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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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AZATHIOPRINE


READ ALL AT

http://www.allfordrugs.com/2013/08/07/azathioprine/

Sanofi Pasteur Initiates Phase III Study of Investigational Clostridium difficile Vaccine in the United States


 

Cdiffense trial to evaluate vaccine against a leading cause of life-threatening, healthcare-associated infections worldwide

SWIFTWATER, Pa., Aug. 5, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines division of Sanofi (EURONEXT: SAN and NYSE: SNY), announced today the initiation of its Phase III clinical program called Cdiffense to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of an investigational vaccine for the prevention of primary symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Clostridium difficile (C. diff) is a potentially life-threatening, spore-forming bacterium that causes intestinal disease. The risk of C. diff increases with age, antibiotic treatment and time spent in hospitals or nursing homes, where multiple cases can lead to outbreaks. The investigational vaccine is designed to help protect at-risk individuals from C. diff, which is emerging as a leading cause of life-threatening, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)worldwide, read all at…………….

http://www.pharmalive.com/sanofi-starts-phase-iii-trial-for-clostridium-difficile-vaccine

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Regulatory update: albiglutide US PDUFA date extended by three months


albiglutide,

Friday 2 August 2013, London UK

GlaxoSmithKline plc (LSE:GSK) today announced that the US Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) goal date for albiglutide, an investigational once-weekly treatment for adult patients with type 2 diabetes, has been extended by three months to 15 April 2014 to provide time for a full review of information submitted by GSK in response to the Food and Drug Administration’s requests.

http://www.pharmalive.com/fda-delays-approval-decision-for-gsk-s-albiglutide

Albiglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 agonist (GLP-1 agonist) drug under investigation by GlaxoSmithKline for treatment oftype 2 diabetes. It is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4-resistant glucagon-like peptide-1 dimer fused to human albumin.

Albiglutide has a half-life of four to seven days, which is considerably longer than the other two GLP-1 analogs approved for market use, exenatide (Byetta) and liraglutide (Victoza). GLP-1 drugs are currently only available for subcutaneous administration on a daily basis, so a GLP-1 drug with a longer half-life is desirable. Such a drug would only need to be injected biweekly or weekly instead of daily, reducing the discomfort and inconvenience of GLP-1 administration considerably.

It has not yet been determined whether albiglutide is as effective an antidiabetic agent as GLP-1 drugs currently on the market, and final data remain to be published regarding the incidence of adverse effects related to the drug. To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the drug, albiglutide is undergoing eight Phase III clinical trials. Four of these trials should report useful data by end 2010

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Gene Therapy for Melanoma: Progress and Perspectives


media/image1.jpeg

FIGURE 1.

http://www.intechopen.com/books/recent-advances-in-the-biology-therapy-and-management-of-melanoma/gene-therapy-for-melanoma-progress-and-perspectives

Schematic representation of the wild type counterpart of the typically used recombinant viral vectors. (A) Gammaretroviruses and (B) lentiviruses share similar structures, but differ greatly in their genomes and their impact on cellular function. Gag, pro, pol and env genes encode structural proteins of the capsid, protease, reverse transcriptase and envelope proteins, respectively. The additional lentiviral genes perform regulatory functions as well as alter cellular function. (C) The serotype 5 adenovirus has a protein capsid (non-enveloped) and a large, complex genome that encodes critical genes for viral replication (E1a, E1b) as well as structural and functional genes that regulate both viral and cellular activities.

 Introduction

Gene therapy, the therapeutic transfer of genetic information to a target cell, continues to be a promising alternative in the fight against cancer. In the case of melanoma, the use of an experimental treatment is justified since this disease is incurable in its advanced stages. Is gene therapy a viable option for the treatment of melanoma patients? In this chapter, we will attempt to answer this question by exploring the intersection between the technology of gene therapy and the biology of melanoma, a point at which opportunities for intervention are revealed.

Gene Therapy for Melanoma: Progress and Perspectives

Bryan E. Strauss1 and Eugenia Costanzi-Strauss2

[1] Cancer Institute of Sao Paulo, University of Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Brazil

[2] University of Sao Paulo, Biomedical Sciences Institute, Brazil

http://www.intechopen.com/books/recent-advances-in-the-biology-therapy-and-management-of-melanoma/gene-therapy-for-melanoma-progress-and-perspectives

 

 

 

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Indian Pharma Market Needs Strong Regulatory Set-up: Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw


Kiran Mazumdar Shaw

Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, MD, BIOCON

Indian Pharma Market Needs Strong Regulatory Set-up:   Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw, MD, BIOCON

Biocon is looking at gaining market share and improving its margins with a greater focus on its product mixes and organizational efficiencies. Biocon Chairman and Managing Director Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw tells Financial Express that the company has outpaced the market, despite various challenges and that the pharmaceutical market needs to have a more robust regulatory set-up. Edited excerpts:

READ ALL AT

http://kiranmazumdarshaw.blogspot.in/2013/07/indian-pharma-market-needs-strong.html

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Curis phase 1 Cancer Trial for CUDC-427 Begins


CUDC-427, GDC-0917; RG-7459

Genentech Inc (Roche Holding AG)

Curis licenses GDC-0917 from Genentech

Curis Cancer Trial Begins
Curis Inc. has initiated patient dosing in a second Phase 1 dose-escalation study of CUDC-427 that is being conducted using a continuous, twice-daily oral dosing regimen in patients with advanced and refractory solid tumors or lymphoma.

FULL STORY

http://www.dddmag.com/news/2013/07/curis-cancer-trial-begins?et_cid=3387991&et_rid=523035093&type=headline

About CUDC-427 (GDC-0917)

CUDC-427 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that is designed to promote cancer cell death by antagonizing IAP proteins.  IAP proteins are a family of functionally and structurally related proteins that promote cancer cell survival by inhibiting programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis, which is a normal process inherent in every cell.  Using IAP proteins and other anti-apoptotic factors, cancer cells evade apoptosis in response to a variety of signals, including those provided by anti-cancer agents such as chemotherapy, or naturally occurring inflammatory and immune signals transmitted through members of the tumor necrosis factor, or TNF, family of factors.  Evasion from apoptosis is a fundamental mechanism whereby human cancers develop resistance to standard anti-cancer treatments.  IAP inhibitors such as CUDC-427 are designed to counteract the effects of IAP proteins, thus shifting the balance away from cancer cell survival and allowing apoptosis to proceed.

CUDC-427 was designed to mimic the endogenous IAP antagonist mitochondrial protein second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein (Smac/DIABLO) that is released into the cytoplasm in response to pro-apoptotic stimuli.  CUDC-427 has demonstrated single-agent and combination anti-tumor activity in mouse xenograft tumor models when administered orally on a daily schedule, and IND-enabling safety studies have shown it to be well tolerated when dosed daily by oral administration, potentially enabling sustained target inhibition.

In October 2010, an open-labeled, uncontrolled, dose-escalation, Phase I clinical trial of CUDC-427 (NCT01226277; IAM4914g) began in patients with refractory solid tumors or lymphoma. Genentech recently completed this Phase I clinical trial in which 42 people received daily oral doses of CUDC-427 for two weeks, followed by a one week rest period.  This 21-day cycle is repeated until disease progression or study discontinuation for any other reason.  The primary endpoints of the study include evaluating the safety and tolerability and the pharmacokinetics of CUDC-427 in people with solid tumors or lymphoma and determining the maximum-tolerated-dose and a potential recommended dose for further clinical studies.  Secondary endpoints include a preliminary assessment of anti-tumor activity of CUDC-427 and evaluating pharmacodynamic markers.  Genentech plans to present full study results at a medical conference in mid-2013.  Please refer to http://www.clinicaltrials.gov for additional study details.

About Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins

Impairment of programmed cell death or apoptosis often contributes to the formation and progression of cancer, and evasion of apoptosis is one of the primary strategies by which cancer cells develop resistance to anticancer therapies.  Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are a family of functionally and structurally related proteins which include X-linked IAP (XIAP), cellular IAPs (cIAP1 and cIAP2), and melanoma IAP (ML-IAP). They confer protection from death-inducing stimuli by exerting a range of biological activities that promote cancer cell survival and proliferation.  Some even directly inhibit caspases, critical players in the execution of apoptosis.

Mutations, amplifications and chromosomal translocations of IAP genes are associated with various solid and hematologic cancer types, and increased IAP expression has been associated with an unfavorable prognosis and poor outcome for patients.  As a consequence, IAP proteins are considered promising molecular targets for anticancer therapy.

 

First biosimilar filgrastims launched in Japan


International nonproprietary name: Filgrastim

 Chemical name: N-L- Methionyl colony-stimulating factor (human genetically engineered); non-glycated protein consisted of 175 amino acids.

Chemical name: N-L- Methionyl colony-stimulating factor (human genetically engineered); non-glycated protein consisted of 175 amino acids.

Filgrastim is a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) analog used to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of granulocytes.[1] It is produced by recombinant DNA technology. The gene for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is inserted into the genetic material of Escherichia coli. The G-CSF then produced by E. coli is different from G-CSF naturally made in humans.

Hematopoietic growth factor. Interacting with receptors on the surface of hematopoietic cells it regulates production and release of neutrophils from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood. Dose dependant number growth of neutrophils with normal or increased functional activity is passing for 24 hours.

Filgrastim is marketed under several brand names, including Neupogen (Amgen), Imumax(Abbott Laboratories), Grafeel (Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories), Neukine (Intas Biopharmaceuticals), Emgrast (Emcure Pharmaceuticals), Religrast (Reliance Life Sciences), Zarzio (Sandoz), Nufil (Biocon) and others.

Apricus Biosciences is currently developing and testing a product under the brand nameNupen which can deliver filgrastim through the skin to improve post-chemotherapy recovery of neutrophil counts.

Filgrastim is also used to increase the number of hematopoietic stem cells in the blood before collection by leukapheresis for use in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.Filgrastim is used to treat neutropenia,[2] stimulating the bone marrow to increase production of neutrophils. Causes of neutropenia include chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.

Filgrastim should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived proteins.

The most commonly observed adverse effect is mild-to-moderate bone pain after repeated administration and local skin reactions at the site of injection.[3] Other observed adverse effects include serious allergic reactions (including a rash over the whole body, shortness of breath, wheezing, dizziness, swelling around the mouth or eyes, fast pulse, and sweating), ruptured spleen (sometimes resulting in death), alveolar hemorrhageacute respiratory distress syndrome, and hemoptysis.[3] Severe sickle cell crises, in some cases resulting in death, have been associated with the use of filgrastim in patients with sickle cell disorders.[4]

Drug interactions between filgrastim and other drugs have not been fully evaluated. Drugs which may potentiate the release of neutrophils‚ such as lithium‚ should be used with caution.

Increased hematopoietic activity of the bone marrow in response to growth factor therapy has been associated with transient positive bone imaging changes; this should be considered when interpreting bone-imaging results.[5]

Filgrastim has not been studied in pregnant women and its effects on unborn babies is unknown. If taking filgrastim while pregnant, it is possible that traces of the drug could be found in the baby’s blood. It is not known if the drug can get into human breast milk.

  1. Beveridge, R. A.; Miller, J. A.; Kales, A. N.; Binder, R. A.; Robert, N. J.; Harvey, J. H.; Windsor, K.; Gore, I. et al. (1998). “A Comparison of Efficacy of Sargramostim (Yeast-Derived RhuGM-CSF) and Filgrastim (Bacteria-Derived RhuG-CSF) in the Therapeutic Setting of Chemotherapy-Induced Myelosuppression”. Cancer Investigation 16 (6): 366–373. doi:10.3109/07357909809115775.PMID 9679526edit
  2. Crawford, J.; Glaspy, J. A.; Stoller, R. G.; Tomita, D. K.; Vincent, M. E.; McGuire, B. W.; Ozer, H. (2005). “Final Results of a Placebo-Controlled Study of Filgrastim in Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Exploration of Risk Factors for Febrile Neutropenia”. Supportive Cancer Therapy 3 (1): 36–46. doi:10.3816/SCT.2005.n.023PMID 18632435edit
  3. Neupogen “Neupogen: Patient Information Leaflet”Amgen. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  4.  “NEUPOGEN® Patient Guide”Amgen. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  5.  “Neupogen”. RxList. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
  • Budiono Santoso; Chris J. van Boxtel; Boxtel, Christoffel Jos van (2001). Drug benefits and risks: international textbook of clinical pharmacology. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-89927-5.
  • “Neupogen information”. Retrieved 20 October 2005.

Alkermes unveils three new drug candidates


Alkermes has unveiled three new drug candidates, including: a monomethyl fumarate (MMF) prodrug programme for the treatment of multiple sclerosis; ALKS 7106 for the treatment of pain; and RDB 1419, a cancer immunotherapy candidate based on interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptors, Alkermes’ first proprietary biologic.

According to Alkermes, these drug candidates demonstrate the company’s focus on unmet medical needs in specific patient populations and show the productivity of its expanded R&D capabilities.

read all at

http://www.manufacturingchemist.com/news/article_

page/Alkermes_unveils_three_new_drug_candidates/90167

 

 

 

FDA Approves New Drug to Treat Nephropathic Cystinosis


CHICAGO—The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved PROCYSBI(cysteamine bitartrate), a delayed release capsule for treating nephropathic cystinosis in adults and children 6 years and older.

Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago served as one of three United States sites for the landmark study and patients came from all over North America to be seen by lead investigator, Craig B Langman, M.D., The Isaac A Abt, M.D. professor of Kidney Diseases at Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine and head of Kidney Diseases at Lurie Children’s

http://www.renalbusiness.com/news/2013/07/fda-approves-new-drug-to-treat-nephropathic-cystinosis.aspx

 

Astellas pharma announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Astagraf XL (tacrolimus extended-release capsules) for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving a kidney transplant with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction


Tacrolimus

July 19, 2013 /PRNewswire/ — Astellas Pharma US, Inc. (“Astellas”), a U.S. subsidiary of Tokyo-based Astellas Pharma Inc., announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Astagraf XL (tacrolimus extended-release capsules) for the prophylaxis of organ rejection in patients receiving a kidney transplant with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and corticosteroids, with or without basiliximab induction. 

“Each transplant recipient is different and requires a personalized treatment approach. The approval of Astagraf XL marks an important milestone in post-transplant care as it provides physicians with a new treatment option for kidney t recipients,” said Sef Kurstjens, M.D., PhD., chief medical officer, Astellas Pharma, Inc. “Astellas is pleased to continue our more than 20-year commitment to the field of transplant immunology.”

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/astellas-announces-fda-approval-astagraf-xl-tacrolimus-extended-release-capsules-prophylaxis-organ-3855.html

Read more at http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/astellas-announces-fda-approval-astagraf-xl-tacrolimus-extended-release-capsules-prophylaxis-organ-3855.html#43KX8fBakpHoz5Kh.99

 

Tacrolimus (also FK-506 or fujimycin, trade names Prograf, Advagraf, Protopic) is an immunosuppressive drug that is mainly used after allogeneic organ transplant to reduce the activity of the patient’s immune system and so lower the risk of organ rejection. It is also used in a topical preparation in the treatment of atopic dermatitis (eczema), severe refractory uveitis after bone marrow transplants, exacerbations of minimal change disease, and the skin condition vitiligo.

It is a 23-membered macrolide lactone discovered in 1984 from the fermentation broth of a Japanese soil sample that contained the bacteria Streptomyces tsukubaensis. It reduces interleukin-2 (IL-2) production by T-cells.

 

Tacrolimus was discovered in 1984; it was among the first macrolide immunosuppressants discovered, preceded by the discovery of rapamycin (sirolimus) on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in 1975.It is produced by a type of soil bacterium, Streptomyces tsukubaensis. The name tacrolimus is derived from ‘Tsukuba macrolide immunosuppressant’.

 

Tacrolimus 0.1%

 Tacrolimus was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1994 for use in liver transplantation; this has been extended to include kidney, heart, small bowel, pancreas, lung, trachea, skin, cornea, bone marrow, and limb transplants.

The branded version of the drug is owned by Astellas Pharma, and is sold under the trade names Prograf given twice daily, Advagraf, a sustained release formulation allowing once daily dosing, and Protopic (Eczemus in Pakistan by Brookes Pharma), the topical formulation. Advagraf is available in 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 mg capsules, the ointment is concentrations of 0.1% and 0.03%.

A second once-daily formulation of tacrolimus is in Phase 3 clinical trials in the U.S. and Europe. This formulation also has a smoother pharmacokinetic profile that reduces the peak-to-trough range in blood levels compared to twice-daily tacrolimus.Data from the first Phase 3 trial in stable kidney transplant patients showed that this once-daily formulation was non-inferior in efficacy and safety compared to twice-daily tacrolimus. A second Phase 3 trial in de novo patients is ongoing.

 

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