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Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Bayer HealthCare’s Gadavist (gadobutrol) injection as the first magnetic resonance contrast agent for evaluation of breast cancer in the US

Gadobutrol skeletal.svgGADOBUTROL

gadolinium(III) 2,2′,2”-(10-((2R,3S)-1,3,4-trihydroxybutan-2-yl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triyl)triacetate

Gadobutrol, SH-L-562, Gadovist,138071-82-6

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Bayer HealthCare’s Gadavist (gadobutrol) injection as the first magnetic resonance contrast agent for evaluation of breast cancer in the US.

The agency has approved the new indication for Gadavist injection for intravenous use with magnetic resonance imaging of the breast to assess the presence and extent of malignant breast disease.

Approval is based on priority review of two Phase III studies with identical design (GEMMA-1 and GEMMA-2).

Bayer HealthCare’s Gadavist (gadobutrol)

Bayer’s Gadavist injection cleared for breast cancer evaluation

UPDATE……. Gadoteridol 279.3 mg/ml for injection , CDSCO INDIA 29.07.2021

For intravenous use in magnetic
reasonance imaging (MRI) in adults and
pediatric patients over 2 years of age for
whole body MRI including the head, neck,
liver, breast, musculoskeletal system and
soft tissue pathologies
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Bayer HealthCare’s Gadavist (gadobutrol) injection as the first magnetic resonance contrast agent for evaluation of breast cancer in the US.


Clinical data
AHFS/ International Drug Names
Licence data US FDA:link
Pregnancy cat. C (US)
Legal status POM (UK) -only (US)
Routes IV
CAS number 138071-82-6 Yes
ATC code V08CA09
PubChem CID 72057
DrugBank DB06703
KEGG D07420 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C18H31GdN4O9 
Mol. mass 604.710 g/mol


Gadobutrol (INN) (Gd-DO3A-butrol) is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent (GBCA).

It received marketing approval in Canada[1] and in the United States.[2][3][4]

As of 2007, it was the only GBCA approved at 1.0 molar concentrations.[5]

Gadobutrol is marketed by Bayer Schering Pharma as Gadovist, and by Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals as Gadavist.[6]

Gadobutrol, SH-L-562, Gadovist
A different synthesis started from the previously reported tetraaza cyclopentaacenaphthylene (XV). Treatment of (XV) with a solution of piperazine at pH 6 gave rise to the bicyclic lactam (XVI). Alkylation of (XVI) with bromoacetic acid, followed by basic lactam hydrolysis furnished the tris(carboxymethyl) derivative (X), which was processed as in Scheme 3.
Argese, M.; Ripa, G. (Bracco SpA; Dibra SpA); 1,4,7,10-Tetraazabicyclo[8.2.2]tetradecan-2-one, a process for the preparation thereof and the use thereof for the preparation of tetraazamacrocycles. EP 0998476; JP 2002511884; WO 9905145
Gadobutrol, SH-L-562, Gadovist
In a related method for obtaining the precursor (V), epoxide (II) was condensed with the tosyl-protected tetraamine (XIII) in an autoclave at 170 C to give (XIV). The N-tosyl groups of (XIV) were then removed by treatment with lithium metal in liquid ammonia, yielding intermediate (III), which was then subjected to alkylation with bromoacetic acid, followed by acid hydrolysis
Platzek, J.; Gries, H.; Weinmann, H.-J.; Schuhmann-Giampieri, G.; Press, W.-R. (Schering AG); 1,4,7,10-Tetraazacyclododecane-butyl-triols, process for their preparation, and pharmaceutical agents containing these cpds.. DE 4009119; EP 0448191;
Gadobutrol, SH-L-562, Gadovist
The macrocyclic tetraamine (I) was protected as the triaminomethane derivative (VIII) by treatment with either triethyl orthoformate (4) or with dimethylformamide dimethylacetal (5). Alkylation of (VIII) with bromoacetic acid gave rise to the N-formyl N’,N”,N”’-tris(carboxymethyl) compound (IX). After basic hydrolysis of the formamide function of (IX), the resultant N-deprotected amine (X) was condensed with epoxide (II) to yield (XI). Further complexation with GdCl3 and ketal group hydrolysis led to the target compound
Murru, M.; Ripa, G.; Scala, A.; Viscardi, C.F.; Ausonio, M.; Scotti, C.; Cossuta, P. (Bracco SpA; Dibra SpA); A process for the preparation of macrocyclic chelants and the chelates thereof with paramagnetic metal ions. WO 9856775



  • This type of complexes with metal ions, in particular with paramagnetic metal ions; is used for the preparation of non-ionic contrast agents for the diagnostic technique known as magnetic resonance (MRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging), among which are ProHance(R) (Gadoteridol, gadolinium complex of 10-(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid), and Gadobutrol (gadolinium complex of [10-[2,3-dihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid).

  • [0003]
    Two different synthetic approaches are described in literature for the preparation of this kind of complexes, said approaches differing in the strategy taken to discriminate one of the four nitrogen atoms: the first one (Dischino et al., Inorg. Chem., 1991, 30, 1265 or EP 448191, EP 292689, EP 255471) is based on the selective protection of one of the nitrogen atoms by formation of the compound of formula (III), 5H,9bH-2a,4a,7-tetraazacycloocta[cd]pentalene, and on the subsequent hydrolysis to compound of formula (IV), 1-formyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane, followed by the carboxymethylation of the still free nitrogen atoms and by the deprotection and alkylation of the fourth nitrogen atom, according to scheme 1.

  • [0004]
    The step from 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane disulfate (a commercially available product) to compound (III) is effected according to the conventional method disclosed in US 4,085,106, followed by formation of the compound of formula (IV) in water-alcohol medium.
  • [0005]
    This intermediate is subsequently tricarboxymethylated with tert-butyl bromoacetate (TBBA) in dimethylformamide at 2.5°C and then treated with a toluene-sodium hydroxide diphasic mixture to give the compound of formula (V), 10-formyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic, tris(1,1-dimethylethyl) ester, which is subsequently hydrolysed to compound of formula (II) in acidic solution.
  • [0006]
    In the process described in WO 93/24469 for the synthesis of Gadobutrol, at first one of the nitrogen atoms is alkylated in conditions such as to minimize the formation of polyalkylated derivatives, then the monoalkylderivative is purified and carboxymethylated, according to scheme 2.

  • [0007]
    The alkylation of 1,4,7,1,0-tetraazacyclododecane with the epoxide of formula (VI), 4,4-dimethyl-3,5,8-trioxabicyclo[5.1.0]octane, is carried out in anhydrous n-BuOH under reflux and the reaction mixture is extracted with water, evaporated to dryness and the residue is subsequently diluted with water and extracted with methylene chloride.
  • [0008]
    The aqueous phase containing the mono-alkylated product (65% yield in Example 7 which reports the procedure for the preparation of 5 kg of Gadobutrol) is directly carboxymethylated at 70°C with chloroacetic acid, keeping pH 9.5 by addition of NaOH. The reaction mixture is adjusted to pH 1, concentrated to dryness and dissolved in methanol to remove the undissolved salts. The filtrate is then concentrated under vacuum, dissolved in water, and loaded onto a cation exchanger in the H+ form to fix the product. The subsequent elution with ammonia displaces the desired product, which is concentrated to small volume and subsequently complexed with gadolinium oxide according to conventional methods, and the resulting complex is purified by means of ion exchange resins. The overall yield is 42%.
  • [0009]
    Although the first of these two processes could theoretically provide a higher yield, in that all the single steps (protection, carboxymethylation and deprotection) are highly selective, the complexity of the operations required to remove salts and solvents and to purify the reaction intermediates makes such theoretical advantage ineffective: the overall yield is in fact, in the case of Gadoteridol, slightly higher than 37%.
  • [0010]
    The preparation of Gadobutrol according to the alternative process (WO 93/24469) provides a markedly better yield (72%) only on laboratory scale (example 2): example 7 (represented in the above Scheme 2) actually evidences that, when scaling-up, the yield of this process also remarkably decreases (42%).
  • [0011]
    In addition to the drawback of an about 40% yield, both processes of the prior art are characterized by troublesome operations, which often involve the handling of solids, the use of remarkable amounts of a number of different solvents, some of them having undesirable toxicological or anyway hazardous characteristics.
  • [0012]
    Moreover, the synthesis described by Dischino makes use of reagents which are extremely toxic, such as tert-butyl bromoacetate, or harmful and dangerous from the reactivity point of view, such as dimethylformamide dimethylacetal.
  • [0013]
    An alternative to the use of dimethyl formamide dimethylacetal is suggested by J. Am. Chem. Soc. 102(20), 6365-6369 (1980), which discloses the preparation of orthoamides by means of triethyl orthoformate.
  • [0014]
    EP 0596 586 discloses a process for the preparation of substituted tetraazacyclododecanes, among them compounds of formula (XII), comprising:

    • formation of the tricyclo[] ring;
    • alkylation with an epoxide;
    • hydrolysis of the 10-formyl substituent;
    • reaction with an acetoxy derivative bearing a leaving group at the alpha-position.
  • [0015]
    Nevertheless, this method requires quite a laborious procedure in order to isolate the product of step b).
  • [0016]
    It is the object of the present invention a process for the preparation of the complexes of general formula (XII)


    R1 and R2
    are independently a hydrogen atom, a (C1-C20) alkyl containing 1 to 10 oxygen atoms, or a phenyl, phenyloxy group, which can be unsubstituted or substituted with a (C1-C5) alkyl or hydroxy, (C1-C5) alkoxy, carbamoyl or carboxylic groups,
    is the trivalent ion of a paramagnetic metal;

    comprising the steps represented in the following Scheme 3:

  • The process of the present invention keeps the high selectivity typical of the protection/deprotection strategy described by Dischino in the above mentioned paper, while removing all its drawbacks, thus providing for the first time a reproducible industrial process for the preparation of the concerned compounds in high yields and without use of hazardous substances.
  • [0019]
    The preparation of the gadolinium complex of 10-(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-tri-acetic) acid (Gadoteridol), according to scheme 4, is particularly preferred:

    in which the synthetic steps a), b), c), d), e), and f) have the meanings defined above and the epoxide of formula (XI) in step d) is propylene oxide.

  • [0020]
    The preparation of the gadolinium complex of [10-[2,3-dihydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic) acid (Gadobutrol), according to the scheme 5, is also preferred.

    in which the synthetic steps a), b), c), d), e), and f) have the meanings defined above and the epoxide of formula (XI) in step d) corresponds to the one of formula (VI), defined above.

  • [0021]
    On the other hand, step a) of the process of the present invention involves the use of triethyl orthoformate in the presence of an acid catalyst, instead of dialkylformamide-dialkylacetal.
  • [0022]
    Triethyl orthoformate can be added in amounts ranging from 105% to 200% on the stoichiometric value.
  • [0023]
    The reaction temperature can range from 110 to 150°C and the reaction time from 5 to 24 h.
  • [0024]
    The catalyst is a carboxylic acid having at least 3 carbon atoms, C3-C18, preferably selected from the group consisting of propionic, butyric and pivalic acids.
  • [0025]
    Triethyl orthoformate is a less toxic and less expensive product than N,N-dimethylformamide-dimethylacetal and does not involve the formation of harmful, not-condensable gaseous by-products. Moreover, triethyl orthoformate is less reactive than N,N-dimethylformamide-dimethylacetal, which makes it possible to carry out the loading procedures of the reactives as well as the reaction itself in utterly safe conditions even on a large scale, allows to better monitor the progress of the reaction on the basis of such operative parameters as time and temperature, without checking the progress by gas chromatography, and makes dosing the reactive less critical, in that it can be added from the very beginning without causing the formation of undesired by-products: all that rendering the process suitable for the production of compound (III) on the industrial scale in easily reproducible conditions.
  • [0026]
    The subsequent step b) involves the carboxymethylation of compound (III) in aqueous solution, using a haloacetic acid, to give compound (IX), i.e. the 10-formyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid salt with an alkali or alkaline-earth metal, the salts of compound (IX) with sodium, potassium or calcium being most preferred.

Example 2

  • [0065]
  • [0066]
    The procedure of Example 1 is followed until step C included, to obtain a solution of DO3A trisodium salt.
  • [0067]
    pH is adjusted to 12.3 with conc. HCl and 57.7 kg (0.4 kmol) of 4,4-dimethyl-3,5,8-trioxabicyclo[5.1.0]-octane are added. After reaction for 4 h at 40°C and for 8 h at 80°C, the solution is cooled to 50°C, 120 kg of an aqueous solution containing 0.135 kmol of gadolinium trichloride are added. After 1 h the mixture is cooled at 17°C and acidified to pH 1.7 with conc. HCl, keeping this pH for 2 h. The solution is subsequently warmed to 50°C, pH is adjusted to 7 with sodium hydroxide, keeping these conditions for 1 h.
  • [0068]
    After that, the resulting crude Gadobutrol is purified repeating exactly the same process as in steps E and F of Example 1.

Recovery of the product (Gadobutrol)

  • [0069]
    The product-rich fraction is then thermally concentrated to a viscous residue and the residue is added with 350 kg of ethanol at 79°C.
  • [0070]
    The resulting suspension is refluxed for 1 h, then cooled, centrifuged and dried under reduced pressure to obtain 66.0 kg of Gadobutrol (0.109 kmol), HPLC assay 99.5% (A%).
    Overall yield: 79.1%
  • [0071]
    The IR and MS spectra are consistent with the indicated structure.


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