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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Rimegepant sulfate, リメゲパント硫酸塩;

ChemSpider 2D Image | Rimegepant | C28H28F2N6O3



  • Molecular FormulaC28H28F2N6O3
  • Monoisotopic mass534.219116 Da
1289023-67-1 [RN]
1-Piperidinecarboxylic acid, 4-(2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-1-yl)-, (5S,6S,9R)-5-amino-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b]pyridin-9-yl ester
BMS 927711

Antimigraine, Calcitonin receptor-like receptor antagonist

Treatment of migraine

Rimegepant sulfate.png



Rimegepant sulfate (USAN)


(C28H28F2N6O3)2. H2SO4. 3H2O
Mol weight

Nurtec ODT, FDA 2020, 2020/2/27 fda approved

Biohaven Pharmaceuticals developed Rimegepant, also known as BMS-927711, acquired in 2016 from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Rimegepant, also known as BMS-927711. Rimegepant is a potent, selective, competitive and orally active calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist in clinical trials for treating migraine. Rimegepant has shown in vivo efficacy without vasoconstrictor effect; it is superior to placebo at several different doses (75 mg, 150 mg, and 300 mg) and has an excellent tolerability profile.

Rimegepant is a medication for the treatment of an acute migraine with or without aura (a sensory phenomenon or visual disturbance) in adults. However, it is not to be used prophylactically. In the US, it is marketed under the brand name, Nurtec ODT.[1]

It is not indicated for the preventive treatment of migraine.[1] It is taken by mouth, to dissolve on the tongue.[1] It takes effect within an hour and can provide relief for up to 48 hours, according to Biohaven. It is not a narcotic and has no addictive potential, and consequently will not be designated a controlled substance. It works by blocking CGRP receptors. 86% of patients did not require additional rescue medication within 24 hours of a single dose of Nurtec. All this info was obtained from a press release from Biohaven. (

Rimegepant was approved for use in the United States as of February 27th, 2020 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be produced and marketed by Biohaven Pharmaceuticals.[2]

Charlie Conway

Charlie Conway, Chief Scientific Officer at Biohaven Pharmaceuticals

Vlad Coric, M.D.

Vlad Coric, M.D., CEO at Biohaven

No alternative text description for this image



– First and only calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist available in a fast-acting orally disintegrating tablet (ODT)- A single oral dose of NURTEC ODT 75 mg can provide fast pain relief and return patients to normal function within one hour, and deliver sustained efficacy that lasts up to 48 hours for many patients- 86 percent of patients treated with a single dose of NURTEC ODT did not use a migraine rescue medication within 24 hours- Biohaven to host investor conference call on Friday, February 28, 2020 at 8:00 am ET

NEW HAVEN, Conn., Feb. 27, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Biohaven Pharmaceutical Holding Company Ltd. (NYSE: BHVN) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved NURTEC™ ODT (rimegepant) for the acute treatment of migraine in adults. NURTEC ODT is the first FDA-approved product for Biohaven, a company dedicated to advancing innovative therapies for neurological diseases.

Nurtec™ ODT convenient 8-count package

NURTEC™ ODT Convenient 8-count Package

 NURTEC™ ODT zoom in showing one individual quick-dissolving tablet (not actual size)

A single quick-dissolving tablet of NURTEC ODT can provide fast pain relief and return patients to normal function within one hour, and deliver sustained efficacy that lasts up to 48 hours for many patients. NURTEC ODT disperses almost instantly in a person’s mouth without the need for water, offering people with migraine a convenient, discreet way to take their medication anytime and anywhere they need it. NURTEC ODT is not indicated for the preventive treatment of migraine. Biohaven expects topline results from its prevention of migraine trial later this quarter.

Vlad Coric, M.D., CEO of Biohaven commented, “The FDA approval of NURTEC ODT marks an important milestone for the migraine community and a transformative event for Biohaven. Millions of people suffering from migraine are often not satisfied with their current acute treatment, at times having to make significant tradeoffs because of troublesome side effects and reduced ability to function. NURTEC ODT is an important new oral acute treatment for migraine that offers patients the potential to quickly reduce and eliminate pain and get back to their lives.” Dr. Coric added, “We believe NURTEC ODT will be the first of many innovative Biohaven medicines to become available to treat devastating neurological diseases, a therapeutic category many other companies have abandoned. We are dedicated to helping patients with these conditions, who often have limited or no treatment options, live better, more productive lives.”

NURTEC ODT, with its novel quick-dissolve oral tablet formulation, works by blocking CGRP receptors, treating a root cause of migraine. NURTEC ODT is not an opioid or narcotic, does not have addiction potential and is not scheduled as a controlled substance by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration.

NURTEC ODT may offer an alternative treatment option, particularly for patients who experience inadequate efficacy, poor tolerability, or have a contraindication to currently available therapies. More than 3,100 patients have been treated with rimegepant with more than 113,000 doses administered in clinical trials, including a one-year long-term safety study. In the pivotal Phase 3 trial, NURTEC ODT was generally well tolerated; the most common adverse reaction was nausea (2%) in patients who received NURTEC ODT compared to 0.4% of patients who received placebo.

Mary Franklin, Executive Director of the National Headache Foundation commented, “Everyone knows someone living with migraine, yet it remains an invisible disease that is often overlooked and misunderstood. Almost all people with migraine need an acute treatment to stop a migraine attack as it occurs, which can happen without warning. The approval of NURTEC ODT is exciting for people with migraine as it provides a new treatment option to help people regain control of their attacks and their lives.”

Peter Goadsby, M.D., Ph.D., Professor of Neurology and Director of the King’s Clinical Research Facility, King’s College Hospital commented, “I see many patients in my practice whose lives are disrupted by migraine, afraid to go about everyday life in case of a migraine attack. Many feel unsure if their acute treatment will work and if they can manage the side effects. With the FDA approval of NURTEC ODT, there is renewed hope for people living with migraine that they can get back to living their lives without fear of the next attack.”

The FDA approval of NURTEC ODT is based on results from the pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial (Study 303) and the long-term, open-label safety study (Study 201). In the Phase 3 trial, NURTEC ODT achieved statistical significance on the regulatory co-primary endpoints of pain freedom and freedom from most bothersome symptom (MBS) at two hours post dose compared to placebo. NURTEC ODT also demonstrated statistical superiority at one hour for pain relief (reduction of moderate or severe pain to no pain or mild pain) and return to normal function. The benefits of pain freedom, pain relief, return to normal function and freedom from MBS were sustained up to 48 hours for many patients. Importantly, these benefits were seen with only a single dose of NURTEC ODT. Eighty-six percent of patients treated with NURTEC ODT did not require rescue medication (e.g. NSAIDS, acetaminophen) within 24 hours post dose. The long-term safety study assessed the safety and tolerability of rimegepant with multiple doses used over up to one year. The study evaluated 1,798 patients, who used rimegepant 75 mg as needed to treat migraine attacks, up to one dose per day. The study included 1,131 patients who were exposed to rimegepant for at least six months, and 863 who were exposed for at least one year, all of whom treated an average of at least two migraine attacks per month. The safety of treating more than 15 migraines in a 30-day period has not been established.

NURTEC ODT is contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to rimegepant, NURTEC ODT, or to any of its components. Hypersensitivity reactions with dyspnea and severe rash, including delayed serious hypersensitivity days after administration, occurred in less than 1% of subjects taking NURTEC ODT in clinical studies.

Biohaven Conference Call Information
Biohaven is hosting a conference call and webcast on Friday, February 28, 2020, at 8:00 a.m. ET.  Participants are invited to join the conference by dialing 877-407-9120 (toll-free) or 412-902-1009 (international). To access the audio webcast with slides, please visit the “Events & Presentations” page in the Investors section of the Company’s website.

Biohaven’s Commitment to Patient Access 
Biohaven is committed to supporting the migraine community by eliminating barriers to medication access. The company has launched a patient support program. For more information and to enroll, please call 1-833-4-NURTEC or visit

NURTEC ODT will be available in pharmacies in early March 2020 in packs of eight tablets. Each eight tablet pack covers treatment of eight migraine attacks with one dose, as needed, up to once daily.  Sample packs containing two tablets will also be made available to healthcare providers. Patients with migraine should discuss with their primary care provider or neurologist whether NURTEC ODT is appropriate for them.

NURTEC™ ODT (rimegepant) is the first and only calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist available in a quick-dissolve ODT formulation that is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the acute treatment of migraine in adults. The activity of the neuropeptide CGRP is thought to play a causal role in migraine pathophysiology. NURTEC ODT is a CGRP receptor antagonist that works by reversibly blocking CGRP receptors, thereby inhibiting the biologic activity of the CGRP neuropeptide. The recommended dose of NURTEC ODT is 75 mg, taken as needed, up to once daily. For more information about NURTEC ODT, visit

About Migraine
Nearly 40 million people in the U.S. suffer from migraine and the World Health Organization classifies migraine as one of the 10 most disabling medical illnesses. Migraine is characterized by debilitating attacks lasting four to 72 hours with multiple symptoms, including pulsating headaches of moderate to severe pain intensity that can be associated with nausea or vomiting, and/or sensitivity to sound (phonophobia) and sensitivity to light (photophobia). There is a significant unmet need for new acute treatments as more than 90 percent of migraine sufferers are unable to work or function normally during an attack.

About CGRP Receptor Antagonism
Small molecule CGRP receptor antagonists represent a novel class of drugs for the treatment of migraine. This unique mode of action potentially offers an alternative to current agents, particularly for patients who have contraindications to the use of triptans, or who have a poor response to triptans or are intolerant to them.

What is NURTEC ODT? 
NURTEC™ ODT (rimegepant) is indicated for the acute treatment of migraine with or without aura in adults.

No alternative text description for this image

Raising the “flag of freedom from migraine” over Biohaven headquarters in New Haven CT

Mechanism of action

Rimegepant is a small molecule calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist.[3]


WO 2011046997


WO 2012050764

The disclosure generally relates to a synthetic process for preparing compounds of formula I including the preparation of chemical intermediates useful in this process. CGRP inhibitors are postulated to be useful in pathophysiologic conditions where excessive CGRP receptor activation has occurred. Some of these include neurogenic vasodilation, neurogenic inflammation, migraine, cluster headache and other headaches, thermal injury, circulatory shock, menopausal flushing, and asthma. CGRP antagonists have shown efficacy in human clinical trials. See Davis CD, Xu C. Curr Top Med Chem. 2008 8(16):1468-79; Benemei S, Nicoletti P, Capone JG, Geppetti P. Curr Opin Pharmacol 2009 9(1):9-14. Epub 2009 Jan 20; Ho TW, Ferrari MD, Dodick DW, Galet V, Kost J, Fan X, Leibensperger H, Froman S, Assaid C, Lines C, Koppen H, Winner PK. Lancet. 2008 372:2115. Epub 2008 Nov 25; Ho TW, Mannix LK, Fan X, Assaid C, Furtek C, Jones CJ, Lines CR, Rapoport AM; Neurology 2008 70: 1304. Epub 2007 Oct 3.

CGRP receptor antagonists have been disclosed in PCT publications WO 2004/092166, WO 2004/092168, and WO 2007/120590. The compound (5S,6S,9R)- 5-amino-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-6,7,8!9-tetrahydiO-5H-cyclohepta[b]pyridin-9-yl 4- (2-oxo-2,3-dihydiO-lH-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-l-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate is an inhibitor of the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor.

Figure imgf000004_0001
Figure imgf000005_0001

cheme 1 illustrates a synthesis of formula I compounds. heme 1,

Figure imgf000011_0001


Figure imgf000012_0001

( 6S, 9R)-6~ (2, 3 -difluorophenyl)-9-(triisopropylsiIyloxy) – 6, 7, 8, 9-tetrahydro-5H- cyclohepta[b]pyridin-5 -amine. To a 100 mL hastelloy autoclave reactor was charged (6S,9R)-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-9-(triisopiOpylsilyloxy)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydi -5H- cyclohepta[b]pyridin-5-one (5.00 g, 1 1.22 mmol), 1,4-dioxane (50 mL) and titanium tetra(isopropoxide) (8.33 mL, 28.11 mmol). The reactor was purged three times with nitrogen and three times with ammonia. After the purge cycle was completed, the reactor was pressurized with ammonia to 100 psig. The reaction mixture was heated to 50°C (jacket temperature) and stirred at a speed to ensure good mixing. The reaction mixture was aged at 100 psig ammonia and 50°C for 20 h. The mixture was then cooled to 20°C then 5 % Pd/Alumina (1.0 g, 20 wt%) was charged to the autoclave reactor. The reactor was purged three times with nitrogen and three times with hydrogen. After the purged cycle completed, the reactor was pressurized with hydrogen to 100 psig and mixture was heated to 50°C (jacket temperature) and stirred at a speed to ensure good mixing. The reaction mixture was aged at 100 psig H2 and 50°C for 23h (reactor pressure jumped to -200 psig due to soluble ammonia in the mixture). The mixture was then cooled to 20 °C then filtered then transferred to a 100 ml 3-necked flask. To the mixture water (0.55 mL) was added drop wise, which resulted in yellow slurry. The resulting slurry was stirred for 30 mm then filtered, then the titanium dioxide cake was washed with 1,4-dioxane (30 mL). The filtrate was collected and the solvent was removed. The resulting oil was dissolved in isopropanol (40 mL). To the solution ~5N HC1 in isopropanol (9.0 ml) was added drop wise resulting in a thick slurry. To the slurry isopropyi acetate (60 ml) was added and heated to 45 °C for 10 min and then cooled to 22 °C over approximately 3 h to afford a white solid (3.0 g, 51.5 %). Ή NMR (500 MHz, CD3OD)

δ ppm 8.89 (d, J= 5.3, 1H), 8,42 (bs, 1H), 8.05 (bs, 1H), 7.35 (dd, J= 8.19 , 16.71), 7.2 (bs, 2H), 7.22 (m, 1H) 7.15 (m, 1H), 5.7 (dd, J = 1.89, J = 8.51), 5.4 (m, 1H), 3.5 ( m, 1H), 1.9-2.5 (B, 4h) 1.4 (sept, J = 15.13,3H), 1.2 (t, J= Ί.5Ί 18H); 13C NMR (125 MHz, CD3OD) δ 153.5, 151.6, 151.5, 151.3, 149.4, 143.4, 135.03, 129.8, 129.8, 127.8, 126.8, 126.4, 118.6, 72.4, 54.1, 41.4, 34.3, 32.3, 25.4, 18.6, 18.5, 13.7, 13.6, 13.5, 13.3.

Example 2

Figure imgf000013_0001

(6S,9R)-5-cmino-6-(2 -difluorophenyl)-6, 7,8,9-tetrahydro~5H-cyclohepta[b^ 9-o To a 250 ml flask was charged (6S,9R)-6-(253-difluoiOphenyl)-9-

(tnisopiOpylsilyloxy)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b]pyridin-5-amine di HC1 salt (15 g, 25.88 mtnol) and a solution of isopropanol: water (45 mL : 15 mL). The mixture was heated to 82 °C for 6h then dried via azeotropic distillation at atmospheric pressure using isopropanol until the KF was less than < 3 %. After fresh isopropanol (25 ml) was added, the mixture was heated to 70 °C and then isopropyl acetate (45 ml) was added that resulting in a white slurry. The slurry cooled to 22 °C for 15 min to afford a white solid (9.33 g, 99%). 1H NMR (500 MHz CD3OD) δ 8.77 (d, J= 5.7 Hz, 1H), 8.47 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 8.11 (dd, J= 6.0, 8.2 Hz, 1H), 7.21-7.32 (m, 3H), 5.53 (dd, J= 3.8, 9.8 Hz, 1H) 5.33 (d, J = 9.8 Hz, 1H), 3.5 (bm, 1H), 2.25- 2.40 (m, 2H), 2.15 (bm, 1H), 1.90 (bm, 1H); 13C NMR (125 MHz, MeOD) δ 159.4, 153.9, 151.9 and 151.8, 149.7, 143.6, 141.8, 135.7, 130.6, 127.7, 126.8, 1 18.9, 70.0, 54.9, 42.2, 34.5, 33.4. Example 3

Figure imgf000014_0001

(5S, 6S, 9R)-5-amino-6-(2, 3-difluorophenyl)-6, 7>8,9-tetrahydro-5H- cyclohepta[b ]pyridin-9~yl~4-(2-oxo-2, 3-dihydro-lH-imidazo[4, 5-b ]pyridin-l- yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate. To a round bottom flask was charged (5S,6S,9R)-5- amino-6-(2,3-difluorophenyl)-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b]pyridin-9-ol dihydrochloride (1.00 g, 2.73 mmol) and dichloromethane (15 mL). A solution of sodium carbonate (0.58 g, 5.47 mmol), 20 wt% aqueous sodium chloride (5 mL), and water (10 mL) was added and the biphasic mixture was aged for 30 min. The phases were allowed to separate and the organic stream was retained. The dichloromethane solvent was then switched with azeotropic drying to tetrahydrofuran, with a final volume of (15 mL). At 20 °C was added, l-(l-(lH~imidazole-l-carbonyl)piperidin- 4-yl)-lH-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one (0.95 g, 3.01 mmol), followed by a 20 wt% potassium ter/-butoxide solution in THF (4 mL, 6.20 mmol). The thin slurry was aged for lh, and then the reaction was quenched with the addition of 20 wt% aqueous sodium chloride (5 mL) and 20 wt% aqueous citric acid (2.5 mL). The layers were allowed to separate and the organic rich layer was retained. The organic layer was washed with 20 wt% aqueous sodium chloride (1 mL). The organic tetrahydrofuran stream was then concentrated in vacuo to afford an oil which was resuspended in dichloromethane (20 mL) and dried with MgS04. The

dichloromethane stream was concentrated in vacuo to afford an oil, which was crystallized from ethanohheptane to afford a white solid (1.14 g, 78.3%). LCMS: [M+H] = 535: 1H MR (600 MHz, 6-DMSO) δ 11.58 (IH, bs), 8.45 (IH, bd), 8.03 (IH, d, J= 7.3 Hz), 7.91 (IH, bs), 7.54 (IH, bd), 7.36 (IH, bm), 7.34 (IH, bm), 7.28 (IH, m), 7.21 (IH, m), 7.01 (IH, bs), 6.01 (IH, dd, J= 3.2, 9.8 Hz), 4.48 (IH, d, J= 9.5 Hz), 4.43 (IH, bm), 4.38 (IH, bm), 4.11 (IH, bm), 3.08 (IH, bm), 2.93 (IH, bm), 2.84 (IH, m), 2.62 (IH, bm), 2.20 (2H, bm), 2.13 (IH, bm), 2.12 (IH, bm), 1.75 (IH, bm), 1.72 (1H, bm), 1.66 (1H, bm); C NMR (125 MHz, i/6-DMSO) δ 156.6, 154.2, 153.0, 149.8, 148.1, 146.4, 143.5, 139.6, 137.4, 134.0, 132.8, 124.7, 124.5, 123.3, 122.2, 116.3, 115.0, 114.3, 73.7, 52.8, 50.0, 43.8, 43.3, 32.0, 30.3, 28.6; nip 255°C.

Example 4

Figure imgf000015_0001


To a round bottom flask was added, Ι,Γ-carbonyldiimidazole (8.59 g, 51.4 mmoi), diisopropylethylamine (12.6 mL, 72.2 mmol) and tetrahydrofuran (100 niL). This mixture was warmed to 40°C and aged for 10 min, after which l-(piperidin-4-yl)-lH- imidazo[4,5-b]pyridin-2(3H)-one dihydrochloride (10 g, 34,3 mmol) was added. The slurry was aged at 40 °C for 3 h, and then upon reaction completion, the solvent was swapped to acetonitrile which afforded an off white solid (9.19 g, 85.9%). LCMS: [M+H] = 313; Ή NMR (400 MHz, 6-DMSO) δ 11.58 (1H, s), 8.09 (1H, s), 7.97 (1H, d, J= 8.0 Hz), 7.73 (1H, d, J= 4.0 Hz), 7.53 (1H, s), 7.05 (1H, s), 7.00 (1H, dd, J= 4.0, 8.0 Hz), 4.52, (1H, dd, J= 8.0, 12.0 Hz), 4.05 (2H, bd, J= 8,0 Hz), 3.31 (2H, m), 2.34 (2H, m), 1.82 (2H, bd, J = 12.0 Hz); 13C NMR (100 MHz, i/6~DMSO) δ 153.0, 150.4, 143.4, 139.8, 137.2, 128.9, 123.0, 1 18.7, 116.4, 115.2, 49.3, 45.1 , 28.5; mp 226°C.

Example 5

Figure imgf000015_0002


To a 250 ml round bottom flask was added 3-N-piperidin-4-ylpyridine-2, 3 -diamine dihydrochloride (10 g, 52 mmol) and acetonitrile (100 mL). Triethyl amine (11.44 g, 1 13 mmol) and 1 , -Carbonyldiimidazole (18.34 g, 113 mmol) were added at ambient temperature and the mixture was stirred for 2 h. The solvent was evaporated under vacuum to—30 ml reaction volume and isopropyl acetate (50 mL) was added into the resulting sluny at 40°C. The slurry was cooled to 10-15 °C and then stirred for 1 h to afford an off white solid (10 g, 85%).


US 20130225636

EP 2815749


 Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 55(23), 10644-10651.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists have demonstrated clinical efficacy in the treatment of acute migraine. Herein, we describe the design, synthesis, and preclinical characterization of a highly potent, oral CGRP receptor antagonist BMS-927711 (8). Compound 8 has good oral bioavailability in rat and cynomolgus monkey, attractive overall preclinical properties, and shows dose-dependent activity in a primate model of CGRP-induced facial blood flow. Compound 8 is presently in phase II clinical trials.


Organic letters (2015), 17(24), 5982-5.

An asymmetric synthesis of novel heterocyclic analogue of the CGRP receptor antagonist rimegepant (BMS-927711, 3) is reported. The cycloheptane ring was constructed by an intramolecular Heck reaction. The application of Hayashi–Miyaura and Ellman reactions furnished the aryl and the amine chiral centers, while the separable diastereomeric third chiral center alcohols led to both carbamate and urea analogues. This synthetic approach was applicable to both 6- and 5-membered heterocycles as exemplified by pyrazine and thiazole derivatives.


Originally discovered at Bristol-Myers Squibb,[4] it was under development by Biohaven Pharmaceuticals and is now also being marketed in the US by the same company after receiving FDA approval late February 2020.[5]


  1. Jump up to:a b c “Nurtec ODT (rimegepant) orally disintegrating tablets, for sublingual or oral use” (PDF). February 2020. Retrieved 27 February 2020.
  2. ^ “Nurtec ODT: FDA-Approved Drugs”U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 28 February 2020.
  3. ^ Diener HC, Charles A, Goadsby PJ, Holle D (October 2015). “New therapeutic approaches for the prevention and treatment of migraine”. The Lancet. Neurology14 (10): 1010–22. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00198-2PMID 26376968.
  4. ^ “Rimegepant – Biohaven Pharmaceuticals Holding Company”Adis Insight. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
  5. ^ “Rimegepant (BHV-3000) – for acute treatment of Migraine”. Biohaven Pharmaceuticals.

External links

Clinical data
Trade names Nurtec ODT
Other names BHV-3000, BMS-927711
License data
Routes of
By mouth
Drug class calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
CAS Number
PubChem CID
CompTox Dashboard(EPA)
Chemical and physical data
Formula C28H28F2N6O3
Molar mass 534.568 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)

//////////Rimegepant , リメゲパント硫酸塩, Rimegepant sulfate,  migraine, BMS-927711, fda 2020


Lasmiditan skeletal.svg

LASMIDITAN, COL-144 , LY-573144

439239-90-4 (free base)



CoLucid Pharmaceuticals, PHASE 3, MIGRAINE


Lasmiditan succinate; UNII-W64YBJ346B; Lasmiditan succinate [USAN]; W64YBJ346B; 439239-92-6; Lasmiditan succinate (USAN)

Lasmiditan succinate.png

Molecular Formula: C42H42F6N6O8
Molecular Weight: 872.822 g/mol

Lasmiditan (COL-144) is an investigational drug for the treatment of acute migraine. It is being developed by Eli Lilly and is in phase III clinical trials. It is a first-in-class “neurally acting anti-migraine agent” ditan.

WO-2018010345,  from Solipharma and the inventor on this API. Eli Lilly , following its acquisition of CoLucid Pharmaceuticals , is developing lasmiditan, a 5-HT 1f agonist, for treating acute migraine.






Mechanism of action

Lasmiditan is a serotonin receptor agonist that, like the unsuccessful LY-334,370, selectively binds to the 5-HT1F receptor subtype. A number of triptans have been shown to act on this subtype as well, but only after their affinity for 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D has been made responsible for their anti-migraine activity. The lack of affinity for these receptors might result in fewer side effects related to vasoconstriction compared to triptans in susceptible patients, such as those with ischemic heart diseaseRaynaud’s phenomenon or after a myocardial infarction,[1] although a 1998 review has found such side-effects to rarely occur in patients taking triptans.[2][3]

Discovery and development

Lasmiditan was discovered by Eli Lilly and Company and was out-licensed to CoLucid Pharmaceuticals in 2006, until CoLucid was bought by Eli Lilly in 2017 to reacquire the drug.[4] The drug is protected by patents until 2031.[5]

Phase II clinical trials for dose finding purposes were completed in 2007 for an intravenous form[6] and in early 2010 for an oral form.[7]Two separate Phase III clinical trials for the oral version are currently ongoing under special protocol agreements with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Eli Lilly has stated that they intend to submit a new drug application to the FDA in early 2018.[5]

As of 2017, three phase III clinical trials have been completed or are in progress. The SPARTAN trial compares placebo with 50, 100, and 200 mg of lasmiditan.[8] SAMURAI compared placebo with 100 and 200 mg doses of lasmidatin. In 2016, CoLucid announced that the trial had met its primary and secondary endpoints of patients being pain-free two hours after dosing.[5] GLADIATOR is an open-labelstudy comparing 100 and 200 mg doses of lasmidatin in patients that received the drug as part of a prior trial.[9] In August 2017 topline results from the SPARTAN trial showed that the drug induced met its primary and secondary endpoints in the trial. The primary result showed a statistically significant improvement in pain relief relative to placebo 2 hours after the first dose. The secondary result showed a statistically significantly greater percentage of patients were free of their most bothersome symptom (MBS) compared with placebo at two hours following the first dose. [10]

Novel crystalline forms of a 5-HT1F receptor agonist, particularly lasmiditan – designated as Forms 1-3 and A-D – processes for their preparation and compositions comprising them are claimed. Also claim is their use for treating anxiety, fatigue, depression, premenstrual syndrome, trauma syndrome, memory loss, dementia (including Alzheimer’s), autism, schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, anorexia nervosa, alcoholism, tobacco abuse, mutism and trichotillomania.

Biological Activity

Lasmiditan (also known as COL-144 and LY573144) is a high-affinity, highly selective serotonin (5-HT) 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist.

In vitro binding studies show a K(i) value of 2.21 nM at the 5-HT(1F) receptor, compared with K(i) values of 1043 nM and 1357 nM at the 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(1D) receptors, respectively, a selectivity ratio greater than 470-fold. Lasmiditan showed higher selectivity for the 5-HT(1F) receptor relative to other 5-HT(1) receptor subtypes than the first generation 5-HT(1F) receptor agonist LY334370.

In two rodent models of migraine, oral administration of lasmiditan potently inhibited markers associated with electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion (dural plasma protein extravasation, and induction of the immediate early gene c-Fos in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis).

Conversion of different model animals based on BSA (Value based on data from FDA Draft Guidelines)
Species Mouse Rat Rabbit Guinea pig Hamster Dog
Weight (kg) 0.02 0.15 1.8 0.4 0.08 10
Body Surface Area (m2) 0.007 0.025 0.15 0.05 0.02 0.5
Km factor 3 6 12 8 5 20
Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by Animal B Km
Animal A Km

For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.

Image result for LASMIDITAN

Image result for LASMIDITAN


WO 03084949

8. 2,4,6-Trifluoro-N-[6-(l -methyl-piperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)-pyridin-2-yl]- benzamide mono-hydrochloride salt

Figure imgf000035_0001

Combine 2-amino-6-(l-methylpiperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)pyridine (0.20 g, 0.92 mmol), 2,4,6-Trifluorobenzoyl chloride (0.357 g, 1.84 mmol), and 1 ,4-Dioxane (10 mL), and stir while heating at reflux. After 3 hr., cool the reaction mixture to ambient temperature and concentrate. Load the concentrated mixture onto an SCX column (lOg), wash with methanol, and elute with 2M ammonia in methanol. Concentrate the eluent to obtain the free base of the title compound as an oil (0.365 g (>100%)). Dissolve the oil in methanol (5 mL) and treat with ammonium chloride (0.05 g, 0.92 mmol). Concentrate the mixture and dry under vacuum to obtain the title compound. HRMS Obs. m/z 378.1435, Calc. m/z 378.1429; m.p. 255°C (dec).


21. 2,4,6-Trifluoro-N-[6-(l-methyl-piperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)-pyridin-2-yl]- benzamide

Figure imgf000049_0001

Add triethylamine (10.67 mL, 76.70 mmol, 2.4 eq) to a solution of 2-amino-(6-(l- methylpiperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)-pyridine (7g, 31.96 mmol, 1 eq) in anhydrous THF (100 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere. Add 2,4,6-triflubenzoylchloride (7.46g, 5 mL, 38.35 mmol, 1.20 eq) dropwise at room temperature. After 2 hrs., add additional 2,4,6- triflubenzoylchloride (0.75 mL, 0.15 eq) and triethylamine (1.32 mL, 0.3 eq) to the reaction mixture and agitate the mixture for an additional 3 hrs. Quench the reaction with distilled water (10 mL) and 30%o NaOH (15 mL). Stir the resulting biphasic system for 1 hour and then separate the phases. Extract the organic fraction by adding H2O (75 mL) and acetic acid (12 mL), followed by cyclohexane (70 mL). Wash the organic fraction with H2O (50 mL) containing acetic acid (1 mL). Combine all the aqueous fractions and washes and neutralize the mixture with 30% NaOH (15 mL). Extract with methyl-tert- butyl ether (MTBE) (3×50 mL). Combine the organic fractions and dry with MgSO4, filter, concentrate under reduce pressure, and vacuum dry at room temperature, to obtain the title compound as a light-brown solid (11.031 g, 91 % yield).

Mass spectrum, (Electrospray) m/z = 378 (M+l); Η NMR (250 MHz, Chloroform-D) ppm 1.54 (m, 2 H) 2.02 (m, 2 H) 2.13 (t, J=l 1.48 Hz, 2 H) 2.29 (s, 3 H) 2.80 (m, J=l 1.96 Hz, 1 H) 3.56 (m, 1 H) 4.26 (d, J=7.87 Hz, 1 H) 6.17 (d, J=8.50 Hz, 1 H) 6.75 (m, 2 H) 7.45 (t, J=7.87 Hz, 1 H) 7.53 (m, 1 H) 7.95 (s, 1 H); 13C-NMR: (62.90 MHz, Chloroform-D) ppm 202.78; 162.6 (dm C-F-couplings); 162.0 (m C-F-couplings); 160.1 (m C-F-couplings); 158.1 ; 150.0; 139.7; 1 19.3; 1 17.9; 1 10.2 (m C-F-couplings); 100.9 (m C-F-couplings); 55.2; 46.5; 41.9; 28.1

22. 2,4,6-Trifluoro-N-[6-(l-methyl-piperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)-pyridin-2-yl]- benzamide mono-hydrochloride salt

Figure imgf000049_0002

Dissolve 2,4,6-trifluoro-N-[6-(l-methylpiperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)-pyridin-2-yl]- benzamide – free base (5g, 23.26mmol) in isopropanol (50 mL) at room temperature and add a solution of 3.3 M diethylether/HCl (8 mL). Heat the reaction mixture under reflux for 30 minutes. Cool the reaction mixture to room temperature and agitate for 2 hrs. Filter the resulting white precipitate and rinse with isopropanol (5 mL). Dry the residual solid under reduce pressure at 40°C overnight to obtain the title compound (5.12 g, 93% yield). M.p. 223-224°C (sublimation); Η NMR (400 MHz, d6-DMSO) d ppm 1.94 (m, 2 H) 2.14 (m, J=11.15 Hz, 2 H) 2.74 (s, 3 H) 2.99 (m, J=9.19 Hz, 2 H) 3.49 (m, J=1 1.15 Hz, 2 H) 3.77 (m, 1 H) 7.41 (t, J=8.71 Hz, 2 H) 7.78 (d, J=7.43 Hz, 1 H) 8.10 (t, J=7.92 Hz, 1 H) 8.37 (d, J=6.85 Hz, 1 H) 10.50 (s, 1 H) 1 1.51 (s, 1 H); 13C-NMR: (100.61 MHz, Chloroform-D) ppm 200.7; 130.6-158.0 (m, C-F-couplings); 150.4; 150.1; 140.2; 118.5; 1 18.2; 11 1.9; 101.3 (t, C-F couplings); 52.8; 42.6; 25.2

23. 2,4,6-Trifluoro-N-[6-(l-methyl-piperidine-4-carbonyl)-pyridin-2-yl]- benzamide hemi-succinate salt

Figure imgf000050_0001

Add succinic acid (0.25g, 2.148 mmol, 0.5eq) to a solution of 2,4,6-trifluoro-N-[6-

(l-methyl-piperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)-pyridin-2-yl]-benzamide – free base (1.62g, 4.297 mmol, leq) in acetone (16.2 mL), at room temperature. Warm the solution under reflux for 30 minutes. Cool the solution to room temperature and filter off the resulting white precipitate. Rinse the precipitate with acetone (0.2 mL) and dry under vacuum at 50°C for 16 hours to provide the title compound (1.5g, 80% yield). M.p. 198.5°C; mass spectrum (Electrospray) m/z = 495.45

The following examples are prepared by combinatorial chemistry techniques as follows:

Examples 24-54

Figure imgf000050_0002

Combine R-acid (300 μL of 0.5M solution in dimethylformamide (DMF)), HATU (57 mg, 0.15 mmol), collidine (19 μL, 0.15 mmol), 2-amino-(6-(l-methylpiperidin-4- ylcarbonyl)-pyridine and DMF (1.5 mL), and agitate for 48 hr. Dilute the reaction mixture with 10% acetic acid in methanol (0.5 L). Load the resulting reaction mixture onto a 2 g SCX column. Wash the column thoroughly with methanol and then elute with 1 M ammonia in methanol. Concentrate the eluent and further purify the product by high- throughput mass guided chromatography. This procedure is repeated in parallel for examples 24-54.

Examples 55-58

Figure imgf000051_0001

Heat R-acid chloride (300 μL of 0.5M solution in pyridine) to 55°C, add 2-amino- (6-(l-methylpiperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)-pyridine (200 μL of 0.5M solution in pyridine), and continue heating the reaction mixture for 24 hr. Concentrate the reaction mixture and then dilute with 10% Acetic acid in methanol (0.5 mL) and methanol (0.5 mL). Load the resulting reaction mixture directly onto a 2 g SCX column. Thoroughly wash the column with methanol and then elute the column with 1 M ammonia in methanol. Concentrate the eluent and then further purify the product by high- throughput mass guided chromatography. This procedure is repeated in parallel for examples 55-58.

Examples 59-71

Figure imgf000051_0002

Heat 2-amino-(6-(l-methylpiperidin-4-ylcarbonyl)-pyridine (200 μL of 0.5M solution in pyridine) to 55°C then add R-acid chloride (0.10 mmol), heat for 2 hr. Concentrate the reaction mixture and then dilute with 10% Acetic acid in methanol (0.5 mL) and methanol (0.5 mL). Load the resulting reaction mixture directly onto a 2 g SCX column. Thoroughly wash the column with methanol and then elute the column with 1 M ammonia in methanol. Concentrate the eluent and then further purify the product by high-throughput mass guided chromatography. This procedure is repeated in parallel for examples 59-71.


WO 2018010345

Lasmiditan, also known as COL-144, LY573144, is a 5-HT 1F receptor agonist. Can be used to inhibit neuronal protein extravasation, to treat or prevent migraine in patients with diseases or conditions associated with other 5-HT 1F receptor dysfunction. The chemical name is 2,4,6-trifluoro-N- [6 – [(1 -methylpiperidin-4-yl) carbonyl] -pyridin- 2-yl] -benzamide, which has the chemical structure shown below I) shows:
Lasmiditan is a new and selective 5-HT 1F receptor agonist. It acts against migraine and other 5-HT 1F receptor related diseases by enhancing 5-HT 1F receptor activation while avoiding vasoconstrictive activity and inhibiting neuronal protein extravasation such as Migraine (including migraine, migraine headache, neurovascular headache), general pain, trigeminal neuralgia, anxiety, panic disorder, depression, post traumatic syndrome, dementia and the like.
Patent document CN100352817C reports on Lasmiditan, Lasmiditan hemisuccinate and Lasmiditan hydrochloride and the synthetic preparation thereof, and discloses the mass spectra of Lasmiditan, Lasmiditan hemisuccinate and Lasmiditan hydrochloride, 1 H-NMR, 13 C -NMR detection data and the melting points of Lasmiditan hemisuccinate and Lasmiditan hydrochloride. The inventor of the present invention has found that Lasmiditan, which is obtained according to the preparation method of Example 17 and Example 21 in CN100352817C, is a light brown oily amorphous substance, which has the defects of instability, moisture absorption and poor morphology.
Example 8 of patent document CN100352817C reports the preparation of Lasmiditan hydrochloride, which mentions Lasmiditan free base as an oily substance. The Lasmiditan hydrochloride obtained according to the preparation method of Example 8 in CN100352817 is a white amorphous substance which also has the disadvantages of unstable crystalline form, high hygroscopicity and poor topography.
The synthesis of Lasmiditan hemisuccinate intermediate, including Lasmiditan and Lasmiditan hydrochloride, is reported in Example 2 of U.S. Patent No. 8,697,876 B2. The inventor’s study found that Lasmiditan prepared according to US8697876B2 is also a pale brown oily amorphous substance and Lasmiditan hydrochloride is also a white amorphous substance.
In view of the deficiencies in the prior art, there is still a need in the art for the development of crystalline polymorphic Lasmiditan solid forms with more improved properties to meet the rigorous requirements of pharmaceutical formulations for physico-chemical properties such as morphology, stability and the like of active materials.
Preparation 1 Preparation of Lasmiditan (Prior Art)
Lasmiditan was prepared as described in Example 21 of CN100352817C by the following procedure: Triethylamine (10.67 mL, 76.70 mmol, 2.4 equiv) was added to a solution of 2-amino- (6- (1-methylpiperidine -4-yl) -carbonyl) -pyridine (7 g, 31.96 mmol, 1 eq) in dry THF (100 mL). 2,4,6-Trifluorobenzoyl chloride (7.46 g, 5 mL, 38.35 mmol, 1.20 equiv.) Was added dropwise at room temperature. After 2 hours, an additional 2,4,6-trifluorobenzoyl chloride (0.75 mL, 0.15 eq) and triethylamine (1.32 mL, 0.3 eq) were added to the reaction mixture and the mixture was stirred for a further 3 h. The reaction was quenched with distilled water (10 mL) and 30% NaOH (15 mL). The resulting two-phase system was stirred for 1 hour, then the two phases were separated. By addition of H 2 to extract the organic portion O (75mL) and acetic acid (12mL), followed by addition of cyclohexane (70mL). The organic portion was washed with water (50 mL) containing acetic acid (1 mL). All aqueous phases were combined, washed and neutralized with 30% NaOH (15 mL). Extract with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (3 x 50 mL). The organic phases were combined, dried MgS04 . 4 dried, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure and dried in vacuo at room temperature to give the title compound as a pale brown solid (11.031g, 91% yield).
The 1 H-NMR (CDCl 3 ) data of the product are as follows:
1 H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-D) ppm 1.54 (m, 2H) 2.02 (m, 2H) 2.13 (t, J = 18.37 Hz, 2H) 2.29 (s, 3.56 (d, J = 12.59 Hz, 1H) 6.17 (d, J = 13.6 Hz, 1H) 6.75 (m, 2H) 7.45 (t, J = 12.59 Hz, 1H) 7.53 (m, 1H ) 7.95 (s, 1H).
The isothermal adsorption curve shown in Figure 5, in the 0% to 80% relative humidity range of 9.5% weight change.
The above characterization results show that Lasmiditan obtained by the preparation method of Example 21 according to CN100352817C is amorphous.
Preparation 2 Preparation of Lasmiditan hydrochloride (Prior Art)
The Lasmiditan hydrochloride was prepared as described in Example 8 of CN100352817C by the following procedure: A mixture of 2-amino-6- (1-methylpiperidin-4-yloxy) pyridine Trifluorobenzoyl chloride (3.57 g, 18.4 mmol) and 1,4-dioxane (100 mL) were combined and heated to reflux with heating. After 3 hours, cool the reaction mixture to room temperature, reduce pressure and concentrate. The concentrated mixture was loaded onto a SCX column (10 g), washed with methanol and eluted with 2M ammonia in methanol. The eluate was concentrated to give the title compound as an oily free base (3.65 g (> 100%)). The oil was dissolved in methanol (50 mL) and treated with ammonium chloride (0.5 g, 9.2 mmol). The mixture was concentrated and dried in vacuo to give a white amorphous.
IC characterization showed that Lasmiditan hydrochloride salt formed by Lasmiditan and hydrochloric acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1.
The XRPD pattern shown in Figure 19, no diffraction peaks, no amorphous.
The PLM pattern is shown in Figure 20 as an irregular, unpolarized solid.
The isotherm adsorption curve is shown in FIG. 21, with a weight change of 8.1% in a relative humidity range of 0% to 80%.
The above characterization results show that: Lasmiditan hydrochloride obtained by the preparation method of Example 8 with reference to CN100352817C is amorphous.
Example 1
Take 500mg of Lasmiditan of Preparation 1, add 1mL methanol solution containing 5% water to clarify, evaporate the crystals at room temperature and evaporate dry after 1 day to obtain 487mg Lasmiditan Form 1 in 95% yield.


  1.  “Molecule of the Month July 2010: Lasmiditan hydrochloride”Prous Science. Retrieved 2011-08-03.
  2.  Dahlöf, CG; Mathew, N (1998). “Cardiovascular safety of 5HT1B/1D agonists–is there a cause for concern?”. Cephalalgia : an international journal of headache18 (8): 539–45. doi:10.1046/j.1468-2982.1998.1808539.xPMID 9827245.
  3.  Mutschler, Ernst; Geisslinger, Gerd; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Schäfer-Korting, Monika (2001). Arzneimittelwirkungen (in German) (8th ed.). Stuttgart: Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft. p. 265. ISBN 978-3-8047-1763-3OCLC 47700647.
  6.  Clinical trial number NCT00384774 for “A Placebo-Controlled Adaptive Treatment Assignment Study of Intravenous COL-144 in the Acute Treatment of Migraine” at
  7.  Clinical trial number NCT00883051 for “Dose-ranging Study of Oral COL-144 in Acute Migraine Treatment” at
  8. Clinical trial number NCT02605174 for “Three Doses of Lasmiditan (50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg) Compared to Placebo in the Acute Treatment of Migraine (SPARTAN)” at
  9.  Clinical trial number NCT02565186 for “An Open-label, Long-term, Safety Study of Lasmiditan for the Acute Treatment of Migraine (GLADIATOR)” at
Lasmiditan skeletal.svg
Clinical data
Routes of
By mouthintravenous
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
  • Investigational
CAS Number
PubChem CID
Chemical and physical data
Formula C19H18F3N3O2
Molar mass 377.36 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)

/////////////LASMIDITAN, phase III, LILY, COL-144 , LY-573144, CoLucid Pharmaceuticals, PHASE 3, MIGRAINE


Ubrogepant, MK-1602

imgUbrogepant.pngImage result for UbrogepantImage result for Ubrogepant

Ubrogepant, MK-1602


Spiro[6H-cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-[3H]pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxamide, 1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydro-N-[(3S,5S,6R)-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)-3-piperidinyl]-2′-oxo-, (6S)-

CAS: 1374248-77-7
Chemical Formula: C29H26F3N5O3

Molecular Weight: 549.5542


CAS TRIHYDRATE 1488325-95-6

CAS MONOHYDRATE 1488327-13-4

  • Originator Merck & Co
  • Class Amides; Antimigraines; Fluorine compounds; Small molecules; Spiro compounds
  • Mechanism of Action Calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists
  • Phase III Migraine, Allergan

Most Recent Events

  • 01 Sep 2016 Allergan initiates a phase III extension trial for Migraine in USA (PO, Tablet) (NCT02873221)
  • 12 Aug 2016 Allergan plans a phase III trial for Migraine in USA (PO) (NCT02867709)
  • 01 Aug 2016 Allergan initiates a phase III trial for Migraine in USA (PO) (NCT02867709)

Image result for Ubrogepant

Image result for Ubrogepant

Process for making piperidinone carboxamide indane and azainane derivatives, which are CGRP receptor antagonists useful for the treatment of migraine. This class of compounds is described in U.S. Patent Application Nos. 13/293,166 filed November 10, 2011 , 13/293, 177 filed November 10, 2011 and 13/293,186 filed November 10, 2011, and PCT International Application Nos. PCT/US11/60081 filed November 10, 2011 and PCT/US 11/60083 filed November 10, 2011.

CGRP (Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide) is a naturally occurring 37-amino acid peptide that is generated by tissue-specific alternate processing of calcitonin messehger RNA and is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system. CGRP is localized predominantly in sensory afferent and central neurons and mediates several biological actions, including vasodilation. CGRP is expressed in alpha- and beta-forms that vary by one and three amino acids in the rat and human, respectively. CGRP-alpha and CGRP-beta display similar biological properties. When released from the cell, CGRP initiates its biological responses by binding to specific cell surface receptors that are predominantly coupled to the activation of adenylyl cyclase. CGRP receptors have been identified and pharmacologically evaluated in several tissues and cells, including those of brain, cardiovascular, endothelial, and smooth muscle origin.

Based on pharmacological properties, these receptors are divided into at least two subtypes, denoted CGRPi and CGRP2. Human oc-CGRP-(8-37), a fragment of CGRP that lacks seven N-terminal amino acid residues, is a selective antagonist of CGRP l, whereas the linear analogue of CGRP, diacetoamido methyl cysteine CGRP ([Cys(ACM)2,7]CGRP), is a selective agonist of CGRP2. CGRP is a potent neuromodulator that has been implicated in the pathology of cerebrovascular disorders such as migraine and cluster headache. In clinical studies, elevated levels of CGRP in the jugular vein were found to occur during migraine attacks (Goadsby et al., Ann. Neurol., 1990, 28, 183-187), salivary levels of CGRP are elevated in migraine subjects between attacks (Bellamy et al., Headache, 2006, 46, 24-33), and CGRP itself has been shown to trigger migrainous headache (Lassen et al., Cephalalgia, 2002, 22, 54-61). In clinical trials, the CGRP antagonist BIBN4096BS has been shown to be effective in treating acute attacks of migraine (Olesen et al., New Engl. J. Med., 2004, 350, 1104-1110) and was able to prevent headache induced by CGRP infusion in a control group (Petersen et al., Clin. Pharmacol. Ther., 2005, 77, 202-213).

CGRP-mediated activation of the trigeminovascular system may play a key role in migraine pathogenesis. Additionally, CGRP activates receptors on the smooth muscle of intracranial vessels, leading to increased vasodilation, which is thought to contribute to headache pain during migraine attacks (Lance, Headache Pathogenesis: Monoamines, Neuropeptides, Purines and Nitric Oxide, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, 1997, 3-9). The middle meningeal artery, the principle artery in the dura mater, is innervated by sensory fibers from the trigeminal ganglion which contain several neuropeptides, including CGRP. Trigeminal ganglion stimulation in the cat resulted in increased levels of CGRP, and in humans, activation of the trigeminal system caused facial flushing and increased levels of CGRP in the external jugular vein (Goadsby et al, Ann. Neurol., 1988, 23, 193-196). Electrical stimulation of the dura mater in rats increased the diameter of the middle meningeal artery, an effect that was blocked by prior administration of CGRP(8-37), a peptide CGRP antagonist (Williamson et al., Cephalalgia, 1997, 17, 525-531). Trigeminal ganglion stimulation increased facial blood flow in the rat, which was inhibited by CGRP(8-37) (Escott et al., Brain Res. 1995, 669, 93-99). Electrical stimulation of the trigeminal ganglion in marmoset produced an increase in facial blood flow that could be blocked by the non-peptide CGRP antagonist BIBN4096BS (Doods et al., Br. J.Pharmacol., 2000, 129, 420-423). Thus the vascular effects of CGRP may be attenuated, prevented or reversed by a CGRP antagonist.

CGRP-mediated vasodilation of rat middle meningeal artery was shown to sensitize neurons of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (Williamson et al., The CGRP Family: Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP), Amylin, and Adrenomedullin, Landes Bioscience, 2000, 245-247). Similarly, distention of dural blood vessels during migraine headache may sensitize trigeminal neurons. Some of the associated symptoms of migraine, including extracranial pain and facial allodynia, may be the result of sensitized trigeminal neurons (Burstein et al., Ann. Neurol. 2000, 47, 614-624). A CGRP antagonist may be beneficial in attenuating, preventing or reversing the effects of neuronal sensitization.

The ability of the compounds to act as CGRP antagonists makes them useful pharmacological agents for disorders that involve CGRP in humans and animals, but particularly in humans. Such disorders include migraine and cluster headache (Doods, Curr Opin Inves Drugs, 2001, 2 (9), 1261-1268; Edvinsson et al., Cephalalgia, 1994, 14, 320-327); chronic tension type headache (Ashina et al., Neurology, 2000, 14, 1335-1340); pain (Yu et al., Eur. J. Pharm., 1998, 347, 275-282); chronic pain (Hulsebosch et al., Pain, 2000, 86, 163-175);neurogenic inflammation and inflammatory pain (Holzer, Neurosci., 1988, 24, 739-768; Delay-Goyet et al., Acta Physiol. Scanda. 1992, 146, 537-538; Salmon et al., Nature Neurosci., 2001, 4(4), 357-358); eye pain (May et al. Cephalalgia, 2002, 22, 195-196), tooth pain (Awawdeh et al., Int. Endocrin. J., 2002, 35, 30-36), non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (Molina et al., Diabetes, 1990, 39, 260-265); vascular disorders; inflammation (Zhang et al, Pain, 2001, 89, 265), arthritis, bronchial hyperreactivity, asthma, (Foster et al., Ann. NY Acad. Sci., 1992, 657, 397-404; Schini et al., Am. J. Physiol., 1994, 267, H2483-H2490; Zheng et al., J. Virol., 1993, 67, 5786-5791); shock, sepsis (Beer et al., Crit. Care Med., 2002, 30 (8), 1794-1798); opiate withdrawal syndrome (Salmon et al., Nature Neurosci., 2001, 4(4), 357-358); morphine tolerance (Menard et al., J. Neurosci., 1996, 16 (7), 2342-2351); hot flashes in men and women (Chen et al., Lancet, 1993, 342, 49; Spetz et al., J. Urology, 2001, 166, 1720-1723); allergic dermatitis (Wallengren, Contact Dermatitis, 2000, 43 (3), 137-143); psoriasis; encephalitis, brain trauma, ischaemia, stroke, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases (Rohrenbeck et al., Neurobiol. of Disease 1999, 6, 15-34); skin diseases (Geppetti and Holzer, Eds., Neurogenic Inflammation, 1996, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL), neurogenic cutaneous redness, skin rosaceousness and erythema; tinnitus (Herzog et al., J. Membrane Biology, 2002, 189(3), 225); inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, (Hoffman et al. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology,2002, 37(4) 414-422) and cystitis. Of particular importance is the acute or prophylactic treatment of headache, including migraine and cluster headache.

Ubrogepant (MK-1602), an oral calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) antagonist, is in phase III clinical development at Allergan for the acute treatment of migraine attacks.

In August 2015, the product was licensed to Allergan by Merck, for the development and marketing worldwide for the treatment of migraine.


WO 2013138418



Inventors Ian M. BellMark E. FraleySteven N. GallicchioAnthony GinnettiHelen J. MitchellDaniel V. PaoneDonnette D. StaasHeather E. StevensonCheng WangC. Blair Zartman
Applicant Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.

Ian Bell

Ian Bell

Principal Scientist at Merck
Mark Fraley

Mark Fraley

Principal Scientist, Merck
Steven Gallicchio

Steven Gallicchio


 WO 2012064910


Figure imgf000072_0002

(65yN-[(3£5£ )-6-Methyl-2-oxo-5-pheny

i’,2′,5 J-tetrahvdrospiro[cyclopenta|^lpyridine-6,3′-pyrroloj2,3-¾lpyridine1-3-carboxamide (Benzotriazol- 1 -yloxy)tr/i,(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (1.89 g, 4.28 mmol) was added to a solution of (6S -2′-oxo- ,2,,5,7- tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[&]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-&]pyridine]-3-carboxylic acid (described in Intermediate 1) (1.10 g, 3.92 mmol), (3JS’,55′,6J?)-3-amino-6-methyl~5~phenyl-l-(2,2,2- trifluoroethyl)piperidin-2-one hydrochloride (described in Intermediate 4) (1.15 g, 3.56 mmol), and NjiV-diisopropylethylamine (3.1 1 m.L, 17.8 mmol) in DMF (40 mL), and the resulting mixture was stirred at 23 °C for 3 h. The reaction mixture was then partitioned between saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) and ethyl actetate (3 χ 200 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with brine, dried over sodium sulfate, and concentrated. The residue was purified by flash column chromatography on silica gel, eluting with hexanes initially, then grading to 100% EtOAc before stepping to 5% MeOH in EtOAc to afford the title compound as an amorphous solid, which was further purified by the following crystallization procedure. A solution of the amorphous product in a minimal amount of methanol required for dissolution was diluted with 10 volumes water, and the resulting slurry was seeded with crystalline product and stirred at 23 °C for 4 h. The solids were filtered, washed with water, and dried under a stream of nitrogen to give the title compound as a crystalline solid. HRMS: m/z = 550.2068, calculated m/z – 550.2061 for C29H27F3N503. lH NMR (500 MHz, CDC13) δ 8.91 (s, 1H), 8.70 (s, 1H), 8.17 (dd, 1H, J- 5.4, 1.5 Hz), 8.04 (s5 1H), 7.37 (m, 3H), 7.29 (t, 1H, J= 7.3 Hz), 7.21 (d, 2H, J= 7.3 Hz), 7.13 (dd, 1H, J = 7.3, 1.2 Hz), 6.89 (dd, 1H, J = 7.3, 5.4 Hz), 4.99- 4.90 (m, 1H), 4.53 (dt, 1H, J= 10.7, 6.6 Hz), 3.94 (p, 1H, J = 5.9 Hz), 3.78 (d, 1H, J = 17.1 Hz), 3.67 (d, 1H, J- 16.4 Hz), 3.65 (m, 1H), 3.34-3.26 (m, 1H), 3.28 (d, 1H, J- 17.1 Hz), 3.17 (d, 1H, J = 16.6 Hz), 2.79 (m, 1H), 2.58 (q, 1H, J – 12.7 Hz), 1.07 (d, 3H, J= 6.6 Hz).


WO 2013169348

(5)-N-((3^,5^,6i?)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)piperidine-3-yl)-2*-oxo- l\2 5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[¾]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-¾]pyridine]-3-carboxam trihydrate (15)

Figure imgf000054_0001

To a suspension of 11 (465 g, 96% wt, 0.99 mol) in iPAc (4.6 L) was added 5% aqueous K3PO4 (4.6 L). The mixture was stirred for 5 min. The organic layer was separated and washed with 5%> aqueous K3PO4 (4.6 L) twice and concentrated in vacuo and dissolved in acetonitrile (1.8 L).

To another flask was added 14 (303 g, 91.4 wt%>), acetonitrile (1.8 L) and water (1.8 L) followed by 10 N NaOH (99 mL). The resulting solution was stirred for 5 min at room temperature and the chiral amine solution made above was charged to the mixture and the container was rinsed with acetonitrile (900 mL). HOBT hydrate (164 g) was charged followed by EDC hydrochloride (283 g). The mixture was agitated at room temperature for 2.5 h. To the mixture was added iPAc (4.6 L) and organic layer was separated, washed with 5%> aqueous NaHC03 (2.3 L) followed by a mixture of 15%> aqueous citric acid (3.2 L) and saturated aqueous NaCl (1.2 L). The resulting organic layer was finally washed with 5%> aqueous NaHC03 (2.3 L). The organic solution was concentrated below 50 °C and dissolved in methanol (2.3 L). The solution was slowly added to a mixture of water (6 L) and methanol (600 mL) with ~ 2 g of seed crystal. And the resulting suspension was stirred overnight at room temperature. Crystals were filtered, rinsed with water/methanol (4 L, 10 : 1), and dried under nitrogen flow at room temperature to provide 15 (576 g, 97 % yield) as trihydrate.

Ή NMR (500 MHz, CDCI3): δ 10.15 (br s, 1 H), 8.91 (br s, 1 H), 8.21 (d, J= 6.0 Hz, 1 H), 8.16 (dd, J= 5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1 H), 8.01 (br s, 1 H), 7.39-7.33 (m, 2 H), 7.31-7.25 (m, 1 H), 7.22-7.20 (m, 2 H), 7.17 (dd, J= 7.4, 1.6 Hz, 1 H), 6.88 (dd, J= 7.4, 5.3 Hz, 1 H), 4.94 (dq, J= 9.3, 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 4.45-4.37 (m, 1 H), 3.94-3.87 (m, 1 H), 3.72 (d, J= 17.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.63-3.56 (m, 2 H), 3.38-3.26 (m, 1 H), 3.24 (d, J= 17.3 Hz, 1 H), 3.13 (d, J= 16.5 Hz, 1 H), 2.78 (q, J= 12.5 Hz, 1 H), 2.62-2.56 (m, 1 H), 1.11 (d, J= 6.5 Hz, 3 H); 13C NMR (126 MHz, CD3CN): δ 181.42, 170.63, 166.73, 166.63, 156.90, 148.55, 148.08, 141.74, 135.77, 132.08, 131.09, 130.08, 129.66, 129.56, 128.78, 128.07, 126.25 (q, J= 280.1 Hz), 119.41, 60.14, 53.07, 52.00, 46.41 (q, J= 33.3 Hz), 45.18, 42.80, 41.72, 27.79, 13.46; HRMS m/z: calcd for C29H26F3N503 550.2061 (M+H): found 550.2059.

Alternative procedure for 15:

Figure imgf000055_0001


To a suspension of 13 (10 g, 98 wt%, 23.2 mmol) in MTBE (70 mL) was added 0.6 N HCI (42 mL). The organic layer was separated and extracted with another 0.6 N HCI (8 mL). The combined aqueous solution was washed with MTBE (10 mL x3). To the resulting aqueous solution was added acetonitrile (35 mL) and 14 (6.66 g, 99 wt%). To the resulting suspension was neutralized with 29 % NaOH solution to pH 6. HOPO (0.26 g) was added followed by EDC hydrochloride (5.34 g). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 6-12 h until the conversion was complete (>99%). Ethanol (30 ml) was added and the mixture was heated to 35 °C. The resulting solution was added over 2 h to another three neck flask containing ethanol (10 mL), water (30 mL) and 15 seeds (0.4 g). Simultaneously, water (70 mL) was also added to the mixture. The suspension was then cooled to 5 °C over 30 min and filtered. The cake was washed with a mixture of ethanol/water (1 :3, 40 mL). The cake was dried in a vacuum oven at 40 °C to give 15 trihydrate (13.7 g, 95%) as crystals.


WO 2013138418


US 9174989


Practical Asymmetric Synthesis of a Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP) Receptor Antagonist Ubrogepant

 Department of Process Chemistry, MRL, 126 East Lincoln Avenues, Rahway, New Jersey 07065, United States
 Department of Process Chemistry, MSD Research Laboratories, Hertford Road, Hoddesdon, Hertford, Hertfordshire EN11 9BU, United Kingdom
§ Department of Process Chemistry, MRL, 770 Sumneytown Pike, West Point, Pennsylvania 19486, United States
 Codexis, Inc., 200 Penobscot Drive, Redwood City, California 94063, United States
 Shanghai SynTheAll Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd., 9 Yuegong Road, Jinshan District, Shanghai, 201507, China
Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00293


Abstract Image

The development of a scalable asymmetric route to a new calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist is described. The synthesis of the two key fragments was redefined, and the intermediates were accessed through novel chemistry. Chiral lactam 2 was prepared by an enzyme mediated dynamic kinetic transamination which simultaneously set two stereocenters. Enzyme evolution resulted in an optimized transaminase providing the desired configuration in >60:1 syn/anti. The final chiral center was set via a crystallization induced diastereomeric transformation. The asymmetric spirocyclization to form the second fragment, chiral spiro acid intermediate 3, was catalyzed by a novel doubly quaternized phase transfer catalyst and provided optically pure material on isolation. With the two fragments in hand, development of their final union by amide bond formation and subsequent direct isolation is described. The described chemistry has been used to deliver over 100 kg of our desired target, ubrogepant.

(S)-N-((3S,5S,6R)-6-Methyl-2-oxo-5-phenyl-1-(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl)piperidin-3-yl)-2′-oxo-1′,2′,5,7-tetrahydrospiro[cyclopenta[b]pyridine-6,3′-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine]-3-carboxamide Trihydrate (1)

………..of white solids as 1 trihydrate (95%).
1H NMR (500 MHz, CDCl3): δ 10.15 (br s, 1H); 8.91 (br s, 1H); 8.21 (d, J = 6.0 Hz, 1H); 8.16 (dd, J = 5.3, 1.5 Hz, 1H); 8.01 (br s, 1H); 7.39–7.33 (m, 2H); 7.31–7.25 (m, 1H); 7.22–7.20 (m, 2H); 7.17 (dd, J = 7.4, 1.6 Hz, 1H); 6.88 (dd, J = 7.4, 5.3 Hz, 1H); 4.94 (dq, J = 9.3, 7.6 Hz, 1H); 4.45–4.37 (m, 1H); 3.94–3.87 (m, 1H); 3.72 (d, J = 17.2 Hz, 1H); 3.63–3.56 (m, 2H); 3.38–3.26 (m, 1H); 3.24 (d, J = 17.3 Hz, 1H); 3.13 (d, J = 16.5 Hz, 1H); 2.78 (q, J = 12.5 Hz, 1H); 2.62–2.56 (m, 1H); 1.11 (d, J = 6.5 Hz, 3H);
13C NMR (126 MHz, CDCl3): δ 181.4, 170.6, 166.7, 166.6, 156.9, 148.6, 148.1, 141.7, 135.8, 132.1, 131.1, 130.1, 129.7, 129.6, 128.8, 128.1, 126.3 (q, J = 280.1 Hz), 119.4, 60.1, 53.1, 52.0, 46.4 (q, J = 33.3 Hz), 45.2, 42.8, 41.7, 27.8, 13.5;
HRMS m/z: calcd for C29H27F3N5O3: 550.2061 (M + H); found: 550.2059.

US7390798 * Feb 9, 2005 Jun 24, 2008 Merck & Co., Inc. Carboxamide spirolactam CGRP receptor antagonists
US20090054408 * Sep 6, 2005 Feb 26, 2009 Bell Ian M Monocyclic anilide spirolactam cgrp receptor antagonists
US20100160334 * Mar 5, 2010 Jun 24, 2010 Bell Ian M Tricyclic anilide spirolactam cgrp receptor antagonists
US20100179166 * Jun 2, 2008 Jul 15, 2010 Ian Bell Carboxamide heterocyclic cgrp receptor antagonists
US20120122899 * Nov 10, 2011 May 17, 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane cgrp receptor antagonists
US20120122900 * Nov 10, 2011 May 17, 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane cgrp receptor antagonists
US20120122911 * Nov 10, 2011 May 17, 2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane cgrp receptor antagonists
1 * See also references of EP2849568A4
Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
CN105037210A * May 27, 2015 Nov 11, 2015 江苏大学 Alpha,beta-dehydrogenated-alpha-amino acid synthesis method
US9688660 Oct 28, 2016 Jun 27, 2017 Heptares Therapeutics Limited CGRP receptor antagonists
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US9174989 Process for making CGRP receptor antagonists
US2016130273 Process for Making CGRP Receptor Antagonists
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US8754096 Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane CGRP receptor antagonists
US8912210 Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane CGRP receptor antagonists
US8481556 Piperidinone carboxamide azaindane CGRP receptor antagonists


1: Voss T, Lipton RB, Dodick DW, Dupre N, Ge JY, Bachman R, Assaid C, Aurora SK, Michelson D. A phase IIb randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ubrogepant for the acute treatment of migraine. Cephalalgia. 2016 Aug;36(9):887-98. doi: 10.1177/0333102416653233. PubMed PMID: 27269043.

/////////////ubrogepant, MK-1602, Phase III,  Migraine


How To Treat Migraines With Red Raspberry Leaf

How To Treat Migraines With Red Raspberry Leaf

If you, or someone close to you, suffers from migraines then you’ll know just how frustrating it can be. You can try all sorts of approaches and conventional medications, but often they don’t work!

Why not try some red raspberry leaf tea? It’s packed full of essential vitamins and minerals and is widely used for helping to cure those painful headaches.

FDA Approves First Device to Prevent Migraines

TUESDAY March 11, 2014, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration on Tuesday approved the first device aimed at preventing migraines.

The device, called Cefaly, is a headband-like device that runs on a battery and sits across the forehead and over the ears, the FDA said in a statement.

“The user positions the device in the center of the forehead, just above the eyes, using a self-adhesive electrode,” the agency explained. “The device applies an electric current to the skin and underlying body tissues to stimulate branches of the trigeminal nerve, which has been associated with migraine headaches.”

Cefaly is made by Belgium-based Cefaly Technology and is available by prescription only. The device is only indicated for use by adults and should only be used for 20 minutes per day, the FDA said. The agency also noted that “the user may feel a tingling or massaging sensation where the electrode is applied.”


Cefaly is a drug free migraine pain reliever and migraine prevention solution. Cefaly is now available in Canada and a safe solution for all people suffering from migraine headaches -
Millions of Cefaly treatments studied have proven that it is an effective, drug free, migraine pain reliever – Join the tens of thousands of people around the world who have tried Cefaly and are free of migraine pain and pain relieving medication.
Cefaly is a drug-free method for treating migraine pain and preventing migraine headaches from ever coming on. Cefaly treats migraine pain with neurostimulation. A stimulus that limits pain signals from the nerve centre by working on the trigeminal nerve where migraine headaches start. The patented Cefaly treatment changes the trigger threshold of migraine headaches. As the pain threshold becomes harder to reach, migraine headaches are less frequent, less painful, and simply disappear.

Cefaly offers patients suffering from migraine pain and headaches an efficient electrotherapeutical system delivered via an extremely comfortable, ergonomic and simple-to-use medical device.

Cefaly is a CE and ISO certified medical device designed to treat and prevent migraine headaches. Cefaly can considerably reduce or replace the consumption of side effect producing medications. Cefaly is the first cranial analgesic electrotherapeutic device to acquire ISO medical certification proven effective on migraine pain with no side effects.
Cefaly’s patented design uses TENS technology which has been researched in medical circles for over 40 years. TENS technology is known for its safety and dramatic absence of side effects, making Cefaly unique to all other headache and migraine pain treatments.
Cefaly is designed and developed in accordance with the strictest quality standards eliminating all possible short-term and long-term dangers.
Cefaly is an innovative, lightweight and extremely cost effective pain relieving solution. Its self adhesive electrode is placed directly on to the forehead. Worn conveniently like a pair of eyeglasses, Cefaly connects to the electrode and begins its subtle treatment.

SUMATRIPTAN …Avanir files new drug application for migraine drug


1-[3-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-1H-indol-5-yl]- N-methyl-methanesulfonamide


Formula C14H21N3O2S 
Mol. mass 295.402 g/mol
CAS number 103628-46-2 
Melting point: mp 169-171°
Therap-Cat: Antimigraine.
Keywords: Antimigraine; Serotonin Receptor Agonist.
NDA 020626,GSK, IMITREX, 1997

Avanir Pharmaceuticals has filed a new drug application (NDA) with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of its new breath-powered investigational drug-device combination product, ‘AVP-825’, for the acute treatment of migraines.  click on title  Avanir files new drug application for migraine drug 

Sumatriptan moleculeSUMATRIPTAN


CAS Registry Number:
103628-48-4 ((1:1) salt), 103628-47-3 ((2:1) salt), 103628-46-2 (free base)
GlaxoSmithKline (Originator), Atrix (Formulation), Nastech (Formulation), NovaDel Pharma (Formulation)
Manufacturers’ Codes: GR-43175C
Trademarks: Imigran (GSK); Imitrex (GSK); Imiject (GSK)
Molecular Formula: C14H21N3O2S.C4H6O4
Molecular Weight: 413.49
Percent Composition: C 52.28%, H 6.58%, N 10.16%, O 23.22%, S 7.75%
Properties: mp 165-166°.
Melting point: mp 165-166°
Launched-1991, Acute Attacks of Migraine, Treatment of, Analgesic and Anesthetic Drugs, Antimigraine Drugs, 5-HT1B Agonists, 5-HT1D Agonists

AVP-825 is an investigational drug-device combination product consisting of low-dose sumatriptan powder delivered intranasally utilizing a novel Breath Powered delivery technology. If approved, AVP-825 would be the first and only fast-acting, dry-powder intranasal form of sumatriptan for the treatment of migraine.

The Breath Powered delivery technology is activated by user’s breath to propel medications deep into the nasal cavity where absorption is more efficient and consistent than through most other routes. A user exhales into the device, automatically closing the soft palate and sealing off the nasal cavity completely. Through a sealing nosepiece placed into the nostril, the exhaled breath carries medication from the device directly into one side of the nose. Narrow nasal passages are gently expanded and medication is dispersed deep into the nasal cavity reaching areas where it can be rapidly absorbed. As the medication is delivered, the air flows around to the opposite side of the nasal cavity and exits through the other nostril. Closure of the soft palate helps prevent swallowing or inhalation of sumatriptan powder into the lungs.

Canada 2469019 APPROVED 2005-09-13 EXP 2022-12-04
United States 6135979                  1997-03-21        2017-03-21
United States 5705520                  1994-12-10        2011-12-10
Canada 2098302                  2001-10-16        2011-12-10
Patent No PatentExpiry use code
5307953 Dec 2, 2012  
5307953*PED Jun 2, 2013  
5554639 Sep 10, 2013 U-232…METHOD OF TREATING MIGRAINE
5554639*PED Mar 10, 2014

Sumatriptan is a synthetic drug belonging to the triptan class, used for the treatment of migraine headaches. Structurally, it is an analog of the naturally occurring neuro-active alkaloids dimethyltryptamine (DMT), bufotenine, and 5-methoxy-dimethyltryptamine, with an N-methyl sulfonamidomethyl- group at position C-5 on the indole ring.[1]

Sumatriptan is produced and marketed by various drug manufacturers with many different trade names such as Sumatriptan, Imitrex, Treximet, Imigran, Imigran recovery.

Large doses of sumatriptan can cause sulfhemoglobinemia, a rare condition in which the blood changes from red to greenish-black, due to the integration of sulfur into the hemoglobin molecule.[2] If sumatriptan is discontinued, the condition reverses within a few weeks.

Serious cardiac events, including some that have been fatal, have occurred following the use of sumatriptan injection or tablets. Events reported have included coronary artery vasospasm, transient myocardial ischemia, myocardial infarctionventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation.

The most common side-effects[3] reported by at least 2% of patients in controlled trials of sumatriptan (25, 50, and 100 mg tablets) for migraine are atypical sensations (paresthesias and warm/cold sensations) reported by 4% in the placebo group and 5–6% in the sumatriptan groups, pain and other pressure sensations (including chest pain) reported by 4% in the placebo group and 6–8% in the sumatriptan groups, neurological events (vertigo) reported by less than 1% in the placebo group and less than 1% to 2% in the sumatriptan groups. Malaise/fatigue occurred in less than 1% of the placebo group and 2–3% of the sumatriptan groups. Sleep disturbance occurred in less than 1% in the placebo group to 2% in the sumatriptan group.


Sumatriptan is structurally similar to serotonin (5HT), and is a 5-HT (types 5-HT1D and 5-HT1B[4]agonist. The specific receptor subtypes it activates are present on the cranial arteries and veins. Acting as an agonist at these receptors, sumatriptan reduces the vascular inflammation associated with migraines.

The specific receptor subtype it activates is present in the cranial and basilar arteries. Activation of these receptors causes vasoconstriction of those dilated arteries. Sumatriptan is also shown to decrease the activity of the trigeminal nerve, which, it is presumed, accounts for sumatriptan’s efficacy in treating cluster headaches. The injectable form of the drug has been shown to abort a cluster headache within fifteen minutes in 96% of cases.[5]


Sumatriptan is administered in several forms; tablets, subcutaneous injection, and nasal spray. Oral administration (as succinate) suffers from poorbioavailability, partly due to presystemic metabolism—some of it gets broken down in the stomach and bloodstream before it reaches the target arteries. A new rapid-release tablet formulation has the same bioavailability, but the maximum concentration is achieved on average 10–15 minutes earlier. When injected, sumatriptan is faster-acting (usually within 10 minutes), but the effect lasts for a shorter time. Sumatriptan is metabolised primarily by monoamine oxidase A into an indole acetic acid analogue, part of which is further conjugated with glucuronic acid. These metabolites are excreted in the urine and bile. Only about 3% of the active drug may be recovered unchanged.

There is no simple, direct relationship between sumatriptan concentration (pharmacokinetics) per se in the blood and its anti-migraine effect (pharmacodynamics). This paradox has, to some extent, been resolved by comparing the rates of absorption of the various sumatriptan formulations, rather than the absolute amounts of drug that they deliver.[6][7]


Sumatriptan was the first clinically available triptan (in 1991). In the United States, it is available only by medical prescription. However, it can be bought over the counter in the UK and Sweden in 50 mg dosage. Several dosage forms for sumatriptan have been approved, including tablets, solution for injection, and nasal inhalers.

On April 15, 2008, the US FDA approved Treximet, a combination of sumatriptan and naproxen, an NSAID.[8] This combination has shown a benefit over either medicine used separately.[9]

In July 2009, the US FDA approved a single-use jet injector formulation of sumatriptan. The device delivers a subcutaneous injection of 6 mg sumatriptan, without the use of a needle.Autoinjectors with needles have been previously available in Europe and North America for several years.[10]

Phase III studies with a iontophoretic transdermal patch (Zelrix/Zecuity) started in July 2008.[11] This patch uses low voltage controlled by a pre-programmed microchip to deliver a single dose of sumatriptan through the skin within 30 minutes.[12][13]Zecuity was approved by the US FDA in January 2013.[14]


Sumatriptan vials 100 5509

On November 6, 2008, Par Pharmaceutical announced that it would begin shipping generic versions of sumatriptan injection (sumatriptan succinate injection) 4 mg and 6 mg starter kits and 4 mg and 6 mg pre-filled syringe cartridges to the trade immediately. In addition, Par anticipates launching the 6 mg vials early in 2009.[15]

Mylan Laboratories Inc., Ranbaxy, Sandoz, Dr. Reddy’s Pharmaceuticals and other companies have received FDA approval for generic versions of Imitrex tablets in 25-, 50-, and 100-milligram doses since 2009. The drug is available in U.S. and European markets, since Glaxo’s patent protections have expired in those jurisdictions. However, sales of a generic delivered via nasal spray are still restricted in the United States.

See also Sumavel DosePro (above).[10]


hydrogenation of nitrile with pd/c in presence of dimethyl amine


Sumatriptan synth.png

U.S. Patent 4,785,016

The diazotation of 4-amino-N-methylbenzenemethanesulfonamide (I) with NaNO2-HCl followed by reduction with SnCl2 gives the 4-hydrazino compound (II), which is condensed with (phenylthio)acetaldehyde (III) in ethanol yielding the ethylideneamino compound (IV). The cyclization of (IV) with HCl in ethanol affords N-methyl-3-(phenylthio)-1H-indole-5-methansulfonamide (V), which is desulfurized with RaNi in refluxing ethanol-water to give N-methyl-1H-indole-5-methanesulfonamide (VI). The reaction of (VI) with oxalyl chloride and dimethylamine yields the oxalyl derivative (VII), which is finally reduced with LiAlH4 in refluxing THF.

The condensation of hydrazine (II) with 4,4-dimethoxy-N,N-dimethylbutylamine (VIII) by means of HCl in water gives the butylidenehydrazino compound (IX), which is cyclized with polyphosphate ester (PPE) in CHCl3.


Beilstein J. Org. Chem. 2011, 7, 442–495.

ref are below article


The neuroamine transmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, so it is not surprising that indoles are a recurring theme in many drugs affecting central nervous system (CNS) function including antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics and antimigraine drugs, as well as psychedelic agents. Indole is also one of the best represented heterocyclic motifs present in the top selling pharmaceuticals, being found in eight of the top 200 drugs, with five of these belonging to the triptan family of antimigraine treatments. The classical Fischer indole synthesis is usually reported as one of the first choice routes to prepare these scaffolds. Drugs such as GSK’s serotonin receptor modulators sumatriptan (49, Imitrex) and zolmitriptan (50, Zomig) use the Fischer indole synthesis at a late stage in order to form the desired compound albeit in only low to moderate yields (Scheme 9).

Scheme 9: Key steps in the syntheses of sumatriptan and zolmitriptan.

However, in sumatriptan the indole product resulting from the Fischer synthesis can still react further which leads to the formation of by-products and significantly reduced yields. One way to minimise this was to protect the nitrogen of the sulfonamide group prior to indole formation [11]. This leads not only to an increased yield in the indole forming step (to 50%) but also facilitates chromatographic purification. The dimethylamino group can be present from the beginning of the synthesis or can be introduced via displacement of chloride or reduction of a cyano moiety. Alternatively, the dimethyl ethylene amine side chain can be introduced in position 3 via a Friedel–Crafts-type acylation. The resulting acid chloride is transformed in situ to the corresponding amide which on reduction with lithium aluminium hydride affords sumatriptan (Scheme 10) [12].

Scheme 10: Introduction of the N,N-dimethylaminoethyl side chain.

In the standard Fischer indole synthesis a hydrazine, which is most commonly derived from the corresponding diazonium salt, is reacted with a suitable carbonyl compound. Alternatively, the Japp–Klingemann reaction can be used to directly couple the diazonium salt with a β-ketoester to obtain a hydrazone which can then undergo indole ring formation (Scheme 11) [13].

Scheme 11: Japp–Klingemann reaction in the synthesis of sumatriptan.

As can be seen from Scheme 11 the indole 59 prepared via the Japp–Klingemann reaction is substituted at position 2 by an ester group which prevents reaction with electrophiles, thereby reducing the amount of undesired by-products. A simple sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation then affords sumatriptan [14].

All the reported methods for the synthesis of sumatriptan begin with the sulfonamide group already present on the aromatic ring and several routes are possible to introduce this functional group. The scalable route to the sulfonamides inevitably involves the preparation of the sulfonyl chloride intermediate which is then trapped with the desired amine. The sulfonyl chloride can also be prepared from the corresponding hemithioacetal 61 by treatment with NCS in wet acetic acid (Scheme 12). This efficient oxidation produces only methanol and formaldehyde as by-products [15].

Scheme 12: Synthesis of the intermediate sulfonyl chlorides 62 and 63.
  1. 11. Pete, B.; Bitter, I.; Szántay, C., Jr.; Schön, I.; Töke, L. Heterocycles 1998, 48, 1139–1149. doi:10.3987/COM-97-8087
  2. 12…Oxford, A. W. Indole Derivative. U.S. Patent 5,037,845, Aug 6, 1991.
  3. 13…Japp, F. R.; Klingemann, F. Chem. Ber. 1887, 20, 2942–2944. doi:10.1002/cber.188702002165
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References for full article

  1.  The presence of the sulfonamide group in the molecule does not make sumatriptan a “sulfa drug”, since it does not have any anti-microbial properties.
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Noncardiotoxic pharmaceutical compounds
Fixed Combination Dosage Forms for the Treatment of Migraine
Patient controlled drug delivery device
Rapid dissolution of combination products
Indole derivative
Pharmaceutical formulations
Fuel and water homogenizer

Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a biopharmaceutical company focused on bringing innovative medicines to patients with central nervous system disorders of high unmet medical need. As part of our commitment, we have extensively invested in our pipeline and are dedicated to advancing medicines that can substantially improve the lives of patients and their loved ones. For more information about Avanir, please visit

AVANIR® is a trademark or registered trademark of Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners.

Avanir Pharmaceuticals, Inc. licensed exclusive rights for the development and commercialization of AVP-825, a novel Breath Powered intranasal system containing a low-dose sumatriptan powder from OptiNose Inc. of Yardley, PA.

IMITREX Tablets contain sumatriptan succinate, a selective 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist. Sumatriptan succinate is chemically designated as 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-indole- 5-methanesulfonamide succinate (1:1), and it has the following structure:

IMITREX Tablets contain sumatriptan succinate, a selective 5-HT1B/1Dreceptor agonist. Sumatriptan succinate is chemically designated as 3-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-N-methyl-indole- 5-methanesulfonamide succinate (1:1), and it has the following structure:

IMITREX (sumatriptan succinate) Structural Formula Illustration

The empirical formula is C14H21N3O2S•C4H6O4, representing a molecular weight of 413.5. Sumatriptan succinate is a white to off-white powder that is readily soluble in water and in saline.

Each IMITREX Tablet for oral administration contains 35, 70, or 140 mg of sumatriptan succinate equivalent to 25, 50, or 100 mg of sumatriptan, respectively. Each tablet also contains the inactive ingredients croscarmellose sodium, dibasic calcium phosphate, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium bicarbonate. Each 100-mg tablet also contains hypromellose, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, and triacetin.

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