where 1st generation anti-androgens fail.  ARN-509 is unique in its action in that it inhibits both AR nuclear translocation and AR binding to androgen response elements in DNA. Importantly, and in contrast to the first-generation anti-androgen bicalutamide, it exhibits no agonist activity in prostate cancer cells that over-express AR. ARN-509 is easily synthesized, and its oral bioavailability and long half-life allow for once-daily oral dosing. In addition, its excellent preclinical safety profile makes it well suited as either a mono- or a combination therapy across the entire spectrum of prostate cancer disease states. (source: http://www.aragonpharm.com/programs/arn509.htm).

ARN-509 is  a competitive AR inhibitor, which is fully antagonistic to AR overexpression, a common and important feature of CRPC. ARN-509 was optimized for inhibition of AR transcriptional activity and prostate cancer cell proliferation, pharmacokinetics and in vivo efficacy. In contrast to bicalutamide, ARN-509 lacked significant agonist activity in preclinical models of CRPC. Moreover, ARN-509 lacked inducing activity for AR nuclear localization or DNA binding. In a clinically valid murine xenograft model of human CRPC, ARN-509 showed greater efficacy than MDV3100. Maximal therapeutic response in this model was achieved at 30 mg/kg/day of ARN-509 , whereas the same response required 100 mg/kg/day of MDV3100 and higher steady-state plasma concentrations. Thus, ARN-509 exhibits characteristics predicting a higher therapeutic index with a greater potential to reach maximally efficacious doses in man than current AR antagonists. Our findings offer preclinical proof of principle for ARN-509 as a promising therapeutic in both castration-sensitive and castration-resistant forms of prostate cancer. (source: Cancer Res. 2012 Jan 20. [Epub ahead of print] )
(source: Cancer Res. 2012 Jan 20. [Epub ahead of print] )

 ARN-509.pngSYNTHESISS

SYNTHESIS

str1

WO2007126765

WO 2008119015

WO2011103202

WO2014190895

PATENT

WO2011103202

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011103202A2?cl=en

 

PATENT

WO2014190895

PATENT

US20100190991

Prostate cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer found in Western men and the second leading cause of cancer death in Western men. When prostate cancer is confined locally, the disease can usually be treated by surgery and/or radiation. Advanced disease is frequently treated with anti-androgen therapy, also known as androgen deprivation therapy. Administration of anti-androgens blocks androgen receptor (AR) function by competing for androgen binding; and therefore, anti-androgen therapy reduces AR activity. Frequently, such therapy fails after a time, and the cancer becomes hormone refractory, that is, the prostate cancer no longer responds to hormone therapy and the cancer does not require androgens to progress.

Overexpression of AR has been identified as a cause of hormone refractory prostate cancer (Nat. Med., 10:33-39, 2004; incorporated herein by reference). Overexpression of AR is sufficient to cause progression from hormone sensitive to hormone refractory prostate cancer, suggesting that better AR antagonists than the current drugs may be able to slow the progression of prostate cancer. It has been demonstrated that overexpression of AR converts anti-androgens from antagonists to agonists in hormone refractory prostate cancer. This work explains why anti-androgen therapy fails to prevent the progression of prostate cancer.

The identification of compounds that have a high potency to anatgonize AR activity would overcome the hormone refractory prostate cancer and slowdown the progression of hormone sensitive prostate cancer. Such compounds have been identified by Sayers et al. (WO 2007/126765, published Nov. 8, 2007; which is incorporated herein by reference). One compound is known as A52, a biarylthiohydantoin, and has the chemical structure

  • Another compound A51 has the chemical structure:
  • Both of these compounds share the same western and central portions. Given the need for larger quantities of pure A51 and A52 for pre-clinical and clinical studies, there remains a need for a more efficient synthesis of the compound from commercially available starting materials.

Convergent Coupling to Yield A52

The final coupling step between intermediates A and B is achieved by microwave irradiation and cyclization to the biarylthiohydantoin A52 (Scheme 6). Although 3 equivalents of A are required for the highest yields in this transformation, the un-reacted amine A can be recovered.

Experimental Section 2-cyano-5-nitro-3-trifluoromethylpyridine

  • Zinc cyanide (25 mg, 0.216 mmol, 1.2 eq) is added to the chloride (43 mg, 0.180 mmol) solubilized in DMF (1 ml). The solution is degassed for 10 minutes. Then the ligand dppf (20 mg, 0.036 mmol, 0.2 eq) is added. The solution is degassed again for 5 min. The catalyst Pd2(dba)3 (25 mg, 0.027 mmol, 0.15 eq) is added, the solution is degassed for 5 more minutes. The reaction mixture is then heated at 130° C. for 20 min in a microwave. After filtration, the solvent is evaporated and the crude residue is purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc) to afford 16 mg (40%) of the desired product
  • 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.60 (d, J=2.5, 1H); 9.08 (d, J=2.5, 1H),

5-amino-2-cyano-3-trifluoromethylpyridine

  • 2-cyano-5-nitro-3-trifluoromethylpyridine (7 mg, 0.032 mmol) is dissolved in 1:1 EtOAc/AcOH (1 mL) and heated to 65° C. Iron powder (9 mg, 0.161 μmol, 5 eq, 325 mesh) is added and the mixture stirred for 2 hours. The mixture is filtered through celite, and the filtrate is concentrated under vacuo. The crude residue is purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc) to afford 4 mg (67%) of the desired product
  • 1H NMR (400 MHz CDCl3) δ 7.20 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.22 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H).

5-iodo-3-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridinol

  • 3-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridinol (25 g, 153.3 mmol) is dissolved in anhydrous CH3CN (150 mL) and DMF (150 mL). N-iodosuccinimide (34.5 g, 153 mmol) is then added. The reaction mixture is stirred at 80° C. for 2 hours and cooled to room temperature. Aqueous 1 M NaHCO3 (150 mL) is then added to the cooled mixture. After stirring for 5 min, the solvents are evaporated to dryness. Water is added and the aqueous phase is extracted (×2) with dichloromethane. The organic phase is then evaporated and the desired product is recrystallized in water to afford 36.2 g (81%) of a white powder.
  • 1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.85 (d, J=2.3, 1H); 7.98 (d, J=2.3, 1H), 13.41 (br s, 1H); 13C NMR (250 MHz CDCl3) δ 63.0, 121.4 (q, JC-F=272.3 Hz), 122.2 (q, JC-F=31.6 Hz), 144.4, 148.1 q, (JC-F=5.0 Hz), 160.1.

2-chloro-5-iodo-3-trifluoromethylpyridine

  • To an ice-cold mixture of POCl3 (1.60 mL) and DMF (1 mL) in a microwave vial, 5-iodo-3-trifluoromethyl-2-pyridinol (1 g, 3.47 mmol) is added. The vial is sealed and heated 20 min at 110° C. The reaction mixture cooled at room temperature is poured into ice cold water. The product precipitates. The precipitate is filtered, washed with cold water and dried to afford 661 mg (62%) of a light brown powder.
  • 1H NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 8.32 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H), 8.81 (d, J=2.0 Hz, 1H). 13C NMR (250 MHz CDCl3) δ 89.4, 121.2 (q, JC-F=273.3 Hz), 126.8 (q, JC-F=33.6 Hz), 144.34, 148.5, 158.7.

2-choro-3-trifluoromethyl-N-paramethoxybenzylpyridin-5-amine

  • 2-choro-5-iodo-3-trifluoromethylpyridine is dried under vacuum. To a slurry of chloroiodpyridine (10 g, 32.6 mmol) in toluene (anhydrous) (98 mL) is added sequentially. Pd(OAc)2 (220 mg, 0.98 mmol, 0.03 eq), rac-BINAP (609 mg, 0.98 mmol, 0.03 eq) solid Cs2CO3 (53 g, 163 mmol, 5 eq), paramethoxybenzylamine (4.05 mL, 30.9 mmol, 0.95 eq) and triethylamine (0.41 mL, 2.93 mmol, 0.09 eq). The resulting slurry is degassed (×2) by vacuum/Argon backfills. The mixture is heated to reflux overnight. The mixture is then cooled to room temperature and H2O is added. The layers are separated and the toluene layer is concentrated under vacuo. The residue is purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (Hexane/EtOac; 95:5 to 30/70) to afford 4 g of white solid desired compound (40%).
  • 1H NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 3.81 (s, 3H), 4.29 (d, J=5.1 Hz, 2H), 4.32 (br s, 1H), 6.90 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.19 (d, J=2.9 Hz, 1H), 7.26 (d, J=8.1 Hz, 2H), 7.92 (d, J=2.9 Hz, 1H). 13C NMR (250 MHz CDCl3) δ 47.3, 55.4, 114.3, 119.3 (q, JC-F=5.1 Hz), 122.3 (q, JC-F=272.9 Hz), 124.80 (q, JC-F=32.7 Hz), 128.8, 129.1, 135.1, 136.6, 142.9, 159.3.

Alternative Synthesis of Intermediate K:

  • A suspension of vacuum dried 2-choro-5-iodo-3-trifluoromethylpyridine (50 g, 163 mmol) in anhydrous toluene (1,500 mL) was treated sequentially with Pd2(dba)3 (2.98 g, 3.25 mmol, 0.02 eq), Xantphos (5.65 g, 9.76 mmol, 0.06 eq), solid t-BuONa (23.4 g, 243 mmol, 1.5 eq), and paramethoxybenzylamine (23.2 mL, 179 mmol, 1.1 eq). The resulting slurry is degassed by vacuum/argon backfills for 10 min. The mixture is then quickly brought to reflux by a pre-heated oil bath. After 1.5 hours at this temperature, the mixture was cooled to the ambiant, and the solids were removed by filtration over a packed bed of celite and washed with toluene. The filtrate was then diluted with EtOAc (200 mL), then washed with H2O. The organic layer was concentrated under reduced pressure gave an oily solid. Crystallization from DCM/Hexane gave (36.6 g, 71%) of B as a light yellow solid.
  • Alternatively, smaller scales (5 to 10 gr of A) were purified by column silica gel chromatography using the gradient system Hexane-EtOAc 19-1 to 3-7 (v-v). This gave yields in excess of 85% of B as a white solid.

2-cyano-3-trifluoromethyl-N-paramethoxybenzylpyridin-5-amine

  • Zinc cyanide (0.45 g, 3.80 mmol, 1.2 eq) is added to the chloride (1 g, 3.16 mmol) solubilized in DMF (20 ml). The solution is degassed for 10 minutes. Then the ligand dppf (0.35 g, 0.63 mmol, 0.2 eq) is added. The solution is degassed again for 5 min. The catalyst Pd2(dba)3 (0.29 g, 0.32 mmol, 0.1 eq) is added, the solution is degassed for 5 more minutes. The reaction mixture is then heated at 150° C. for 10 min. After filtration, the solvent is evaporated and the crude residue is purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/EtOAc) to afford 900 mg (93%) of a dark yellow oil.
  • 1H NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 3.82 (s, 3H), 4.37 (d, J=5.3 Hz, 2H), 4.93 (br s, 1H), 6.92 (d, J=9.5, 2H), 7.08 (d, J=2.7 Hz, 1H), 7.25 (d, J=9.5, 2H), 8.17 (d, J=2.7 Hz, 1H). 13C NMR (250 MHz CDCl3) δ 46.7, 55.4, 113.9, 114.5, 115.9, 116.1, 122.0 (q, JC-F=274.5 Hz), 128.0, 128.9, 131.4 (q, JC-F=33.1 Hz), 138.68, 145.9, 159.5.

5-amino-2-cyano-3-trifluoromethylpyridine H

  • TFA (1 mL) is added dropwise to a solution of pyridine L (83 mg, 0.27 mmol) in dry DCM (0.5 mL) under argon. The solution is stirred overnight at room temperature. After completion of the reaction, the solvent is evaporated and the residue is purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (Hexane/EtOac) to afford the desired product quantitatively.
  • 1H NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 7.20 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H), 8.22 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H).

Scale Up and Purification of H

  • For the larger scales, an improved process calls for dissolving pyridine L (53 g, 0.172 mol) in TFA/DCM (170 mL, 4:1) at room temperature. Upon reaction completion (approximately 2 hours at room temperature), the volatiles were removed under reduced pressure. The residue is then diluted with EtOAc (800 mL), and washed with saturated aqueous NaHCO3. Vacuum concentration and precipitation from DCM-Hexane (1-2, v-v) gave a relatively clean product. Further washing with DCM gave pure intermediate H as a white solid (27.43 g, 85%).

Methyl 2,4-difluorobenzylamide

  • Methylamine 2M in THF (12.4 mL, 1.1 eq) is added to neat 2,4-difluorobenzoyl chloride (4 g, 22.6 mmol). The reaction mixture is stirred overnight at room temperature. The solvent is evaporated, ethyl acetate is added to solubilize the residue. The organic is washed with aqueous NaHCO3, dried with Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated to afford the quantitatively the desired compound as a white powder.
  • 1H NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 3.00 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 3H), 6.84 (m, J=2.3; 10.3 Hz, 1H), 6.97 (m, J=2.3; 8.2 Hz, 1H), 8.08 (td, J=6.8; 8.9 Hz, 1H)
  • 13C NMR (100 MHz CDCl3) δ 27.0, 104.3 (d, J=26.0 Hz), 104.6 (d, J=25.9 Hz), 112.4 (dd, J=21.2; 3.1 Hz), 118.1 (dd, J=12.4; 3.8 Hz), 133.7 (dd, J=10.1; 3.9 Hz), 162.9 (dd, J=381.1; 12.3 Hz), 163.5.

Methyl 2-fluoro-4-paramethoxybenzylamine-benzylamide

  • Paramethoxybenzylamine (0.069 mL, 0.548 mmol, 2 eq) is added to methyl 2,4-difluorobenzylamide (47 mg, 0.274 mmol) dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (0.5 mL). The reaction mixture is heated at 190° C. for 20 min in a microwave. After completion the solvent is evaporated and the residue is purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (hexane/ethyl acetate) to give 18 mg (20%) of the desired product.
  • 1H NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 2.98 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 3H), 3.81 (s, 3H), 4.26 (d, J=5.3 Hz, 2H), 4.47 (br s, 1H), 6.23 (dd, J=2.2; 15.1 Hz, 1H), 6.45 (dd, J=2.2; 8.7 Hz, 1H), 6.58 (br s, 1H), 6.89 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.25 (d, J=8.7 Hz, 2H), 7.91 (t, J=9.0 Hz, 1H). 13C NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 26.6, 47.3, 55.3, 98.2 (d, J=29.7 Hz), 109.25, 114.4, 128.6, 129.9, 133.1 (d, J=4.5 Hz), 152.3 (d, J=12.5 Hz), 159.1, 161.5, 163.9 (d, J=244 Hz), 164.5.

Methyl 4-amino-2-fluoro-benzylamide

  • TFA (1 mL) is added dropwise to a solution of methylamide (60 mg, 0.21 mmol) in dry DCM (0.5 mL) under argon. The solution is stirred overnight at room temperature. After completion of the reaction, the solvent is evaporated and the residue is purified by flash chromatography on silica gel (Hexane/EtOac) to afford the desired product quantitatively.
  • 1H NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 2.98 (d, J=4.8 Hz, 3H), 4.15 (br s, 2H), 6.32 (d, J=14.3 Hz, 1H), 6.48 (d, J=8.2 Hz, 1H), 6.61 (br s, 1H), 7.90 (dd, J=8.6 Hz, 1H), 13C NMR (500 MHz CDCl3) δ 26.63, 100.8 (d, J=28.8 Hz), 110.3 (d, J=244.6 Hz), 110.9, 133.3 (d, J=4.3 Hz), 151.4 (d, J=12.5 Hz), 162.2 (d, J=244.6 Hz), 164.3 (d, J=3.5 Hz).

Synthesis of N-methyl-4-[7-(6-cyano-5-trifluoromethylpyridin-2-yl)-8-oxo-6-thioxo-5,7-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-5-yl]-2-fluorobenzamide (A52) One Pot Small Scale (2.8 gr) Thiohydantoin Formation in DMF

  • Thiophosgene (1.2 mL, 1.16 eq, 15.6 mmol) is added dropwise to a solution of 5-amino-2-cyano-3-trifluoromethylpyridine (2.8 g, 1.1 eq, 15.0 mmol) and N-methyl-4-(1-cyanocyclobutylamino)-2-fluorobenzamide (3.35 g, 13.5 mmol) in dry DMF (25 mL) under Argon. The solution is stirred overnight at 60° C. To this mixture were added MeOH (60 mL) and aq. 2M HCl (30 mL), then the mixture was reflux for 2 h. After cooling to rt, the mixture was poured into ice water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×60 mL). The organic layer was dried over Mg2SO4, concentrated and chromatographed on silica gel using 5% acetone in DCM to yield the desired product (2.65 g, 41%).

Alternative Synthesis of A52

  • Thiophosgene (1.23 mL, 16.0 mmol) is added dropwise to a solution of 5-amino-2-cyano-3-trifluoromethylpyridine (3.0 g, 16.0 mmol) and N-methyl-4-(1-cyanocyclobutylamino)-2-fluorobenzamide (3.96 g, 16.0 mmol) in dry DMA (35 mL) under Argon. The solution is stirred overnight at 60° C. To this mixture were added MeOH (60 mL) and aq. 2M HCl (30 mL), then it was brought to reflux temperature for 2 h. After cooling down to the ambiant, the mixture was poured into ice water (100 mL) and extracted with EtOAc (3×60 mL). The organic layer was dried over Mg2SO4, filtered over celite, and concentrated under reduced pressure. Silica gel chromatography using DCM/-acetone 19-1 (v-v) yielded the desired product (5.78 g, 76%).

Scale Up

  • Thiophosgene (5.48 mL, 1.05 eq, 70.9 mmol) is added dropwise to a solution of 5-amino-2-cyano-3-trifluoromethylpyridine (13.27 g, 1.05 eq, 70.9 mmol) and N-methyl-4-(1-cyanocyclobutylamino)-2-fluorobenzamide (16.7 g, 67.5 mmol) in dry DMA (110 mL) under Argon at 0° C. After 10 min, the solution was heated up to 60° C. and allowed to stir at that temperature for an overnight period. This was then diluted with MeOH (200 mL) and treated with aq. 2M HCl (140 mL), then the mixture was refluxed for 2 h. After cooling down to RT, the mixture was poured into ice water (500 mL), and filtered over buchner. The solid was recrystallized from DCM/EtOH to get desired product (20.6 g, 64%).

References

 

Moilanen AM, Riikonen R, Oksala R, Ravanti L, Aho E, Wohlfahrt G, Nykänen PS, Törmäkangas OP, Palvimo JJ, Kallio PJ (2015). “Discovery of ODM-201, a new-generation androgen receptor inhibitor targeting resistance mechanisms to androgen signaling-directed prostate cancer therapies”. Sci Rep 5: 12007. doi:10.1038/srep12007. PMC 4490394. PMID 26137992

11Clegg NJ, Wongvipat J, Tran C, Ouk S, Dilhas A, Joseph J, Chen Y, Grillot K, Bischoff ED, Cai L, Aparicio A, Dorow S, Arora V, Shao G, Qian J, Zhao H, Yang G, Cao C, Sensintaffar J, Wasielewska T, Herbert MR, Bonnefous C, Darimont B, Scher  HI, Smith-Jones PM, Klang M, Smith ND, de Stanchina E, Wu N, Ouerfelli O, Rix P, Heyman R, Jung ME, Sawyers CL, Hager JH. ARN-509: a novel anti-androgen for prostate cancer treatment. Cancer Res. 2012 Mar 15;72(6):1494-1503. Epub 2012 Jan 20.PubMed  PMID: 22266222.

 

12]. Clegg NJ, Wongvipat J, Joseph JD et al. ARN-509: a novel antiandrogen for prostate cancer treatment. Cancer Res. 2012 Mar 15;72(6):1494-503.

[13]. Courtney KD, Taplin ME. The evolving paradigm of second-line hormonal therapy options for castration-resistant prostate cancer. Curr Opin Oncol. 2012 May;24(3):272-7.

[14]. Schweizer MT, Antonarakis ES. Abiraterone and other novel androgen-directed strategies for the treatment of prostate cancer: a new era of hormonal therapies is born. Ther Adv Urol. 2012 Aug;4(4):167-78.

[15]. Safety, Pharmacokinetic and Proof-of-Concept Study of ARN-509 in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC)

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Apalutamide
Apalutamide.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-[7-[6-Cyano-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-3-yl]-8-oxo-6-sulfanylidene-5,7-diazaspiro[3.4]octan-5-yl]-2-fluoro-N-methylbenzamide
Clinical data
Pregnancy
category
  • X (Contraindicated)
Routes of
administration
Oral
Identifiers
CAS Number 956104-40-8
ATC code None
PubChem CID 24872560
ChemSpider 28424131
Chemical data
Formula C21H15F4N5O2S
Molar mass 477.434713 g/mol

////////

CNC(=O)C1=C(C=C(C=C1)N2C(=S)N(C(=O)C23CCC3)C4=CN=C(C(=C4)C(F)(F)F)C#N)F

CNC(=O)C1=C(C=C(C=C1)N2C(=S)N(C(=O)C23CCC3)C4=CN=C(C(=C4)C(F)(F)F)C#N)F

PHASE1,Progenics Pharmaceuticals’ Novel Small Molecule Drugs Targeting PSMA Successfully Visualize Prostate Cancer, 123-I-MIP-1095


Name:  123-I-MIP-1095

Synonym:   123-I-MIP-1095;     [123I]-MIP-1095;  iodine I 123 IMP-1095;       2-(3-{l-carboxy-5-[3-(4-iodo-phenyl)-ureido]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid.;   [123I]-(S)-2-(3-((S)-1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid

 

IUPAC/Chemical name: 

2-(3-(1-carboxy-5-(3-(4-iodophenyl)ureido)pentyl)ureido)pentanedioic acid

Chemical Formula: C19H25123IN4O8

Exact Mass: 560.07284
Molecular Weight: 560.33

123-I-MIP-1095
An iodine 123-radiolabled small molecule that exhibits high affinity for prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) with potential use in molecular imaging. 123-I-MIP-1095, a radiolabeled glutamate-urea-lysine analogue, selectively binds PSMA, which allows imaging of PSMA-expressing prostate cancer cells with gamma scintigraph. PSMA is a transmembrane glycoprotein highly expressed by malignant prostate epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells of various solid tumors.

Synonym: iodine I 123 IMP-1095
Chemical structure: 2-(3-{l-carboxy-5-[3-(4-iodo-phenyl)-ureido]-pentyl}-ureido)-pentanedioic acid

March 5, 2013

Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:PGNX) reported positive clinical data from a study of two novel radiolabeled small molecules targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). The imaging agents — 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095 — had a high sensitivity of lesion detection in bone, tissue and the prostate gland with minimal retention in non-target tissue. The research was published as the cover article in the March issue of The Journal of Nuclear Medicine.

“Existing imaging techniques are limited in their ability to diagnose and stage prostate cancer,” said John J. Babich, Ph.D., senior author of the article “First-in-Man Evaluation of Two High-Affinity PSMA-Avid Small Molecules for Imaging Prostate Cancer.” “The approach described in this paper has the potential to assess disease status more accurately. It could help clinicians select optimal treatments and lead to better patient outcomes.”

Separate phase 1 studies were conducted under an exploratory investigational new drug (IND) application to measure the potential effectiveness of the small molecules in diagnosing and staging prostate cancer. In the first study, seven patients with documented prostate cancer were administered doses of 123I-MIP-1072 and 123I-MIP-1095, two weeks apart. In the second study, six healthy volunteers received 123I-MIP-1072 only. Whole body planar imaging and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) were performed for each group, and pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion, safety and organ radiation dose were analyzed.

Based on the data reported, Progenics is conductinga global, multi-center phase 2 trial investigating a next generation radiolabeled small molecule targeting PSMA, MIP-1404.

Mark R. Baker, chief executive officer of Progenics, said, “We recently acquired all of the rights to the compounds described in this Journal of Nuclear Medicine paper, as well as to the phase 2 stage imaging agent MIP-1404, through Progenics’ acquisition of Molecular Insight Pharmaceuticals. It is gratifying to see this expansion of our oncology pipeline demonstrating progress so soon.”

Robert J. Israel, M.D., Progenics’ senior vice president of medical affairs and clinical research, said, “We believe that MIP-1404 has excellent potential as a diagnostic radiopharmaceutical. Results to date from the study compounds and MIP-1404 show PSMA as a robust target for prostate cancer molecular imaging, and that a radiolabeled small molecule, which binds PSMA with high affinity, has the potential to detect prostate cancer throughout the body. Cancer treatment guidelines call for imaging prostate cancer with conventional bone scans or MRI. A more accurate method of imaging prostate cancer could be of great value.”

Mr. Baker further added, “Thought leaders in prostate cancer care are focused on avoiding unnecessary surgery and other invasive procedures due to the complications associated with them. Clinicians generally prefer “watchful waiting” when the cancer appears to be indolent. At the same time, some therapeutics to treat aggressive prostate cancer have recently been approved or are under development, such as Progenics’ own PSMA ADC, which currently is in phase 2 testing. Patients and their physicians would benefit from feedback on how therapeutic agents are impacting the course of cancer, and guidance on how and when to use therapeutic agents. It is clear that an improved way to visualize prostate cancer, with a high degree of specificity and sensitivity, would better inform both “watchful waiting” and the treatment of aggressive disease. We believe that data from the ongoing phase 2 trial of MIP-1404 will demonstrate its capabilities to assist prostate cancer patients and their physicians in making these critical decisions.”

About Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer affecting men in the United States and is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men each year. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2013, 238,590 new cases of prostate cancer will be diagnosed and approximately 29,720 American men will die from the disease. Accurate diagnosis and staging of prostate cancer is critical to determining appropriate patient management.

About Progenics

Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is discovering and developing innovative medicines for oncology, with a pipeline that includes product candidates in preclinical through late-stage development. Progenics’ first commercial product, Relistor® (methylnaltrexone bromide) for opioid-induced constipation, is marketed and in further development by Salix Pharmaceuticals, Ltd. for markets worldwide other than Japan, where Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. holds an exclusive license for the subcutaneous formulation. For additional information, please visit http://www.progenics.com.

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