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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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DACLATASVIR, 达拉他韦 , Даклатасвир , داكلاتاسفير ,


 

Daclatasvir.svg

Daclatasvir

BMS-790052, 
EBP 883; BMS 790052
THERAPEUTIC CLAIM Treatment of hepatitis C
 
CHEMICAL NAMES
1. Carbamic acid, N,N’-[[1,1′-biphenyl]-4,4′-diylbis[1H-imidazole-5,2-diyl-(2S)-2,1-
 pyrrolidinediyl[(1S)-1-(1-methylethyl)-2-oxo-2,1-ethanediyl]]]bis-, C,C’-dimethyl ester
2. dimethyl N,N’-(biphenyl-4,4′-diylbis{1H-imidazole-5,2-diyl-[(2S)-pyrrolidine-2,1-
 diyl][(1S)-1-(1-methylethyl)-2-oxoethane-2,1-diyl]})dicarbamate
MF C40H50N8O6
MW 738.9
SPONSOR Bristol-Myers Squibb
CODE  BMS-790052
CAS  1009119-64-5
SMILES:CC(C)C(C(=O)N1CCCC1C2=NC=C(N2)C3=CC=C(C=C3)C4=CC=C(C=C4)C5=CN=C(N5)C6CCCN6C(=O)C(C(C)C)NC(=O)OC)NC(=O)OC
 UNII-LI2427F9CI
Activity: Treatment of Hepatitis C; HCV Drug; Treatment of HCV; Inhibitor of NS5A
Status: Launched 2014 (EU, Japan)
Originator: Bristol-Myers Squibb
NMR
FDA APPROVAL……..July 24th, 2015
Daklinza (daclatasvir) is an NS5A inhibitor indicated for use in combination with sofosbuvir for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 3 infection.
 
Daclatasvir dihydrochloride
1. Carbamic acid, N,N’-[[1,1′-biphenyl]-4,4′-diylbis[1H-imidazole-5,2-diyl-(2S)-2,1-
 pyrrolidinediyl[(1S)-1-(1-methylethyl)-2-oxo-2,1-ethanediyl]]]bis-, C,C’-dimethyl ester,
 hydrochloride (1:2)
2. dimethyl N,N’-(biphenyl-4,4′-diylbis{1H-imidazole-5,2-diyl-[(2S)-pyrrolidine-2,1-
 diyl][(1S)-1-(1-methylethyl)-2-oxoethane-2,1-diyl]})dicarbamate dihydrochloride
MF C40H50N8O6 . 2 HCl, MW 811.8
SPONSOR Bristol-Myers Squibb
CODE BMS-790052-05
CAS  1009119-65-6
 

Daclatasvir (USAN[1]) (formerly BMS-790052, trade name Daklinza) is a drug for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV). It is was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and was approved in Europe on 22 August 2014.

Daclatasvir inhibits the HCV nonstructural protein NS5A.[2][3] Recent research suggests that it targets two steps of the viral replication process, enabling rapid decline of HCV RNA.[4]

Daclatasvir has been tested in combination regimens with pegylated interferon and ribavirin,[5] as well as with other direct-acting antiviral agents including asunaprevir[6][7][8][9] and sofosbuvir.[10][11]

It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medications needed in a basic health system.[12]

 ChemSpider 2D Image | Daclatasvir | C40H50N8O6
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major global health problem, with an estimated 150-200 million people infected worldwide, including at least 5 million in Europe (Pawlotsky, Trends Microbiol, 2004, 12: 96-102). According to the World Health Organization, 3 to 4 million new infections occur each year. The infection is often asymptomatic; however, the majority of HCV-infected individuals develop chronic infection (Hoof agle, Hepatology, 2002, 36: S21-S29; Lauer et al, N. Engl. J. Med., 2001, 345: 41-52; Seeff, Semin. Gastrointest., 1995, 6: 20-27). Chronic infection frequently results in serious liver disease, including fibrosis and steatosis (Chisari, Nature, 2005, 435: 930-932).
About 20% of patients with chronic HCV infection develop liver cirrhosis, which progresses to hepatocellular carcinoma in 5% of the cases (Hoofnagle, Hepatology, 2002, 36: S21-S29; Blonski et al, Clin. Liver Dis., 2008, 12: 661-674; Jacobson et al, Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol, 2010, 8: 924-933; Castello et al., Clin. Immunol, 2010, 134: 237-250; McGivern et al., Oncogene, 2011, 30: 1969-1983).
Chronic HCV infection is the leading indication for liver transplantations (Seeff et al., Hepatology, 2002, 36: 1-2). Unfortunately, liver transplantation is not a cure for hepatitis C; viral recurrence being an invariable problem and the leading cause of graft loss (Brown, Nature, 2005, 436: 973-978; Watt et al, Am. J. Transplant, 2009, 9: 1707-1713). No vaccine protecting against HCV is yet available. Current therapies include administration of ribavirin and/or interferon-alpha (IFN-Cc), two non-specific anti-viral agents.
Using a combination treatment of pegylated IFN-CC and ribavirin, persistent clearance is achieved in about 50% of patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. However, a large number of patients have contraindications to one of the components of the combination; cannot tolerate the treatment; do not respond to interferon therapy at all; or experience a relapse when administration is stopped. In addition to limited efficacy and substantial side effects such as neutropenia, haemo lytic anemia and severe depression, current antiviral therapies are also characterized by high cost.
To improve efficacy of standard of care (SOC), a large number of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) targeting viral polyprotein processing and replication have been developed (Hofmann et al, Nat. Rev; Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2011, 8: 257-264). These include small molecule compounds targeting HCV nonstructural proteins including the HCV protease, polymerase and NS5A protein.
Although a marked improvement of antiviral response was observed when protease inhibitors were combined with SOC (Hofmann et al, Nat. Rev; Gastroenterol. Hepatol, 2011, 8: 257-264; Bacon et al, New Engl. J. Med., 2011, 364: 1207-1217; McHutchison et al, New Engl. J. Med., 2010, 362: 1292-1303; Poordad et al, New Engl. J. Med., 201 1, 364: 1195-1206; Hezode et al, New Engl. J. Med., 2009, 360: 1839-1850; Kwo et al, Lancet, 2010, 376: 705-716), toxicity of the individual compounds and rapid development of viral resistance in a substantial fraction of patients remain major challenges (Pawlotsky, Hepatology, 2011, 53: 1742-1751; Pereira et al, Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2009, 6: 403-411; Sarrazin et al, Gastroenterol., 2010, 138: 447-462).
New therapeutic approaches against HCV are therefore still needed. HCV entry into target cells is a promising target for antiviral preventive and therapeutic strategies since it is essential for initiation, spread, and maintenance of infection (Timpe et al, Gut, 2008, 57: 1728-1737; Zeisel et al, Hepatology, 2008, 48: 299-307). Indeed, HCV initiates infection by attaching to molecules or receptors on the surface of hepatocytes.
Current evidence suggests that HCV entry is a multistep process involving several host factors including heparan sulfate (Barth et al, J. Biol. Chem., 2003, 278: 41003-41012), the tetraspanin CD81 (Pileri et al, Science, 1998, 282: 938-941), the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) (Zeisel et al, Hepatology, 2007, 46: 1722-1731; Bartosch et al, J. Exp. Med., 2003, 197: 633-642; Grove et al, J. Virol, 2007, 81 : 3162-3169; Kapadia et al, J. Virol, 2007, 81 : 374- 383; Scarselli et al, EMBO J., 2002, 21 : 5017-5025), Occludin (Ploss et al, Nature, 2009, 457: 882-886) and Claudin-1 (CLDN1), an integral membrane protein and a component of tight-junction strands (Evans et al, Nature, 2007, 446: 801-805).
Furthermore, Niemann-Pick CI -like cholesterol absorption receptor has been identified as a new hepatitis C virus entry factor (Sainz et al, Nature Medicine, 2012, 18: 281-285).
Daclatasvir (BMS-790052; EBP 883) is a first-in-class, highly-selective oral HCV NS5A inhibitor. NS5A is an essential component for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex.Daclatasvir (BMS-790052; EBP 883)has broad genotype coverage and exhibits picomolar in vitro potency against genotypes 1a (EC50 50pm) and 1b (EC50 9pm).Daclatasvir (BMS-790052; EBP 883) produces a robust decline in HCV RNA (-3.6 logs after 48 hours from a single 100 mg) dosefollowing a single dose in patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1.
It may be many years before the symptoms of hepatitis C infection appear. However, once they do, the consequences are significant: patients may have developed fibrosis, cirrhosis or even liver cancer, with the end result being liver failure. Even if diagnosed early, there’s no guarantee of a cure.
Only around half of patients respond to the standard therapy of an interferon plus the antiviral drug ribavirin, and while two add-on antiviral therapies were approved in 2011, the treatment period is long with no guarantee of a cure, and for non-responders treatment options remain limited.
A new drug with a different mechanism is being developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb, in conjunction with Pharmasset. Daclatasvir targets non-structural protein 5A, which is an important component of the viral replication process, although its precise role in this remains unclear. The drug is active in single oral doses, and may have potential as part of a treatment regimen that avoids the use of interferon, and in patients who do not respond to standard therapy.
In an open label Phase IIa study, 10 patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1b infection who did not respond to standard therapy were given daclatasvir in once daily 60mg doses, plus another experimental drug, BMS-790052, which is an NSP 3 protease inhibitor, in initial twice-daily 600mg doses, later reduced to 200mg twice a day.2 Nine patients completed 24 weeks of treatment, with the 10th discontinuing after 10 weeks. In those who completed the course, HCV RNA was undetectable at week 8, and remained so until the end of the trial, with all achieving a sustained virologic response. It was also undetectable post-treatment in the patient who discontinued.
Daclatasvir has also been investigated as monotherapy in a double blind, placebo-controlled, sequential panel, multiple ascending dose study.3 Thirty patients with chronic geno-type 1 hepatitis C infection were randomised to receive a 14 day course of the drug, in once daily doses of 1, 10, 30, 60 or 100mg, 30mg twice a day, or placebo. There was no evidence of antiviral activity in the placebo group, but the mean maximum decline of 2.8 to 4.1 log IU/ml. Most experienced viral rebound on or before day 7 of treatment, which was associated with viral variants that had previously been implicated in resistance development. It was well tolerated in all dose groups.
 M. Gao et al. Nature 2010, 465, 96
22/11/2013

EUROPEAN MEDICINES AGENCY ADVISES ON COMPASSIONATE USE OF DACLATASVIR

Opinion concerns use in combination with sofosbuvir in patients with chronic hepatitis C in urgent need of therapy to prevent progression of liver disease
The European Medicines Agency’s Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use(CHMP) has given an opinion on the use of daclatasvir in combination with sofosbuvir in the treatment of chronic (long-term) hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, in a compassionate-use programme.
Compassionate-use programmes are set up at the level of individual Member States. They are intended to give patients with a life-threatening, long-lasting or seriously disabling disease with no available treatment options access to treatments that are still under development and that have not yet received amarketing authorisation. In this specific case, Sweden has requested an opinion from the CHMP on the conditions under which early access through compassionate use could be given to daclatasvir, for the use in combination with sofosbuvir, with or without ribavirin, for a specific patient population.
The recommended compassionate use is intended for adult patients at a high risk of their liver being no longer able to function normally (decompensation) or death within 12 months if left untreated, and who have a genotype 1 infection. Further, it is recognised that the potential benefit of such combination therapy may extend to patients infected with other HCV genotypes.
Daclatasvir and sofosbuvir are both first-in-class anti-viral medicines against HCV. These medicines have been studied in combination, with or without ribavirin, in aclinical trial which included treatment-naive (previously untreated) HCV genotype-1, -2 and -3 infected patients, as well as patients with genotype 1 infection who have previously failed telaprevir or boceprevir treatment. Results from the trial indicate high efficacy, also in those who have failed treatment with these protease inhibitors. Many such patients have very advanced liver disease and are in urgent need of effective therapy in order to cease the progression of liver injury.
This is the second opinion provided by the CHMP on compassionate use of medicines in development for the treatment of hepatitis C. Overall, it isthe fourth time compassionate use has been assessed by the CHMP.
The aim of the CHMP assessment and opinion on a compassionate-use programme for new medicinal products is to ensure a common approach, whenever possible, regarding the criteria and conditions of use under Member States’ legislation. The opinion provides recommendations to the EU Member States that are considering setting up such a programme, and its implementation is not mandatory. In addition to describing which patients may benefit from the medicine, it explains how to use it and gives information on safety.
The assessment report and conditions of use of daclatasvir in combination with sofosbuvir with or without ribavirin in this setting will be published shortly on the Agency’s website.
Notes
  • The first compassionate-use opinion for a hepatitis C treatment was adopted by the CHMP in October 2013.
  • Sofosbuvir, which is part of this compassionate-use opinion, received a positive opinion from the CHMP recommending granting of a marketing authorisation at its November 2013 meeting.
  • Daclatasvir is developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and sofosbuvir is developed by Gilead.

1-6-2012
Anti-Viral Compounds
2-13-2009
CRYSTALLINE FORM OF METHYL ((1S)-1-(((2S)
-2-(5-(4′-(2-((2S)-1((2S)-2-((METHOXYCARBONYL)AMINO)-3-METHYLBUTANOYL)-2-PYRROLIDINYL)
-1H-IMIDAZOL-5-YL)-4-BIPHENYLYL)-1H-IMIDAZOL-2-YL)-1-PYRROLIDINYL)CARBONYL)
-2-METHYLPROPYL)CARBAMATE DIHYDROCHLORIDE SALT

Synthesis

Daclatasvir dihydrochloride (Daklinza)

Daclatasvir dihydrochloride is a hepatitis C virus nonstructural 5A (NS5A) replication complex inhibitor which was first approved in Japan for the treatment of genotype 1 HCV patients who fail to respond to interferon plus ribavirin. The drug has also been approved for patients with untreated, chronic HCV who are eligible for interferon. Additionally, in Europe, daclatasvir was approved for use in combination with other products across genotype 1–4 HCV. Daclatasvir was discovered and developed by Bristol–Myers Squibb and a fascinating account describing the initiation of the program from a phenotypic screen and the medicinal chemistry strategy leading to the discovery of the compound has been recently reported.80 Daclatasvir has been prepared via two different routes81,82 and the process route is outlined in Scheme 11.83 Bromination of commercial 4,40-diacetylbiphenyl (58) gave 4,40-bis(bromoacetyl)biphenyl 59 in 82% yield. Alkylation of NBoc- L-proline (60) with 59 gave diester 61 which was treated with ammonium acetate to effect cyclization of the bis-ketoester to provide bis-imidazole 62 in 63% yield for the two steps. Acidic removal of the Boc protecting groups followed by recrystallization provided bis-pyrrolidine 63 in high yield. Acylation of 63 with N-(methoxycarbonyl)- L-valine (64) using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N0-ethylcarbodiimide(EDC) and 1-hydroxybenxotriazole hydrate (HOBT) provided declatasvir. The dihydrochloride salt was prepared and treated with Cuno Zet Carbon followed by crystallization from acetone

to give daclatasvir dihydrochloride (IX) in 74% yield.

80 Belema, M.; Meanwell, N. A. J. Med. Chem. 2014, 57, 5057.

81. Bachand, C.; Belema, M.; Deon, D. H.; Good, A. C.; Goodrich, J.; James, C. A.;

Lavoie, R.; Lopez, O. D.; Martel, A.; Meanwell, N. A.; Nguyen, V. N.; Romine, J.

L.; Ruediger, E. H.; Snyder, L. B.; St. Laurent, D. R.; Yang, F.; Langley, D. R.;

Wang, G.; Hamann, L. G. WO Patent 2008021927A2, 2008.

82. Belema, M.; Nguyen, V. N.; Bachand, C.; Deon, D. H.; Goodrich, J. T.; James, C.

A.; Lavoie, R.; Lopez, O. D.; Martel, A.; Romine, J. L.; Ruediger, E. H.; Snyder, L.

B.; St Laurent, D. R.; Yang, F.; Zhu, J.; Wong, H. S.; Langley, D. R.; Adams, S. P.;

Cantor, G. H.; Chimalakonda, A.; Fura, A.; Johnson, B. M.; Knipe, J. O.; Parker, D.

D.; Santone, K. S.; Fridell, R. A.; Lemm, J. A.; O’Boyle, D. R., 2nd; Colonno, R. J.;

Gao, M.; Meanwell, N. A.; Hamann, L. G. J. Med. Chem. 2014, 57, 2013.

83. Pack, S. K.; Geng, P.; Smith, M. J.; Hamm, J. WO Patent 2009020825A1, 2009.

 

PATENT

https://www.google.co.in/patents/US20090041716?pg=PA1&dq=us+2009041716&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3ki4Uo-jEsTirAfzwoHQBQ&ved=0CD4Q6AEwAQ

EXAMPLES

Figure US20090041716A1-20090212-C00015

A 1 L, 3-neck round bottom flask, fitted with a nitrogen line, overhead stirrer and thermocouple, was charged with 20 g (83.9 mmol, 1 equiv) 1,1′-(biphenyl-4,4′-diyl)diethanone, 200 mL CH2Cl2 and 8.7 mL (27.1 g, 169.3 mmol, 2.02 quiv) bromine. The mixture was allowed to stir under nitrogen for about 20 hours under ambient conditions. The resulting slurry was charged with 200 mL CH2Cl2 and concentrated down to about 150 mL via vacuum distillation. The slurry was then solvent exchanged into THF to a target volume of 200 mL via vacuum distillation. The slurry was cooled to 20-25° C. over 1 hour and allowed to stir at 20-25° C. for an additional hour. The off-white crystalline solids were filtered and washed with 150 mL CH2Cl2. The product was dried under vacuum at 60° C. to yield 27.4 g (69.2 mmol, 82%) of the desired product  : 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 7.95-7.85 (m, 4H), 7.60-7.50 (m, 4H), 4.26 (s, 4H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, CDCl3) 6 191.0, 145.1, 133.8, 129.9, 127.9, 30.8; IR (KBr, cm−1) 3007, 2950, 1691, 1599, 1199; Anal calcd for C16H12Br2O2: C, 48.52; H, 3.05; Br, 40.34. Found: C, 48.53; H, 3.03; Br, 40.53 HRMS calcd for C16H13Br2O2 (M+H; DCI+): 394.9282. Found: 394.9292. mp 224-226° C.

 

Figure US20090041716A1-20090212-C00016

A 500 mL jacketed flask, fitted with a nitrogen line, thermocouple and overhead stirrer, was charged with 20 g (50.5 mmol, 1 equiv) of Compound 2, 22.8 g (105.9 moles, 2.10 equiv) 1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-proline and 200 mL acetonitrile. The slurry was cooled to 20° C. followed by the addition of 18.2 mL (13.5 g, 104.4 mmol, 2.07 equiv) DIPEA. The slurry was warmed to 25° C. and allowed to stir for 3 hours. The resulting clear, organic solution was washed with 3×100 mL 13 wt % aqueous NaCl. The rich acetonitrile solution was solvent exchanged into toluene (target volume=215 mL) by vacuum distillation until there was less than 0.5 vol % acetonitrile.

 

Figure US20090041716A1-20090212-C00017

The toluene solution of Compound 3 was charged with 78 g (1.011 moles, 20 equiv) ammonium acetate and heated to 95-100° C. The mixture was allowed to stir at 95-100° C. for 15 hours. After reaction completion, the mixture was cooled to 70-80° C. and charged with 7 mL acetic acid, 40 mL n-butanol, and 80 mL of 5 vol % aqueous acetic acid. The resulting biphasic solution was split while maintaining a temperature >50° C. The rich organic phase was charged with 80 mL of 5 vol % aqueous acetic acid, 30 mL acetic acid and 20 mL n-butanol while maintaining a temperature >50° C. The resulting biphasic solution was split while maintaining a temperature >50° C. and the rich organic phase was washed with an additional 80 mL of 5 vol % aqueous acetic acid. The rich organic phase was then solvent exchanged into toluene to a target volume of 215 mL by vacuum distillation. While maintaining a temperature >60° C., 64 mL methanol was charged. The resulting slurry was heated to 70-75° C. and aged for 1 hour. The slurry was cooled to 20-25° C. over 1 hour and aged at that temperature for an additional hour. The slurry was filtered and the cake was washed with 200 mL 10:3 toluene:methanol. The product was dried under vacuum at 70° C., resulting in 19.8 g (31.7 mmol, 63%) of the desired product: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 13.00-11.00 (s, 2H), 7.90-7.75 (m, 4H), 7.75-7.60 (m, 4H), 7.60-7.30 (s, 2H), 4.92-4.72 (m, 2H), 3.65-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.49-3.28 (m, 2H), 2.39-2.1 (m, 2H), 2.10-1.87 (m, 6H), 1.60-1.33 (s, 8H), 1.33-1.07 (s, 10H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 154.1, 153.8, 137.5, 126.6, 125.0, 78.9, 78.5, 55.6, 55.0, 47.0, 46.7, 33.7, 32.2, 28.5, 28.2, 24.2, 23.5; IR (KBr, cm−1) 2975, 2876, 1663, 1407, 1156, 1125; HRMS calcd for C36H45N6O4 (M+H; ESI+): 625.3502. Found: 625.3502. mp 190-195° C. (decomposed).

 

Figure US20090041716A1-20090212-C00018

To a 250 mL reactor equipped with a nitrogen line and overhead stirrer, 25.0 g of Compound 4 (40.01 mmol, 1 equiv) was charged followed by 250 mL methanol and 32.85 mL (400.1 mmol, 10 equiv) 6M aqueous HCl. The temperature was increased to 50° C. and agitated at 50° C. for 5 hours. The resulting slurry was cooled to 20-25° C. and held with agitation for about 18 hours. Filtration of the slurry afforded a solid which was washed successively with 100 mL 90% methanol/water (V/V) and 2×100 mL of methanol. The wet cake was dried in a vacuum oven at 50° C. overnight to give 18.12 g (31.8 mmol, 79.4%) of the desired product.

Recrystallization of Compound 5

To a 250 mL reactor equipped with a nitrogen line and an overhead stirrer, 17.8 g of Compound 5 from above was charged followed by 72 mL methanol. The resulting slurry was agitated at 50° C. for 4 hours, cooled to 20-25° C. and held with agitation at 20-25° C. for 1 hour. Filtration of the slurry afforded a crystalline solid which was washed with 60 mL methanol. The resulting wet cake was dried in a vacuum oven at 50° C. for 4 days to yield 14.7 g (25.7 mmol, 82.6%) of the purified product: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 10.5-10.25 (br, 2H), 10.1-9.75 (br, 2H), 8.19 (s, 2H), 7.05 (d, J=8.4, 4H), 7.92 (d, J=8.5, 4H), 5.06 (m, 2H), 3.5-3.35 (m, 4H), 2.6-2.3 (m, 4H), 2.25-2.15 (m, 2H), 2.18-1.96 (m, 2H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ 156.6, 142.5, 139.3, 128.1, 127.5, 126.1, 116.9, 53.2, 45.8, 29.8, 24.3; IR (KBr, cm−1) 3429, 2627, 1636, 1567, 1493, 1428, 1028. Anal calcd for C26H32N6Cl4: C, 54.75; H, 5.65; Cl, 24.86; Adjusted for 1.9% water: C, 53.71; H, 5.76; N, 14.46; Cl, 24.39. Found: C, 53.74; H, 5.72; N, 14.50; Cl, 24.49; KF=1.9. mp 240° C. (decomposed).

 

 

Figure US20090041716A1-20090212-C00019

A 1 L jacketed flask equipped with a nitrogen line and an overhead stirrer was sequentially charged with 100 mL acetonitrile, 13.69 g (89.4 mmol, 2.5 equiv) hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate, 15.07 g (86 mmol, 2.4 equiv) N-(methoxycarbonyl)-L-valine, 16.46 g (85.9 mmol, 2.4 equiv) 1-(3-dimethyaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and an additional 100 mL acetonitrile. The resulting solution was agitated at 20° C. for 1 hour and charged with 20.4 g (35.8 mmol, 1 equiv) of purified Compound 5. The slurry was cooled to about 0° C. and 18.47 g (142.9 mmol, 4 equiv) diisopropylethylamine was added over 30 minutes while maintaining a temperature below 10° C. The solution was slowly heated to 15° C. over 3 hours and held at 15° C. for 12 hours. The resulting solution was charged with 120 mL 13 wt % aqueous NaCl and heated to 50° C. for 1 hour. After cooling to 20° C., 100 mL of isopropyl acetate was added. The biphasic solution was filtered through a 0.45 μm filter and the mixture split. The rich organic phase was washed with 2×240 mL of a 0.5 N NaOH solution containing 13 wt % NaCl followed by 120 mL 13 wt % aqueous NaCl. The mixture was then solvent exchanged into isopropyl acetate by vacuum distillation with a target volume of 400 mL. The resulting hazy solution was cooled to 20° C. and filtered through a 0.45 μm filter. The clear solution was then solvent exchanged into ethanol by vacuum distillation with a target volume of 140 mL. While maintaining a temperature of 50° C., 66.4 mL (82.3 mmol, 2.3 equiv) of 1.24M HCl in ethanol was added. The mixture was then charged with 33 mg (0.04 mmol, 0.001 equiv) of seed crystals of Compound (I) (see preparation below) and the resulting slurry was stirred at 50° C. for 3 hours. The mixture was cooled to 20° C. over 1 hour and aged at that temperature for an additional 22 hours. The slurry was filtered and the wet cake was washed with 100 mL of 2:1 acetone:ethanol. The solids were dried in a vacuum oven at 70° C. to give 22.15 g (27.3 mmol, 76.3%) of the desired product.

 

Figure US20090041716A1-20090212-C00020

A solution of Compound (I) was prepared by dissolving 3.17 g of Compound (I) from above in 22 mL methanol. The solution was passed through a 47 mm Cuno Zeta Carbon® 53SP filter at ˜5 psig at a flow rate of ˜58 mL/min. The carbon filter was rinsed with 32 mL of methanol. The solution was concentrated down to 16 mL by vacuum distillation. While maintaining a temperature of 40-50° C., 15.9 mL acetone and 5 mg of seed crystals of Compound (I) (see procedure below) were added. The resulting slurry was then charged with 32 mL acetone over 30 minutes. The slurry was held at 50° C. for 2 hours, cooled to 20° C. over about 1 hour and held at 20° C. for about 20 hours. The solids were filtered, washed with 16 mL 2:1 acetone:methanol and dried in a vacuum oven at 60° C. to give 2.14 g (67.5%) of purified Compound (I):

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, 80° C.): 8.02 (d, J=8.34 Hz, 4 H), 7.97 (s, 2 H), 7.86 (d, J=8.34 Hz, 4 H), 6.75 (s, 2 H), 5.27 (t, J=6.44 Hz, 2 H), 4.17 (t, J=6.95 Hz, 2 H), 3.97-4.11 (m, 2 H), 3.74-3.90 (m, 2 H), 3.57 (s, 6 H), 2.32-2.46 (m, 2 H), 2.09-2.31 (m, 6 H), 1.91-2.07 (m, 2 H), 0.88 (d, J=6.57 Hz, 6 H), 0.79 (d, J=6.32 Hz, 6 H);

13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 170.9, 156.9, 149.3, 139.1, 131.7, 127.1, 126.5, 125.9, 115.0, 57.9, 52.8, 51.5, 47.2, 31.1, 28.9, 24.9, 19.6, 17.7;

IR (neat, cm−1): 3385, 2971, 2873, 2669, 1731, 1650.

Anal. Calcd for C40H52N8O6Cl2: C, 59.18; H, 6.45; N, 13.80; Cl, 8.73. Found C, 59.98; H, 6.80; N, 13.68; Cl, 8.77. mp 267° C. (decomposed).

Preparation of Seed Crystals of Compound (I)

A 250 mL round-bottom flask was charged with 6.0 g (10.5 mmol, 1 equiv) Compound 5, 3.87 g (22.1 mmol, 2.1 equiv) N-(methoxycarbonyl)-L-valine, 4.45 g (23.2 mmol, 2.2 equiv) 1-(3-dimethyaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride, 0.289 g (2.14 mmol, 0.2 equiv) 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, and 30 mL acetonitrile. The resulting slurry was then charged with 7.33 mL (42.03 mmol, 4 equiv) diisopropylethylamine and allowed to stir at 24-30° C. for about 18 hours. The mixture was charged with 6 mL of water and heated to 50° C. for about 5 hours. The mixture was cooled and charged with 32 mL ethyl acetate and 30 mL water. The layers were separated and the rich organic layer was washed with 30 mL of 10 wt % aqueous NaHCO3, 30 mL water, and 20 mL of 10 wt % aqueous NaCl. The rich organic layer was then dried over MgSO4, filtered, and concentrated down to a residue. The crude material was then purified via flash chromatography (silica gel, 0-10% methanol in dichloromethane) to provide the free base of Compound (I).

The free-base of Compound (I) (0.03 g) was dissolved in 1 mL isopropanol at 20° C. Anhydrous HCl (70 μL, dissolved in ethanol, approximately 1.25M concentration) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred. To the solution was added methyl tert-butyl ether (1 mL) and the resulting slurry was stirred vigorously at 40° C. to 50° C. for 12 hours. The crystal slurry was cooled to 20° C. and filtered. The wet cake was air-dried at 20° C. A white crystalline solid (Form N-2 of Compound (I)) was obtained.

 

Clip
Daclatasvir synthesis: WO2009020828A1

Procedure:

Step a: A 1 L, 3 -neck round bottom flask, fitted with a nitrogen line, overhead stirrer and thermocouple, was charged with 20 g (83.9 mmol, 1 equiv) 1,1′-(biphenyl-4,4′-diyl)diethanone, 200 mL Dichloromethane and 8.7 mL (27.1g, 169.3 mmol, 2.02 equiv) bromine. The mixture was allowed to stir under nitrogen for about 20 hours under ambient conditions. The resulting slurry was charged with 200 mL Dichloromethane and concentrated down to about 150 mL via vacuum distillation. The slurry was then solvent exchanged into THF to a target volume of 200 mL via vacuum distillation. The slurry was cooled to 20-25 0C over 1 hour and allowed to stir at 20-25 0C for an additional hour. The off-white crystalline solids were filtered and washed with 150 mL Dichloromethane. The product was dried under vacuum at 60 0C to yield 27.4 g (69.2 mmol, 82%) of the desired product: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.95-7.85 (m, 4H), 7.60-7.50 (m, 4H), 4.26 (s, 4H); 13C NMR 100 MHz, CDCl3) d 191.0, 145.1, 133.8, 129.9, 127.9, 30.8; IR (KBr, cm-1) 3007, 2950, 1691, 1599, 1199; Anal calcd for C16H12Br2O2: C, 48.52; H, 3.05; Br, 40.34. Found: C, 48.53; H, 3.03; Br, 40.53. HRMS calcd for C16H12Br2O2 (M + H; DCI+): 394.9282. Found: 394.9292. mp 224-226 0C.

Step b: A 500 mL jacketed flask, fitted with a nitrogen line, thermocouple and overhead stirrer, was charged with 20 g (50.5 mmol, 1 equiv) of Compound 2, 22.8 g (105.9 moles, 2.10 equiv) 1-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-L-proline and 200 mL acetonitrile. The slurry was cooled to 20 0C followed by the addition of 18.2 mL (13.5 g, 104.4 mmol, 2.07 equiv) DIPEA. The slurry was warmed to 25 0C and allowed to stir for 3 hours. The resulting clear, organic solution was washed with 3 x 100 mL 13 wt% aqueous NaCl. The rich acetonitrile solution was solvent exchanged into toluene (target volume = 215 mL) by vacuum distillation until there was less than 0.5 vol% acetonitrile.

Step c: The toluene solution of Compound 3 was charged with 78 g (1.011 moles, 20 equiv) ammonium acetate and heated to 95-100 0C. The mixture was allowed to stir at 95-100 0C for 15 hours. After reaction completion, the mixture was cooled to 70- 80 0C and charged with 7 mL acetic acid, 40 mL n-butanol, and 80 mL of 5 vol% aqueous acetic acid. The resulting biphasic solution was split while maintaining a temperature > 50 0C. The rich organic phase was charged with 80 mL of 5 vol% aqueous acetic acid, 30 mL acetic acid and 20 mL n-butanol while maintaining a temperature > 50 0C. The resulting biphasic solution was split while maintaining a temperature > 50 0C and the rich organic phase was washed with an additional 80 mL of 5 vol% aqueous acetic acid. The rich organic phase was then solvent exchanged into toluene to a target volume of 215 mL by vacuum distillation. While maintaining a temperature > 60 0C, 64 mL methanol was charged. The resulting slurry was heated to 70-75 0C and aged for 1 hour. The slurry was cooled to 20-25 0C over 1 hour and aged at that temperature for an additional hour. The slurry was filtered and the cake was washed with 200 mL 10:3 toluene:methanol. The product was dried under vacuum at 70 0C, resulting in 19.8 g (31.7 mmol, 63%) of the desired product: 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-^) d 13.00-11.00 (s, 2H), 7.90-7.75 (m, 4H), 7.75-7.60 (m, 4H), 7.60-7.30 (s, 2H), 4.92-4.72 (m, 2H), 3.65-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.49-3.28 (m, 2H), 2.39-2.1 (m, 2H), 2.10-1.87 (m, 6H), 1.60-1.33 (s, 8H), 1.33-1.07 (s, 10H); 13C NMR (100 MHz, DMSO-?fe) d 154.1, 153.8, 137.5, 126.6, 125.0, 78.9, 78.5, 55.6, 55.0, 47.0, 46.7, 33.7, 32.2, 28.5, 28.2, 24.2, 23.5; IR (KBr, cm-1) 2975, 2876, 1663, 1407, 1156, 1125; HRMS calcd for C36H45N6O4 (M + H; ESI+): 625.3502. Found: 625.3502. mp 190-195 0C (decomposed).

Step d: To a 250 mL reactor equipped with a nitrogen line and overhead stirrer, 25.0 g of Compound 4 (40.01 mmol, 1 equiv) was charged followed by 250 mL methanol and 32.85 mL (400.1 mmol, 10 equiv) 6M aqueous HCl. The temperature was increased to 50 0C and agitated at 50 0C for 5 hours. The resulting slurry was cooled to 20-25 0C and held with agitation for about 18 hours. Filtration of the slurry afforded a solid which was washed successively with 100 mL 90% methanoI/water (WV) and 2 x 100 mL of methanol. The wet cake was dried in a vacuum oven at 50 0C overnight to give 18.12 g (31.8 mmol, 79.4%) of the desired product.

CUT PASTE…….WO2009020825

Figure imgf000022_0001

Preparation of Compound (I)

A 1 L jacketed flask equipped with a nitrogen line and an overhead stirrer was sequentially charged with 100 mL acetonitrile, 13.69 g (89.4 mmol, 2.5 equiv) hydroxybenzotriazole hydrate, 15.07 g (86 mmol, 2.4 equiv) N-(methoxycarbonyl)- L-valine, 16.46 g (85.9 mmol, 2.4 equiv) l-(3-dimethyaminopropyl)-3- ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and an additional 100 mL acetonitrile. The resulting solution was agitated at 20 0C for 1 hour and charged with 20.4 g (35.8 mmol, 1 equiv) of purified Compound 7. The slurry was cooled to about 0 0C and 18.47 g (142.9 mmol, 4 equiv) diisopropylethylamine was added over 30 minutes while maintaining a temperature below 10 0C. The solution was slowly heated to 15 0C over 3 hours and held at 15 0C for 12 hours. The resulting solution was charged with 120 mL 13 wt% aqueous NaCl and heated to 50 0C for 1 hour. After cooling to 20 0C, 100 mL of isopropyl acetate was added. The biphasic solution was filtered through a 0.45 μm filter and the mixture split. The rich organic phase was washed with 2 x 240 mL of a 0.5 Ν NaOH solution containing 13 wt% NaCl followed by 120 mL 13 wt% aqueous NaCl. The mixture was then solvent exchanged into isopropyl acetate by vacuum distillation with a target volume of 400 mL. The resulting hazy solution was cooled to 20 0C and filtered through a 0.45 μm filter. The clear solution was then solvent exchanged into ethanol by vacuum distillation with a target volume of 140 mL. While maintaining a temperature of 50 0C, 66.4 mL (82.3 mmol, 2.3 equiv) of 1.24M HCl in ethanol was added. The mixture was then charged with 33 mg (0.04 mmol, 0.001 equiv) of seed crystals of Compound (I) (see preparation below) and the resulting slurry was stirred at 50 0C for 3 hours. The mixture was cooled to 20 0C over 1 hour and aged at that temperature for an additional 22 hours. The slurry was filtered and the wet cake was washed with 100 mL of 2: 1 acetone:ethanol. The solids were dried in a vacuum oven at 70 0C to give 22.15 g (27.3 mmol, 76.3%) of the desired product.

Figure imgf000023_0001

Alternative Preparation of Compound (I)

A jacketed reactor equipped with a mechanical agitator, a thermocouple and a nitrogen inlet was sequentially charged with 10 L acetonitrile, 0.671 kg (4.38 moles, 2.50 equiv) 1-hydroxybenzotriazole, 0.737 kg (4.21 moles, 2.40 equiv) N- (methoxycarbonyl)-L-valine and 0.790 kg (4.12 moles, 2.35 equiv) l-(3- dimethyaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride. The mixture was agitated at 200C for 1 hour, cooled to 5 0C and charged with 1 kg (1.75 moles, 1.00 equiv) Compound 7. While maintaining a temperature < 10 0C, 0.906 kg (7.01 moles, 4 equiv) diisopropylethylamine was added. The mixture was heated to 15-20 0C over 2 hours and agitated for an additional 15 hours. After the reaction was complete, the mixture was washed once with 6.0 L 13 wt% aqueous NaCl, twice with 6.1 L (6.12 moles, 3.5 equiv) 1.0 M aqueous NaOH containing 13 wt% NaCl and once with 6.0 L 13 wt% aqueous NaCl. Water was then removed from the rich organic solution via azeotropic distillation. The mixture was cooled to 20 0C, agitated for 1 hour and filtered. The rich organic solution was then solvent exchanged into EtOH via vacuum distillation to a target volume of 5 L. While maintaining a temperature of 50 0C, 3.2 L (4.0 moles, 2.3 equiv) 1.25M HCl in EtOH was charged. The mixture was seeded with 1.6 g Compound (I) (see preparation below) and agitated at 50 0C for 3 hours. The resulting slurry was cooled to 20 0C and agitated for at least 3 hours. The product was collected by filtration and washed with 5 L 2: 1 acetone:

EtOH to give 1.29 kg (ca. 90 wt% product) of wet crude product. A reactor equipped with an overhead agitator, nitrogen inlet and thermocouple was charged with 1.11 kg of the above crude product and 7 L methanol. The resulting solution was treated with Cuno Zeta Carbon (TM) 55SP. The carbon was washed with 15 L MeOH and the combined filtrate and wash was concentrated down to 4 L via vacuum distillation. The concentrated solution was charged with 5 L acetone and seeded with 1.6 g Compound (I) (see preparation below) while maintaining a temperature of 50 0C. An additional 10 L acetone was charged and the resulting slurry was stirred at 50 0C for 3 hours. The slurry was cooled to 20 0C and allowed to agitate at 200C for 3 hours. The product was collected by filtration, washed with 5 L 2: 1 acetone: EtOH and dried under vacuum at 50-60 0C to give 0.900 kg (1.11 moles, 74% adjusted) of Compound (I)-

Figure imgf000025_0001

Carbon Treatment and Recrystallization of Compound (I) A solution of Compound (I) was prepared by dissolving 3.17 g of Compound (I) from above in 22 mL methanol. The solution was passed through a 47mm Cuno Zeta Carbon 53SP filter at ~5 psig at a flow rate of~58mL/min. The carbon filter was rinsed with 32 mL of methanol. The solution was concentrated down to 16 mL by vacuum distillation. While maintaining a temperature of 40-50 0C, 15.9 mL acetone and 5 mg of seed crystals of Compound (I) (see procedure below) were added. The resulting slurry was then charged with 32 mL acetone over 30 minutes. The slurry was held at 50 0C for 2 hours, cooled to 20 0C over about 1 hour and held at 20 0C for about 20 hours. The solids were filtered, washed with 16 mL 2: 1 acetone:methanol and dried in a vacuum oven at 60 0C to give 2.14 g (67.5%) of purified Compound (I):

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-έfc, 80 0C): 8.02 (d, J=8.34 Hz, 4 H), 7.97 (s, 2 H), 7.86 (d, J=8.34 Hz, 4 H), 6.75 (s, 2 H), 5.27 (t, J=6.44 Hz, 2 H), 4.17 (t, J=6.95 Hz, 2 H), 3.97 – 4.11 (m, 2 H), 3.74 – 3.90 (m, 2 H), 3.57 (s, 6 H), 2.32 – 2.46 (m, 2 H), 2.09 – 2.31 (m, 6 H), 1.91 – 2.07 (m, 2 H), 0.88 (d, J=6.57 Hz, 6 H), 0.79 (d, J=6.32 Hz, 6 H);

13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO-έfc): δ 170.9, 156.9, 149.3, 139.1, 131.7, 127.1, 126.5, 125.9, 115.0, 57.9, 52.8, 51.5, 47.2, 31.1, 28.9, 24.9, 19.6, 17.7;

IR (neat, cm“1): 3385, 2971, 2873, 2669, 1731, 1650.

Anal. Calcd for C40H52N8O6Cl2: C, 59.18; H, 6.45; N, 13.80; Cl, 8.73. Found C, 59.98; H, 6.80; N, 13.68; Cl, 8.77. mp 267 0C (decomposed).

Characteristic diffraction peak positions (degrees 2Θ + 0.1) @ RT, based on a high quality pattern collected with a diffractometer (CuKa) with a spinning capillary with 2Θ calibrated with a NIST other suitable standard are as follows: 10.3, 12.4, 12.8, 13.3, 13.6, 15.5, 20.3, 21.2, 22.4, 22.7, 23.7

Daclatasvir faces problems in USA

The US-FDA in 2014 issued a complete response letter for NS5A inhibitor daclatasvir saying it was unable to approve the drug because the marketing application was for its use in tandem with asunaprevir, an NS3/NS4A protease inhibitor discontinued in the US by BMS for commercial reasons. Daclatasvir is already on the market in Europe-where it is sold as Daklinza-and also in Japan where it was approved alongside asunaprevir in July as the country’s first all-oral HCV therapy. However, a delay in the large US market is clearly a major setback for BMS’ ambitions in hepatitis therapy.

To make the matter worse, US FDA has rescinded breakthrough therapy designation status from Bristol-Myers Squibb for Daclatasvir for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in Feb 2015.

 

PAPER

Makonen, B.; et. al. Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Replication Complex Inhibitors: The Discovery of Daclatasvir. J Med Chem 2014, 57(5), 2013–2032.

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm401836p

 

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2008021927A2?cl=en

Example 24-23

Figure imgf000157_0001

methyl ((lS)-l-(((2S)-2-(5-(4′-(2-((2S)-l-((2S)-2-((methoxycarbonyl)amino)-3- methylbutanoyl)-2-pyrrolidinyl)-lH-imidazol-5-yl)-4-biphenylyl)-lH-imidazol-2-yl)-

1 -pyrrolidinyl) carbonyl) -2-methylpropyl) carbamate

A 50 mL flask equipped with a stir bar was sequentially charged with 2.5 mL acetonitrile, 0.344 g (2.25 mmol, 2.5 equiv) hydroxy benzotriazole hydrate, 0.374 g (2.13 mmol, 2.4 equiv) N-(methoxycarbonyl)-L-valine, 0.400 g (2.09 mmol, 2.4 equiv) 1 -(3 -dimethyaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride and an additional 2.5 mL acetonitrile. The resulting solution was agitated at 20 0C for 1 hour and charged with 0.501 g (0.88 mmol, 1 equiv) Example A-le-4. The slurry was cooled to about 0 0C and 0.45 g (3.48 mmol, 4 equiv) diisopropylethylamine was added over 30 minutes while maintaining a temperature below 10 0C. The solution was slowly heated to 15 0C over 3 hours and held at 15 0C for 16 hours. The temperature was increased to 20 0C and stirred for 3.25 hours. The resulting solution was charged with 3.3 g of 13 wt% aqueous NaCl and heated to 50 0C for 1 hour. After cooling to 20 0C, 2.5 mL of isopropyl acetate was added. The rich organic phase was washed with 2 x 6.9 g of a 0.5 N NaOH solution containing 13 wt% NaCl followed by 3.3 g of 13 wt% aqueous NaCl. The mixture was then solvent exchanged into isopropyl acetate by vacuum distillation to a target volume of 10 mL. The resulting hazy solution was cooled to 20 0C and filtered through a 0.45 μm filter. The clear solution was then solvent exchanged into ethanol by vacuum distillation with a target volume of 3 mL. 1.67 mL (2.02 mmol, 2.3 equiv) of 1.21 M HCl in ethanol was added. The mixture was then stirred at 25 0C for 15 hours. The resulting slurry was filtered and the wet cake was washed with 2.5 mL of 2: 1 acetone:ethanol. The solids were dried in a vacuum oven at 50 0C to give 0.550 g (0.68 mmol, 77 %) of the desired product.

RecrystalHzation of Example 24-23

A solution of Example 24-23 prepared above was prepared by dissolving 0.520 g of the above product in 3.65 mL methanol. The solution was then charged with 0.078 g of type 3 Cuno Zeta loose carbon and allowed to stir for 0.25 hours. The mixture was then filtered and washed with 6 ml of methanol. The product rich solution was concentrated down to 2.6 mL by vacuum distillation. 7.8 mL acetone was added and allowed to stir at 25 0C for 15 h. The solids were filtered, washed with 2.5 mL 2: 1 acetone:ethanol and dried in a vacuum oven at 70 0C to give 0.406 g (57.0%) of the desired product as white crystals: 1H NMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6, 80 0C): 8.02 (d, J=8.34 Hz, 4 H), 7.97 (s, 2 H), 7.86 (d, J=8.34 Hz, 4 H), 6.75 (s, 2 H), 5.27 (t, J=6.44 Hz, 2 H), 4.17 (t, J=6.95 Hz, 2 H), 3.97 – 4.11 (m, 2 H), 3.74 – 3.90 (m, 2 H), 3.57 (s, 6 H), 2.32 – 2.46 (m, 2 H), 2.09 – 2.31 (m, 6 H), 1.91 – 2.07 (m, 2 H), 0.88 (d, J=6.57 Hz, 6 H), 0.79 (d, J=6.32 Hz, 6 H); 13C NMR (75 MHz, DMSO- d6): δ 170.9, 156.9, 149.3, 139.1, 131.7, 127.1, 126.5, 125.9, 115.0, 57.9, 52.8, 51.5, 47.2, 31.1, 28.9, 24.9, 19.6, 17.7; IR (neat, cm“1): 3385, 2971, 2873, 2669, 1731, 1650. Anal. Calcd for C40H52N8O6Cl2: C, 59.18; H, 6.45; N, 13.80; Cl, 8.73. Found C, 59.98; H, 6.80; N, 13.68; Cl, 8.77. mp 267 0C (decomposed). Characteristic diffraction peak positions (degrees 2Θ ± 0.1) @ RT, based on a high quality pattern collected with a diffractometer (CuKa) with a spinning capillary with 2Θ calibrated with a NIST other suitable standard are as follows: 10.3, 12.4, 12.8, 13.3, 13.6, 15.5, 20.3, 21.2, 22.4, 22.7, 23.7

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2015), 25(16), 3147-3150

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X15005995

Synthetic route for the preparation of the target compounds 8a–8y. Reagents and ...

Scheme 1.

Synthetic route for the preparation of the target compounds 8a8y. Reagents and conditions: (a) Br2, CH2Cl2, rt, overnight, 86%; (b) N-Boc-l-proline, MeCN, Et3N, rt, 2 h, 98%; (c) NH4OAc, toulene, 130 °C, 15 h, 85%; (d) 6 N HCl, MeOH, 50 °C, 4 h, 87%; (e) HATU, N-(methoxycarbonyl)-l-valine, DIPEA, rt, 14 h, 83%; (f) RCOCl, TEA, CH2Cl2, rt, 3 h, 64–87%.

 

Dimethyl((2S,2’S)-((2S,2’S)-2,2′-(5,5′-([1,1′-biphenyl]-4,4′-diyl)bis(1H-imidazole-

5,2-diyl))bis(pyrrolidine-2,1-diyl))bis(3-methyl-1-oxobutane-2,1-

diyl))dicarbamate 7……………FREE BASE

To a solution of 5 (90 mg, 0.181 mmol), N-me-thoxycarbonyl-l-valine 6 (92 mg,0.525 mmol) and DIPEA (0.18 mL, 1.03 mmol) in DMF (5 mL) was added HATU(165.5 mg, 0.434 mmol). The resulting reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 15 h, the reaction mixture was filtered and the residue was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O, The aqueous phase was extracted with EtOAc, and the combined organic phase was dried (MgSO4), filtered, and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was purified by flash chromatography (silica gel; 5% Methanol /CH2Cl2) to

afford 7 (0.11 g, 83 %)as white solid.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 500 MHz) δ: 11.56 (s, 2H), 7.69-7.48 (m, 8H), 7.26-7.03 (m, 4H), 5.24-5.05 (m, 2H), 4.09-4.04 (m, 2H), 3.85-3.75 (m, 4H), 3.58 (s, 6H), 2.24-1.98 (m, 10H), 0.87 (d, J = 3.6 Hz, 12H).

Anal. calcd. (%) for C40H50N8O6: C 65.02, H 6.82, N 15.17; found: C 65.20, H 6.79, N 15.31.

ESI-MS m/z: 739.5 (M+H)+.

NMR PREDICT

 

1H NMR PREDICT

 

dacla 1 dacla 2 dacla 3

 

 

13C NMR PREDICT

 

dacla 4 dacla 5

DACLA 6

 

COSY PREDICT

 

DACLA 7

 

 

 

 

 

Patents

http://www.who.int/phi/implementation/ip_trade/daclatasvir_report_2014_09-02.pdf

Click on images to view

d70Click on images to view d71 d72 d73 d74 d75 d76 d77 d78 d79 d80 d81

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http://www.who.int/phi/implementation/ip_trade/daclatasvir_report_2014_09-02.pdf

d1

d2

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d3

d4

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d5

d6

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Daclatasvir
Daclatasvir.svg
Names
IUPAC name

Methyl [(2S)-1-{(2S)-2-[4-(4’-{2-[(2S)-1-{(2S)-2-[(methoxycarbonyl)amino]-3-methylbutanoyl}-2-pyrrolidinyl]-1H-imidazol-4-yl}-4-biphenylyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-1-pyrrolidinyl}-3-methyl-1-oxo-2-butanyl]carbamate
Other names

BMS-790052
Identifiers
1009119-64-5 Yes
ATC code J05AX14
ChEBI CHEBI:82977 Yes
ChEMBL ChEMBL2023898
ChEMBL2303621
ChemSpider 24609522
Jmol-3D images Image
Properties
C40H50N8O6
Molar mass 738.89 g·mol−1

CLIP 1

Australian Government, National Measurement Institute

REFERENCE MATERIAL ANALYSIS REPORT

HPLC: Instrument: Shimadzu Binary pump LC-20AB, SIL-20 A HT autosampler
Column: X-Bridge C-18, 5.0 m (4.6 mm x 150 mm)
Column oven: 40 °C
Mobile Phase: A = Milli-Q water buffered at pH 10 with NH4
+ -OAc; B = MeCN
Gradient 0 min 35% B; 0-15 min 35% B; 15-18 min 35-75% B; 18-23 min 75% B.
Flow rate: 1.0 mL/min
Detector: Shimadzu SPD-M20A PDA operating at 310 nm
Relative peak area response of main component:
Initial analysis: Mean = 99.2%, s = 0.01%

Thermogravimetric analysis: Non volatile residue < 0.2% mass fraction . The volatile
content (e.g. organic solvents and/or water) could not be determined by
thermogravimetric analysis.

Karl Fischer analysis: Moisture content 0.6% mass fraction

QNMR: Instrument: Bruker Avance-III-500
Field strength: 500 MHz Solvent: DMSO-d6 (2.50 ppm)
Internal standard: Potassium hydrogen maleate (98.8% mass fraction)
Initial analysis: Mean (0.86 ppm) = 98.2%, s = 0.2%

LC-MS: Instrument: Thermo Scientific Dionex UltiMate 3000 Degasser,
Column: ZORBAX RRHD SB-C8, 2.1 x 50 mm, 1.8 μm (Agilent, 857700-906)
Column temp: 30.0 °C
Solvent system: Mobile phase A: 10 mM ammonium formate, 0.01% (v/v) formic acid in Milli-Q® water.
Mobile phase B: 0.01% (v/v) formic acid in acetonitrile.
Gradient from 90% A to 100% B
Flow rate: 0.25 mL/min
Sample prep: 2 mg/mL in MeOH with trace of formic acid
Injection volume: 10 L
Ionisation mode: Electrospray positive ion
Capillary voltage: 4.5 kV
Capillary temp: 360ºC Desolvation gas temperature: 300 ºC
Cone gas flow rate: 10 (arbitrary unit) Desolvation gas flow rate: 70 (arbitrary unit)
The retention time of daclatasvir is reported along with the major peak in the mass spectrum. The latter is reported as a mass/charge ratio.
9.98 min: 739.39545 (M+H+) m/z

HS-GC-MS: Instrument: Agilent 6890/5973/G1888
Column: DB-624, 30 m x 0.25 mm I.D. x 1.4 μm
Program: 50 C (5 min), 7 C/min to 120 C, 15 °C/min to 220 °C (8.3 min)
Injector: 150 C Transfer line temp: 280 C
Carrier: Helium, 1.2 mL/min Split ratio: 50/1
Solvents detected: Ethyl acetate

TLC: Conditions: Kieselgel 60F254. Ethyl acetate : methanol (95/5)
Single spot observed, Rf = 0.18. Visualisation with UV at 254 nm
The TLC was performed on the liberated free base.

IR: Instrument: Bruker Alpha FT-IR
Range: 4000-400 cm-1, neat
Peaks: 1723, 1697, 1643, 1523, 1439, 1235, 1099, 1024 cm-1

1H NMR: Instrument: Bruker Avance III 500
Field strength: 500 MHz Solvent: DMSO-d6 (2.50 ppm)
Spectral data:  0.77 (6H, d, J = 6.7 Hz), 0.83 (6H, d, J = 6.7 Hz), 2.01 (2H, m), 2.07 (2H, m), 2.12-2.27 (4H, m), 2.38 (2H, m), 3.54 (6H, s), 3.84 (2H, m), 3.97 (2H, m), 4.12 (2H, t, J = 7.7 Hz), 5.18 (2H, t, J = 7.0 Hz), 7.31 (2 N-H, d, J = 8.5 Hz), 7.94 (4H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 7.99 (4H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 8.16 (2H, s) ppm
Ethyl acetate estimated at 0.6% mass fraction was observed in the 1H NMR

13C NMR: Instrument: Bruker Avance III 500
Field strength: 126 MHz Solvent: DMSO-d6 (39.5 ppm)
Spectral data:  17.8, 19.6, 25.0, 29.0, 31.2, 47.3, 51.6, 52.9, 58.0, 115.1, 125.9, 126.6, 127.3, 131.8, 139.2, 149.4, 157.0, 171.1 ppm

Melting point: > 250 oC

Microanalysis: Found: C = 59.0%; H = 6.5%; N = 13.7% (August 2015)
Calc: C = 59.2%; H = 6.5%; N = 13.8% (Calculated for C40H50N8O6.2HCl)

REFERENCE

Australian NMI NATA Certification Daclatasvir – FixHepC

https://fixhepc.com/images/coa/NMI-NATA-Daclatasvir-Certification.pdf

Oct 7, 2015 – Compound Name: Daclatasvir dihydrochloride … Note: The assigned stereochemistry of this sample of daclatasvir has not …. Melting point:.

CLIP 2

Full Text Article – European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical …

Nov 28, 2016 – Daclatasvir dihydrochloride (DCLD) is a new drug …. DSC thermogram of daclatasvirdihydrochloriderealed drug melting point at 273.600C as …

CLIP 3

DCV dihydrochloride (anhydrous) is a white to yellow, non hygroscopic powder which is highly soluble in water (>700mg/mL). Solubility is higher at low pH. In aqueous buffers over the physiological pH range (pH 1.2-6.8) solubility is very low (4mg/mL to 0.004 mg/mL) due to the slow formation of the less soluble hydrated form. Water content in the drug substance is adequately controlled by in process tests. The desired anhydrous crystalline form of DCV dihydrochloride (N-2) is consistently produced and has been shown to not change on storage.

[DOC]AusPAR Daclatasvir dihydrochloride – Therapeutic Goods Administration

https://www.tga.gov.au/sites/default/…/auspar-daclatasvirdihydrochloride-151214.do…

Dec 14, 2015 – Australian Public Assessment Report for daclatasvir dihydrochloride …. Figure 1:Chemical structure of daclatasvir dihydrochloride. …… 24 weeks is based on a selected literaturereview mostly of studies in patients with GT-1.

CLIP 4

The structure of the active substance has been confirmed by UV, IR, Raman and 1 H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, MS spectrometry, and crystal X-Ray diffraction.

Daclatasvir is a white to yellow crystalline non-hygroscopic powder. It is freely soluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide, methanol; soluble in ethanol (95%); practically insoluble in dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, acetonitrile, acetone and ethyl acetate.

Daclatasvir is a chiral molecule with four stereocenters (1,1’, 2, 2;) in the S configuration. The synthetic strategy and process design such as starting material and reagent selection, process parameters, and in-process controls ensure the desired configuration at each of the four chiral centers. In addition, the established control strategy minimizes epimerization and eliminates other diastereomeric impurity formation in each step.

Polymorphism has been observed for daclatasvir hydrochloride. Although two neat crystalline dihydrochloride salts, N1 and N-2 have been identified in screening studies, it has been confirmed that the form N-2 is the thermodynamically most stable polymorph and only this form produced by the proposed synthetic process.

Manufacture, characterisation and process controls

Daclatasvir dihydrochloride is synthesised in three main steps using three commercially available well defined starting materials with acceptable specifications. The synthesis involves an alkylation and formation of the imidazole ring, a coupling reaction and the formation of the hydrochloride salt.

As mentioned above, the synthetic process has been designed to ensure the correct configuration at each of the four chiral centres is achieved. In addition, it has been demonstrated that the stereogenic centres do not epimerize during normal or stressed processing conditions.

The manufacturing process has been developed using a combination of conventional univariate studies and elements of QbD such as risk assessment.

The characterisation of the active substance and its impurities are in accordance with the EU guideline on chemistry of new active substances. Potential and actual impurities were well discussed with regards to their origin and characterised. Adequate in-process controls are applied during the synthesis. The specifications and control methods for intermediate products, starting materials and reagents have been presented.

The active substance specification includes tests for: appearance, colour, identity (IR/Raman, HPLC), assay (HPLC), impurities (HPLC), residual solvents (GC), HCl content (titration), total inorganic impurities (ICP-MS), and particle size (laser light scattering). The absence of a test for chiral purity in the active substance specification has been adequately justified based on the stereochemical control during the synthetic process and demonstration that there is no epimerization during normal or stressed processing conditions. Similarly, since the N-2 form of daclatasvir hydrochloride is the thermodynamically most stable polymorph and, is consistently produced by the synthetic process and remained unchanged during storage under long-term or accelerated conditions, this parameter is not included in the specification

http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/003768/WC500172849.pdf

CLIP5

SEE

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/nda/2015/206843Orig1s000ChemR.pdf

CLIP6

Daclatasvir dihydrochloride

References

 

WO2004005264A2 * 7 Jul 2003 15 Jan 2004 Axxima Pharmaceuticals Ag Imidazole compounds for the treatment of hepatitis c virus infections
WO2008021927A2 * 9 Aug 2007 21 Feb 2008 Squibb Bristol Myers Co Hepatitis c virus inhibitors
WO2008021928A2 * 9 Aug 2007 21 Feb 2008 Squibb Bristol Myers Co Hepatitis c virus inhibitors
WO2008021936A2 * 9 Aug 2007 21 Feb 2008 Squibb Bristol Myers Co Hepatitis c virus inhibitors

 

 

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FDA Approves Olysio (simeprevir) for Hepatitis C Virus


Simeprevir

Inhibits HCV NS3/4A protease.

MEDIVIR … originator

launched 2013

923604-59-5  CAS

C38H47N5O7S MF

749.93908  MW

IUPAC standard name
(1R, 4R, 6S, 15R, 17R)-N-(cyclopropanesulfonyl) -17 – ({7-methoxy-8-methyl-2-[4 – (propan-2-yl) -1,3-thiazol-2 -yl] quinolin-4-yl} oxy)-13-methyl-2 ,14-dioxo-3 ,13-diazatricyclo [13.3.0.0 4 , 6 ] octadec-7-ene-4-carboxamide
IUPAC traditional name
(1R, 4R, 6S, 15R, 17R)-N-(cyclopropanesulfonyl) -17 – {[2 – (4-isopropyl-1 ,3-thiazol-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4- yl] oxy}-13-methyl-2 ,14-dioxo-3 ,13-diazatricyclo [13.3.0.0 4 , 6 ] octadec-7-ene-4-carboxamide

  • Olysio
  • Simeprevir
  • TMC 435
  • TMC 435350
  • TMC-435
  • TMC435
  • TMC435350
  • UNII-9WS5RD66HZ

November 22, 2013 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration  approved Olysio (simeprevir), a new therapy to treat chronic hepatitis C virus infection.

OLYSIO™ is the first once-daily protease inhibitor approved for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a combination antiviral regimen for adults with compensated liver disease

Hepatitis C is a viral disease that causes inflammation of the liver that can lead to diminished liver function or liver failure. Most people infected with the hepatitis C virus have no symptoms of the disease until liver damage becomes apparent, which may take several years. Most of these people then go on to develop chronic hepatitis C. Some will also develop scarring and poor liver function (cirrhosis) over many years, which can lead to complications such as bleeding, jaundice (yellowish eyes or skin), fluid accumulation in the abdomen, infections or liver cancer. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, about 3.2 million Americans are infected with the hepatitis C virus

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections affect approximately 3 percent of the worldwide population and often lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The standard therapy of pegylated- interferon and ribavirin induces serious side effects and provides viral eradication in less than 50% of patients. Combination therapy of HCV including ribavirin and interferonare currently is the approved therapy for HCV. Unfortunately, such combination therapy also produces side effects and is often poorly tolerated, resulting in major clinical challenges in a significant proportion of patients. Numerous direct acting agents (DAAs) have been or are being developed for treatment of HCV, such as telaprevir and boceprevir (both received MA approved in 2011 for use with interferon and ribavirin based therapy), however direct acting agents are linked to increased toxicity of treatment, the emergence of resistance, and to date do not provide a standard of care which is interferon free. The combination of direct acting agents can also result in drug-drug interactions. To date, no HCV therapy has been approved which is interferon free. There is therefore a need for new combination therapies which have reduced side effects, and interferon free, have a reduced emergence of resistance, reduced treatment periods and/or and enhanced cure rates.

Simeprevir (formerly TMC435) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of hepatitis C. It is being developed byMedivir and Johnson & Johnson‘s pharmaceutical division Janssen Pharmaceutica and is currently in Phase III clinical trials.[1]

Simeprevir is a hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor.[2]

Simeprevir is being tested in combination regimens with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin,[3] and in interferon-free regimens with other direct-acting antiviral agents including daclatasvir[4] and sofosbuvir [5]

Simeprevir has been launched in 2013 in Japan by Janssen Pharmaceutical (JP) for use in combination with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin for the treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients who are treatment naïve, prior non responders or relapsed following treatment with Peg-IFN with or without ribavirin. In 2013, the product has also been approved in the U.S. by Medivir and Janssen R&D Ireland for the oral treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infection, in combination with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin in adults with compensated liver disease, including cirrhosis, who are treatment-naïve or who have failed previous interferon therapy (pegylated or non-pegylated) with ribavirin.

The drug candidate was originally developed at Medivir, which was acquired by Janssen R&D Ireland in 2012. In November 2004, Medivir entered into a license and research collaboration agreement with Tibotec, a Johnson & Johnson subsidiary, for the discovery and development of orally active protease inhibitors of the NS3/4A protease of HCV. In 2011, a codevelopment agreement between Pharmasset (now Gilead Sciences) and Tibotec was signed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) in combination with PSI-7977. Also in 2011, fast track designation was received in the U.S. for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype-1 infection.

In 2011, Tibotec Therapeutics, Division of Centocor Ortho Biotech Products, L.P. announced that it had changed its name to Janssen Therapeutics, Division of Janssen Products, LP.

“Hepatitis C is a complex disease and Janssen is committed to working with the HCV community, caregivers, and health care systems to address this global epidemic,” said Gaston Picchio, Hepatitis Disease Area Leader, Janssen Research & Development. “We are pleased that the FDA has granted simeprevir Priority Review, as it is a significant step forward in making this therapy available to physicians and their hepatitis C patients.”

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide.

Following initial acute infection, a majority of infected individuals develop chronic hepatitis because HCV replicates preferentially in hepatocytes but is not directly cytopathic. Chronic hepatitis can progress to liver fibrosis leading to cirrhosis, end- stage liver disease, and HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma), making it the leading cause of liver transplantations. This and the number of patients involved, has made HCV the focus of considerable medical research. Replication of the genome of HCV is mediated by a number of enzymes, amongst which is HCV NS3 serine protease and its associated cofactor, NS4A. NS3 serine protease is considered to be essential for viral replication and has become an attractive target for drug discovery.

Current anti-HCV therapy is based on (pegylated) interferon-alpha (IFN-α) in combination with ribavirin. Not only does this therapy result in a limited efficacy in that only part of the patients are treated successfully, but it also faces significant side effects and is poorly tolerated in many patients. Hence there is a need for further HCV inhibitors that overcome the disadvantages of current HCV therapy such as side effects, limited efficacy, poor tolerance, the emergence of resistance, as well as compliance failures.

Various agents have been described that inhibit HCV NS3 serine protease. WO05/073195 discloses linear and macrocyclic NS3 serine protease inhibitors with a central substituted proline moiety and WO 05/073216 with a central cyclopentyl moiety. Amongst these, the macrocyclic derivatives are attractive by overcoming one or more of the disadvantages of current anti-HCV therapy

Figure imgf000003_0001

(I)  simeprevir

The compound of formula (I) is an inhibitor of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) serine protease and is described in WO 2007/014926, published on 8 February 2007. This compound overcomes several of the disadvantages of current anti-HCV therapy and in particular shows pronounced activity against HCV, has an attractive pharmacokinetic profile, and is well-tolerated. Following the synthesis procedure described in Example 5 of WO 2007/014926, an amorphous solid form is obtained.

It now has been found that the compound of formula (I) can be converted into crystalline forms, which can advantageously be used as active ingredients in anti-HCV therapy. To that purpose, these crystalline forms are converted into pharmaceutical formulations.

………………………………………………………………………………………….

SIMEPREVIR

Simeprevir_ molecular structure _CAS_923604-59-5)

…………………………

simeprevir

OLYSIO (simeprevir) is an inhibitor of the HCV NS3/4A protease.

The chemical name for simeprevir is (2R,3aR,10Z,11aS,12aR,14aR)-N-(cyclopropylsulfonyl)-2[[2-(4-isopropyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl-4-quinolinyl]oxy]-5-methyl-4,14-dioxo2,3,3a,4,5,6,7,8,9,11a,12,13,14,14atetradecahydrocyclopenta[c]cyclopropa[g][1,6]diazacyclotetradecine-12a(1H)-carboxamide. Its molecular formula is C38H47N5O7S2 and its molecular weight is 749.94. Simeprevir has the following structural formula:

OLYSIO (simeprevir) Structural Formula Illustration

Simeprevir drug substance is a white to almost white powder. Simeprevir is practically insoluble in water over a wide pH range. It is practically insoluble in propylene glycol, very slightly soluble in ethanol, and slightly soluble inacetone. It is soluble in dichloromethane and freely soluble in some organic solvents (e.g., tetrahydrofuran and N,N-dimethylformamide).

OLYSIO (simeprevir) for oral administration is available as 150 mg strength hard gelatin capsules. Each capsule contains 154.4 mg of simeprevir sodium salt, which is equivalent to 150 mg of simeprevir. OLYSIO (simeprevir) capsules contain the following inactive ingredients: colloidal anhydrous silica, croscarmellose sodium, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate and sodium lauryl sulphate. The white capsule contains gelatin and titanium dioxide (E171) and is printed with ink containing iron oxide black (E172) and shellac (E904).

……………..

Synthesis

WO2008092954A2

Example 1 : preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carboxylic acid (16)

Synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinoline (6) Step 1 : synthesis of Λ/-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (2)

Figure imgf000028_0001

1                                                                                               2

Triethylamine (42.4 mL, 302 mmol) was added to a suspension of 3-methoxy-2- methylbenzoic acid (45.6 g, 274 mmol) in dry toluene (800 mL). A clear solution was obtained. Then, dppa (65.4 mL, 302 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) was slowly added. After 1 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was successively heated at 500C for 0.5 h, at 700C for 0.5 h then at 1000C for 1 h. To this solution, t-BuOH (30.5 g, 411 mmol) in toluene (40 mL) was added at 1000C and the resulting mixture was refluxed for 7h. The solution was cooled to room temperature then successively washed with water, 0.5 N HCl, 0.5 N NaOH and brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated to give 67 g of the target product: m/z = 237 (M)+.

_2: synthesis of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (3)

Figure imgf000029_0001

TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added to a solution of jV-(teτt-butyloxycarbonyl)- 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline, in dichloro methane (500 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then, volatiles were evaporated. The residue was triturated with toluene (100 mL) and diisopropylether (250 mL), filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether (100 mL) to give 56.3 g of the title product as a TFA salt: m/z = 138 (M+H)+. The TFA salt was transformed to the free aniline by treatment with NaHCO3.

Step 3: synthesis of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (4)

Figure imgf000029_0002

A solution Of BCl3 (1.0 M, 200 mL, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 was slowly added under nitrogen to a solution of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (26.0 g, 190 mmol) in xylene (400 mL). The temperature was monitored during the addition and was kept below 100C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 5°C for 0.5 h. Then, dry acetonitrile (13 mL, 246 mmol) was added at 5°C. After 0.5 h at 5°C, the solution was transferred into a dropping funnel and slowly added at 5°C to a suspension OfAlCl3 (26.7 g, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (150 mL). After 45 min at 5°C, the reaction mixture was heated at 700C under a nitrogen stream. After evaporation Of CH2Cl2, the temperature of the reaction mixture reached 65°C. After 12 h at 65°C, the reaction mixture was cooled at 00C, poured onto ice (300 g), and slowly heated to reflux for 7h. After 2 days at room temperature, 6 N NaOH (50 mL) was added. The pH of the resulting solution was 2-3. The xylene layer was decanted. The organic layer was extracted with CH2Cl2. The xylene and CH2Cl2 layers were combined, successively washed with water, IN NaOH, and brine, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether at O0C, filtered off and washed with diisopropylether to give 13.6 g (40 %) of the title product as a yellowish solid: m/z = 180 (M+H)+.

Step 4: synthesis of 2′-[[(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3 ‘- methylacetophenone (5)

Figure imgf000030_0001

A solution of the compound 4 (18.6 g, 104 mmol) in dioxane (50 rnL) was added under nitrogen to a suspension of 4-isopropylthiazole-2-carbonyl chloride in dioxane (250 rnL). After 2 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. Then, the residue was partitioned between an aqueous solution of NaHCOs and AcOEt, organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether to give 30.8 g (90 %) of the title product 5.

Step 5: synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinoline (6)

Figure imgf000030_0002

Potassium tert-butoxide (21.8 g, 195 mmol) was added to a suspension of the compound 5 (30.8 g, 92.7 mmol) in tert-butanol. The resulting reaction mixtures was heated at 1000C overnight. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled at room temperature and diluted with ether (100 mL). The precipitate was filtered off and washed with Et2O to give a powder (fraction A). The mother liquor was concentrated in vacuo, triturated in ether, filtered off, and washed with ether to give a powder (fraction 2). Fractions 1 and 2 were mixed and poured into water (250 mL). The pH of the resulting solution was adjusted to 6-7 (control with pH paper) with HCl IN. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and dried. Then, the solid was triturated in diisopropyl ether, fϊltered off and dried to give 26 g (88%) of the compound 6 as a brownish solid: m/z = 315 (M+H)+.

Synthesis of (hex-5-enyl)(methyl)amine (8)

O CF,

FX N Br’ N O NH

H 7

(a) Sodium hydride (1.05 eq) was slowly added at 00C to a solution of JV-methyl- trifluoro-acetamide (25 g) in DMF (140 mL). The mixture was stirred for Ih at room temperature under nitrogen. Then, a solution of bromohexene (32,1 g) in DMF

(25 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was heated to 700C for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was poured on water (200 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to give 35 g of the target product 7 as a yellowish oil which was used without further purification in the next step.

(b) A solution of KOH (187.7 g) in water (130 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of 7 (35 g) in methanol (200 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for

12 hours. Then, the reaction mixture was poured on water (100 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and the ether was distilled under atmospheric pressure. The resulting oil was purified by distillation under vacuum (13 mm Hg pressure, 500C) to give 7,4 g (34 %) of the title product 8 as a colourless oil: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ 5.8 (m, IH), 5 (ddd, J = Yl 2 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1.8 Hz, IH), 4.95 (m, IH), 2.5 (t, J = 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.08 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.4 (m, 4H), 1.3 (br s, IH).

Preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxyl- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046loctadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid (16)

Figure imgf000031_0001

3-Oxo-2-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylic acid 9 (500 mg, 3.2 mmol) in 4 mL DMF was added at 00C to HATU (1.34 g, 3.52 mmol) and JV-methylhex-5-enylamine (435 mg, 3.84 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), followed by DIPEA. After stirring for 40 min at 00C, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated, the residue dissolved in EtOAc (70 rnL) and washed with saturated NaHCOs (IO mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated NaCl (20 mL), dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (EtO Ac/petroleum ether, 2:1) afforded 550 mg (68%) of the target product 10 as a colorless oil: m/z = 252 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000032_0001

A solution of LiOH (105 mg in 4 mlof water) was added at 00C to the lactone amide 10. After Ih, the conversion was completed (HPLC). The mixture was acidified to pH 2 – 3 with IN HCl, extracted with AcOEt, dried (MgSO4), evaporated, co-evaporated with toluene several times, and dried under high vacuum overnight to give 520 mg (88%) of the target product 11: m/z = 270 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000032_0002

The l-(amino)-2-(vinyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride 12

(4.92 g, 31.7 mmol) and HATU (12.6 g, 33.2 mmol) were added to 11 (8.14 g,

30.2 mmol). The mixture was cooled in an ice bath under argon, and then DMF (100 mL) and DIPEA (12.5 mL, 11.5 mmol) were successively added. After 30 min at 00C, the solution was stirred at room temperature for an additional 3 h. Then, the reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and water, washed successively with 0.5 N HCl (20 mL) and saturated NaCl (2 x 20 mL), and dried (Na2SO4). Purification by flash chromatography (AcOEt/CH2Cl2/Petroleum ether, 1 :1 :1) afforded 7.41 g (60%) of the target product 13 as a colorless oil: m/z = 407 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000033_0001

DIAD (1.02 niL, 5.17 mmol) was added at -15°C under nitrogen atmosphere to a solution of 13 (1.5 g, 3.69 mmol), quinoline 6 (1.39 g, 4.43 mmol) and triphenyl- phosphine (1.26 g, 4.80 mmol) in dry THF (40 mL). After 4.5 h, at -15°C, the reaction mixture was partitioned between ice-cold water and AcOEt, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The crude material was purified by flash column chromatography (gradient of petroleum AcOEt/CH2Cl2, 1 :9 to 2:8) to give 1.45 g (56 %) of the target product 14: m/z = 703 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000033_0002

A solution of 14 (1.07 g, 1.524 mmol) and Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st generation catalyst (33 mg, 0.03 eq) in dried and degassed 1 ,2-dichloroethane (900 mL) was heated at 75°C under nitrogen for 12 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (25% EtOAc in CH2Cl2). 620 mg (60%) of pure macrocycle 15 were obtained, m/z = 674 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.18-1.39 (m, 12H), 1.59 (m, IH), 1.70-2.08 (m, 5H), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.62 (m, 2H), 2.68 (s, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.06 (s, 3H), 3.19 (sept, J= 6.7 Hz, IH), 3.36 (m, IH), 3.83 (m, IH), 3.97 (s, 3H), 4.09 (m, 2H), 4.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 14 Hz, IH), 5.19 (dd, J= 4 Hz,

10 Hz, IH), 5.31 (m, IH), 5.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 8 Hz, IH), 7.00 (s, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.46

(d, J= 9 Hz, IH), 7.48 (s, IH), 8.03 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH).

Figure imgf000034_0001

A solution of lithium hydroxide (1.65 g, 38.53 mmol) in water (15 rnL) was added to a stirred solution of ester 15 (620 mg, 0.920 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and MeOH (20 mL). After 16 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with NH4Cl sat., concentrated under reduced pressure, acidified to pH 3 with HCl IN and extracted with CH2Cl2, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated to give 560 mg (88%) of carboxylic acid 16. m/z = 647 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.11-1.40 (m, 8H), 1.42-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.88-2.00 (m, 2H), 2.13 (m, IH), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.40 (m, IH), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.67 (s, 3H), 2.81 (m, IH), 2.97 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.31 (m, IH), 3.71 (m, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.56 (dt, J= 4 Hz, 12 Hz, IH), 5.23 (m, 2H), 5.66 (m, IH), 7.01 (s, IH), 7.10 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= IO Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 8.00 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH).

Example 2: Preparation of Λ/-[17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carbonyll(cvclopropyl)sulfonamide (17) SIMEPREVIR

Figure imgf000035_0001

A solution of the compound 16 (560mg, 0.867 mmol) prepared according to Example 4, and carbonyldiimidazole (308 mg, 1.90 mmol) in dry THF (10 mL) was stirred at reflux under nitrogen for 2h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and cyclopropylsulfonamide (400 mg, 3.301 mmol) and DBU (286 mg, 1.881 mmol) were added. This solution was heated at 500C for 15 h. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled down at room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was partitioned between CH2Cl2 and HCl 1 N, the organic layer was washed with brine, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (gradient of EtOAc (0 to 25%) in CH2Cl2) afforded 314 mg of an off-white solid which was further washed with water, then isopropylether, and dried in the vacuum oven to deliver 282 mg (40%) of the pure title product 17, which is the compound of formula (I)  SIMEPREVIR , as a white powder: m/z = 750 (M+H)+.

1H NMR (CDCl3): 0.99-1.52 (m, 14H), 1.64-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.77 (m, IH), 2.41 (m, 2H), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.69 (s, 3H), 2.92 (m, 2H), 3.04 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.40 (m, 2H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 4.60 (t, J= 13 Hz, IH), 5.04 (t, J= 11 Hz, IH), 5.37 (m, IH), 5.66 (m, IH), 6.21 (s, IH), 7.02 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= IO Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 7.99 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 10.82 (broad s, IH).

…………………

SYNTHESIS

WO2007014926A1

 

Example 4: preparation of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methyl- quinolin-4-yloxy] – 13 -methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3 , 13 -diazatricyclo[ 13.3.0.046]octadec-7-ene- 4-carboxylic acid (46) FREE ACID

Synthesis of 4-hvdroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinoline (36) Step 1: synthesis of iV-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (32)

 

Figure imgf000071_0002

31 32

Triethylamine (42.4 mL, 302 mmol) was added to a suspension of 3-methoxy-2- methylbenzoic acid (45.6 g, 274 mmol) in dry toluene (800 mL). A clear solution was obtained. Then, dppa (65.4 mL, 302 mmol) in toluene (100 mL) was slowly added. After 1 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was successively heated at 50°C for 0.5 h, at 70°C for 0.5 h then at 100°C for 1 h. To this solution, t-BuOH (30.5 g, 411 mmol) in toluene (40 mL) was added at 100°C and the resulting mixture was refluxed for 7h. The solution was cooled to room temperature then successively washed with water, 0.5 N HCl, 0.5 N NaOH and brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated to give 67 g of the target product: m/z = 237 (M)+.

Step 2: synthesis of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (33)

 

Figure imgf000072_0001

TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added to a solution of iV-(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)-3- methoxy-2-methylaniline, in dichloromethane (500 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, TFA (40.7 mL, 548 mmol) was added and the resulting mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. Then, volatiles were evaporated. The residue was triturated with toluene (100 mL) and diisopropylether (250 mL), filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether (100 mL) to give 56.3 g of the title product as a TFA salt: m/z = 138 (M+H)+. The TFA salt was transformed to the free aniline by treatment with NaHCO3.

Step 3: synthesis of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (34)

 

Figure imgf000072_0002

A solution OfBCl3 (1.0 M, 200 mL, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 was slowly added under nitrogen to a solution of 3-methoxy-2-methylaniline (26.0 g, 190 mmol) in xylene (400 mL). The temperature was monitored during the addition and was kept below 10°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 5°C for 0.5 h. Then, dry acetonitrile (13 mL, 246 mmol) was added at 5°C. After 0.5 h at 5°C, the solution was transferred into a dropping funnel and slowly added at 5°C to a suspension OfAlCl3 (26.7 g, 200 mmol) in CH2Cl2 (150 mL). After 45 min at 5°C, the reaction mixture was heated at 70°C under a nitrogen stream. After evaporation Of CH2Cl2, the temperature of the reaction mixture reached 65°C. After 12 h at 65°C, the reaction mixture was cooled at 0°C, poured onto ice (300 g), and slowly heated to reflux for 7h. After 2 days at room temperature, 6 N NaOH (50 mL) was added. The pH of the resulting solution was 2-3. The xylene layer was decanted. The organic layer was extracted with CH2Cl2. The xylene and CH2Cl2 layers were combined, successively washed with water, IN NaOH, and brine, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether at O0C, filtered off and washed with diisopropylether to give 13.6 g (40 %) of the title product as a yellowish solid: m/z = 180 (M+H)+.

Step 4: synthesis of 2′-[[(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3 ‘- methylacetophenone (35)

 

Figure imgf000073_0001

A solution of (2-amino-4-methoxy-3-methylphenyl)(methyl)ketone (18.6 g, 104 mmol) in dioxane (50 mL) was added under nitrogen to a suspension of 4-isopropylthiazole-2- carbonyl chloride in dioxane (250 mL). After 2 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness. Then, the residue was partitioned between an aqueous solution OfNaHCO3and AcOEt, organic layer was washed with brine, dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. The residue was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and washed with diisopropyl ether to give 30.8 g (90 %) of the title product 35.

Step 5: synthesis of 4-hydroxy-2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinoline (36)

 

Figure imgf000073_0002

Potassium tert-butoxide (21.8 g, 195 mmol) was added to a suspension of 2′-[[(4-iso- propylthiazole-2-yl)(oxo)methyl]amino]-4′-methoxy-3′-methylacetophenone (35, 30.8 g, 92.7 mmol) in tert-butanol. The resulting reaction mixtures was heated at 100°C overnight. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled at room temperature and diluted with ether (100 mL). The precipitate was filtered off and washed with Et2O to give a powder (fraction A). The mother liquor was concentrated in vacuo, triturated in ether, filtered off, and washed with ether to give a powder (fraction 2). Fractions 1 and 2 were mixed and poured into water (250 mL). The pH of the resulting solution was adjusted to 6-7 (control with pH paper) with HCl IN. The precipitate was filtered off, washed with water and dried. Then, the solid was triturated in diisopropyl ether, filtered off and dried to give 26 g (88%) of the title product 36 as a brownish solid: m/z = 315 (M+H)+.

Synthesis of (hex-5-enyl)(methyl)amine (38)

 

Figure imgf000074_0001

Sodium hydride (1.05 eq) was slowly added at 0°C to a solution of iV-methyltrifluoro- acetamide (25 g) in DMF (140 mL). The mixture was stirred for Ih at room temperature under nitrogen. Then, a solution of bromohexene (32,1 g) in DMF (25 mL) was added dropwise and the mixture was heated to 70°C for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was poured on water (200 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and evaporated to give 35 g of the target product 37 as a yellowish oil which was used without further purification in the next step.

Step B:

A solution of potassium hydroxide (187.7 g) in water (130 mL) was added dropwise to a solution of 37 (35 g) in methanol (200 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. Then, the reaction mixture was poured on water (100 mL) and extracted with ether (4 x 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered and the ether was distilled under atmospheric pressure. The resulting oil was purified by distillation under vacuum (13 mm Hg pressure, 50°C) to give 7,4 g (34 %) of the title product 38 as a colourless oil: 1H-NMR (CDCl3): δ 5.8 (m, IH), 5 (ddd, J= 17.2 Hz, 3.5 Hz, 1.8 Hz, IH), 4.95 (m, IH), 2.5 (t, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 2.43 (s, 3H), 2.08 (q, J= 7.0 Hz, 2H), 1.4 (m, 4H), 1.3 (br s, IH).

Preparation of 17-r2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxyl-

13-methyl-2,14-dioxo-3,13-diazatricvclori3.3.0.046loctadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid

£46}

 

Figure imgf000074_0002

3-Oxo-2-oxa-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-5-carboxylic acid 39 (500 mg, 3.2 mmol) in 4 mlDMF was added at 0°C to HATU (1.34 g, 3.52 mmol) and iV-methylhex-5- enylamine (435 mg, 3.84 mmol) in DMF (3 mL), followed by DIPEA. After stirring for 40 min at 0°C, the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated, the residue dissolved in EtOAc (70 mL) and washed with saturated NaHCO3 (10 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc (2 x 25 mL). The organic phases were combined, washed with saturated NaCl (20 mL), dried (Na2SO4), and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (EtOAc/petroleum ether, 2:1) afforded 550 mg (68%) of the target product 40 as a colorless oil: m/z = 252 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000075_0001

A solution of LiOH (105 mg in 4 mlof water) was added at 0°C to the lactone amide 40. After Ih, the conversion was completed (HPLC). The mixture was acidified to pH 2 – 3 with IN HCl, extracted with AcOEt, dried (MgSO4), evaporated, co-evaporated with toluene several times, and dried under high vacuum overnight to give 520 mg (88%) of the target product 41: m/z = 270 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000075_0002

The l-(amino)-2-(vinyl)cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester hydrochloride 42 (4.92 g, 31.7 mmol) and HATU (12.6 g, 33.2 mmol) were added to 41 (8.14 g, 30.2 mmol). The mixture was cooled in an ice bath under argon, and then DMF (100 mL) and DIPEA (12.5 mL, 11.5 mmol) were successively added. After 30 min at 0°C, the solution was stirred at room temperature for an additional 3 h. Then, the reaction mixture was partitioned between EtOAc and water, washed successively with 0.5 N HCl (20 mL) and saturated NaCl (2 x 20 mL), and dried (Na2SO4). Purification by flash chromatography (AcOEt/CH2Cl2/Petroleum ether, 1:1:1) afforded 7.41 g (60%) of the target product 43 as a colorless oil: m/z = 407 (M+H)+.

Figure imgf000076_0001

DIAD (1.02 mL, 5.17 mmol) was added at -15°C under nitrogen atmosphere to a solution of 43 (1.5 g, 3.69 mmol), quinoline 36 (1.39 g, 4.43 mmol) and triphenyl- phosphine (1.26 g, 4.80 mmol) in dry THF (40 mL). After 4.5 h, at -15°C, the reaction mixture was partitioned between ice-cold water and AcOEt, dried (Na2SO4) and evaporated. The crude material was purified by flash column chromatography (gradient of petroleum AcOEt/CH2Cl2, 1 :9 to 2:8) to give 1.45 g (56 %) of the target product 44: m/z = 703 (M+H)+.

 

Figure imgf000076_0002

A solution of 44 (1.07 g, 1.524 mmol) and Hoveyda-Grubbs 1st generation catalyst (33 mg, 0.03 eq) in dried and degassed 1,2-dichloroethane (900 mL) was heated at 75°C under nitrogen for 12 h. Then, the solvent was evaporated and the residue purified by silica gel chromatography (25% EtOAc in CH2Cl2). 620 mg (60%) of pure macrocycle 45 were obtained, m/z = 674 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.18-1.39 (m, 12H), 1.59 (m, IH), 1.70-2.08 (m, 5H), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.38 (m, IH), 2.62 (m, 2H), 2.68 (s, 3H), 2.83 (m, IH), 3.06 (s, 3H), 3.19 (sept, J= 6.7 Hz, IH), 3.36 (m, IH), 3.83 (m, IH), 3.97 (s, 3H), 4.09 (m, 2H), 4.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 14 Hz, IH), 5.19 (dd, J= 4 Hz, 10 Hz, IH), 5.31 (m, IH), 5.65 (td, J= 4 Hz, 8 Hz, IH), 7.00 (s, IH), 7.18 (s, IH), 7.46 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH), 7.48 (s, IH), 8.03 (d, J= 9 Hz, IH).

Step F

 

Figure imgf000077_0001

A solution of lithium hydroxide (1.65 g, 38.53 mmol) in water (15 mL) was added to a stirred solution of ester 45 (620 mg, 0.920 mmol) in THF (30 mL) and MeOH (20 mL). After 16 h at room temperature, the reaction mixture was quenched with NH4Cl sat., concentrated under reduced pressure, acidified to pH 3 with HCl IN and extracted with CH2Cl2, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated to give 560 mg (88%) of carboxylic acid 46. m/z = 647 (M+H)+1H NMR (CDCl3): 1.11-1.40 (m, 8H), 1.42-1.57 (m, 2H), 1.74 (m, 2H), 1.88-2.00 (m, 2H), 2.13 (m, IH), 2.28 (m, IH), 2.40 (m, IH), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.67 (s, 3H), 2.81 (m, IH), 2.97 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.31 (m, IH), 3.71 (m, IH), 3.96 (s, 3H), 4.56 (dt, J= 4 Hz, 12 Hz, IH), 5.23 (m, 2H), 5.66 (m, IH), 7.01 (s, IH), 7.10 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 8.00 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH).

 

Example 5: Preparation of JV-ri7-r2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8- methylquinolin-4- yloxyl – 13 -methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3 , 13 -diazatricyclol 13.3.0.046loctadec- 7-ene-4-carbonyll (cvclopropyPsulfonamide (47) SIMEPREVIR

 

Figure imgf000078_0001

A solution of 17-[2-(4-isopropylthiazole-2-yl)-7-methoxy-8-methylquinolin-4-yloxy]- 13-methyl-2, 14-dioxo-3, 13-diazatricyclo[l 3.3.0.04,6]octadec-7-ene-4-carboxylic acid 46 (560mg, 0.867 mmol) prepared according to Example 4, and carbonyldiimidazole (308 mg, 1.90 mmol) in dry THF (10 mL) was stirred at reflux under nitrogen for 2h. The reaction mixture was cooled to room temperature and cyclopropylsulfonamide (400 mg, 3.301 mmol) and DBU (286 mg, 1.881 mmol) were added. This solution was heated at 50°C for 15 h. Then, the reaction mixture was cooled down at room temperature and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was partitioned between CH2CI2 and HCl 1 N, the organic layer was washed with brine, dried (MgSO4) and evaporated. Purification by flash chromatography (gradient of EtOAc (0 to 25%) in CH2CI2) afforded 314 mg of an off-white solid which was further washed with water, then isopropylether, and dried in the vacuum oven to deliver 282 mg (40%) of the pure title product 47  SIMEPREVIR as a white powder: m/z = 750 (M+H)+.

1H NMR (CDCl3): 0.99-1.52 (m, 14H), 1.64-2.05 (m, 4H), 2.77 (m, IH), 2.41 (m, 2H), 2.59 (m, 2H), 2.69 (s, 3H), 2.92 (m, 2H), 3.04 (s, 3H), 3.19 (m, IH), 3.40 (m, 2H), 3.98 (s, 3H), 4.60 (t, J= 13 Hz, IH), 5.04 (t, J= 11 Hz, IH), 5.37 (m, IH), 5.66 (m, IH), 6.21 (s, IH), 7.02 (s, IH), 7.22 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 7.45 (s, IH), 7.99 (d, J= 10 Hz, IH), 10.82 (broad s, IH).

…………………..

REFERENCES

  1.  “Medivir Announces That Simeprevir (TMC435) Data Will Be Presented at the Upcoming AASLD Meeting”. Yahoo News. October 1, 2012. Retrieved November 6, 2012.
  2.  Lin, TI; Lenz, O; Fanning, G; Verbinnen, T; Delouvroy, F; Scholliers, A; Vermeiren, K; Rosenquist, A et al. (2009). “In vitro activity and preclinical profile of TMC435350, a potent hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor”Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy 53 (4): 1377–85. doi:10.1128/AAC.01058-08PMC 2663092PMID 19171797|displayauthors= suggested (help)
  3.  “Phase 3 Studies Show Simeprevir plus Interferon/Ribavirin Cures Most Patients in 24 Weeks”. hivandhepatitis.com. December 27, 2012.
  4.  Medivir announces TMC435 in an expanded clinical collaboration. Medivir. 18 April 2012.
  5.  Results from a phase IIa study evaluating Simeprevir and Sofosbuvir in prior null responder Hepatitis C patients have been presented at CROI. 6 March 2013.
  6. TMC-435350
    Drugs Fut 2009, 34(7): 545
  7. Structure-activity relationship study on a novel series of cyclopentane-containing macrocyclic inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease leading to the discovery of TMC435350
    Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2008, 18(17): 4853
  8. Synthesis of enantiomerically pure trans-3,4-substituted cyclopentanols by enzymatic resolution
    Acta Chem Scand (1989) 1992, 46: 1127

PATENTS

  1. WO 2008092954
  2. WO 2007014926
  3. WO 2008092955
  4. WO 2000009543
  5. CN 102531932
  6. WO 2013061285
  7. WO 2011113859
  8. WO 2013041655
WO2010097229A2 * 26 Feb 2010 2 Sep 2010 Ortho-Mcneil-Janssen Pharmaceuticals Inc Amorphous salt of a macrocyclic inhibitor of hcv
WO2013037705A2 * 7 Sep 2012 21 Mar 2013 Fovea Pharmaceuticals Aniline derivatives,their preparation and their therapeutic application
WO2005073195A2 * 28 Jan 2005 11 Aug 2005 Per-Ola Johansson Hcv ns-3 serine protease inhibitors
WO2007014926A1 * 28 Jul 2006 8 Feb 2007 Tibotec Pharm Ltd Macrocyclic inhibitors of hepatitis c virus

The compound ritonavir, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof, and methods for its preparation are described in WO94/14436. For preferred dosage forms of ritonavir, see US6,037, 157, and the documents cited therein: US5,484, 801, US08/402,690, and WO95/07696 and WO95/09614. Ritonavir has the following formula:

Figure imgf000060_0001
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