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Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Mavoglurant (AFQ-056) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of fragile X syndrome



Mavoglurant (AFQ-056) is an experimental drug candidate for the treatment of fragile X syndrome.[1] It exerts its effect as an antagonist of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGLU5).[2]

Mavoglurant is under development by Novartis and is currently in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials.[1][3] If successful, it would be the first drug to treat the underlying disorder instead of the symptoms of fragile X syndrome.[4]


  1. P. Cole (2012). “Mavoglurant”. Drugs of the Future 37 (1): 7–12. doi:10.1358/dof.2012.37.1.1772147. 
  2. Levenga, J; Hayashi, S; De Vrij, FM; Koekkoek, SK; Van Der Linde, HC; Nieuwenhuizen, I; Song, C; Buijsen, RA et al. (2011). “AFQ056, a new mGluR5 antagonist for treatment of fragile X syndrome”. Neurobiology of disease 42 (3): 311–7. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2011.01.022. PMID 21316452. 
  3.  Jacquemont, S.; Curie, A.; Des Portes, V.; Torrioli, M. G.; Berry-Kravis, E.; Hagerman, R. J.; Ramos, F. J.; Cornish, K. et al. (2011). “Epigenetic Modification of the FMR1 Gene in Fragile X Syndrome is Associated with Differential Response to the mGluR5 Antagonist AFQ056”. Science Translational Medicine 3 (64): 64ra1. doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3001708. PMID 21209411. 
  4.  “AFQ056 drug improves symptoms in Fragile X patients: Study”. January 9, 2011.

Fragile X syndrome (FXS), Martin–Bell syndrome, or Escalante’s syndrome (more commonly used in South American countries), is a genetic syndrome that is the most widespread single-gene cause of autism and inherited cause of mental retardation among boys. It results in a spectrum of intellectual disabilities ranging from mild to severe as well as physical characteristics such as an elongated face, large or protruding ears, and large testes (macroorchidism), and behavioral characteristics such as stereotypic movements (e.g. hand-flapping), and social anxiety.

Fragile X syndrome is associated with the expansion of the CGG trinucleotide repeat affecting the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene on the X chromosome, resulting in a failure to express the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), which is required for normal neural development. Depending on the length of the CGG repeat, an allele may be classified as normal (unaffected by the syndrome), a premutation (at risk of fragile X associated disorders), or full mutation (usually affected by the syndrome).[1] A definitive diagnosis of fragile X syndrome is made through genetic testing to determine the number of CGG repeats. Testing for premutation carriers can also be carried out to allow for genetic counseling. The first complete DNA sequence of the repeat expansion in someone with the full mutation was generated by scientists in 2012 using SMRT sequencing.

There is currently no drug treatment that has shown benefit specifically for fragile X syndrome. However, medications are commonly used to treat symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity, anxiety, and aggression. Supportive management is important in optimizing functioning in individuals with fragile X syndrome, and may involve speech therapy, occupational therapy, and individualized educational and behavioral programs.

orphan drug designation EMA,d.bmk

EU/3/12/1046: Public summary of opinion on orphan designation: Mavoglurant for treatment of fragile-X syndrome

Week in Review, Regulatory
Novartis AG (NYSE:NVS; SIX:NOVN), Basel, Switzerland Product: Mavoglurant (AFQ056) Business: Neurology The European Commission granted Orphan Drug designation to Novartis’ mavoglurant to treat fragile X syndrome. The …

ماووگلوران (به انگلیسی: Mavoglurant)‏ یک ترکیب شیمیایی با شناسه پاب‌کم ۹۹۲۶۸۳۲ است.

جستارهای وابسته[ویرایش]

Curis phase 1 Cancer Trial for CUDC-427 Begins

CUDC-427, GDC-0917; RG-7459

Genentech Inc (Roche Holding AG)

Curis licenses GDC-0917 from Genentech

Curis Cancer Trial Begins
Curis Inc. has initiated patient dosing in a second Phase 1 dose-escalation study of CUDC-427 that is being conducted using a continuous, twice-daily oral dosing regimen in patients with advanced and refractory solid tumors or lymphoma.


About CUDC-427 (GDC-0917)

CUDC-427 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that is designed to promote cancer cell death by antagonizing IAP proteins.  IAP proteins are a family of functionally and structurally related proteins that promote cancer cell survival by inhibiting programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis, which is a normal process inherent in every cell.  Using IAP proteins and other anti-apoptotic factors, cancer cells evade apoptosis in response to a variety of signals, including those provided by anti-cancer agents such as chemotherapy, or naturally occurring inflammatory and immune signals transmitted through members of the tumor necrosis factor, or TNF, family of factors.  Evasion from apoptosis is a fundamental mechanism whereby human cancers develop resistance to standard anti-cancer treatments.  IAP inhibitors such as CUDC-427 are designed to counteract the effects of IAP proteins, thus shifting the balance away from cancer cell survival and allowing apoptosis to proceed.

CUDC-427 was designed to mimic the endogenous IAP antagonist mitochondrial protein second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases/direct IAP-binding protein (Smac/DIABLO) that is released into the cytoplasm in response to pro-apoptotic stimuli.  CUDC-427 has demonstrated single-agent and combination anti-tumor activity in mouse xenograft tumor models when administered orally on a daily schedule, and IND-enabling safety studies have shown it to be well tolerated when dosed daily by oral administration, potentially enabling sustained target inhibition.

In October 2010, an open-labeled, uncontrolled, dose-escalation, Phase I clinical trial of CUDC-427 (NCT01226277; IAM4914g) began in patients with refractory solid tumors or lymphoma. Genentech recently completed this Phase I clinical trial in which 42 people received daily oral doses of CUDC-427 for two weeks, followed by a one week rest period.  This 21-day cycle is repeated until disease progression or study discontinuation for any other reason.  The primary endpoints of the study include evaluating the safety and tolerability and the pharmacokinetics of CUDC-427 in people with solid tumors or lymphoma and determining the maximum-tolerated-dose and a potential recommended dose for further clinical studies.  Secondary endpoints include a preliminary assessment of anti-tumor activity of CUDC-427 and evaluating pharmacodynamic markers.  Genentech plans to present full study results at a medical conference in mid-2013.  Please refer to for additional study details.

About Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins

Impairment of programmed cell death or apoptosis often contributes to the formation and progression of cancer, and evasion of apoptosis is one of the primary strategies by which cancer cells develop resistance to anticancer therapies.  Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are a family of functionally and structurally related proteins which include X-linked IAP (XIAP), cellular IAPs (cIAP1 and cIAP2), and melanoma IAP (ML-IAP). They confer protection from death-inducing stimuli by exerting a range of biological activities that promote cancer cell survival and proliferation.  Some even directly inhibit caspases, critical players in the execution of apoptosis.

Mutations, amplifications and chromosomal translocations of IAP genes are associated with various solid and hematologic cancer types, and increased IAP expression has been associated with an unfavorable prognosis and poor outcome for patients.  As a consequence, IAP proteins are considered promising molecular targets for anticancer therapy.


Antibody Effective Against Norovirus


Antibody Effective Against Norovirus
Researchers have released data showing that a monoclonal antibody can neutralize human norovirus. Norovirus causes roughly 20 million cases of acute diarrhea and vomiting annually in the United States, alone. It is also responsible for roughly 800 deaths annually.



What is Norovirus?

Norovirus is a stomach bug that sets in within 10 hours of transmission and usually lasts up to three days. It is completely different from the flu in that only your stomach is affected. While most people recover completely after three days, norovirus is more serious for young children, the elderly and people with other serious health conditions. Every year 70,000 people are hospitalized and 800 deaths are caused by the virus.

What are the symptoms?

The most common symptoms of norovirus include stomach pain, vomiting, diarrhea and nausea. Some people also experience a low-grade fever, headache and body ache. Because it is common to have continued vomiting and diarrhea during the three days of illness, dehydration is another concern for those affected.

How do you get it?

Norovirus is spread through direct contact with an infected person’s vomit or feces. Most commonly, unwashed hands can be attributed to spreading the virus through surfaces or food. The virus spreads quickly in enclosed spaces like cruise ships, nursing homes and schools.

What is the treatment?

Unfortunately, there are no medications to treat norovirus. Health care providers say the best thing to do is try to stay hydrated, rest and wait for the virus to run its course. People who are unable to keep fluids down may need to receive fluids intravenously.

How can you protect yourself?

Hand washing is the best defense against the norovirus, since no one is immune to the always-changing strains of the virus. However, new research has found hand sanitizers are not affective in killing the virus. Avoid direct contact with anyone who is infected and pay close attention to cleaning and preparing food. Also, anyone who is infected should not prepare food. Use disinfectants to wipe down all surfaces that have come in contact with someone who is infected. Also, launder infected clothes immediately on the longest wash cycle to help from spreading the virus.

CSIR, INDIA-WO PATENT–synthesis of amprenavir and saquinavir



A process for synthesis of syn azido epoxide and its use as intermediate in the synthesis of amprenavir and saquinavir
Published as ———WO-2013105118
Council of Scientific & Industrial Research


Gadakh, Sunita, Khanderao; Rekula, Reddy, Santhosh; Sudalai, Arumugam
Publication date 18-JUL-2013

HIV protease inhibitor

Disclosed herein is a novel route of synthesis of syn azide epoxide of formu 5, which is used as a common intermdeiate for asymmetric synthesis of HIV protease inhibitors such as Amprenavir, Fosamprenavir, Saquinavir and formal synthesis of Darunavir and Palinavir obtained by Cobalt- catalyzed hydrolyti kinetic resolution of racemic anti-(2SR, 3SR) – 3 -azido – 4 -phenyl – 1, 2- epoxybutane (azido-epoxide

IN2012DE82 10-JAN-2012 [priority]

Nanomagnets clean blood

Nanomagnets clean blood

Nanoparticles latch onto toxins in blood but are magnetically trapped before they can enter the body

The group used their extracorporeal circuit to remove lead and the drug digoxin from the blood of rats. Target compounds in blood adhered to the nanoparticles as they collided within the circuit. The nanoparticles were then collected by magnetic separation with the toxin immobilised on the particle surface before blood could re-enter the body.

Cleaning cadmium from blood
The nanocomposite binds to cadmium ions in the blood and a magnet is used to attract the resulting complex for removal
Removal of cadmium ions from a human blood sample with a magnet

Actavis submits ANDAs for two more generic version of Bayer’s Safyral and Fresenius Kabi’s Diprivan (propofol) injection

Actavis submits ANDAs for two more generic version of

Bayer’s Safyral and



Fresenius Kabi’s Diprivan (propofol) injection


Actavis has filed for US approval for generic versions of a contraceptive and a sedative/anaesthetic.

Biosimilars applications under review by EMA – 2013 Q2

The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is the body responsible for approval of biosimilars within the EU. A legal framework for approving biosimilars was established in 2003. Approval of biosimilars is based on an abbreviated registration process, which allows biosimilars manufacturers to provide a reduced package of information compared to originator drugs, provided they can prove ‘similarity’ to the originator or ‘reference drug’.

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First biosimilar filgrastims launched in Japan

International nonproprietary name: Filgrastim

 Chemical name: N-L- Methionyl colony-stimulating factor (human genetically engineered); non-glycated protein consisted of 175 amino acids.

Chemical name: N-L- Methionyl colony-stimulating factor (human genetically engineered); non-glycated protein consisted of 175 amino acids.

Filgrastim is a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) analog used to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of granulocytes.[1] It is produced by recombinant DNA technology. The gene for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is inserted into the genetic material of Escherichia coli. The G-CSF then produced by E. coli is different from G-CSF naturally made in humans.

Hematopoietic growth factor. Interacting with receptors on the surface of hematopoietic cells it regulates production and release of neutrophils from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood. Dose dependant number growth of neutrophils with normal or increased functional activity is passing for 24 hours.

Filgrastim is marketed under several brand names, including Neupogen (Amgen), Imumax(Abbott Laboratories), Grafeel (Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories), Neukine (Intas Biopharmaceuticals), Emgrast (Emcure Pharmaceuticals), Religrast (Reliance Life Sciences), Zarzio (Sandoz), Nufil (Biocon) and others.

Apricus Biosciences is currently developing and testing a product under the brand nameNupen which can deliver filgrastim through the skin to improve post-chemotherapy recovery of neutrophil counts.

Filgrastim is also used to increase the number of hematopoietic stem cells in the blood before collection by leukapheresis for use in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.Filgrastim is used to treat neutropenia,[2] stimulating the bone marrow to increase production of neutrophils. Causes of neutropenia include chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.

Filgrastim should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived proteins.

The most commonly observed adverse effect is mild-to-moderate bone pain after repeated administration and local skin reactions at the site of injection.[3] Other observed adverse effects include serious allergic reactions (including a rash over the whole body, shortness of breath, wheezing, dizziness, swelling around the mouth or eyes, fast pulse, and sweating), ruptured spleen (sometimes resulting in death), alveolar hemorrhageacute respiratory distress syndrome, and hemoptysis.[3] Severe sickle cell crises, in some cases resulting in death, have been associated with the use of filgrastim in patients with sickle cell disorders.[4]

Drug interactions between filgrastim and other drugs have not been fully evaluated. Drugs which may potentiate the release of neutrophils‚ such as lithium‚ should be used with caution.

Increased hematopoietic activity of the bone marrow in response to growth factor therapy has been associated with transient positive bone imaging changes; this should be considered when interpreting bone-imaging results.[5]

Filgrastim has not been studied in pregnant women and its effects on unborn babies is unknown. If taking filgrastim while pregnant, it is possible that traces of the drug could be found in the baby’s blood. It is not known if the drug can get into human breast milk.

  1. Beveridge, R. A.; Miller, J. A.; Kales, A. N.; Binder, R. A.; Robert, N. J.; Harvey, J. H.; Windsor, K.; Gore, I. et al. (1998). “A Comparison of Efficacy of Sargramostim (Yeast-Derived RhuGM-CSF) and Filgrastim (Bacteria-Derived RhuG-CSF) in the Therapeutic Setting of Chemotherapy-Induced Myelosuppression”. Cancer Investigation 16 (6): 366–373. doi:10.3109/07357909809115775.PMID 9679526edit
  2. Crawford, J.; Glaspy, J. A.; Stoller, R. G.; Tomita, D. K.; Vincent, M. E.; McGuire, B. W.; Ozer, H. (2005). “Final Results of a Placebo-Controlled Study of Filgrastim in Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Exploration of Risk Factors for Febrile Neutropenia”. Supportive Cancer Therapy 3 (1): 36–46. doi:10.3816/SCT.2005.n.023PMID 18632435edit
  3. Neupogen “Neupogen: Patient Information Leaflet”Amgen. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  4.  “NEUPOGEN® Patient Guide”Amgen. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  5.  “Neupogen”. RxList. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
  • Budiono Santoso; Chris J. van Boxtel; Boxtel, Christoffel Jos van (2001). Drug benefits and risks: international textbook of clinical pharmacology. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-89927-5.
  • “Neupogen information”. Retrieved 20 October 2005.

Genentech announced positive results from the Phase 3 CLL11 study, Leukemia Trial


Obinutuzumab (GA101)


Genentech announced positive results from the Phase 3 CLL11 study. At a pre-planned interim analysis, an independent data monitoring committee determined that the study met its primary endpoint showing that GA101 plus chlorambucil helped people live significantly longer without their disease worsening (progression-free survival; PFS) compared to Rituxan (rituximab) plus chlorambucil.

The CLL11 study is being conducted in cooperation with the German CLL Study Group (GCLLSG). These final data were reached well ahead of the target completion date in 2014 as a result of the magnitude of difference seen between the two study arms.


Afutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody being developed by Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. for the treatment of lymphoma.[1] It acts as an immunomodulator.[2][3] It was renamed obinutuzumab in 2009.[4]

Class/mechanism: Glyco-engineered anti-CD20 IgG1 type II monoclonal antibody. Engineered with a modified elbow hinge residue (valine instead of leucine at Kabat position 11) and a glyco-engineered Fc region, which is postulated to enhance its immunomodulatory effect.[1]
Route: IV
Extravasation: no information

For conciseness and simplicity, currently will focus on treatment regimens and not list information such as: renal/hepatic dose adjustments, metabolism (including CYP450), excretion, monitoring parameters (although this will be considered for checklists), or manufacturer.

  1.  Robak, T (2009). “GA-101, a third-generation, humanized and glyco-engineered anti-CD20 mAb for the treatment of B-cell lymphoid malignancies”. Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England : 2000) 10 (6): 588–96. PMID 19513948.
  2.  Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The Usan Council – Afutuzumab, American Medical Association.
  3.  International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN), World Health Organization.
  4.  International Nonproprietary Names for Pharmaceutical Substances (INN), World Health Organization.

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Roche’s new leukaemia drug, Obinutuzumab, superior to Rituxan in clinical trial

July 24 2013 | By Márcio Barra

Roche has announced that its experimental leukemia drug GA101, or obinutuzumab, used in combination with chemotherapy, was better than Rituxan at helping people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia live longer without their disease worsening, according to the results from the second phase of the clinical trial. Both drugs were tested and compared in combination with chlorambucil.

The trial, named CLL11, is a phase III, multicenter, open-label, randomized three-arm study investigated in 781 previously untreated people with chronic lymphocytic leukemia  and co-existing medical conditions who are in need of therapy. The study included two stages of analysis, with the first stage results being reported at the start of this month.  Data from the first stage  showed that patients taking Obinutuzumab had a 86%reduction in the risk of disease worsening or death when combined with chlorambucil chemotherapy compared to chlorambucil alone in previously untreated people with chronic…

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