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ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY

Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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SK1-I , BML 258


BML-EI411

img

SK1-I , BML 258

Sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) inhibitor; antiproliferative

  • (1E)-1,2,4-Trideoxy-4-(methylamino)-1-(4-pentylphenyl)-D-erythro-pent-1-enitol
  • (E,2R,3S)-2-(Methylamino)-5-(4-pentylphenyl)pent-4-ene-1,3-diol
  • D-erythro-Pent-1-enitol, 1,2,4-trideoxy-4-(methylamino)-1-(4-pentylphenyl)-, (1E)-
Name: (2R,3S,4E)-N-methyl-5-(4′-pentylphenyl)-2-aminopent-4-ene-1,3-diol . HCl
Formula: C17H27NO. HCl
MW: 313.9
CAS: 1072443-89-0

 

  • Originator Enzo Biochem; Virginia Commonwealth University
  • Developer Enzo Biochem
  • Class Antineoplastics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Sphingosine kinase inhibitors
  • Preclinical Autoimmune hepatitis; Haematological malignancies; Liver cancer; Solid tumours
  • 07 May 2019 Preclinical trials in Liver cancer in USA (unspecified route)
  • 03 Dec 2018 SK1 I is available for licensing as of 03 Dec 2018. http://www.enzo.com/
  • 03 Dec 2018 Enzo Biochem has patent pending for SK1 I worldwide

SK1 I, a small molecule that specifically inhibits sphingosine kinase 1, is being developed by Enzo Biochem for the treatment of cancer and autoimmune diseases. Preclinical development is underway for the treatment of solid tumours, liver cancer, haematological malignancies and autoimmune hepatitis in the US.

As at December 2018, Enzo Biochem seeks partners for the development of SK1

SK1-I is a sphingosine analog and a sphingosine competitive inhibitor specific for sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1), with ki~10µM and excellent water solubility. It is not to be confused with SKI-I, 5-naphthalen-2-yl-2H-pyrazole-3-carboxylic acid (2-hydroxy-naphthalen-1-ylmethylene)-hydrazide, CAS 306301-68-8, a noncompetitive inhibitor of both SK1 and SK2 with poor water solubility (K.J. French, et al., 2006; N.J. Pyne and S. Pyne, 2010). SK1-I does not inhibit SK2, PKCα, PKCδ, PKA, AKT1, ERK1, EGFR, CDK2, IKKβ or CamK2β. Not only does it decrease sphingosine-1-phosphate levels, it also causes an accumulation of its proapoptotic precursor ceremide. Inhibits tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

PATENTS

US 20100035959

WO 2010127093

US 20100278741

WO 2011025545

Patent

US-10364211

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=US249091462&tab=PCTDESCRIPTION&_cid=P10-JZ0Q22-89420-1

This patent was granted in July 30, 2019 and set to expire on October 24, 2038. Claims methods for synthesizing the compound (2R,3S,4E)-N-methyl-5-(4′-pentylphenyl)-2-aminopent-4-ene-1,3-diol (also known as SK1-I and BML-258 (as HCl salt)) and its intermediates.

(2R,3S,4E)-N-methyl-5-(4′-pentylphenyl)-2-aminopent-4-ene-1,3-diol, also known as SK1-I and BML-258 (as HCl salt), is a pharmaceutical inhibitor of sphingosine kinase 1 initially described in Paugh et al., Blood. 2008 Aug. 15; 112(4): 1382-1391. An existing method for synthesizing SK1-I is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 8,314,151.


and

    The invention provides methods and intermediate compounds for synthesizing the compound (2R,3 S,4E)-N-methyl-5-(4′-pentylphenyl)-2-aminopent-4-ene-1,3-diol, also known as SK1-I, and related compounds. The structure of SK1-I is shown below.
      A step-wise synthesis of SK1-I according to the invention is exemplified as follows.

N-Boc-(D)-Serine Methyl Ester

      To an ice-cooled suspension of the (D)-Serine methyl ester hydrochloride (62.24 g, 0.4 mol) in dichloromethane (600.0 mL), triethylamine (40.4 g, 0.4 mol) was added. After the mixture was stirred for 30 min, Boc anhydride (96.0 g, 0.44 mol) in dichloromethane (100 mL) was added dropwise with vigorous stirring over 30 min. The reaction mixture was stirred for 16 hours at room temperature. Water (600 mL) was added. The organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with 2×200 mL of dichloromethane. The combined organic layer was washed with water (2×400 mL) and dried (Na 2SO 4). The solution was filtered, concentrated under reduced pressure to give an oil 93.36 g (˜100% yield), which was used directly in the next step without further purification.

Protection of N-Boc-(D)-Serine Methyl Ester

      Boc-Serine methyl ester from above (93.0 g, 0.42 mol) and catalyst p-toluenesulfonic acid (9.3 g) were dissolved in dichloromethane (500 mL) and 2,2-dimethoxypropane (500 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 20 hours with a drying tube. Saturated sodium bicarbonate (600.0 mL) was added. The mixture was then stirred vigorously for 30 min. The organic layer was separated, washed with bicarbonate (2×400.0 mL), water (400.0 mL), saturated NaCl (400.0 mL) and dried (Na 2SO 4). The solution was filtered and concentrated under vacuum to give 87.22 g oil (84% yield for two steps), which was used directly in the next step without further purification.

(R)—Garner Aldehyde

      To a cooled solution of the ester (87.0 g, 0.336 mol) in anhydrous toluene (690.0 mL, −78° C., acetone/dry ice bath), DIBAL in toluene (1.49 M in toluene, 392 mL, 585.0 mmol) was added dropwise under argon in such a way that the internal temperature did not rise above −70° C. After the addition, the reaction mixture was stirred for an additional 4 hours at −78° C. Methanol (128 mL) was added to the mixture to quench the reaction. The mixture was poured slowly into an aqueous solution of Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate; 1.2 M, 660 g/1949 mL water) with vigorous stirring. The mixture was stirred at room temperature until clear separation into two layers. The aqueous layer was extracted with diethyl ether (2×300.0 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with water (2×800 mL) and brine (800 mL), then dried with anhydrous Na 2SO 4. The solvent was evaporated under vacuum to give aldehyde as a pale yellow oil (68.59 g, 89%), which was used without further purification.

Addition of 4-Pentylphenyl Acetylene to the Above Aldehyde

      To a cooled (−20° C.) solution of 4-n-pentylphenylacetylene (51.68 g, 300 mmol) in dry THF (400 mL), n-BuLi solution (2.5 M in hexane, 120 mL, 300 mmol) was added dropwise under argon. After 2 hours, the mixture was cooled to −78° C., followed by the addition of HMPA (hexmethylphosphoramide, 64.5 g, 360 mmol). After the mixture was stirred at −78° C. for an additional 30 mins, methyl (R)-(+)-3-(t-butoxycarbonyl)-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxazolidinecarboxaldehyde (58.0 g, 248.3 mmol) in anhydrous THF (tetrahydrofuran; 100 mL) was added dropwise (maintaining the temperature below −60° C.). The mixture was stirred for an additional 5 hours at −78° C., then quenched by saturated ammonium chloride solution (1000 mL). The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl ether (3×400 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with 0.5 N HCl (2×400 mL) and brine (400 mL), then dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was removed under vacuum to give a yellow oil (104.04 g, ˜100% yield), which was used without further purification.

Deprotection of the Above Oxazolidine


      To an ice cooled solution of Boc-oxazolidine (103.0 g, 257.0 mmol) in methanol (1000 mL), was added conc. HCl (43.5 mL, pre-cooled to 0° C.). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight and then extracted with hexane (3×400 mL). The pH of the methanol solution was adjusted with solid sodium bicarbonate to 8.0. Boc anhydride (53.94 g, 245.92 mmol) was added and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1-4 hours until the disappearance of formed intermediate free amine. The solvent was removed under vacuum. The residue was redissolved in water (300 mL) and diethyl ether (300 mL). The ethyl ether layer was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate and then evaporated to give a brown oil (87.54 g, 94%), which was used without further purification.

Reduction of the Above Alcohol


      To an ice-cooled solution of the above acetylene (87.0 g, 241.0 mmol) in THF (800 mL), Red-Al (Sodium bis(2-methoxyethoxy)aluminum dihydride; 60% w/w in toluene, 392 mL; 1.205 mol) was added dropwise over 1 hour under argon with stirring. The solution was then stirred at room temperature for 36 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled in an ice bath and then poured carefully into a pre-cooled solution of Rochelle salt in water (700 g in 2200 mL of water). The mixture was vigorously stirred until two layers were visible and well separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with 2×600 mL of toluene. The combined toluene layer was washed with water (2×800 mL) and saturated sodium chloride (800 mL) and dried (Na 2SO 4). The solvent was removed under vacuum to give a yellowish semi solid, which was recrystallized with hexane (200 mL) to give a white solid 43.3 g (purity: >98%; yield: 49%)

Deprotection to SK1-I (BML-258)


      To a solution of Boc protected amine (15 g, 41.3 mmol) in anhydrous THF (300 mL), DIBAL (25% w/w in toluene, 1.49 M, 278 mL, 413 mmol) was added at room temperature under argon. The mixture was refluxed until the starting material disappeared. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and poured into Rochelle salt (340 g/1000 mL water) containing sodium hydroxide (50 g, ˜5%). The mixture was stirred vigorously for 1 hour. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2×500 mL). The combined organic layer was washed with water (1000 mL) and brine (1000 mL) and dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate. The solvent was removed under vacuum to afford yellowish oil, which turned into a pale solid after storing at −20° C. overnight. To a cold solution (ice bath) of this solid in ethyl ether (400 mL), was added 1M HCl in ethyl ether (50 mL). The white precipitate was collected by filtration and washed with ethyl ether (2×50 mL), and then dried under vacuum to give product as a white solid (8.11 g, 63% yield).

PATENT

WO2018237379 ,

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2018237379

claiming sphingosine pathway modulating compounds for the treatment of cancers, assigned to Enzo Biochem Inc , naming different team

Sphingosine- 1 -phosphate (SIP) was discovered to be a bioactive signaling molecule over 20 years ago. Studies have since identified two related kinases, sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 (a/k/a sphingosine kinase “type I” and “type II” respectively, and SphKl and SphK2 respectively), which catalyze the phosphorylation of sphingosine to SIP. Extracellular SIP can bind to and activate each of five S IP-specific, G protein-coupled receptors (designated S IPR1-5) to regulate cellular and physiological processes in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Selective inhibitors of each of sphingosine kinase 1 and 2, as well as both nonselective and selective agonists of SlPRs, have been developed and are known in the art.

Product Literature References

Sphingosine kinase 1 activation by estrogen receptor α36 contributes to tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer: M.A. Maczis, et al.; J. Lipid Res. 59, 2297 (2018), AbstractFull Text
TP53 is required for BECN1- and ATG5-dependent cell death induced by sphingosine kinase 1 inhibition: S. Lima, et al.; Autophagy 11, 1 (2018), Abstract;
A novel E2F/Sphingosine kinase 1 axis regulates anthracycline response in squamous cell carcinoma: M. Hazar-Rethinam, et al.; Clin. Cancer Res. 21, 417 (2015), Application(s): Inhibition of Sphingosine kinase 1 in doxorubicin-treated SCC cells and in vivo., Abstract;
Inhibition of Sphingosine Kinase 1 Ameliorates Angiotensin II-induced Hypertension and Inhibits Transmembrane Calcium Entry via Store-Operated Calcium Channel: P. C. Wilson, et al.; Mol. Endocrinol. 29, 896 (2015), Application(s): Cell Culture, AbstractFull Text
Sphingosine Kinases Signalling in Carcinogenesis: G. Marfe, et al.; Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 15, 300 (2015), Application(s):Inhibition of Sphingosine kinase 1, Abstract;
K63-linked polyubiquitination of transcription factor IRF1 is essential for IL-1-induced production of chemokines CXCL10 and CCL5.: K. B. Harikumar, et al.; Nat. Immunol. 15, 231 (2014), Application(s): Inhibition of Sphingosine kinase 1 in primary human astrocytes and mice, AbstractFull Text
LRIG1 modulates aggressiveness of head and neck cancers by regulating EGFR-MAPK-SPHK1 signaling and extracellular matrix remodeling: J. J. C. Sheu, et al.; Oncogene 33, 1375 (2014), Application(s): Inhibition of Sphingosine kinase 1 in head and neck cancer TW06 cells, Abstract;
Role of sphingosine kinase 1 and sphingosine-1-phosphate in CD40 signaling and IgE class switching: E. Y. Kim, et al.; FASEB J. 28, 4347 (2014), Application(s): Inhibition of Sphingosine kinase 1 in human tonsil B cells, mouse splenic B cells and in mice, Abstract;
Sphingosine kinase-1 enhances resistance to apoptosis through activation of PI3K/Akt/NF-κB pathway in human non–small cell lung cancer: L. Song et al.; Clin. Cancer Res. 17, 1839 (2011), Abstract;
Targeting sphingosine kinase 1 inhibits Akt signaling, induces apoptosis, and suppresses growth of human glioblastoma cells and xenografts: D. Kapitonov et al.; Cancer Res. 69, 6915 (2009), Abstract;
A selective sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitor integrates multiple molecular therapeutic targets in human leukemia: S.W. Paugh et al.; Blood 112, 1382 (2008), Abstract;

General Literature References

Sphingosine-1-phosphate and cancer: N.J. Pyne & S. Pyne; Nat. Rev. Cancer 10, 489 (2010), Abstract;
Antitumor Activity of Sphingosine Kinase Inhibitors: K.J. French, et al.; J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 318, 596 (2006), AbstractFull Text

/////////SK1-I , SK1I , SK1 I , BML 258, Enzo Biochem,  Virginia Commonwealth, Preclinical, solid tumours, liver cancer, haematological malignancies, autoimmune hepatitis, 

CCCCCC1=CC=C(/C=C/[C@H](O)[C@H](NC)CO)C=C1.Cl

HS 10340


HS-10340

CAS 2156639-66-4

MF C26 H31 N7 O5
MW 521.57
1,8-Naphthyridine-1(2H)-carboxamide, N-[5-cyano-4-[[(1R)-2-methoxy-1-methylethyl]amino]-2-pyridinyl]-7-formyl-3,4-dihydro-6-[(tetrahydro-2-oxo-1,3-oxazepin-3(2H)-yl)methyl]-
(R)-N-(5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2-carbonyl)-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide

CAS 2307670-65-9

Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical Group Co Ltd

Being investigated by Jiangsu Hansoh, Shanghai Hansoh Biomedical and Changzhou Hengbang Pharmaceutical ; in June 2018, the product was being developed as a class 1 chemical drug in China.

Useful for treating liver cancer, gastric cancer and prostate cancer.

Use for treating cancers, liver cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovary cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, glioma and rhabdomyosarcoma

The fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor and includes four receptor subtypes, namely FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. FGFR regulates various functions such as cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration, and plays an important role in human development and adult body functions. FGFR is abnormal in a variety of human tumors, including gene amplification, mutation and overexpression, and is an important target for tumor-targeted therapeutic research.
FGFR4, a member of the FGFR receptor family, forms dimers on the cell membrane by binding to its ligand, fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), and the formation of these dimers can cause critical tyrosine in FGFR4’s own cells. The phosphorylation of the amino acid residue activates multiple downstream signaling pathways in the cell, and these intracellular signaling pathways play an important role in cell proliferation, survival, and anti-apoptosis. FGFR4 is overexpressed in many cancers and is a predictor of malignant invasion of tumors. Decreasing and reducing FGFR4 expression can reduce cell proliferation and promote apoptosis. Recently, more and more studies have shown that about one-third of liver cancer patients with continuous activation of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling pathway are the main carcinogenic factors leading to liver cancer in this part of patients. At the same time, FGFR4 expression or high expression is also closely related to many other tumors, such as gastric cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and the like.
The incidence of liver cancer ranks first in the world in China, with new and dead patients accounting for about half of the total number of liver cancers worldwide each year. At present, the incidence of liver cancer in China is about 28.7/100,000. In 2012, there were 394,770 new cases, which became the third most serious malignant tumor after gastric cancer and lung cancer. The onset of primary liver cancer is a multi-factor, multi-step complex process with strong invasiveness and poor prognosis. Surgical treatments such as hepatectomy and liver transplantation can improve the survival rate of some patients, but only limited patients can undergo surgery, and most patients have a poor prognosis due to recurrence and metastasis after surgery. Sorafenib is the only liver cancer treatment drug approved on the market. It can only prolong the overall survival period of about 3 months, and the treatment effect is not satisfactory. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a liver cancer system treatment drug targeting new molecules. FGFR4 is a major carcinogenic factor in liver cancer, and its development of small molecule inhibitors has great clinical application potential.
At present, some FGFR inhibitors have entered the clinical research stage as anti-tumor drugs, but these are mainly inhibitors of FGFR1, 2 and 3, and the inhibition of FGFR4 activity is weak, and the inhibition of FGFR1-3 has hyperphosphatemia. Such as target related side effects. Highly selective inhibitor of FGFR4 can effectively treat cancer diseases caused by abnormal FGFR4 signaling pathway, and can avoid the side effects of hyperphosphatemia caused by FGFR1-3 inhibition. Highly selective small molecule inhibitors against FGFR4 in tumor targeted therapy The field has significant application prospects.
SYN

PATENT

WO2017198149

where it is claimed to be an FGFR-4 inhibitor for treating liver and prostate cancers, assigned to Jiangsu Hansoh Pharmaceutical Group Co Ltd and Shanghai Hansoh Biomedical Co Ltd .

PATENT

WO2019085860

Compound (R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2-carbonyl-) 1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (shown as Formula I). The compound of formula (I) is disclosed in Hausen Patent PCT/CN2017/084564, the compound of formula I is a fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitor, and the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) belongs to the receptor tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor. The body includes four receptor subtypes, namely FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. FGFR regulates various functions such as cell proliferation, survival, differentiation and migration, and plays an important role in human development and adult body functions. FGFR is abnormal in a variety of human tumors, including gene amplification, mutation and overexpression, and is an important target for tumor-targeted therapeutic research.

[0003]
Example 1: Preparation of a compound of formula (I)

[0048]
First step 4-(((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)butane Preparation of 1-propanol

[0049]

[0050]
2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-carbaldehyde (1.0 g, 4.2 mmol), 4-aminobutyl at room temperature l-ol (0.45g, 5.1mmol) was dissolved in DCE (15mL), stirred for 2 hours, followed by addition of NaBH (OAc) . 3 (1.35 g of, 6.4 mmol), stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was treated with CH 2 CI 2 was diluted (100 mL), the organic phase was washed with water (10mL) and saturated brine (15mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated by column chromatography to give compound 4 – (((2- ( Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)butan-1-ol (0.9 g, 69%) .

[0051]
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 7.13 (S, IH), 5.17 (S, IH), 4.84 (S, IH), 3.73 (S, 2H), 3.66-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.42 ( s, 6H), 3.40-3.36 (m, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.68-2.56 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.74-1.55 (m, 4H);

[0052]
MS m/z (ESI): 310.2 [M+H] + .

[0053]
The second step is 3-((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)-1,3- Preparation of oxazepine-2 ketone

[0054]

[0055]
4-(((2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino) in an ice water bath Butan-1-ol (0.6 g, 1.94 mmol) was dissolved in DCE (15 mL), then bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate (0.22 g, 0.76 mmol) was added and triethylamine (0.78 g, 7.76) was slowly added dropwise. Methyl) and then stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The reaction temperature was raised to 80 ° C, and the reaction was carried out at 80 ° C for 6 hours. After the reaction was cooled to room temperature, it was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 (100 mL), and the organic phase was washed sequentially with water (10 mL) and brine (15 mL) Drying with sodium sulfate, concentration and column chromatography to give the compound 3-((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl) )methyl)-1,3-oxazepin-2-one (0.37 g, 57%).

[0056]
MS m/z (ESI): 336.2 [M+H] + .

[0057]
The third step is phenyl 7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1, Preparation of 8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate

[0058]

[0059]
3-((2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)-1,3-oxan -2-one (670mg, 2mmol), diphenyl carbonate (643mg, 3mmol) mixing in of THF (15 mL), N 2 in an atmosphere, cooled to -78 deg.] C, was added dropwise LiHMDS in THF (4mL, 4mmol) was Naturally, it was allowed to react to room temperature overnight. After adding saturated aqueous NH 4 Cl (100 mL), ethyl acetate (100 mL×2), EtOAc. Methyl)-6-((3-carbonylmorpholino)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate (432 mg, 47%) .

[0060]
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 7.56 (S, IH), 7.38 (m, 2H), 7.21 (m, 3H), 5.22 (S, IH), 4.77 (S, 2H), 4.16 (m, 2H), 3.95 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 6H), 3.25 (m, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.87 (m, 2H), 1.64 (m, 4H);

[0061]
MS m/z (ESI): 456.2 [M+H] + .

[0062]
The fourth step: (R)-N-(5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl) -6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide synthesis

[0063]

[0064]
(R)-6-Amino-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino) nicotinenitrile (30 mg, 0.14 mmol), phenyl 7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6- ( (2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate (60 mg, 0.13 Methyl acetate was dissolved in THF (5 mL), cooled to -78 ° C under N 2atmosphere, and a solution of THF (0.3 mL, 0.3 mmol) of LiHMDS was added dropwise to the reaction mixture. After adding a saturated aqueous solution of NH 4 Cl (50 mL), EtOAc (EtOAc) (5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-((2-carbonyl-1) 3-oxoheptyl-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (65 mg, 86%).

[0065]
1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 13.70 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 7.60 (s, 2H), 5.41 (s, 1H), 5.12 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (s, 2H), 4.20-4.11 (m, 2H), 4.06-3.99 (m, 2H), 3.93 (s, 1H), 3.52-3.48 (m, 7H), 3.46-3.42 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.26-3.21 (m, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 2.03-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.91-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.62 (m , 2H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H);

[0066]
MS m/z (ESI): 568.3 [M+H] + .

[0067]
Step 5: (R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2) Synthesis of -carbonyl-1,3-oxoheptyl-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide

[0068]

[0069]
(R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-( (2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (65 mg, 0.12 mmol) Dissolved in THF/water (volume ratio: 11/4, 4.5 mL), concentrated HCl (0.45 mL, 5.4 mmol), and allowed to react at room temperature for 2 h. Saturated NaHC03 . 3 solution (50mL), (50mL × 2 ) and extracted with ethyl acetate, the organic phases were combined and washed with saturated brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated by column chromatography to give the title compound (R) -N- ( 5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine) 3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1 (2H)-carboxamide (30 mg, 51%).

[0070]
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 13.57 (S, IH), 10.26 (S, IH), 8.17 (S, IH), 7.71 (S, IH), 7.63 (S, IH), 5.27 (S, 1H), 4.95 (s, 2H), 4.19-4.12 (m, 2H), 4.11-4.04 (m, 2H), 3.94 (s, 1H), 3.52 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.37 (m, 4H) , 3.33 – 3.28 (m, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.04 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.73 (m, 2H), 1.39-1.28 (m , 3H);

[0071]
MS m/z (ESI): 522.2 [M+H] + .

PATENT

WO-2019085927

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019085927&tab=FULLTEXT

Novel crystalline salt (such as hydrochloride, sulfate, methane sulfonate, mesylate, besylate, ethanesulfonate, oxalate, maleate, p-toluenesulfonate) forms of FGFR4 inhibitor, particularly N-[5-cyano-4-[[(1R)-2-methoxy-1-methyl-ethyl]amino]-2-pyridyl]-7-formyl-6-[(2-oxo-1,3-oxazepan-3-yl)methyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1,8-naphthyridine-1-carboxamide (designated as Forms I- IX), compositions comprising them and their use as an FGFR4 inhibitor for the treatment of cancer such as liver cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer and glioma or rhabdomyosarcoma are claimed.

Example 1: Preparation of a compound of formula (I)
First step 4-(((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)butane Preparation of 1-propanol
2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-carbaldehyde (1.0 g, 4.2 mmol), 4-aminobutyl at room temperature l-ol (0.45g, 5.1mmol) was dissolved in DCE (15mL), stirred for 2 hours, followed by addition of NaBH (OAc) . 3 (1.35 g of, 6.4 mmol), stirred at room temperature overnight. The reaction was treated with CH 2 CI 2 was diluted (100 mL), the organic phase was washed with water (10mL) and saturated brine (15mL), and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated by column chromatography to give compound 4 – (((2- ( Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino)butan-1-ol (0.9 g, 69%) .
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 7.13 (S, IH), 5.17 (S, IH), 4.84 (S, IH), 3.73 (S, 2H), 3.66-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.42 ( s, 6H), 3.40-3.36 (m, 2H), 2.71 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.68-2.56 (m, 2H), 1.95-1.81 (m, 2H), 1.74-1.55 (m, 4H);
MS m/z (ESI): 310.2 [M+H] + .
The second step is 3-((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)-1,3- Preparation of oxazepine-2 ketone
4-(((2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)amino) in an ice water bath Butan-1-ol (0.6 g, 1.94 mmol) was dissolved in DCE (15 mL), then bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate (0.22 g, 0.76 mmol) was added and triethylamine (0.78 g, 7.76) was slowly added dropwise. Methyl) and then stirred at room temperature for 3 hours. The reaction temperature was raised to 80 ° C, and the reaction was carried out at 80 ° C for 6 hours. After the reaction was cooled to room temperature, it was diluted with CH 2 Cl 2 (100 mL), and the organic phase was washed sequentially with water (10 mL) and brine (15 mL) Drying with sodium sulfate, concentration and column chromatography to give the compound 3-((2-(dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl) )methyl)-1,3-oxazepin-2-one (0.37 g, 57%).
MS m/z (ESI): 336.2 [M+H] + .
The third step is phenyl 7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1, Preparation of 8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate
3-((2-(Dimethoxymethyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-1,8-naphthyridin-3-yl)methyl)-1,3-oxan -2-one (670mg, 2mmol), diphenyl carbonate (643mg, 3mmol) mixing in of THF (15 mL), N 2 in an atmosphere, cooled to -78 deg.] C, was added dropwise LiHMDS in THF (4mL, 4mmol) was Naturally, it was allowed to react to room temperature overnight. After adding saturated aqueous NH 4 Cl (100 mL), ethyl acetate (100 mL×2), EtOAc. Methyl)-6-((3-carbonylmorpholino)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate (432 mg, 47%) .
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 7.56 (S, IH), 7.38 (m, 2H), 7.21 (m, 3H), 5.22 (S, IH), 4.77 (S, 2H), 4.16 (m, 2H), 3.95 (m, 2H), 3.39 (s, 6H), 3.25 (m, 2H), 2.84 (t, J = 6.5 Hz, 2H), 1.87 (m, 2H), 1.64 (m, 4H);
MS m/z (ESI): 456.2 [M+H] + .
The fourth step: (R)-N-(5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl) -6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide synthesis
(R)-6-Amino-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino) nicotinenitrile (30 mg, 0.14 mmol), phenyl 7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6- ( (2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxylate (60 mg, 0.13 Methyl acetate was dissolved in THF (5 mL), cooled to -78 ° C under N 2atmosphere, and a solution of THF (0.3 mL, 0.3 mmol) of LiHMDS was added dropwise to the reaction mixture. After adding a saturated aqueous solution of NH 4 Cl (50 mL), EtOAc (EtOAc) (5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-((2-carbonyl-1) 3-oxoheptyl-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (65 mg, 86%).
1H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 13.70 (s, 1H), 8.18 (s, 1H), 7.60 (s, 2H), 5.41 (s, 1H), 5.12 (d, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 4.73 (s, 2H), 4.20-4.11 (m, 2H), 4.06-3.99 (m, 2H), 3.93 (s, 1H), 3.52-3.48 (m, 7H), 3.46-3.42 (m, 1H), 3.39 (s, 3H), 3.26-3.21 (m, 2H), 2.83 (t, J = 6.2 Hz, 2H), 2.03-1.95 (m, 2H), 1.91-1.83 (m, 2H), 1.67-1.62 (m , 2H), 1.31 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 3H);
MS m/z (ESI): 568.3 [M+H] + .
Step 5: (R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2) Synthesis of -carbonyl-1,3-oxoheptyl-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide
(R)-N-(5-Cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-(dimethoxymethyl)-6-( (2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine-3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1(2H)-carboxamide (65 mg, 0.12 mmol) Dissolved in THF/water (volume ratio: 11/4, 4.5 mL), concentrated HCl (0.45 mL, 5.4 mmol), and allowed to react at room temperature for 2 h. Saturated NaHC03 . 3 solution (50mL), (50mL × 2 ) and extracted with ethyl acetate, the organic phases were combined and washed with saturated brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and concentrated by column chromatography to give the title compound (R) -N- ( 5-cyano-4-((1-methoxypropan-2-yl)amino)pyridin-2-yl)-7-formyl-6-((2-carbonyl-1,3-oxazepine) 3-yl)methyl)-3,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridin-1 (2H)-carboxamide (30 mg, 51%).
. 1 H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 . 3 ) [delta] 13.57 (S, IH), 10.26 (S, IH), 8.17 (S, IH), 7.71 (S, IH), 7.63 (S, IH), 5.27 (S, 1H), 4.95 (s, 2H), 4.19-4.12 (m, 2H), 4.11-4.04 (m, 2H), 3.94 (s, 1H), 3.52 (m, 1H), 3.48-3.37 (m, 4H) , 3.33 – 3.28 (m, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.04 (m, 2H), 1.93-1.85 (m, 2H), 1.73 (m, 2H), 1.39-1.28 (m , 3H);
MS m/z (ESI): 522.2 [M+H] + .

///////////HS-10340 , HS 10340 , HS10340, CANCER, Jiangsu Hansoh, Shanghai Hansoh Biomedical,  Changzhou Hengbang, CHINA,  liver cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, skin cancer, ovary cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, glioma,  rhabdomyosarcoma

C[C@H](COC)Nc1cc(ncc1C#N)NC(=O)N4CCCc3cc(CN2CCCCOC2=O)c(C=O)nc34

CCS(=O)(=O)O.C[C@H](COC)Nc1cc(ncc1C#N)NC(=O)N4CCCc3cc(CN2CCCCOC2=O)c(C=O)nc34

Bayer HealthCare has obtained approval from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) for its Nexavar (sorafenib) for treatment of patients with unresectable differentiated thyroid carcinoma.


Sorafenib2DACS.svg

Sorafenib

(4-(4-(3-(4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)ureido)phenoxy)-N-methylpicolinamide)

BAY 43-9006

Sorafenib3Dan.gif

Bayer HealthCare has obtained approval from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) for its Nexavar (sorafenib) for treatment of patients with unresectable differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newsbayers-nexavar-receives-japanese-approval-4300422?WT.mc_id=DN_News

Bayer HealthCare has obtained approval from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) for its Nexavar (sorafenib) for treatment of patients with unresectable differentiated thyroid carcinoma.

Nexavar’s approval in Japan is supported by data from the multicentre, placebo-controlled Phase III DECISION (‘stuDy of sorafEnib in loCally advanced or metastatIc patientS with radioactive Iodine refractory thyrOid caNcer’) study.

The international Phase III DECISION study, which randomised a total of 417 patients, met its primary endpoint of extended progression-free survival. Safety and tolerability profile of sorafenib was generally consistent with the known profile of sorafenib.

The most common treatment-emergent adverse events in the sorafenib arm were hand-foot skin reaction, diarrhea, alopecia, weight loss, fatigue, hypertension and rash.

Nexavar was awarded orphan drug status by the MHLW for thyroid carcinoma in September 2013.

 

Sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar),[1] is a drug approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer (advanced renal cell carcinoma), advanced primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and radioactive iodine resistant advanced thyroid carcinoma.

 

 

Medical uses

At the current time sorafenib is indicated as a treatment for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and thyroid cancer.[2][3][4][5]

Kidney cancer

An article in The New England Journal of Medicine, published January 2007, showed compared with placebo, treatment with sorafenib prolongs progression-free survival in patients with advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma in whom previous therapy has failed. The median progression-free survival was 5.5 months in the sorafenib group and 2.8 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for disease progression in the sorafenib group, 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.55; P<0.01).[6] A few reports described patients with stage IV renal cell carcinomas that were successfully treated with a multimodal approach including neurosurgical, radiation, and sorafenib.[7] This is one of two TGA-labelled indications for sorafenib, although it is not listed on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme for this indication.[5][8]

Liver cancer

At ASCO 2007, results from the SHARP trial[9] were presented, which showed efficacy of sorafenib in hepatocellular carcinoma. The primary endpoint was median overall survival, which showed a 44% improvement in patients who received sorafenib compared to placebo (hazard ratio 0.69; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.87; p=0.0001). Both median survival and time to progression showed 3-month improvements. There was no difference in quality of life measures, possibly attributable to toxicity of sorafenib or symptoms related to underlying progression of liver disease. Of note, this trial only included patients with Child-Pugh Class A (i.e. mildest) cirrhosis. The results of the study appear in the July 24, 2008, edition of The New England Journal of Medicine. Because of this trial Sorafenib obtained FDA approval for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma in November 2007.[10]

In a randomized, double-blind, phase II trial combining sorafenib with doxorubicin, the median time to progression was not significantly delayed compared with doxorubicin alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Median durations of overall survival and progression-free survival were significantly longer in patients receiving sorafenib plus doxorubicin than in those receiving doxorubicin alone.[10] A prospective single-centre phase II study which included the patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)concluding that the combination of sorafenib and DEB-TACE in patients with unresectable HCC is well tolerated and safe, with most toxicities related to sorafenib.[11] This is the only indication for which sorafenib is listed on the PBS and hence the only Government-subsidised indication for sorafenib in Australia.[8] Along with renal cell carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the TGA-labelled indications for sorafenib.[5]

Thyroid cancer

A phase 3 clinical trial has started recruiting (November 2009) to use sorafenib for non-responsive thyroid cancer.[12] The results were presented at the ASCO 13th Annual Meeting and are the base for FDA approval. The Sorafenib in locally advanced or metastatic patients with radioactive iodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer: The Phase 3 DECISION trial showed significant improvement in progression-free survival but not in overall survival. However, as is known, the side effects were very frequent, specially hand and foot skin reaction.[13]

Adverse effects

Adverse effects by frequency
Note: Potentially serious side effects are in bold.
Very common (>10% frequency)

Common (1-10% frequency)

  • Transient increase in transaminase

Uncommon (0.1-1% frequency)

Rare (0.01-0.1% frequency)

Mechanism of action

Sorafenib is a small molecular inhibitor of several tyrosine protein kinases (VEGFR and PDGFR) and Raf kinases (more avidly C-Raf than B-Raf).[16][17] Sorafenib also inhibits some intracellular serine/threonine kinases (e.g. C-Raf, wild-type B-Raf and mutant B-Raf).[10] Sorafenib treatment induces autophagy,[18] which may suppress tumor growth. However, autophagy can also cause drug resistance.[19]

History

Renal cancer

Sorafenib was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in December 2005,[20] and received European Commission marketing authorization in July 2006,[21] both for use in the treatment of advanced renal cancer.

Liver cancer

The European Commission granted marketing authorization to the drug for the treatment of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), the most common form of liver cancer, in October 2007,[22] and FDA approval for this indication followed in November 2007.[23]

In November 2009, the UK’s National Institute of Clinical Excellence declined to approve the drug for use within the NHS in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, stating that its effectiveness (increasing survival in primary liver cancer by 6 months) did not justify its high price, at up to £3000 per patient per month.[24] In Scotland the drug had already been refused authorization by the Scottish Medicines Consortium for use within NHS Scotland, for the same reason.[24]

In March 2012, the Indian Patent Office granted a domestic company, Natco Pharma, a license to manufacture generic Sorafenib, bringing its price down by 97%. Bayer sells a month’s supply, 120 tablets, of Nexavar forINR280000 (US$4,700). Natco Pharma will sell 120 tablets for INR8800 (US$150), while still paying a 6% royalty to Bayer.[25][26] Under Indian Patents Act, 2005 and the World Trade Organisation TRIPS Agreement, the government can issue a compulsory license when a drug is not available at an affordable price.[27]

Thyroid Cancer

As of November 22, 2013, sorafenib has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of locally recurrent or metastatic, progressive differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) refractory to radioactive iodine treatment.[28]

Research

Lung

In some kinds of lung cancer (with squamous-cell histology) sorafenib administered in addition to paclitaxel and carboplatin may be detrimental to patients.[29]

Brain (Recurrent Glioblastoma)

There is a phase I/II study at the Mayo Clinic[30] of sorafenib and CCI-779 (temsirolimus) for recurrent glioblastoma.

Desmoid Tumor (Aggressive Fibromatosis)

A study performed in 2011 showed that Sorafenib is active against Aggressive fibromatosis. This study is being used as justification for using Sorafenib as an initial course of treatment in some patients with Aggressive fibromatosis.[31]

Nexavar Controversy

In January 2014, Bayer’s CEO stated that Nexavar was developed for “western patients who [could] afford it”. At the prevailing prices, a kidney cancer patient would pay $96,000 (£58,000) for a year’s course of the Bayer-made drug. However, the cost of the Indian version of the generic drug would be around $2,800 (£1,700).[32]

Notes

  1. Low blood phosphate levels
  2. Bleeding; including serious bleeds such as intracranial and intrapulmonary bleeds
  3. High blood pressure
  4. Including abdominal pain, headache, tumour pain, etc.
  5. Considered a low (~10-30%) risk chemotherapeutic agent for causing emesis)
  6. Low level of white blood cells in the blood
  7. Low level of neutrophils in the blood
  8. Low level of red blood cells in the blood
  9. Low level of plasma cells in the blood
  10. Low blood calcium
  11. Low blood potassium
  12. Hearing ringing in the ears
  13. Heart attack
  14. Lack of blood supply for the heart muscle
  15. Mouth swelling, also dry mouth and glossodynia
  16. Indigestion
  17. Not being able to swallow
  18. Sore joints
  19. Muscle aches
  20. Kidney failure
  21. Excreting protein [usually plasma proteins] in the urine. Not dangerous in itself but it is indicative kidney damage
  22. Including skin reactions and urticaria (hives)
  23. Underactive thyroid
  24. Overactive thyroid
  25. Low blood sodium
  26. Runny nose
  27. Pneumonitis, radiation pneumonitis, acute respiratory distress, etc.
  28. Swelling of the pancreas
  29. Swelling of the stomach
  30. Formation of a hole in the gastrointestinal tract, leading to potentially fatal bleeds
  31. Yellowing of the skin and eyes due to a failure of the liver to adequately cope with the amount of bilirubin produced by the day-to-day actions of the body
  32. Swelling of the gallbladder
  33. Swelling of the bile duct
  34. A potentially fatal skin reaction
  35. A fairly benign form of skin cancer
  36. A potentially fatal abnormality in the electrical activity of the heart
  37. Swelling of the skin and mucous membranes
  38. A potentially fatal allergic reaction
  39. Swelling of the liver
  40. A potentially fatal skin reaction
  41. A potentially fatal skin reaction
  42. The rapid breakdown of muscle tissue leading to the build-up of myoglobin in the blood and resulting in damage to the kidneys

 

 

Sorafenib
Sorafenib2DACS.svg
Sorafenib3Dan.gif
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4-[4-[[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]carbamoylamino]
phenoxy]-N-methyl-pyridine-2-carboxamide
Clinical data
Trade names Nexavar
AHFS/Drugs.com monograph
MedlinePlus a607051
Licence data EMA:Link, US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat. D (AU) D (US)
Legal status Prescription Only (S4) (AU) -only (CA) POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes Oral
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 38–49%
Protein binding 99.5%
Metabolism Hepatic oxidation and glucuronidation (CYP3A4 & UGT1A9-mediated)
Half-life 25–48 hours
Excretion Faeces (77%) and urine (19%)
Identifiers
CAS number 284461-73-0 Yes
ATC code L01XE05
PubChem CID 216239
DrugBank DB00398
ChemSpider 187440 Yes
UNII 9ZOQ3TZI87 Yes
KEGG D08524 Yes
ChEBI CHEBI:50924 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1336 Yes
Synonyms Nexavar
Sorafenib tosylate
PDB ligand ID BAX (PDBe, RCSB PDB)
Chemical data
Formula C21H16ClF3N4O3 
Mol. mass 464.825 g/mol

 

4-(4-{3-[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ureido}phenoxy)-Λ/2-methylpyridine-2- carboxamide is commonly known as sorafenib (I). Sorafenib is prepared as its tosylate salt. Sorafenib blocks the enzyme RAF kinase, a critical component of the RAF/MEK/ERK signaling pathway that controls cell division and proliferation; in addition, sorafenib inhibits the VEGFR-2/PDGFR-beta signaling cascade, thereby blocking tumor angiogenesis.

Sorafenib, marketed as Nexavar by Bayer, is a drug approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (primary kidney cancer). It has also received “Fast Track” designation by the FDA for the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (primary liver cancer). It is a small molecular inhibitor of Raf kinase, PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor), VEGF receptor 2 & 3 kinases and c Kit the receptor for Stem cell factor.

 

Sorafenib and pharmaceutically acceptable salts thereof is disclosed in WO0042012. Sorafenib is also disclosed in WO0041698. Both these patents disclose processes for the preparation of sorafenib.

WO0042012 and WO0041698 describe the process as given in scheme I which comprises reacting picolinic acid (II) with thionyl chloride in dimethyl formamide (DMF) to form acid chloride salt (III). This salt is then reacted with methylamine dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (THF) to give carboxamide (IV). This carboxamide when further reacted with 4- aminophenol in anhydrous DMF and potassium tert-butoxide 4-(2-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-4- pyridyloxy)aniline (V) is formed. Subsequent reaction of this aniline with 4-chloro-3- (trifluoromethyl) phenyl isocyanate (Vl) in methylene chloride yields sorafenib (I). The reaction is represented by Scheme I as given below.

Scheme I

 

Picolini

Sorafenib (I)

WO2006034796 also discloses a process for the preparation of sorafenib and its tosylate salt. The process comprises reacting 2-picolinic acid (II) with thionyl chloride in a solvent inert toward thionyl chloride without using dimethyl formamide to form acid chloride salt (III). This acid salt on further reaction with aqueous solution methylamine or gaseous methylamine gives compound (IV). Compound (IV) is then reacted with 4-aminophenol with addition of a carbonate salt in the presence of a base to yield compound (V).

Compound (V) can also be obtained by reacting compound (IV) with 4-aminophenol in the presence of water with addition of a phase transfer catalyst. Compound (V) when reacted with 4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl isocyanate (Vl) in a non-chlorinated organic solvent, inert towards isocyanate gives sorafenib (I). Sorafenib by admixing with p- toluenesulfonic acid in a polar solvent gives sorafenib tosylate (VII). The reaction is represented by Scheme Il as given below.

Scheme Il

P

A key step in the synthesis of sorafenib is the formation of the urea bond. The processes disclosed in the prior art involve reactions of an isocyanate with an amine. These isocyanate compounds though commercially available are very expensive. Further synthesis of isocyanate is very difficult which requires careful and skillful handling of reagents.

Isocyanate is prepared by reaction of an amine with phosgene or a phosgene equivalent, such as bis(trichloromethyl) carbonate (triphosgene) or trichloromethyl chloroformate (diphosgene). Isocyanate can also be prepared by using a hazardous reagent such as an azide. Also, the process for preparation of an isocyanate requires harsh reaction conditions such as strong acid, higher temperature etc. Further, this isocyanate is reacted with an amine to give urea.

Reactions of isocyanates suffer from one or more disadvantages. For example phosgene or phosgene equivalents are hazardous and dangerous to use and handle on a large scale. These reagents are also not environment friendly. Isocyanates themselves are thermally unstable compounds and undergo decomposition on storage and they are incompatible with a number of organic compounds. Thus, the use of isocyanate is not well suited for industrial scale application.

 

Sorafenib and its pharmaceutically acceptable salts and solvates are reported for the first time in WO0041698 (corresponding US 03139605) by Bayer. In the literature only one route is disclosed for the preparation of sorafenib. According to this route (Scheme-I), picolinic acid of formula III is reacted with thionyl chloride to give the 4-chloro derivative which on treatment

 

VII

Scheme-I with methanol gave the methyl ester of formula V. Compound of formula V is reacted with methylamine to get the corresponding amide of formula VL Compound of formula VI is reacted with 4-aminophenol to get the ether derivative of formula VII. Compound of formula VII is reacted with 4-chloro-3-trifluoromethylphenylisocyante to get sorafenib base of formula I. Overall yield of sorafenib in this process is 10% from commercially available 2-picolinic acid of formula II. Main drawback in this process is chromatographic purification of the intermediates involved in the process and low yield at every step.

Donald Bankston’s (Org. Proc. Res. Dev., 2002, 6, 777-781) development of an improved synthesis of the above basic route afforded sorafenib in an overall yield of 63% without involving any chromatographic purification. Process improvements like reduction of time in thionyl chloride reaction; avoid the isolation of intermediates of formulae IV and V5 reduction of base quantity in p-aminophenol reaction, etc lead to the simplification of process and improvement in yield of final compound of formula I.

Above mentioned improvements could not reduce the number of steps in making sorafenib of formula-I. In the first step all the raw materials are charged and heated to target temperature (72°C). Such a process on commercial scale will lead to sudden evolution of gas emissions such as sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Also, in the aminophenol reaction two bases (potassium carbonate and potassium t-butoxide) were used in large excess to accomplish the required transformation.

A scalable process for the preparation of sorafenib is disclosed in WO2006034796. In this process also above mentioned chemistry is used in making sorafenib of formula I. In the first step, catalytic quantity. of DMF used in the prior art process is replaced with reagents like hydrogen bromide, thionyl bromide and sodium bromide. Yield of required product remained same without any advantages from newly introduced corrosive reagents. Process improvements like change of solvents, reagents, etc were applied in subsequent steps making the process scalable. Overall yield of sorafenib is increased to 74% from the prior art 63% yield. Purity of sorafenib is only 95% and was obtained as light brown colored solid.

Main drawbacks in this process are production of low quality sorafenib and requirement of corrosive and difficult to handle reagents such as thionyl bromide and hydrogen bromide. Also, there is no major improvement in the yield of sorafenib.

 

Sorafenib tosylate ( Brand name: Nexavar ®, BAY 43-9006 other name, Chinese name: Nexavar, sorafenib, Leisha Wa) was Approved by U.S. FDA for the treatment of advanced kidney cancer in 2005 and liver cancer in 2007 .

Sorafenib, co-Developed and co-marketed by Germany-based Bayer AG and South San Francisco-based Onyx Pharmaceuticals , is an Oral Multi-kinase inhibitor for VEGFR1, VEGFR2, VEGFR3, PDGFRbeta, Kit, RET and Raf-1.

In March 2012 Indian drugmaker Natco Pharma received the first compulsory license ever from Indian Patent Office to make a generic Version of Bayer’s Nexavar despite the FACT that Nexavar is still on Patent. This Decision was based on the Bayer Drug being too expensive to most patients. The Nexavar price is expected to drop from $ 5,500 per person each month to $ 175, a 97 percent decline. The drug generated $ 934 million in global sales in 2010, according to India’s Patent Office.

Sorafenib tosylate

Chemical Name: 4-Methyl-3-((4 – (3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl) amino)-N-(5 – (4-methyl-1H-imidazol-1-yl) -3 – (trifluoromethyl) phenyl) benzamide monomethanesulfonate, Sorafenib tosylate

CAS Number 475207-59-1 (Sorafenib tosylate ) , 284461-73-0 (Sorafenib)

References for the Preparation of Sorafenib References

1) Bernd Riedl, Jacques Dumas, Uday Khire, Timothy B. Lowinger, William J. Scott, Roger A. Smith, Jill E. Wood, Mary-Katherine Monahan, Reina Natero, Joel Renick, Robert N. Sibley; Omega-carboxyaryl Substituted diphenyl Ureas as RAF kinase inhibitors ; U.S. Patent numberUS7235576
2) Rossetto, Pierluigi; Macdonald, Peter, Lindsay; Canavesi, Augusto; Process for preparation of sorafenib and Intermediates thereof , PCT Int. Appl., WO2009111061
3) Lögers, Michael; gehring, Reinhold; Kuhn, Oliver; Matthäus, Mike; Mohrs, Klaus; müller-gliemann, Matthias; Stiehl, jürgen; berwe, Mathias; Lenz, Jana; Heilmann, Werner; Process for the preparation of 4 – {4 – [( {[4-chloro-3-(TRIFLUOROMETHYL) phenyl] amino} carbonyl) amino] phenoxy}-N-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide , PCT Int. Appl., WO2006034796
4) Shikai Xiang, Liu Qingwei, Xieyou Rong, sorafenib preparation methods, invention patent application Publication No. CN102311384 , Application No. CN201010212039
5) Zhao multiply there, Chenlin Jie, Xu Xu, MASS MEDIA Ji Yafei; sorafenib tosylate synthesis ,Chinese Journal of Pharmaceuticals , 2007 (9): 614 -616

Preparation of Sorafenib Tosylate (Nexavar) Nexavar, sorafenib Preparation of methyl sulfonate

Sorafenib (Sorafenib) chemical name 4 – {4 – [({[4 – chloro -3 – (trifluoromethyl) phenyl] amino} carbonyl) amino] phenoxy}-N-methyl-pyridine -2 – formamide by Bayer (Bayer) research and development, in 2005 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval. Trade name Nexavar (Nexavar). This product is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor, for the treatment of liver cancer and kidney cancer.

Indian Patent Office in March this year for Bayer’s Nexavar in liver and kidney cancer drugs (Nexavar) has released a landmark “compulsory licensing” (compulsory license). Indian Patent Office that due to the high price Nexavar in India, the vast majority of patients can not afford the drug locally, thus requiring local Indian pharmaceutical company Natco cheap Nexavar sales. Nexavar in 2017 before patent expiry, Natco pay only Bayer’s pharmaceutical sales to 6% royalties. The move to make Nexavar patent drug prices, the supply price from $ 5,500 per month dropped to $ 175, the price reduction of 97%. Compulsory licensing in India for other life-saving drugs and patent medicines overpriced open a road, the Indian Patent Office through this decision made it clear that the patent monopoly does not guarantee that the price is too high. Nexavar is a fight against advanced renal cell carcinoma, liver cancer cure. In China, a box of 60 capsules of Nexavar price of more than 25,000 yuan. In accordance with the recommended dose, which barely enough to eat half of patients with advanced cancer. In September this year India a patent court rejected Bayer Group in India cheap drugmaker emergency appeal. Indian government to refuse patent medicine overpriced undo “compulsory licensing rules,” allowing the production of generic drugs Nexavar.

Sorafenat by Natco – Sorafenib – Nexavar – India natco Nexavar

Chemical Synthesis of  Sorafenib Tosylate (Nexavar)

Sorafenib tosylate (brand name :Nexavar®, other name BAY 43-9006, was approved by US FDA for the treatment of kidney cancer in 2005 and advanced liver cancer in 2007.

Chemical Synthesis of  Sorafenib Tosylate (Nexavar)  多吉美, 索拉非尼的化学合成

US Patent US7235576, WO2006034796, WO2009111061 and Faming Zhuanli Shenqing(CN102311384) disclosed processes for preparation of sorafenib base and its salt sorafenib tosylate.

References

1)Bernd Riedl, Jacques Dumas, Uday Khire, Timothy B. Lowinger, William J. Scott, Roger A. Smith, Jill E. Wood, Mary-Katherine Monahan, Reina Natero, Joel Renick, Robert N. Sibley; Omega-carboxyaryl substituted diphenyl ureas as raf kinase inhibitors; US patent numberUS7235576
2)Rossetto, pierluigi; Macdonald, peter, lindsay; Canavesi, augusto; Process for preparation of sorafenib and intermediates thereof, PCT Int. Appl., WO2009111061
3)Lögers, michael; gehring, reinhold; kuhn, oliver; matthäus, mike; mohrs, klaus; müller-gliemann, matthias; stiehl, jürgen; berwe, mathias; lenz, jana; heilmann, werner; Process for the preparation of 4-{4-[({[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}carbonyl)amino]phenoxy}-n-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide, PCT Int. Appl., WO2006034796CN102311384, CN201010212039

Full Experimental Details for the preparation of Sorafenib Tosylate (Nexavar) 

Synthesis of 4-(2-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-4-pyridyloxy)aniline.

A solution of 4-aminophenol (9.60 g, 88.0 mmol) in anh. DMF (150 mL) was treated with potassium tert-butoxide (10.29 g, 91.7 mmol), and the reddish-brown mixture was stirred at room temp. for 2 h. The contents were treated with 4-chloro- N -methyl-2-pyridinecarboxamide (15.0 g, 87.9mmol) and K2CO3 (6.50 g, 47.0 mmol) and then heated at 80°C. for 8 h. The mixture was cooled to room temp. and separated between EtOAc (500 mL) and a saturated NaCl solution (500 mL). The aqueous phase was back-extracted with EtOAc (300 mL). The combined organic layers were washed with a saturated NaCl solution (4×1000 mL), dried (Na2SO4) and concentrated under reduced pressure. The resulting solids were dried under reduced pressure at 35°C. for 3 h to afford 4-(2-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-4-pyridyloxy)aniline as a light-brown solid 17.9 g, 84%):. 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 2.77 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 3H), 5.17 (br s, 2H), 6.64, 6.86 (AA’BB’ quartet, J = 8.4 Hz, 4H), 7.06 (dd, J = 5.5, 2.5 Hz, 1H), 7.33 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H), 8.44 (d, J = 5.5 Hz; 1H), 8.73 (br d, 1H); HPLC ES-MS m/z 244 ((M+H)+).

Synthesis of 4-{4-[({[4-Chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]amino}carbonyl)amino]phenoxy}-N-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide (sorafenib)

4-(4-Aminophenoxy)-N-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxamide (52.3 kg, 215 mol) is suspended in ethyl acetate (146 kg) and the suspension is heated to approx. 40° C. 4-Chloro-3-trifluoromethylphenyl isocyanate (50 kg, 226 mol), dissolved in ethyl acetate (58 kg), is then added to such a degree that the temperature is kept below 60° C. After cooling to 20° C. within 1 h, the mixture is stirred for a further 30 min and the product is filtered off. After washing with ethyl acetate (30 kg), the product is dried under reduced pressure (50° C., 80 mbar). 93 kg (93% of theory) of the title compound are obtained as colorless to slightly brownish crystals. m.p. 206-208° C. 1H-NMR (DMSO-d6, 500 MHz): δ =2.79 (d, J=4.4 Hz, 3H, NCH3); 7.16 (dd, J=2.5, 5.6 Hz, 1H, 5-H); 7.18 (d, J=8.8 Hz, 2H, 3′-H, 5′-H); 7.38 (d, J=2.4 Hz, 1H, 3-H); 7.60-7.68 (m, 4H, 2′-H, 6′-H, 5″-H, 6″-H); 8.13 (d, J=1.9 Hz, 1H, 2″-H); 8.51 (d, J=5.6 Hz, 1H, 6-H); 8.81 (d, J=4.5 Hz, 1H, NHCH3); 9.05 (br. s, 1H, NHCO); 9.25 (br. s, 1H, NHCO) MS (ESI, CH3CN/H2O): m/e=465 [M+H]+.

Synthesis of Sorafenib Tosylate (Nexavar)

4-(4-{3-[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ureido}phenoxy)-N2-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide (sorafenib) (50g, 0.1076 mol) is suspended in ethyl acetate (500 g) and water (10g). The mixture is heated to 69°C within 0.5 h, and a filtered solution of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (3.26 g, 0.017 mol) in a mixture of water (0.65 g) and ethyl acetate (7.2 g) is added. After filtration a filtered solution of p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (22g, 0.11 mol) in a mixture of ethyl acetate (48 g) and water (4.34 g) is added. The mixture is cooled to 23°C within 2 h. The product is filtered off, washed twice with ethyl acetate (92.5 g each time) and dried under reduced pressure. The sorafenib tosylate (65.5 g, 96% of theory) is obtained as colorless to slightly brownish crystals.

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http://www.google.com/patents/EP2195286A2?cl=en

Example 22: Synthesis of Sorafenib

Phenyl 4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenylcarbamate (100 g, 0.3174 mol) and 4-(4- aminophenoxy)-N-methylpicolinamide (77.14 g, 0.3174 mol) were dissolved in N1N- dimethyl formamide (300 ml) to obtain a clear reaction mass. The reaction mass was agitated at 40-450C for 2-3 hours, cooled to room temperature and diluted with ethyl acetate (1000 ml). The organic layer was washed with water (250 ml) followed by 1N HCI (250ml) and finally with brine (250 ml). The organic layer was separated, dried over sodium sulfate and degassed to obtain solid. This solid was stripped with ethyl acetate and finally slurried in ethyl acetate (1000 ml) at room temperature. It was then filtered and vacuum dried to give (118 g) of 4-(4-(3-(4-chloro-3- (trifluoromethyl)phenyl)ureido)phenoxy)-N-methylpicolinamide (sorafenib base).

Example 23: Synthesis of 1-(4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)urea (Compound 4)

Sodium cyanate (1.7 g, 0.02mol) was dissolved in water (17ml) at room temperature to obtain a clear solution. This solution was then charged drop wise to the clear solution of 3- trifluoromethyl-4-chloroaniline (5 g, 0.025 mol) in acetic acid (25 ml) at 40°C-45°C within 1- 2 hours. The reaction mass was agitated for whole day and cooled gradually to room temperature. The obtained solid was filtered washed with water and vacuum dried at 500C to afford the desired product (5.8 g) i.e. 1-(4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)urea.

Example 24: Synthesis of Sorafenib

1-(4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl)urea (15 g, 0.0628 mol), 1 ,8- diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (11.75 ml, 0.078 mol) and 4-(4-aminophenoxy)-N- methylpicolinamide (15.27 g, 0.0628 mol) were mixed with dimethyl sulfoxide (45 ml) and the reaction mass was then heated to 110-1200C for 12-18 hours. The reaction mass was cooled to room temperature and quenched in water (250 ml). The quenched mass was extracted repeatedly with ethyl acetate and the combined ethyl acetate layer was then back washed with water. It was dried over sodium sulfate and evaporated under vacuum to obtain solid. The obtained solid was slurried in acetonitrile (150 ml) at ambient temperature and filtered to give 4-(4-(3-(4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl) ureido) phenoxy)-N-methylpicolinamide (sorafenib base) (17.5 g).

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http://www.google.com/patents/WO2009054004A2?cl=en

http://worldwide.espacenet.com/publicationDetails/biblio?CC=WO&NR=2009054004A2&KC=A2&FT=D&date=20090430&DB=EPODOC&locale=en_gb

Figure imgf000006_0002

EXAMPLES

Example 1

Preparation of l-(4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyI)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)urea Into a 250 ml, four-necked RB flask was charged 1O g of 4-aminophenol and 100 ml of toluene. A solution of 4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl isocyante (20.4 g) in toluene (50 ml) was added to the reaction mass at 25-300C. The reaction mass was stirred at room temperature for 16 h. The reaction mass was filtered and washed the. solid with 50 ml of toluene. The wet material was dried in the oven at 50-60°C to get 29.8 g of title compound as white solid. M.P. is 218-222°C. IR (KBr): 3306, 1673, 1625, 1590, 1560, 1517, 1482, 1435, 1404, 1328, 1261, 1182, 1160, 1146, 1125, 1095, 1032, 884, 849, 832, 812, 766, 746, 724, 683, 539 and 434 cm“1.

Example 2 Preparation of sorafenib tosylate

Into a 100 ml, three-necked RB flask was charged 2.0 g of l-(4-chloro-3- (trifluoromethyl)-phenyl)-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)urea and 10 ml of DMF. Potassium tert- butoxide (2.3 g) was added to the reaction mass and stirred for 45 min at RT. 4-Chlro-N- methylpicolinamide (1.14 g) and potassium carbonate (0.42 g) were added to the reaction mass and heated to 80°C. The reaction mass was maintained at 80-85°C for 8 h and cooled to 30°C. The reaction mass was poured into water and extracted with ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate layer was washed with water, brine and dried over sodium sulphate. Solvent was distilled of under reduced pressure.

The crude compound (4.7 g) was dissolved in 10 ml of IPA and added 1.9 g of p- toluenesulfonic acid. The reaction mass was stirred at RT for 15 h and filtered. The wet solid was washed with 10 ml of IPA and dried at 50-60°C to get 3.4 g of title compound as off-white crystalline solid.

 

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A Scaleable Synthesis of BAY 43-9006:  A Potent Raf Kinase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Cancer

Bayer Research Center, Pharmaceutical Division, 400 Morgan Lane, West Haven, Connecticut 06516, U.S.A.
Org. Proc. Res. Dev., 2002, 6 (6), pp 777–781
DOI: 10.1021/op020205n

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op020205n

Abstract Image

Urea 3 (BAY 439006), a potent Raf kinase inhibitor, was prepared in four steps with an overall yield of 63%. Significant process research enabled isolation of each intermediate and target without chromatographic purification, and overall yield increases >50% were observed compared to those from previous methods. This report focuses on improved synthetic strategies for production of scaled quantities of 3 for preclinical, toxicological studies. These improvements may be useful to assemble other urea targets as potential therapeutic agents to combat cancer.

Synthesis of N-[4-Chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]({4-[2-(N-methyl-carbamoyl)(4-pyridyloxy)]phenyl}amino)carboxamide (3, BAY 439006).
A suspension of 9 (67.00 g, 275.43 mmol) in methylene chloride ———————-DELETE………………………………The solids were washed with methylene chloride (2 × 50 mL) and dried under vacuum for 4 h at 35 °C to afford 3 (118.19 g, 254.27 mmol, 92%) as an off-white solid.
Mp = 210−212 °C.
1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz):
δ 2.77 (d, J = 4.8 Hz, 3H, −NHCH3);
7.16 (m, 3H, aromatic);
7.37 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H, aromatic);
7.62 (m, 4H, aromatic);
8.11 (d, J = 2.5 Hz, 1H, aromatic);
8.49 (d, J = 5.5 Hz, 1H, aromatic);
8.77 (br d, 1H, −NHCH3);
8.99 (s, 1H, −NHCO−); 9.21 (s, 1H, −NHCO−).
Mass spectrum (HPLC/ES):  m/e = 465 (M + 1).
Anal. Calcd for C21H16N4ClF3O3:  C, 54.26; H, 3.47; N, 12.05. Found:  C, 54.11; H, 3.49; N, 12.03.
HPLC (ELS) purity >98%:  tR = 3.5 min.
Synthesis of N-[4-Chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]({4-[2-(N-methyl-carbamoyl)(4-pyridyloxy)]phenyl}amino)carboxamide (3, BAY 439006):  Use of CDI.
A solution of 11 (1.25 g, 6.39 mmol) in methylene chloride———————-DELETED……………………. high vacuum at 35 °C for 2 h to afford 3 (2.55 g, 5.49 mmol, 91%) as a white solid. Proton NMR and mass-spectral data were consistent with structure.
Anal. Calcd for C21H16N4ClF3O3:   C, 54.26; H, 3.47; N, 12.05; Cl, 7.63. Found:  C, 54.24; H, 3.31; N, 12.30; Cl, 7.84.
Mp (differential scanning calorimetry, 10 °C/min):  205.6 °C;
no polymorphs observed.

References

  1. “FDA Approves Nexavar for Patients with Inoperable Liver Cancer” (Press release). FDA. November 19, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  2. “Nexavar (sorafenib) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more”. Medscape Reference. WebMD. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
  3. “NEXAVAR (sorafenib) tablet, film coated [Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc.]”. DailyMed. Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals Inc. November 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2013.
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  6. Escudier, B; Eisen, T; Stadler, WM; Szczylik, C; Oudard, S; Siebels, M; Negrier, S; Chevreau, C; Solska, E; Desai, AA; Rolland, F; Demkow, T; Hutson, TE; Gore, M; Freeman, S; Schwartz, B; Shan, M; Simantov, R; Bukowski, RM (January 2007). “Sorafenib in advanced clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma”. New England Journal of Medicine 356 (2): 125–34. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa060655. PMID 17215530.
  7. Walid, MS; Johnston, KW (October 2009). “Successful treatment of a brain-metastasized renal cell carcinoma”. German Medical Science 7: Doc28. doi:10.3205/000087. PMC 2775194. PMID 19911072.
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  11. Pawlik TM, Reyes DK, Cosgrove D, Kamel IR, Bhagat N, Geschwind JF (October 2011). “Phase II trial of sorafenib combined with concurrent transarterial chemoembolization with drug-eluting beads for hepatocellular carcinoma”. J. Clin. Oncol. 29 (30): 3960–7. doi:10.1200/JCO.2011.37.1021. PMID 21911714.
  12. “Phase 3 Trial of Nexavar in Patients With Non-Responsive Thyroid Cancer”[dead link]
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  15. Hagopian, Benjamin (August 2010). “Unusually Severe Bullous Skin Reaction to Sorafenib: A Case Report”. Journal of Medical Cases 1 (1): 1–3. doi:10.4021/jmc112e. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
  16. Smalley KS, Xiao M, Villanueva J, Nguyen TK, Flaherty KT, Letrero R, Van Belle P, Elder DE, Wang Y, Nathanson KL, Herlyn M (January 2009). “CRAF inhibition induces apoptosis in melanoma cells with non-V600E BRAF mutations”. Oncogene 28 (1): 85–94. doi:10.1038/onc.2008.362. PMC 2898184. PMID 18794803.
  17. Wilhelm SM, Adnane L, Newell P, Villanueva A, Llovet JM, Lynch M (October 2008). “Preclinical overview of sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor that targets both Raf and VEGF and PDGF receptor tyrosine kinase signaling”. Mol. Cancer Ther. 7 (10): 3129–40. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-08-0013. PMID 18852116.
  18. Zhang Y (Jan 2014). “Screening of kinase inhibitors targeting BRAF for regulating autophagy based on kinase pathways.”. J Mol Med Rep 9 (1): 83–90. PMID 24213221.
  19. Gauthier A (Feb 2013). “Role of sorafenib in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: An update..”. Hepatol Res 43 (2): 147–154. doi:10.1111/j.1872-034x.2012.01113.x. PMID 23145926.
  20. FDA Approval letter for use of sorafenib in advanced renal cancer
  21. European Commission – Enterprise and industry. Nexavar. Retrieved April 24, 2007.
  22. “Nexavar® (Sorafenib) Approved for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Europe” (Press release). Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals and Onyx Pharmaceuticals. October 30, 2007. Retrieved November 10, 2012.
  23. FDA Approval letter for use of sorafenib in inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma
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  32. We didn’t make this medicine for Indians… we made it for western patients who can afford it. Daily Mail Reporter. 24 Jan 2014.

External links

 

 
Reference
1 * D. BANKSTON ET AL.: “A Scalable Synthesis of BAY 43-9006: A Potent Raf Kinase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Cancer” ORGANIC PROCESS RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT, vol. 6, no. 6, 2002, pages 777-781, XP002523918 cited in the application
2 * PAN W ET AL: “Pyrimido-oxazepine as a versatile template for the development of inhibitors of specific kinases” BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, PERGAMON, ELSEVIER SCIENCE, GB, vol. 15, no. 24, 15 December 2005 (2005-12-15), pages 5474-5477, XP025314229 ISSN: 0960-894X [retrieved on 2005-12-15]

 

Citing Patent Filing date Publication date Applicant Title
WO2011036647A1 Sep 24, 2010 Mar 31, 2011 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Process for the preparation of sorafenib tosylate
WO2011036648A1 Sep 24, 2010 Mar 31, 2011 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Polymorphs of sorafenib acid addition salts
WO2011058522A1 Nov 12, 2010 May 19, 2011 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Sorafenib ethylsulfonate salt, process for preparation and use
WO2011092663A2 Jan 28, 2011 Aug 4, 2011 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited 4-(4-{3-[4-chloro-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ureido}phenoxy)-n2-methylpyridine-2-carboxamide dimethyl sulphoxide solvate
WO2011113367A1 * Mar 17, 2011 Sep 22, 2011 Suzhou Zelgen Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Method and process for preparation and production of deuterated ω-diphenylurea
US8552197 Nov 12, 2010 Oct 8, 2013 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Sorafenib ethylsulfonate salt, process for preparation and use
US8604208 Sep 24, 2010 Dec 10, 2013 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Polymorphs of sorafenib acid addition salts
US8609854 Sep 24, 2010 Dec 17, 2013 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Process for the preparation of sorafenib tosylate
US8618305 Jan 28, 2011 Dec 31, 2013 Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Sorafenib dimethyl sulphoxide solvate
US8669369 Mar 17, 2011 Mar 11, 2014 Suzhou Zelgen Biopharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Method and process for preparation and production of deuterated Ω-diphenylurea

Immunotherapy could help tackle tough liver cancer


Lyra Nara Blog

Significant new data presented today at the International Liver Congress 2014 indicate that liver cancer (Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC)) may be treated by adoptive T-cell therapy.

This new therapeutic approach in the treatment of HCC could be very important as without treatment the 5 year survival rate is just 5%. Globally, HCC accounts for 746,000 deaths, and in the UK alone is responsible for over 4,000 deaths per year.

Glypican-3 (GPC3) is a tumour associated antigen expressed in up to 70% of HCC but not in healthy human tissue. Isolating GPC3-specific T-cell receptors and expressing them on patient’s T-cells can help treat HCC, as these T cells can recognise and eliminate GPC3-postive HCC.

The study detected and expanded MHC-multimer-positive CD8+ T-cells specific for targeted GPC3 epitopes and grew T-cell clones. From these clones, the most specific and active T-cell receptor was isolated. When this T-cell receptor was expressed on donor T…

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