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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D ( ICT, Mumbai) , INDIA 25Yrs Exp. in the feld of Organic Chemistry,Working for GLENMARK GENERICS at Navi Mumbai, INDIA. Serving chemists around the world. Helping them with websites on Chemistry.Million hits on google, NO ADVERTISEMENTS , ACADEMIC , NON COMMERCIAL SITE, world acclamation from industry, academia, drug authorities for websites, blogs and educational contribution, ........amcrasto@gmail.com..........+91 9323115463 View Anthony Melvin Crasto Ph.D's profile on LinkedIn Anthony Melvin Crasto Dr.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Worlddrugtracker, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his PhD from ICT ,1991, Mumbai, India, in Organic chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK- GENERICS LTD, Research centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Prior to joining Glenmark, he worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now sSanofi, Searle India ltd, now Rpg lifesciences, etc. he is now helping millions, has million hits on google on all organic chemistry websites. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, Eurekamoments in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 25 year tenure, good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several international drug patents published worldwide . He gas good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, polymorphism etc He suffered a paralytic stroke in dec 2007 and is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, he has one lakh connections on all networking sites, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, amcrasto@gmail.com

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Erectile dysfunction can be reversed without medication


Originally posted on lyranara.me:

Men suffering from sexual dysfunction can be successful at reversing their problem, by focusing on lifestyle factors and not just relying on medication, according to new research at the University of Adelaide.

In a new paper published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine, researchers highlight the incidence of erectile dysfunction and lack of sexual desire among Australian men aged 35-80 years.

Over a five-year period, 31% of the 810 men involved in the study developed some form of erectile dysfunction.

“Sexual relations are not only an important part of people’s wellbeing. From a clinical point of view, the inability of some men to perform sexually can also be linked to a range of other health problems, many of which can be debilitating or potentially fatal,” says Professor Gary Wittert, Head of the Discipline of Medicine at the University of Adelaide and Director of the University’s Freemasons Foundation Centre for…

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How the body fights against viruses


Originally posted on lyranara.me:

How the body fights against viruses

Illustration “structure”: This is a model of the RNA-binding domain of ADAR1 (green), bound to double-stranded RNA (yellow). Transportin1, which mediates the nuclear transport of ADAR1, is depicted in gray. The structural model reveals that ADAR1 cannot enter the nucleus when bound to RNA, as RNA (yellow) and Transportin1 (gray) clash. Credit: PNAS

Scientists of the Max F. Perutz Laboratories of the University of Vienna and the Medical University of Vienna, together with colleagues of the ETH Zurich, have now shown how double stranded RNA, such as viral genetic information, is prevented from entering the nucleus of a cell. During the immune response against viral infection, the protein ADAR1 moves from the cell nucleus into the surrounding cytoplasm. There it modifies viral RNA to inhibit reproduction of the virus. But how is the human genome protected from inadvertent import of viral RNA into the nucleus?  The current study of the research…

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A Way To Halt Atherosclerosis


Originally posted on The Global Innovations:

stopheartattack

  • Johns Hopkins scientists have halted the development of atherosclerotic heart disease in animals by blocking the activity of a sugar-and-fat molecule residing in the membranes of cells.
  • Using a widely available man-made compound called D-PDMP, the researchers prevented the buildup of fatty plaque and calcium deposits inside the blood vessels of mice and rabbits fed a high-fat, cholesterol-laden diet.
  • Treatment with D-PDMP appears to work by altering a range of biological glitches that affect the body’s ability to properly use, transport and purge itself of cholesterol — the fatty substance that accumulates inside vessels and fuels heart disease.

D-PDMP, which is already widely used in basic research to experimentally block and study cell growth and other basic cell functions, is deemed safe in animals, the investigators say. For example, animals in the current study had no side effects even when given D-PDMP doses 10 times higher than the minimum effective…

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Cobimetinib in phase 3 for metastatic melanoma


Figure imgf000232_0002Figure

Cobimetinib

934660-93-2  cas    ………….(S )enantiomer desired

[3,4-Difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodoanilino)phenyl]{3-hydroxy-3-[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-1-yl} methanone

l-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2S)-piperidin-2- yl]azetidin-3-ol

1-[3,4-Difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)phenyl]-1-[3-hydroxy-3-[2(S)-piperidinyl]azetidin-1-yl]methanone

Cobimetinib, XL518, GDC 0973, 934660-93-2, XL 518, GDC0973
Molecular Formula: C21H21F3IN3O2
 Molecular Weig,ht: 531.31002
other isomer and racemate
Cobimetinib (racemate)
CAS No: 934662-91-6
Cobimetinib (R-enantiomer)Cobimetinib (R-enantiomer)
CAS No: 934660-94-3

ChemSpider 2D Image | cobimetinib fumarate | C46H46F6I2N6O8cobimetinib fumarate [USAN]

Molecular Formula: C46H46F6I2N6O8
Average mass: 1178.692261 Da

(2E)-2-Butendisäure –{3,4-difluor-2-[(2-fluor-4-iodphenyl)amino]phenyl}{3-hydroxy-3-[(2S)-2-piperidinyl]-1-azetidinyl}methanon (1:2) [German] [ACD/IUPAC Name]

{3,4-Difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}{3-hydroxy-3-[(2S)-2-piperidinyl]-1-azetidinyl}methanone (2E)-2-butenedioate (2:1) [ACD/IUPAC Name]

1369665-02-0 [RN]

Acide (2E)-2-butènedioïque - {3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophényl)amino]phényl}{3-hydroxy-3-[(2S)-2-pipéridinyl]-1-azétidinyl}méthanone (1:2) [French][ACD/IUPAC Name]

Bis({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}{3-hydroxy-3-[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-1-yl}methanone) (2E)-but-2-enedioate

Methanone, [3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl][3-hydroxy-3-[(2S)-2-piperidinyl]-1-azetidinyl]-, (2E)-2-butenedioate (2:1) (salt

http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/usan/cobimetinib-fumarate.pdf

Cobimetinib (GDC-0973XL-518) is a MEK inhibitor being developed by Exelixis and Roche. It is being studied in combination withvemurafenib to treat several cancers, including melanoma.

Cobimetinib is an inhibitor of MEK kinase, which is an enzyme that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). This compound was originated by Exelixis and is being developed by Genentech. Currently, Cobimetinb is in phase III trials at Genentech for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and in phase I clinical trials for the treatment of solid tumors. Cobimetinib has received an orphan drug designation in the U.S. for treatment of stage IIb, IIc, III, and IV melanoma with BRAFV600E mutation.

GDC-0973 (XL-518; GDC 0973) is a selective inhibitor of MEK GDC-0973 is also known as mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK), is a key component of the RAS / RAF / MEK / ERK pathway, which. is frequently activated in human tumors. 

Inappropriate activation of the MEK / ERK pathway promotes cell growth in the absence of exogenous growth factors.

The ERK/MAP kinase cascade is a key mechanism subject to dysregulation in cancer and is constitutively activated or highly upregulated in many tumor types. Mutations associated with upstream pathway components RAS and Raf occur frequently and contribute to the oncogenic phenotype through activation of MEK and then ERK. Inhibitors of MEK have been shown to effectively block upregulated ERK/MAPK signaling in a range of cancer cell lines and have further demonstrated early evidence of efficacy in the clinic for the treatment of cancer. Guided by structural insight, a strategy aimed at the identification of an optimal diphenylamine-based MEK inhibitor with an improved metabolism and safety profile versus PD-0325901 led to the discovery of development candidate 1-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-3-ol (XL518, GDC-0973) (1). XL518 exhibits robust in vitro and in vivo potency and efficacy in preclinical models with sustained duration of action and is currently in early stage clinical trials.

Process for the preparation of MEK inhibitors, relates cobimetinib. Genentech and its parent company Roche, under license from Exelixis, are developing cobimetinib, for the treatment of solid tumors, including melanoma, which is in phase 3 trials as of April 2014. The drug was originally disclosed in WO2007044515. For a previous filing on MEK inhibitors, see WO2008124085.

 

 

patent

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2007044515A1?cl=en

EXAMPLE 22(a) and 22(b) l-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyϊ)amino]phenyl}carbonyI)-3-[(2R)-piperidin-2- yl]azetidin-3-ol

Figure imgf000232_0001

l-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2S)-piperidin-2- yl]azetidin-3-ol

Figure imgf000232_0002desired

[00334] To a solution of 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl 2-(3 -hydroxy- 1 -

{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (368 mg, 0.94 mmol), prepared using procedures similar to those described in Reference 5, in dichloromethane (5 mL) was added DMAP (115 mg, 0.94 mmol) and the resulting solution was cooled to O0C. (i?)-(-)-α-Methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride (105 μL, 0.56 mmol) was added to the solution by syringe and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature then stirred an additional 12 hours. The solution was then partitioned with saturated aqueous soldium bicarbonate and the organic phase dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate then filtered and concentrated to an oily residue.

Silica gel flash chromatography using hexanes:ethyl acetate 3:1 as eluent afforded the less polar 1,1 -dimethyl ethyl (2R)-2-(l- {[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2i?)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2- phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (27.5 mg, 5% yield), the more polar 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl (2S)-2-(l -{ [(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl} -3-{ [(2i?)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2- (methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (105 mg, 19% yield) and starting material (253 mg, 69% recovery).

[00335] The starting material thus recovered was taken into dichloromethane (3 mL) followed by addition of DMAP (115 mg, 0.94 mmol) and (i?)-(-)-α-methoxy-α- trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride (105 μL, 0.56 mmol) and the mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature over 12 hours. Proceeding as before afforded combined 1,1- dimethylethyl (2R)-2-(l-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2i?)-3,3,3-trifluoro- 2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (46.6 mg, 8% yield), the more polar 1,1 -dimethylethyl (25)-2-(l-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2i?)- 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (228 mg, 41% yield) and starting material (100.8 mg, 27% recovery). [00336] The starting material thus recovered was taken into tetrahydrofuran: dichloromethane (1 :1, 2 mL) followed by addition of DMAP (47 mg, 0.39 mmol) and (R)-(-)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride (80 μL, 0.43 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 60 0C over 12 hours.

Proceeding as before afforded combined less polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2i?)-2-(l-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2i?)-3,3,3- trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl] oxy } azetidin-3 -yl)piperidine- 1 -carboxylate ( 144 mg, 26 % yield). The chiral ester derivatives thus obtained were again subject to silica gel flash chromatography using hexanes:ethyl acetate 3:1 as eluent to give the pure less polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2i?)-2-(l-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2i?)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-

(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (122.8 mg, 22% yield) and the more polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2£)-2-(l-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3- { [(2R)-3 ,3 ,3 -trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl] oxy } azetidin-3-yl)piperidine- 1 – carboxylate {111.6 mg, 32% yield) both as colorless amorphous residues. [00337] l,l-Dimethylethyl (2i?)-2-(l-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2i?)-3,3,3- trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylρropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (122.8 mg, 0.21 mmol) was taken into methanol (4 mL) followed by addition of IM aqueous sodium hydroxide (1 mL) and the resulting solution was stirred for one hour at room temperature.

The solution was then partitioned with ethyl acetate and IN aqueous hydrochloric acid. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate then filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel flash chromatography using hexanes:ethyl acetate 2:1 to give 1,1-dimethylethyl (2i?)-2-(3- hydroxy- 1 – { [(phenylmethyl)oxy] carbonyl } azetidin-3 -yl)piperidine- 1 -carboxylate (60.8 mg, 81% yield) a colorless amorphous solid. 1,1-dimethylethyl (2ιS)-2-(3-hydroxy-l- {[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-l-carboxylate (87.4 mg, 75% yield) was prepared analogously.

[00338] 1 , 1 -Dimethylethyl (2i?)-2-(3-hydroxy- 1 – { [(phenylmethyl)oxy] carbonyl } azetidin- 3 -yl)piperidine-l -carboxylate (60.8 mg, 0.16 mmol) and 10% Pd/C (30 mg) were taken into methanol (2 mL) and the mixture hydrogenated at ambient pressure for one hour. The suspension was then filtered through a celite pad and concentrated then dried in vacuo to a colorless solid. The solid amine was taken into THF (1 mL) followed by addition of DIPEA (42 μL, 0.24 mmol) and 3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]benzoyl fluoride (63 mg, 0.16 mmol), prepared using procedures similar to those described in Reference 1, and the mixture stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes.

The reaction mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and 1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid and the organic layer washed with brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate then filtered and concentrated. Purification of the residue by silica gel flash chromatography using hexanes: ethyl acetate 3:2 as eluent afforded 1,1-dimethylethyl (2i?)-2-[l-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-hydroxyazetidin-3-yl]piperidine-l -carboxylate (74.9 mg, 74% yield) as an amorphous solid. 1,1 -Dimethylethyl (2i?)-2-[l-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2- fluoro~4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-hydroxyazetidin-3-yl]piperidine-l- carboxylate 1R NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 8.53 (br s, 0.5H), 8.40 (br s, 0.5H), 7.41-7.38 (dd, IH), 7.34-7.31(dt, IH), 7.17-7.14 (m, IH), 6.86-6.79 (m, IH), 6.63-6.587 (m, IH), 4.24-3.90 (m, 4H), 3.37-3.23 (m, IH), 2.90-2.80 (m, IH), 1.85-1.54 (m, 7H), 1.43 (s, 9H); MS (EI) for C26H29F3IN3O4: 576 (M-C4H9 4).

[00339] 1 , 1 -dimethylethyl (2R)-2-[l -({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4- iodopheny^aminojphenylJcarbonyO-S-hydroxyazetidin-S-yljpiperidine-l-carboxylate (74.9 mg, 0.12 mmol) was taken into methanol (1 mL) followed by addition of 4 N HCl in dioxane (1 mL) and the solution was stirred at room temperature for one hour. The solution was then concentrated and the residue partitioned with chloroform and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate.

The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium' sulfate then filtered and concentrated. Purification of the residue by silica gel flash chromatography using ethyl acetate then concentrated aqueous ammonia in chloroform and methanol (0.1 :10:1) as eluents afforded l-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2i?)-piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-3-ol (57.3 mg) as a colorless amorphous solid.

The free base was taken into methanol (1 mL) then brought to about pH 1 by addition of 4 N HCl in dioxane and the solution concentrated. The residue was triturated with ethyl ether to afford a suspension. The solid was collected by filtration to afford l-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2i?)- piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-3-ol hydrochloride salt (49 mg, 72% yield) as a colorless solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 8.43-8.39 (d, IH), 7.41-7.38 (dd, IH), 7.33-7.31(dt, IH), 7.14- 7.10 (m, IH), 6.84-6.80 (m, IH), 6.63-6.57 (m, IH), 4.12-3.99 (m, 4H), 3.10-3.08 (d, IH), 2.72-2.69 (d, IH), 2.64-2.62 (m, IH), 1.61-1.58 (m, 2H), 1.36-1.16 (m, 4H); MS (EI) for C21H2IF3IN3O2: 532 (MH+).

Cobimetinib

………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014027056A1?cl=en

 [3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4- iodophenyl)amino]phenyl][3-hydroxy-3-[(2S)-2-piperidinyl]-l-azetidinyl]methanone.

GDC-0973 has the chemical structure:

 

Figure imgf000031_0001

[00156] Compound II may be prepared following the methods described in

US2009/0156576 (the contents of which are hereby incorporated by reference). Compound II has the following CAS Registry Number: 934660-93-2 .

http://www.google.com/patents/US20090156576

Example 22(a) and 22(b) 1-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2R)-piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-3-ol

 

Figure US20090156576A1-20090618-C00453

 

and 1-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2S)-piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-3-ol

 

Figure US20090156576A1-20090618-C00454

 

To a solution of 1,1-dimethylethyl 2-(3-hydroxy-1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (368 mg, 0.94 mmol), prepared using procedures similar to those described in Reference 5, in dichloromethane (5 mL) was added DMAP (115 mg, 0.94 mmol) and the resulting solution was cooled to 0° C. (R)-(−)-α-Methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride (105 μL, 0.56 mmol) was added to the solution by syringe and the mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature then stirred an additional 12 hours. The solution was then partitioned with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate and the organic phase dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate then filtered and concentrated to an oily residue. Silica gel flash chromatography using hexanes:ethyl acetate 3:1 as eluent afforded the less polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2R)-2-(1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (27.5 mg, 5% yield), the more polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-2-(1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (105 mg, 19% yield) and starting material (253 mg, 69% recovery).

The starting material thus recovered was taken into dichloromethane (3 mL) followed by addition of DMAP (115 mg, 0.94 mmol) and (R)-(−)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride (105 μL, 0.56 mmol) and the mixture was allowed to stir at room temperature over 12 hours. Proceeding as before afforded combined 1,1-dimethylethyl (2R)-2-(1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (46.6 mg, 8% yield), the more polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-2-(1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (228 mg, 41% yield) and starting material (100.8 mg, 27% recovery).

The starting material thus recovered was taken into tetrahydrofuran:dichloromethane (1:1, 2 mL) followed by addition of DMAP (47 mg, 0.39 mmol) and (R)-(−)-α-methoxy-α-trifluoromethylphenylacetyl chloride (80 μL, 0.43 mmol) and the mixture was heated to 60° C. over 12 hours. Proceeding as before afforded combined less polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2R)-2-(1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (144 mg, 26% yield). The chiral ester derivatives thus obtained were again subject to silica gel flash chromatography using hexanes:ethyl acetate 3:1 as eluent to give the pure less polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2R)-2-(1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (122.8 mg, 22% yield) and the more polar 1,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-2-(1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (177.6 mg, 32% yield) both as colorless amorphous residues.

1,1-Dimethylethyl (2R)-2-(1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}-3-{[(2R)-3,3,3-trifluoro-2-(methyloxy)-2-phenylpropanoyl]oxy}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (122.8 mg, 0.21 mmol) was taken into methanol (4 mL) followed by addition of 1M aqueous sodium hydroxide (1 mL) and the resulting solution was stirred for one hour at room temperature. The solution was then partitioned with ethyl acetate and 1N aqueous hydrochloric acid. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate then filtered and concentrated. The residue was purified by silica gel flash chromatography using hexanes:ethyl acetate 2:1 to give 1,1-dimethylethyl (2R)-2-(3-hydroxy-1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (60.8 mg, 81% yield) a colorless amorphous solid. 1,1-dimethylethyl (2S)-2-(3-hydroxy-1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (87.4 mg, 75% yield) was prepared analogously.

1,1-Dimethylethyl (2R)-2-(3-hydroxy-1-{[(phenylmethyl)oxy]carbonyl}azetidin-3-yl)piperidine-1-carboxylate (60.8 mg, 0.16 mmol) and 10% Pd/C (30 mg) were taken into methanol (2 mL) and the mixture hydrogenated at ambient pressure for one hour. The suspension was then filtered through a celite pad and concentrated then dried in vacuo to a colorless solid. The solid amine was taken into THF (1 mL) followed by addition of DIPEA (42 μL, 0.24 mmol) and 3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]benzoyl fluoride (63 mg, 0.16 mmol), prepared using procedures similar to those described in Reference 1, and the mixture stirred at room temperature for 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was partitioned with ethyl acetate and 1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid and the organic layer washed with brine, dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate then filtered and concentrated. Purification of the residue by silica gel flash chromatography using hexanes:ethyl acetate 3:2 as eluent afforded 1,1-dimethylethyl (2R)-2-[1-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-hydroxyazetidin-3-yl]piperidine-1-carboxylate (74.9 mg, 74% yield) as an amorphous solid. 1,1-Dimethylethyl (2R)-2-[1-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-hydroxyazetidin-3-yl]piperidine-1-carboxylate 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 8.53 (br s, 0.5H), 8.40 (br s, 0.5H), 7.41-7.38 (dd, 1H), 7.34-7.31 (dt, 1H), 7.17-7.14 (m, 1H), 6.86-6.79 (m, 1H), 6.63-6.587 (m, 1H), 4.24-3.90 (m, 4H), 3.37-3.23 (m, 1H), 2.90-2.80 (m, 1H), 1.85-1.54 (m, 7H), 1.43 (s, 9H); MS (EI) for C26H29F3IN3O4: 576 M-C4H9 +).

1,1-dimethylethyl (2R)-2-[1-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-hydroxyazetidin-3-yl]piperidine-1-carboxylate (74.9 mg, 0.12 mmol) was taken into methanol (1 mL) followed by addition of 4 N HCl in dioxane (1 mL) and the solution was stirred at room temperature for one hour. The solution was then concentrated and the residue partitioned with chloroform and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The organic layer was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate then filtered and concentrated. Purification of the residue by silica gel flash chromatography using ethyl acetate then concentrated aqueous ammonia in chloroform and methanol (0.1:10:1) as eluents afforded 1-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2R)-piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-3-ol (57.3 mg) as a colorless amorphous solid. The free base was taken into methanol (1 mL) then brought to about pH 1 by addition of 4 N HCl in dioxane and the solution concentrated. The residue was triturated with ethyl ether to afford a suspension. The solid was collected by filtration to afford 1-({3,4-difluoro-2-[(2-fluoro-4-iodophenyl)amino]phenyl}carbonyl)-3-[(2R)-piperidin-2-yl]azetidin-3-ol hydrochloride salt (49 mg, 72% yield) as a colorless solid. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 8.43-8.39 (d, 1H), 7.41-7.38 (dd, 1H), 7.33-7.31 (dt, 1H), 7.14-7.10 (m, 1H), 6.84-6.80 (m, 1H), 6.63-6.57 (m, 1H), 4.12-3.99 (m, 4H), 3.10-3.08 (d, 1H), 2.72-2.69 (d, 1H), 2.64-2.62 (m, 1H), 1.61-1.58 (m, 2H), 1.36-1.16 (m, 4H); MS (EI) for C21H21F3IN3O2: 532 (MH+).

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 Novel carboxamide-based allosteric MEK inhibitors: Discovery and optimization efforts toward XL518 (GDC-0973)
ACS Med Chem Lett 2012, 3(5): 416

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ml300049d

Figure

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/ml300049d

 

8-17-2011
Methods of using MEK inhibitors
3-30-2011
Azetidines as MEK Inhibitors for the Treatment of Proliferative Diseases
9-29-2010
Azetidines as MEK Inhibitors for the Treatment of Proliferative Diseases
3-26-2010
Methods of Using PI3K and MEK Modulators

see als0 WO-2014059422

ACT-280778 is a L/T calcium channel blocker potentially indicated for the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris


Abstract Image

ACT-280778

(1R,2R,4R)-2-(2-((3-(4,7-Dimethoxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)propyl)(methyl)amino)ethyl)-5-phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl Isobutyrate

Propanoic acid, 2-​methyl-​, (1R,​2R,​4R)​-​2-​[2-​[[3-​(4,​7-​dimethoxy-​1H-​benzimidazol-​2-​yl)​propyl]​methylamino]​ethyl]​-​5-​phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]​oct-​5-​en-​2-​yl ester

isobutyric acid (1R,2R,4R)-2-(2-{[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl ester

Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd innovator

C33 H43 N3 O4

 1075744-31-8

bis-MALEATE SALT  1537197-53-7

Chiral bicyclic benzimidazole 1 (ACT-280778) is a L/T calcium channel blocker potentially indicated for the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris 

 Many cardiovascular disorders have been associated with a ‘calcium overload’ resulting from an abnormal elevated calcium influx through the plasma membrane of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cells. There are 3 major pathways through which extracellular calcium can enter these cells: 1 ) receptor-activated calcium channels, 2) ligand-gated calcium channels and 3) voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCs). 0 VOCs have been classified into 6 main categories: L (Long-lasting), T (Transient), N (Neuronal), P (Purkinje cells), Q (after P) and R (Remaining or Resistant).

L-type calcium channels are responsible for the inward movement of calcium that initiates contraction in cardiac and smooth muscle cells suggesting a putative application for blockers of these channels in the cardiovascular field. In this view, L-type calcium channel blockers5 have been used in clinic since the early 60s and are now recommended as a first line of treatment for systolic-diastolic hypertension and angina pectoris.

T-type calcium channels are found in various tissues such as coronary and peripheral vasculature, sinoatrial node and Purkinje fibres, brain, adrenal glands and in the kidney. This broad distribution suggests a T-type channel blocker to have a putative cardiovascular0 protection, to have en effect on sleep disorders, mood disorders, depression, migraine, hyperaldosteroneemia, preterm labor, urinary incontinence, brain aging or neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers disease.

Mibefradil (Posicor®), the first L-type and T-type calcium channels blocker demonstrated a superior effect over calcium channel blockers, which target the L channel predominantly. Mibefradil was used for the treatment of hypertension and angina without showing negative side-effects often seen by L channel blockers like inotropy, reflex tachycardia, vasoconstrictive hormone release or peripheral edema. Additionally, mibefradil showed a potentially cardioprotective effect (Villame, Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy 15, 41-28, 2001 ; Ramires, J MoI Cell Cardiol 1998, 30, 475-83), a renal protective effect (Honda, Hypertension 19, 2031-37, 2001 ), and showed a positive effect in the treatment of heart failure (Clozel, Proceedings Association American Physicians 1999, 1 11 , 429-37).

Despite the enormous demand for a compound of this profile, mibefradil was withdrawn from the market in 1998 (one year after its launch), due to unacceptable CYP 3A4 drug interactions. Moreover, ECG abnormalities (i.e. QT prolongations) and interaction with the MDR-1 mediated digoxin efflux were also reported (du Souich, Clin Pharmacol Ther 67, 249- 57, 2000; Wandel, Drug Metab Dispos 2000, 28, 895-8).

It has now been found that crystalline salt forms of COMPOUND (isobutyric acid (1 R*,2R*,4R*)-2-(2-{[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amino}-ethyl)- 5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl ester) may under certain conditions be found. Said crystalline salt forms of COMPOUND are novel and may have advantageous properties, especially compared to the free base (WO2008/132679) or the di-hydrochloride salt of COMPOUND. Such advantages may include better flow properties, better solubility, less hygroscopicity, better reproducibiliy in manufacturing (for example better filtration parameters, better reproducibility of formation, better sedimentation),

 

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http://www.google.com/patents/WO2009130679A1?cl=en

Scheme 1

Figure imgf000011_0001
Figure imgf000011_0002

 

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http://www.google.com/patents/CN102186828A?cl=en

http://www.google.com/patents/EP2344461A1?cl=en

The preparation of COMPOUND is known from WO2008/132679: Preparation of intermediates

General procedures for the preparation of key intermediates K: Key intermediates K1A and K2A which are bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl or bicyclo[3.2.2]non-8- en-6-yl derivatives are obtained as a mixture between the major racemate having the relative configuration (R*, R*, R*) (i.e. the bridge -(CH2)2- of the cyclohexene moiety is cis to the group -OR2 being hydroxy) and the minor racemate having the relative configuration (R*, S*, R*) (i.e. the bridge -(CH2)2- of the cyclohexene moiety is trans to the group -OR2 being hydroxy). The major and the minor racemates can be separated as described for key intermediate K1A in procedure A1.5. The major racemate is isolated and used in the preparation of the examples below.

K1 A: rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-(2-Hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert. -butyl ester K1 A.1 (Procedure A1.1 ): rac-(1 R*.4R*VBicvclor2.2.21octane-2.5-dione

25 ml. of 2-(trimethylsilyloxy)-1 ,3-cyclohexadiene and 13 ml. of α-acetoxyacrylonitrile were mixed and heated at 1500C in a closed vessel for 22 h. The obtained dark orange viscous oil was dissolved in 200 ml. of MeOH. After dropwise addition of a solution of 2.2 g of sodium methoxide in 150 ml. of MeOH the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 h at rt, poured into ice/water and extracted with DCM. The organic phases were concentrated in vacuo and the crude residue was purified by CC with EtOAc-Hept (1 :2) to yield 7.9 g of rac-(1 R*,4R*)- bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5-dione. LC-MS: tR = 0.44 min.

K1A.2 (Procedure A1.2): rac-(1 R*.4R*VSpirorbicvclor2.2.2loctane-2.2′-ri .3ldioxolanl-5-one To 4.0 g of rac-(1 R*,4R*)-bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,5-dione (intermediate K1A.1 ), dissolved in 120 ml. of toluene, 1.7 ml. of ethylene glycol and 0.27 g of TsOH were added and the solution was heated under vigorous stirring to reflux for 3.5 h. The reaction mixture was cooled to rt, quenched with saturated aq. NaHCO3, extracted with Et2O, and the organic phase was evaporated. The crude product was purified by CC with Hex-EtOAc (7:3) to yield 2.41 g of rac-(1 R*,4R*)-spiro[bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,2′-[1 ,3]dioxolan]-5-one as yellow oil. LC-MS: tR = 0.64 min; [M+H+CH3CN]+: 224.35. K1A.3 (Procedure A1.3): Mixture of rac-(7R*.8R*.10R*V and rac-(7R*.8S*.10R*V7.10-(1.2- Ethylen)-8-phenyl-1 ,4-dioxa-spiror4.5ldecan-8-ol

To a solution of 2.41 g of rac-(1 R*,4R*)-spiro[bicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2,2′-[1 ,3]dioxolan]-5-one

(intermediate K1A.2) in 80 ml. Et2O, 14.5 ml. phenylmagnesium bromide solution (1 M in Et2O) was added dropwise over 10 min. The reaction mixture was stirred for 4 h at rt. Then, the mixture was quenched carefully with ice, 8 ml. 2N HCI were added and the phases were separated. The organic phase was evaporated and the crude product was purified by CC with Hept-EtOAC (7:3) to give 0.37 g of 7,10-(1 ,2-ethylen)-8-phenyl-1 ,4-dioxa- spiro[4.5]decan-8-ol as colorless oil. (Separation of the diastereomers by CC is possible but was not performed here.)

LC-MS: tR = 0.84 min; [M-H2O+H]+: 243.34.

K1A.4 (Procedure A1.4): rac-(1 R*,4R*)-5-Phenyl-bicvclor2.2.2loct-5-en-2-one

To a solution of 0.54 g of 7,10-(1 ,2-ethylen)-8-phenyl-1 ,4-dioxa-spiro[4.5]decan-8-ol (intermediate K1A.3) in 20 ml. acetone was added 200 mg of TsOH and then the mixture was stirred for 2 d at rt. The reaction mixture was quenched with sat. aq. NaHCO3, extracted with EtOAC and the organic phase was evaporated. The crude product was purified by CC with Hept-EtOAC (7:3) to give 0.34 g of rac-(1 R*,4R*)-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one as colorless oil. LC-MS: tR = 0.93 min; [M+H+CH3CN]+: 240.1 1. K1A.5 (Procedure A1.5): rac-(1 R*.2R*.4R*H2-Hvdroxy-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.2loct-5-en-2-vn- acetic acid tert.-butyl ester and rac-(1 R*,2S*,4R*H2-hvdroxy-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.2loct-5-en- 2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester

To a solution of 0.51 mL of DIPA in 0.5 mL THF 2.2 mL of n-butyllithium (1.6M in Hex) were added dropwise at -200C. After 10 min, 0.5 mL of toluene were added and the solution was stirred for 30 min. The mixture was cooled to -500C, 0.73 mL of tert.-butyl acetate were added and stirring was continued for 1 h at -500C. Then 0.32 g of rac-(1 R*,4R*)-5-phenyl- bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one (intermediate K1A.4) dissolved in 1 mL of THF was added and the solution was stirred at -50 to -200C over 2.5 h. The reaction mixture was poured on ice/aq. HCI, the organic phase was separated, washed and evaporated. The crude reaction product was purified by CC with Hept-EtOAc (9:1 ) to yield 0.30 g of the major racemate, rac- (1 R*,2R*,4R*)-2-hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester, as white solid and 0.07 g of the minor racemate, rac-(1 R*,2S*,4R*)-2-hydroxy-5-phenyl- bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester, as colorless oil. LC-MS (major racemate): tR = 1.06 min; [M-(CH3)3-H2O+H]+: 241.1 1. LC-MS (minor racemate): tR = 1.05 min; [M+H]+: 315.18. K1A.6: (1 S.2S.4SV(2-Hvdroxy-5-Dhenyl-bicvclor2.2.2loct-5-en-2-vn-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester and (1 R,2R,4R)-(2-Hvdroxy-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.2loct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-(2-Hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester was separated into the respective enantiomers using prep, chiral HPLC (column: Daicel ChiralPak AD-H, 20×250 mm, 5 μm; Hex/ EtOH 95:5, flow 16 mL/min) Chiral analytic HPLC (Daicel ChiralPak AD-H, 4.6×250 mm, 5 μm; Hex/ EtOH 95:5, flow 0.8 mL/min):

(1 R,2R,4R)-(2-Hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester: Enantiomer A: tR = 6.70 min.

(1S,2S,4S)-(2-Hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester: Enantiomer B: tR = 7.93 min.

BB. [3-(4,7-Dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amine

BB.1 3,6-Dimethoxy-benzene-1 ,2-diamine 3, 6-Dimethoxy-benzene-1 ,2-diamine was synthesized by dissolving 6.0 g of 1 ,4-dimethoxy- 2,3-dinitro-benzene (Eur.J.Org.Chem. 2006, 2786-2794) in 220 mL EtOH, evacuating 3 times with N2 and adding 600 mg of 10wt% Pd/C. The reaction was stirred under a H2 atmosphere (balloon). Another 300 mg of 10wt% Pd/C were added after 2 days and the mixture was stirred for another 24 h. Filtration over a pad of celite and washing with EtOH and EtOAc yielded after concentration in vacuo 4.3 g of 3, 6-dimethoxy-benzene-1 ,2-diamine as black solid. LC-MS: tR = 0.48 min; [M+H]+: 169.09.

BB.2 r3-(2-Amino-3,6-dimethoxy-phenylcarbamoyl)-propyll-methyl-carbamic acid benzyl ester To a solution of 3.1 g of 4-(benzyloxycarbonyl-methyl-amino)-butyric acid in 80 mL DCM were added 6.5 mL of DIPEA, 1.8 g of HOBt, 2.6 g of EDC and 154 mg of DMAP. After stirring for 10 min, 2.1 g of 3, 6-dimethoxy-benzene-1 ,2-diamine, dissolved in 20 mL DCM, were added and the mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction was quenched with sat. aq. NaHCO3, the phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with brine, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo to yield the crude title compound as black oil. LC-MS: tR = 0.88 min; [M+H]+: 402.06.

BB.3 [3-(4,7-Dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl1-methyl-carbamic acid benzyl ester

To a mixture of the above crude 3-(2-amino-3,6-dimethoxy-phenylcarbamoyl)-propyl]-methyl- carbamic acid benzyl ester in 16 mL toluene were added 4 mL of DMF and 1.9 g of TsOH and the reaction was heated to 1500C for 2 h in the microwave. Sat. aq. NaHCO3 was added and the phases were separated. The organic phase was washed with brine, dried over MgSO4, concentrated in vacuo, filtered over a short pad of silica gel with EtOAc and concentrated again. Purification by CC with EtOAc yielded 2.7 g of 3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H- benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-carbamic acid benzyl ester as brown resin. LC-MS: tR = 0.85 min; [M+H]+: 384.62.

BB.4 r3-(4,7-Dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyll-methyl-amine

A solution of 2.6 g of 3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-carbamic acid benzyl ester in 60 ml. EtOH was evacuated 3 times with N2 before 260 mg of 10 wt% Pd/C were added. The reaction mixture was then stirred under a H2atmosphere (balloon) for 5 h at rt. Filtration over a pad of celite and washing with EtOH yielded after concentration in vacuo 1.7 g of 3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amine as brown foam. LC-MS: tR = 0.57 min; [M+H]+: 250.13.

Preparation of COMPOUND Reference Example 1A: rac-lsobutyric acid (1 R*,2R*,4R*)-2-(2-{[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1H- benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl ester

1.1 (Procedure P1.1 V rac-(1 R*.2R*.4R*H2-Hvdroxy-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.2loct-5-en-2-vn- acetic acid To a solution of 4.0 g of rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-(2-hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)- acetic acid tert.-butyl ester in 25 mL EtOH were added 2.1 g of LiOH-H2O, 8 mL H2O and 22 mL MeOH. The reaction mixture was stirred at rt for 3 d and then concentrated. The residue was partitioned between water and Et2O. The aq. layer was separated and acidified with 1 N HCI resulting in the formation of a white solid. The solid was filtrated, washed with 5 mL aq. HCI and dried in vacuo to obtain 3.2 g of rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-(2-hydroxy-5-phenyl- bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid as white solid. LC-MS: tR = 0.86 min; [M-H2O+H]+: 241.28.

1.2 (Procedure P1.2): rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-N-r3-(4,7-Dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)- propyl1-2-(2-hvdroxy-5-phenyl-bicvclo[2.2.21oct-5-en-2-yl)-N-methyl-acetamide To a solution of 280 mg of rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-(2-hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2- yl)-acetic acid in 7 mL THF were added 0.58 mL of DIPEA, 175 mg of HOBt and 250 mg of EDC at rt. After stirring for 10 min, 270 mg of 3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)- propyl]-methyl-amine were added and the reaction mixture was stirred at rt overnight. The reaction mixture was quenched with sat. aq. NaHCO3, the phases were separated and the organic phase was washed with water and brine, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by CC using EtOAc-MeOH (5:1 to 2:1 ) yielded 475 mg of rac- (1 R*,2R*,4R*)-N-[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-2-(2-hydroxy-5-phenyl- bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-N-methyl-acetamide as white foam. LC-MS: tR = 0.91 min; [M+H]+: 490.06.

1.3 (Procedure P1.3): rac-(1 R*.2R*.4R*V2-(2-fr3-(4.7-Dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-ylV propyll-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.21oct-5-en-2-ol

To a solution of 310 mg of rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-N-[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)- propyl]-2-(2-hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-N-methyl-acetamide in 8 mL toluene were added dropwise 0.77 ml. of a Red-AI solution (65% in toluene) at 00C. After stirring for 10 min at 00C, the cooling bath was removed and stirring was continued for 3 h at rt. The reaction mixture was then carefully poured onto a mixture of 1 M NaOH/ice and stirred for 10 min. The aq. phase was extracted with toluene, the combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. Purification by CC using EtOAc-MeOH (2:1 ) yielded 230 mg of rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-2-(2-{[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H- benzoimidazol^-y^-propyll-methyl-aminoj-ethy^-δ-phenyl-bicyclop^^loct-δ-en^-ol as white foam. LC-MS: tR = 0.79 min; [M+H]+: 476.13. 1.4: rac-lsobutyric acid (1 R*.2R*.4R*‘)-2-(2-fr3-(4.7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-vn- propyll-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.21oct-5-en-2-yl ester

To a solution of 199 mg of rac-(1 R*,2R*,4R*)-2-(2-{[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2- yO-propyO-methyl-aminoJ-ethy^-δ-phenyl-bicycloP^^loct-δ-en^-ol in 4 mL DCM were added 0.2 mL of NEt3 and 0.1 mL of isobutyrylchloride at 0°C. The reaction mixture was stirred overnight allowing the temperature to reach slowly rt. The reaction was quenched with sat. aq. NaHCO3, the phases were separated and the water phase was re-extracted with DCM. The combined organic phases were washed with brine, dried over MgSO4 and concentrated in vacuo. The residue was redissolved in 3 mL EtOAc, silica gel and 1.5 mL MeOH were added and the mixture was stirred vigorously for 7 d. The mixture was filtered, thouroughly washed with EtOAc-MeOH (2:1 ) and evaporated. Purification by CC using EtOAc-MeOH (5:1 to 3:1 + 0.1 % NEt3) yielded 186 mg of rac-isobutyric acid (1 R*,2R*,4R*)-2- (2-{[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl- bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl ester as beige foam. LC-MS: tR = 0.90 min; [M+H]+: 546.23. Reference Example 2A: lsobutyric acid (1S,2S,4S)-2-(2-{[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1H- benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl ester

2.1 : (1S.2S.4SV(2-Hvdroxy-5-Dhenyl-bicvclor2.2.2loct-5-en-2-vn-acetic acid Prepared according to procedure P1.1 in Reference Example 1A using enantiomer B of rac- (1 R*,2R*,4R*)-(2-hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester (see K1A.6). LC-MS: tR = 0.91 min; [M-H2CHH]+: 241.10.

2.2: (1S.2S.4SV2-(2-fr3-(4.7-Dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-ylVDroDyll-methyl-amino>- ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.21oct-5-en-2-ol

Prepared according to procedures P1.2 to P1.3 in Reference Example 1A using the above (2-hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid. LC-MS: tR = 0.78 min; [M+H]+: 476.09.

2.3: Isobutyric acid (1S,2S,4S)-2-(2-{[3-(4J-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl1- methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.21oct-5-en-2-yl ester

Prepared according to procedure P1.4 in Reference Example 1A using the above 2-(2-{[3-

(4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl- bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-ol.

LC-MS: tR = 0.89 min; [M+H]+: 546.19. Reference Example 3A: lsobutyric acid (1 R,2R,4R)-2-(2-{[3-(4,7-dimethoxy-1H- benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl ester

3.1 : (1 R.2R.4RH2-Hvdroxy-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.21oct-5-en-2-vn-acetic acid

Prepared according to procedure P1.1 in Reference Example 1 using enantiomer A of rac- (1 R*,2R*,4R*)-(2-hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid tert.-butyl ester (see K1A.6). LC-MS: tR = 0.91 min; [M-H2CHH]+: 241.16.

3.2: (1 R,2R,4R)-2-(2-{[3-(4,7-Dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl1-methyl-amino}- ethvD-δ-phenyl-bicvclo^^^loct-δ-en^-ol Prepared according to procedures P1.2 to P1.3 in Reference Example 1 using the above (2- hydroxy-5-phenyl-bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl)-acetic acid. LC-MS: tR = 0.79 min; [M+H]+: 476.09. 3.3: Isobutyric acid (1 R.2R.4RV2-(2-{r3-(4.7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-ylVpropyll- methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl-bicvclor2.2.21oct-5-en-2-yl ester

Prepared according to procedure P1.4 in Reference Example 1A using the above 2-(2-{[3- (4,7-dimethoxy-1 H-benzoimidazol-2-yl)-propyl]-methyl-amino}-ethyl)-5-phenyl- bicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-ol.

LC-MS: tR = 0.89 min; [M+H]+: 546.11. Optical rotation: alpha D (c = 10 mg/mL EtOH) = -21.5°.

1 H NMR (MeOD, 400 MHz) δ 7.39-7.37 (m, 2H), 7.30 (t, J = 6.4 Hz, 2H), 7.24-7.20 (m, 1 H), 6.60 (s, 2 H), 6.43 (br d, J = 7.6 Hz, 1 H), 3.91 (s, 6H), 3.27-3.23 (m, 1 H), 3.18-3.15 (m, 1 H), 2.87 (t, J = 7.6 Hz, 2H), 2.54 (sept, J = 7.0 Hz, 1 H), 2.47-2.37 (m, 4H), 2.21 (s, 3H), 2.19- 2.12 (m, 1 H), 2.01-1.92 (m, 5H), 1.75-1.65 (m, 2H), 1.48-1.38 (m, 1 H), 1.27-1.19 (m, 1 H), 1.16 (d, J = 7.0 Hz, 6H).

 

Example S5: Preparation and characterization of the di-maleic acid salt of COMPOUND

Maleic acid (256 g, 2.2 mol, 2.1 eq), dissolved in MeOH (630 ml_, 1.1 volumes) was added to a refluxing solution of COMPOUND (682 g, 84% w/w (NMR assay), 1.05 mol) in EtOAc (6.3 L, 11 volumes). The resulting mixture was stirred under reflux for 15 minutes and was then cooled to 65-68°C within 30 minutes and seeded with 0.04% w/w of seeding crystals of di- maleic acid salt of COMPOUND (Seeding crystals were obtained after careful crystallisation using the same protocol.). The mixture was then cooled from 65-68°C to 400C within 3 h. The obtained suspension was then cooled down to 200C over 1 h, filtered under 0.2 bar of nitrogen and rinsed with EtOAc (1500 ml. 2.6 volumes). The obtained white solid was then dried under 1 atmosphere of nitrogen for 24 hours to yield 715 g (88%) of the di-maleic acid salt of COMPOUND.

Table S5: Characterisation data for the di-maleic acid salt of COMPOUND

Figure imgf000036_0001

………….

paper

Org. Process Res. Dev., Article ASAP
DOI: 10.1021/op400269b

A scalable access to 1 (ACT-280778), a potent L/T calcium channel blocker, has been developed. The synthesis, amenable to kilogram manufacturing, comprises 10 chemical steps from enantiomerically pure 5-phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one (3) and 1,4-dimethoxybenzene with a longest linear sequence of 7 steps. Key to the success of this fit-for-purpose approach are a robust and atom-efficient access to benzimidazole 4, the substrate-controlled diastereoselective enolate addition toward carboxylic acid 2 that was isolated by simple crystallization with high dr (>99:1), the convenient selective N-deacylation of intermediate 10, and the identification of a suitable solid form of 1 as the bis-maleate salt (1·2 C4H4O4). As an illustration of the robustness of this process, 14 kg of drug substance, suitable for human use, was produced with an overall yield of 38% over the longest linear sequence (7 steps).

Abstract Image

 

(1R,2R,4R)-2-(2-((3-(4,7-Dimethoxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)propyl)(methyl)amino)ethyl)-5-phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl Isobutyrate (1)ol. . Yield: 8.79 kg (98%, used as is); weight of the solution: 45.3 kg, concentration by evaporation of an aliquot: 19.4% w/w. Purity (HPLC method 3): 98.8% a/a, tR 3.26 min, [M + 1]+ = 546, 1H NMR (MeOD): δ 7.39–7.37 (m, 2H), 7.31–7.27 (m, 2H), 7.23–7.20 (m, 1H), 6.59 (br s, 2H), 6.42 (dd, J = 7.1, 1.6 Hz, 1H), 3.90 (s, 6H), 3.25–3.22 (m, 1H), 3.15–3.14 (m, 1H), 2.86 (t, J = 7.4 Hz, 2H), 2.55–2.48 (m, 1H), 2.42–2.37 (m, 4H), 2.18 (s, 3H), 2.16–2.11 (m, 1H), 2.08–1.87 (m, 6H), 1.72–1.64 (m, 2H), 1.45–1.38 (m, 1H), 1.25–1.18 (m, 1H), 1.16 (s, 3H), 1.14 (s, 3H); 13C NMR (MeOD) δ 176.8, 153.0, 146.0, 142.8, 137.9, 129.3, 128.1 (2 C), 126.9, 124.9, 124.5 (3 C), 102.2, 85.4, 56.6, 54.8 (2 C), 51.2, 40.7, 40.0, 38.6, 36.1, 34.7, 34.3, 33.3, 26.4, 23.7, 23.6, 19.7, 19.0, 18.1, 18.0.
(1R,2R,4R)-2-(2-((3-(4,7-Dimethoxy-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)propyl)(methyl)-amino)ethyl)-5-phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-yl Isobutyrate Maleate (1·2 C4H4O4)
. Yield (9.40 kg, 74%, two steps). Purity (HPLC method 3): 99.7% a/a, tR 3.26 min, [M + 1]+ = 546, 1H NMR (MeOD): δ 7.33–7.20 (m, 5H), 6.73 (br s, 2H), 6.41 (dd, J = 7.0, 1.3 Hz, 1H), 6.25 (s, 4H), 3.91 (s, 6H), 3.30–3.11 (m, 9H), 2.86 (s, 3H), 2.63–2.56 (m, 1H), 2.53–2.38 (m, 2H), 2.31–2.24 (m, 2H), 2.05–1.93 (m, 2H), 1.76–1.69 (m, 2H), 1.47–1.39 (m, 1H), 1.29–1.22 (m, 1H), 1.20 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 3H), 1.18 (d, J = 2.4 Hz, 3H); 13C NMR (MeOD) δ 176.9, 168.8, 151.8, 146.3, 141.9, 137.7, 133.9 (4 C), 128.2 (2 C), 127.0, 126.1, 124.5 (3 C), 124.4, 104.3 (2 C), 84.6, 55.7, 55.1 (2 C), 51.3, 40.4, 38.8, 38.5, 34.6, 33.2, 33.0, 25.0, 23.6, 21.5, 19.6, 18.0, 17.9; HRMS (ESI) for [M + H+] C33H44N3O4: Calcd. 546.3332; Found: 546.3334. Anal. Calcd. For C41H51N3O12: C: 63.31; N: 5.40; O: 24.68. Found: C: 63.23; N: 5.31; O: 24.85.
………………
analytical
LC-MS were run using the following conditions: Finnigan Navigator with HP 1 100 Binary Pump and DAD, column: 4.6×50 mm, Zorbax SB-AQ, 5 μm, 120 A, gradient: 5-95% acetonitrile in water, 1 min, with 0.04% trifluoroacetic acid, flow: 4.5 mL/min, tR is given in min.

Compounds are purified by preparative HPLC (column: X-terra RP18, 50×19 mm, 5 μm, gradient: 10-95% acetonitrile in water containing 0.5 % of formic acid) or by column chromatography on silica gel. Racemates can be separated into their enantiomers by preparative HPLC (preferred conditions: Daicel, ChiralCel OD 20×250 mm, 10 μm, 4% ethanol in hexane, flow 10-20 mL/min).

ref…………..
  1.  this work was preliminarily disclosed: Funel, J.-A. In Practical Synthesis of L/T Calcium Channel Blocker ACT-280778, 30th SCI Process Development Symposium, Cambridge, UK, December 5–7, 2012; Funel, J.-A.; In Practical Synthesis of 5-Phenylbicyclo[2.2.2]oct-5-en-2-one toward L/T Calcium Channel Blocker ACT-280778. Application of the Diels–Alder Reaction on kg-Scale, 1st Smart Synthesis and Advanced Purification Conference, April 21–23, 2013; Lyon, FR.

  2. (a) HilpertK.HublerF., and RennebergD. WO/2008/132679A1, 2008.

    (b) HublerF.,HilpertK., and RennebergD. WO/2009/130679A1, 2009.

  3. FunelJ.-A.; SchmidtG.; AbeleS. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2011151420– 1427

  4. AbeleS.; SchwaningerM.; FierzH.; SchmidtG.; FunelJ.-A.; StoesselF. Org. Process Res. Dev. 2012162015– 2020

  5. (a) AbeleS.; InauenR.; FunelJ.-A.; WellerT. Org. Process Res. Dev. 201216129140

    (b) AbeleS.FunelJ.-A. WO/2012/052943A1, 2012.

    (c) Abele,S.FunelJ.-A. WO/2012/052939A2, 2012.

  6. AbeleS.; InauenR.; SpielvogelD.; MoessnerC. J. Org. Chem. 2012774765– 4773

Antimalarials………….Arterolane from Ranbaxy


Arterolane.png

664338-39-0 

Arterolane

664338-39-0, UNII-3N1TN351VB, OZ277, RBX-11160, NCGC00274173-01
Molecular Formula: C22H36N2O4
 Molecular Weight: 392.53224
 cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3’-8’-[[[(2’-amino-2’ methylpropyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl] 1’,2’,4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane
cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2'- amino-2'-methylpropyl)amino]carbonyl]-methyl]- 1 ‘,2′,4′-trioxaspiro[4.5]decane

Arterolane, also known as OZ277 or RBx 11160,is a substance being tested for antimalarial activity[1] by Ranbaxy Laboratories.[2] It was discovered by US and European scientists who were coordinated by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV).[3] Its molecular structure is uncommon for pharmacological compounds in that it has both an ozonide group and an adamantane substituent.[4]

Phase III clinical trials of arterolane, in combination with piperaquine, began in India in 2009.[5] When clinical trial results were disappointing, the MMV withdrew support[2] and Ranbaxy continued developing the drug combination on its own.

Ranbaxy launched India’s first new drug, SynriamTM, treating Plasmodium falciparummalaria in adults. The drug provides quick relief from most malaria-related symptoms, including fever, and has a high cure rate of over 95 %.

Just one tablet per day is required, for three days, instead of two to four tablets, twice daily, for three or more days with other medicines. The drug is independent of dietary restrictions for fatty foods or milk.

Ranbaxy developed Synriam as a fixed-dose combination of arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate, where arterolane is the new chemical entity (NCE) that was developed as an alternative to artemisinin. It is the first recently developed antimalarial not based on artemisinin, one of the most effective treatments for malaria, which has shown problems with resistance in recent years. Arterolane was discovered by a collaborative drug discovery project funded by the Medicines for Malaria Venture. Since SynriamTM has a synthetic source, unlike artemisinin-based drugs, production can be scaled up whenever required and a consistent supply can be maintained at a low cost.

The new drug, has been approved by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) for marketing in India and conforms to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) for using combination therapy in malaria. Ranbaxy is also working to make it available in African, Asian and South American markets where Malaria is rampant. SynriamTM trials are ongoing for Plasmodium vivax malaria and a paediatric formulation.

Derek Lowe of the famous In the Pipeline blog had written about arterolane in 2009. At the time it was in Phase III trial, which I assumed were the trials that Ranbaxy was conducting. But it turned out that arterolane was developed by a collaboration between researchers in the US, the UK, Switzerland and Australia who were funded by the World Health Organization and Medicines for Malaria Venture (a Swiss non-profit). They published this work in Nature in 2004 and further SAR (Structure Activity Relationship) studies in J Med Chem in 2010. So Ranbaxy did not develop the drug from scratch? But the press release quotes Arun Sawhney, CEO and Managing Director of Ranbaxy which misleads people to think so: “It is indeed gratifying to see that Ranbaxy’s scientists have been able to gift our great nation its first new drug, to treat malaria, a disease endemic to our part of the world. This is a historic day for science and technology in India as well as for the pharmaceutical industry in the country. Today, India joins the elite and exclusive club of nations of the world that have demonstrated the capability of developing a new drug”. So Ranbaxy mixes a known active compound (piperaquine) with a new compound that someone else found to be active (arterolane) and claims that they developed a new drug? In an interview in LiveMint, Sawhney says, “Ranbaxy spent around $30 million on Synriam and the contribution from DST [India's Department of Science & Technology] was Rs.5 crore. The drug went through several phases of development since the project began in 2003. We did not look at this as a commercial development. Instead, this is a CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] venture for us.” That’s a give away because developing a new drug from scratch has to cost more than $30 million + Rs.50 million.


Ranbaxy  now taken over by sun

SynriamTM

Generic Name
Arterolane Maleate and Piperaquine Phosphate Tablets
Composition
Each film coated tablet contains: Arterolane maleate equivalent to Arterolane ……………………………150 mg Piperaquinephosphate……………750 mg
Dosage Form
Tablets
Inactive ingredients:
Microcrystalline cellulose, Crospovidone, Magnesium stearate, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Hypromellose, Titanium dioxide, Macrogol/ Polyethylene glycol, Talc, Ferric Oxide (Yellow), Ferric Oxide (Red)

Description SynriamTM is a fixed dose combination of two antimalarial active ingredients arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate.

Arterolane maleate is a synthetic trioxolane compound. The chemical name of arterolane maleate is cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3’-8’-[[[(2’-amino-2’ methylpropyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl] 1’,2’,4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane hydrogen maleate. The molecular formula is C26H40N2O8 and molecular weight is 508.61. The structural formula is as follows:

MALARIA
Malaria is one of the most prevalent and deadly parasitic diseases in the world. Up to 289 million cases of malaria may have occurred in 2010, causing between 660,000 and 1.25 million deaths, mainly in Africa and mostly of children younger than 5 years.
(WHO: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2012/en/index.html; Fidock, D. A. Eliminating Malaria. Science 2013, 340, 1531-1533.)

The most serious problem in malaria treatment is that the parasites causing the disease, particularly the deadly Plasmodium falciparum, have developed resistance to widely used drugs, particularly chloroquine (CQ). Currently, the most efficacious therapies are combinations of an artemisinin-type compound with a long-lasting partner drug like lumefantrine, amodiaquine or mefloquine.

Malaria, the most common parasitic disease of humans, remains a major health and economic burden in most tropical countries. Large areas of Central and South America, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Oceania are considered as malaria-risk areas. It leads to a heavy toll of illness and death, especially amongst children and pregnant women.

According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that the disease infects about 400 million people each year, and around two to three million people die from malaria every year. There are four kinds of malaria parasites that infect human: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae.

Malaria spreads from one person to another by the bite of mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, which serves as vector. When a mosquito sucks the blood of human, sporozoites are transfused into the human body together with saliva of the mosquito. The sporozoites enter into the hepatocytes, reproduce asexually and finally enter into the blood stream. The parasites continue to multiply inside the red blood cells, until they burst and release large number of merozoites. This process continues, destroying a significant number of blood cells and causing the characteristic paroxysm (“chills and fever”) associated with the disease. In the red blood cells, some of the merozoites become male or female gametocytes. These gametocytes are ingested by the mosquito when it feeds on blood. The gametocytes fuse in the vector’s gut; sporozoites are produced and are migrated to the vector’s salivary glands.

The clinical symptoms of malaria are generally associated with the bursting of red blood cells causing an intense fever associated with chills that can leave the infected individual exhausted and bedridden. More severe symptoms associated with repeat infections and/or infection by Plasmodium falciparum include anaemia, severe headaches, convulsions, delirium and, in some instances, death.

Quinine, an antimalarial compound that is extracted from the bark of cinchona tree, is one of the oldest and most effective drugs in existence. Chloroquine and mefloquine are the synthetic analogs of quinine developed in 1940′s, which due to their effectiveness, ease of manufacture, and general lack of side effects, became the drugs of choice. The downside to quinine and its derivatives is that they are short-acting and have bitter taste. Further, they fail to prevent disease relapses and are also associated with side effects commonly known as “Chinchonism syndrome” characterized by nausea, vomiting, dizziness, vertigo and deafness. However, in recent years, with the emergence of drug- resistant strains of parasite and insecticide-resistant strains of vector, the treatment and/or control of malaria is becoming difficult with these conventional drugs.

Malarial treatment further progressed with the discovery of Artemisinin

(qinghaosu), a naturally occurring endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the plant Artemisia annua (Meshnick et al., Microbiol. Rev. 1996, 60, p. 301-315; Vroman et al., Curr. Pharm. Design, 1999, 5, p. 101-138; Dhingra et al., 2000, 66, p. 279-300), and a number of its precursors, metabolites and semi-synthetic derivatives which have shown to possess antimalarial properties. The antimalarial action of artemisinin is due to its reaction with iron in free heme molecules of the malaria parasite, with the generation of free radicals leading to cellular destruction. This initiated a substantial effort to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action (Jefford, dv. Drug Res. 1997, 29, p. 271-325; Cumming et al., Adv. Pharmacol. 1997, 37, p. 254-297) and to identify novel antimalarial peroxides (Dong and Vennerstrom, Expert Opin. Ther. Patents 2001, 1 1, p. 1753-1760).

Although the clinically useful artemisinin derivatives are rapid acting and potent antimalarial drugs, they have several disadvantages including recrudescence,

neurotoxicity, (Wesche et al., Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 1994, 38, p. 1813-1819) and metabolic instability (White, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1994, 88, p. 41-43). A fair number of these compounds are quite active in vitro, but most suffer from low oral activity (White, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1994, 88, p. 41-43 and van Agtmael et al., Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 1999, 20, p. 199-205). Further all these artemisinin derivatives are conventionally obtained from plant source and are therefore expensive. As the cultivation of the plant material is dependent on many factors including the weather conditions, the supply source thus becomes finite and there are chances of varying yield and potency. This leads to quality inconsistencies and supply constraints. As malaria is more prevalent in developing countries, a switch to cheaper and effective medicine is highly desirable.

Thus there exists a need in the art to identify new peroxide antimalarial agents, especially those which are not dependent on plant source and can be easily synthesized, are devoid of neurotoxicity, and which possess improved solubility, stability and pharmacokinetic properties.

Following that, many synthetic antimalarial 1 ,2,4-trioxanes (Jefford, Adv. Drug Res. 1997, 29, p. 271-325; Cumming et al., Adv. Pharmacol. 1997, 37, p. 254-297), 1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes (Vennerstrom et al., J. Med. Chem., 2000, 43, p. 2753-2758), and other endoperoxides have been prepared. Various patents/applications disclose means and method for treating malaria using Spiro or dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolanes for example, U.S.

Patent Application No. 2004/0186168 and U.S. Patent Nos. 6,486, 199 and 6,825,230. The present invention relates to solid dosage forms of the various spiro or dispiro 1 ,2,4- trioxolanes antimalarial compounds disclosed in these patents/applications and are incorporated herein by reference.

Active compounds representing various Spiro and dispiro 1 ,2,4-trioxolane derivatives possess excellent potency, efficacy against Plasmodium parasites, and a lower degree of neurotoxicity, in addition to their structural simplicity and ease of synthesis. Furthermore, these compounds have half-lives which are believed to permit short-term treatment regimens comparing favorably to other artemisinin-like drugs. In general, the therapeutic dose of trioxolane derivative may range between about 0.1-1000 mg/kg/day, in particular between about 1-100 mg/kg/day. The foregoing dose may be administered as a single dose or may be divided into multiple doses. For malaria prevention, a typical dosing schedule could be, for example, 2.0-1000 mg/kg weekly beginning 1-2 weeks prior to malaria exposure, continued up to 1-2 weeks post-exposure.

Monotherapy with artemisinin (natural or synthetic) class of drugs might cure the patients within 3 days, however perceiving the potential threat of the malarial parasite developing resistance towards otherwise very potent artemisinin class of drugs, WHO had strictly called for an immediate halt to the provision of single-drug artemisinin malaria pills. Combination therapy in case of malaria retards the development of resistance, improve efficacy by lowering recrudescence rate, provides synergistic effect, and increase exposure of the parasite to the drugs.

Artemsinin based combinations are available in the market for a long time.

Artemether-lumafentrine (Co-artem®) was the first fixed dose antimalarial combination containing an artemisinin derivative and has been known since 1999. This combination has passed extensive safety and efficacy trials and has been approved by more than 70 regulatory agencies. Co-artem® is recommended by WHO as the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria.

Other artemisinin based combinations include artesunate and amodiaquine (Coarsucam®), and dihydroartemisin and piperaquine (Eurartesim®). Unfortunately, all the available artemisinin based combinations have complicated dosage regimens making it difficult and inconvenient for a patient to comply completely with the total prescribed duration. For example, the dosage regimen of Co-artem® for an adult having body weight of more than 35 kg includes 6 doses over three days. The first dose comprises four tablets initially, the second dose comprises four tablets after eight hours, the third to sixth doses comprise four tablets twice for another two days; making it a total of 24 tablets. The dosage regimen of Coarsucam® for an adult having body weight of more than 36 kg or age above 14 years includes three doses over three days; each dose comprises two tablets; making it a total of six tablets. The dosage regimen of Eurartesim® for an adult having body weight between 36 kg – 75 kg includes 3 doses over three days, each dose comprises of three tablets, making it a total of nine tablets.

It is evident that the available artemisinin-based combinations have a high pill burden on patients as they need to consume too many tablets. As noted above, this may increase the possibility of missing a few doses, and, consequently, could result in reduced efficacy due to non-compliance and may even lead to development of resistance for the drug. Therefore, there is an urgent and unmet need for anti-malarial combinations with a simplified daily dosing regimen that reduces the pill burden and would increase patient compliance.

Apart from simplifying the regimen, there are certain limitations for formulators developing formulations with trioxolones, the first being their susceptibility to degradation in presence of moisture that results in reduced shelf lives. Another is their bitter taste, which can result in poor compliance of the regimen or selection of another, possibly less effective, therapeutic agent.

……………………..

http://www.google.st/patents/US6906205

Figure US06906205-20050614-C00051

……………………

http://www.google.st/patents/WO2013008218A1?cl=en

structural Formula II.

 

Figure imgf000013_0001

Formula II

Active compound includes one or more of the various spiro and dispiro trioxolane derivatives disclosed in U.S. Application No. 2004/0186168 and U.S. Patent Nos.

6,486,199 and 6,825,230, which are incorporated herein by reference. These trioxolanes are relatively sterically hindered on at least one side of the trioxolane heterocycle which provides better in vivo activity, especially with respect to oral administration. Particularly, spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolanes derivatives possess excellent potency and efficacy against Plasmodium parasites, and a lower degree of neurotoxicity.

The term “Active compound I” herein means cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2'- amino-2'-methylpropyl)amino]carbonyl]-methyl]- 1 ‘,2′,4′-trioxaspiro[4.5]decane hydrogen maleate. The Active compound I may be present in an amount of from about 5% to about 25%, w/w based on the total dosage form.

 

………………

http://www.google.st/patents/WO2007138435A2?cl=en

A synthetic procedure for preparing compounds of Formula I, salts of the free base c«-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2'-amino-2'-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]- 1 ‘, 2′, 4′-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane has been disclosed in U.S. 6,906,205.

Figure imgf000002_0001

 

The process for the preparation of compounds of Formula I wherein a compound of Formula II (wherein R is lower alkyl) is reacted with a compound of Formula III (wherein R is lower alkyl) to obtain compound of Formula IV;

Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000005_0002

Formula Formula IV

followed by hydrolysis of the compounds of Formula IV to give a compound of Formula V;

Figure imgf000005_0003

Formula V followed by the reaction of the compound of Formula V with an activating agent, for example, methyl chloroformate, ethyl chloroformate, propyl chloro formate, n-butyl chloro formate, isobutyl chloroformate or pivaloyl chloride leads to the formation of mixed anhydride, which is reacted in situ reaction with 1 ,2-diamino-2-methyl propane to give a compound of Formula VI; and

Figure imgf000005_0004

Formula Vl reacting the compound of Formula VI with an acid of Formula HX (wherein X can be the same as defined earlier) to give compounds of Formula I.

Example 1 : Preparation of O-methyl-2-adamantanone oxime

To a solution of 2-adamantanone (50 g, 0.3328 mol, 1 equiv.) in methanol (0.25 lit), sodium hydroxide solution (15 g, 0.3761mol, 1.13 equiv, in 50 mL water) was added followed by methoxylamine hydrochloride (37.5 g x 81.59% Purity= 30.596 g, 0.366 mol, 1.1 equiv) at room temperature under stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 to 2 h. The reaction was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was concentrated at 40- 45°C under vacuum to get a thick residue. Water (250 mL) was added at room temperature and the reaction mixture was stirred for half an hour. The white solid was filtered, washed with water (50 mL), and dried at 40 to 45°C under reduced pressure. O-methyl 2- adamantanone oxime (57 g, 95 % yield) was obtained as a white solid.

(M++l) 180, 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 ): δ 1.98 – 1.79 (m, 12H), 2.53 (s, IH), 3.46 ( s, IH), 3.81 (s, 3H).

Example 2: Preparation of 4-(methoxycarbonvmethvPcvclohexanone A high pressure autoclave was charged with a mixture of methyl (4- hydroxyphenyl)acetate (50 g, 0.30 mol), palladium ( 5g) (10 %) on carbon (50 % wet) and O- xylene (250 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred under 110 to 115 psi of hydrogen pressure for 7 to 8 h at 1400C. The reaction was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature, and the catalyst was filtered off. Filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to get 4-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)cyclohexanone as light yellow to colorless oily liquid (48.7 g, 97.4 %).

(M++!) 171, ‘ HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3): δ 1.48 – 1.51 ( m, 2H), 2.1 1-2.07 (m, 2H), 2.4- 2.23 (m, 7H), 3.7 (s, 3H).

Example 3: Preparation of methyl (Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-l, 3'-f 1,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricvclor3.3.1.13-71decan1-4-ylacetate

A solution of O-methyl-2-adamantanone oxime (example 1) (11.06 g, 61.7 mmol, 1.5 equiv.) and 4-(methoxycarbonymethyl)cyclohexanone (example 2) (7.0 g, 41.1 mmol, 1 equiv.) in cyclohexane ( 200ml) and dichloromethane (40 mL) was treated with ozone (ozone was produced with an OREC ozone generator [0.6 L/min. O2, 60 V] passed through an empty gas washing bottle that was cooled to -780C). The solvent was removed after the reaction was complete. After removal of solvents, the crude product was purified by crystallization from 80% aqueous ethanol (200 mL) to afford the title compound as a colorless solid. Yield: 10.83 g, 78%, mp: 96-980C; 1HNMR (500 Hz3CDCl3): δ 1.20-1.33 (m, 2H), 1.61-2.09 (m, 5 21H), 2.22 (d, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 3.67(s,3H).

Example 4: Preparation of (Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3'-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″- tricvclo [3.3.1.13'7] decanl-4-ylacetic acid

Sodium hydroxide (3.86 g, 96.57 mmol, 3 equiv.) in water (80 mL) was added to a solution of methyl (\s, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3'-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricyclo

10 [3.3.1.I3'7] decan]-4-ylacetate (example 3) (10.83 g, 32.19 mmol, 1 equiv.) in 95% ethanol (150 mL). The mixture was stirred at 500C for about 4 h, cooled to O0C, and treated with IM hydrochloric acid (129ml, 4 equiv). The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with 50 % aqueous ethanol (150 mL) and dried in vacuum at 40 0C to give the title compound as colorless solid. Yield: 9.952 g, 96%, mp: 146-1480C ( 95% ethanol), 1HNMR (500 Hz,

15 CDCl3): δ 1.19-1.41 (m,2H), 1.60-2.05 (m,21H), 2.27 (d, J=6.8 Hz,2H).

Example 5: Preparation of c?s-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2'-amino-2'-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]-! ‘, T , 4′-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane

Method A:

(Is, 4s)-dispiro[cyclohexane- 1 ,3 '-[ 1 ,2,4]trioxolane-5 ‘,2 ‘ ‘-tricyclo[3.3.1.13'7]decan]-4-

.0 ylacetic acid (example 4) (5 g ,15.5mmol, 1 equiv) was mixed with triethylamine (2.5 g , 24.8 mmol, 1.6 equiv) in 100ml of dichloromethane. The reaction mixture was cooled to – 1O0C to 00C. Ethyl chloro formate (1.68 g, 17 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in 15 mL dichloromethane was charged to the above reaction mixture at – 100C to 00C. The reaction mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 10 to 30 minutes. The resulting mixed anhydride reaction mixture

15 was added dropwise to a previously prepared solution of l,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (1.64 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.2 equiv), in 100 mL dichloromethane at -100C to O0C. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the same temperature till the reaction was complete. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. The reaction was complete

>0 within 2 h. Nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (50 mL) was charged, organic layer was separated and washed with 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (50 mL) and water (50 mL) at room temperature. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulphate and the solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. Hexane (50ml) was added to obtain residue under stirring at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with 5 mL of chilled hexane. The solid was dried under reduced pressure at room 5 temperature.

Yield: 5.2 g (85.4 %), (M++l) 393, 1HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6 ): δ 0.929 ( s, 6H), 1.105 – 1.079 (m, 2H), 1.887-1.641 (m, 21H), 2.030-2.017 (d, 2H), 2.928 (d, 2H).

Method B:

(Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3'-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricyclo [3.3.1.I3'7]

10 decan]-4-ylacetic acid (example 4) (10 g, 31mmol, 1 equiv) was treated with isobutyl chloroformate (4.5 g, 33mmol, 1.1 equiv) in presence of organic base like triethyl amine (5 g, 49.6mmol, 1.6 equiv) at 00C to 7°C in 250ml of dichloromethane. The solution was stirred at O0C to 7°C for aboutlO to 30 minutes. To the above reaction mixture, previously prepared solution of l,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (3.27 g, 37 mmol, 1.2 equiv), in 50 mL of

15 dichloromethane was added at O0C to 7°C in one lot. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the room temperature till reaction was over. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. Reaction was complete within 2 h. The reaction nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (250 mL) was charged, organic

20 layer was separated and washed with 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) and water (100 mL) at room temperature and the solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. Hexane (100ml) was added to the residue, under stirring, at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with chilled hexane (10 mL). The resultant solid was dried under reduced pressure at room temperature. Yield: 10.63 g (87%), (M++l) 393, 1HNMR

>5 (400 MHz, DMSO-J6 ) :δ 0.928 ( s, 6H), 1.102 – 1.074 (m, 2H), 1.859-1.616 (m, 21H), 2.031- 2.013 (d, 2H), 2.94-2.925 (d, 2H). Method C:

(\s, 4s)-dispiro[cyclohexane-l,3'-[l,2,4]trioxolane-5′,2″-tricyclo[3.3.1.13>7]decan]-4- ylacetic acid (example 4) (5 g, 15.5mmol, 1 equiv) was treated with pivaloyl chloride (1.87 g, 15.5 mmol, 1 equiv) and triethylamine (2.5gm, 24.8mmol, 1.6 equiv) at -15°C to -100C in dichloromethane (125 mL). The solution was stirred at -150C to -100C for aboutlO to 30 minutes. It resulted in the formation of mixed anydride. To the above reaction mixture, previously prepared solution of 1 ,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (1.64 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.2 equiv) in 25 mL dichloromethane was added at -15°C to -100C. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the room temperature till reaction was over. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. The reaction was complete within 2 h. Nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (125 mL) was charged, organic layer was separated and washed with 50 mL of 10% sodium bicarbonate solution and 125 mL of water, respectively at room temperature. Finally solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. 50 mL of 5% Ethyl acetate – hexane solvent mixture was added to the residue under stirring at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with 5 mL of chilled hexane. Solid was dried under reduced pressure at room temperature. Yield: 5.03 g (83 %), (M++l) 393, 1JINMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6 ):δ 0.93 ( s, 6H), 1.113 – 1.069 (m, 2H), 1.861-1.644 (m, 21H), 2.033-2.015 (d, 2H), 2.948-2.933 (d, 2H).

Example 6: Preparation of c/s-adamantane-2-spiro-3′ -8 ‘-πT(2′-amino-2′ -methyl propyl) amino! carbonyl] methyli-l ‘, 2\ 4′-U-JoXaSpJrQ [4.51 decane maleate To a solution of c/s-adamantane-2-spiro-3'-8'-[[[(2'-amino-2'-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]-! ‘, 2′, 4′-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane (example 5) (60 g, 0.153 moles) in ethanol (150 mL) was added a solution of maleic acid (17.3 g, 0.15 moles, 0.98 equiv. in ethanol 90 mL) and the reaction mixture was stirred for about 1 h. To this clear solution, n- heptane (720 mL) was added at room temperature in 1 h and the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 h. It was then cooled to 0 to 100C and filtered. The cake was washed with n-heptane (60 mL) and dried under vacuum at 40-450C.

Yield: 67 g, 77.4%, mp: 1490C (decomp), (M++l) 393.5, 1HNMR (300 MHz, DMSO-^ ): δ 1.05-1.11 (2H,m), 1.18 (6H,s), 1.64-1.89 (21H,m), 2.07(2H,d), 3.21 (2H,d), 6.06 (2H,d), 7.797 (2H, bs), 8.07 (IH, t).

 

 

References

  1.  Dong, Yuxiang; Wittlin, Sergio; Sriraghavan, Kamaraj; Chollet, Jacques; Charman, Susan A.; Charman, William N.; Scheurer, Christian; Urwyler, Heinrich et al. (2010). “The Structure−Activity Relationship of the Antimalarial Ozonide Arterolane (OZ277)”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 53 (1): 481–91. doi:10.1021/jm901473sPMID 19924861.
  2.  Blow to Ranbaxy drug research plans at LiveMint.com, Sep 21 2007
  3.  Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Arbe-Barnes, Sarah; Brun, Reto; Charman, Susan A.; Chiu, Francis C. K.; Chollet, Jacques; Dong, Yuxiang; Dorn, Arnulf et al. (2004). “Identification of an antimalarial synthetic trioxolane drug development candidate”. Nature 430 (7002): 900–4.doi:10.1038/nature02779PMID 15318224.
  4.  In the Pipeline: “Ozonides As Drugs: What Will They Think Of Next?”, by Derek Lowe, November 23, 2009, at Corante.com
  5.  Indian company starts Phase III trials of synthetic artemisinin, May 4 2009, at the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network
  6. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n7002/full/nature02779.html
5-27-2011
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF DISPIRO 1,2,4-TRIOXOLANE ANTIMALARIALS (OZ277)
2-13-2009
STABLE DOSAGE FORMS OF SPIRO AND DISPIRO 1,2,4-TRIOXOLANE ANTIMALARIALS
6-15-2005
Spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolane antimalarials
11-31-2004
Spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trixolane antimalarials

ANTIMALARIALS

 

 

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2013/03/new-antimalarial-drug-class-resistance-elq-300-quinolone

 

Antimalarial drugsSpeeding to a new lead

http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v9/n11/full/nrd3301.html


Structure of NITD609; the 1R,3Sconfiguration is fundamental for its antimalarial activity

Novel Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) Inhibitor..1-(4-(4-Amino-2-methoxy-5-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl)phenyl)cyclobutanecarbonitrile


Figure US20100197591A1-20100805-C00066

1236408-39-1

C19 H19 N5 O2

 US 20100197591

Inventores Gary E. AspnesRobert L. DowMichael J. Munchhof
Beneficiário Original Pfizer Inc

1-(4-(4-Amino-2-methoxy-5-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl)phenyl)cyclobutanecarbonitrile

 1-​[4-​(4-​amino-​7,​8-​dihydro-​2-​methoxy-​5-​oxopyrido[4,​3-​d]​pyrimidin-​6(5H)​-​yl)​phenyl]​-Cyclobutanecarbonitr​ile,

nmr……http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/op400215h/suppl_file/op400215h_si_001.pdf

 

Enzyme acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT-1) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in triglyceride synthesis. It has recently emerged as an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in the treatment of Type II diabetes and obesity.

It is estimated that somewhere between 34 and 61 million people in the US are obese and, in much of the developing world, incidence is increasing by about 1% per year. Obesity increases the likelihood of death from all causes by 20%, and more specifically, death from coronary artery disease and stroke are increased by 25% and 10%, respectively. Key priorities of anti-obesity treatments are to reduce food intake and/or hyperlipidemia. Since the latter has been suggested to provoke insulin resistance, molecules developed to prevent the accumulation of triglyceride would not only reduce obesity but they would also have the additional effect of reducing insulin resistance, a primary factor contributing to the development of diabetes. The therapeutic activity of leptin agonists has come under scrutiny through their potential to reduce food intake and, also, to reverse insulin resistance; however, their potential may be compromised by leptin-resistance, a characteristic of obesity. Acyl coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT-1) is one of two known DGAT enzymes that catalyze the final step in mammalian triglyceride synthesis and an enzyme that is tightly implicated in both the development of obesity and insulin resistance. DGAT-1 deficient mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity through a mechanism involving increased energy expenditure. US researchers have now shown that these mice have decreased levels of tissue triglycerides, as well as increased sensitivity to insulin and to leptin. Importantly, DGAT-1 deficiency protects against insulin resistance and obesity in agouti yellow mice, a model of severe leptin resistance. Thus, DGAT-1 may represent a useful target for the treatment of insulin and leptin resistance and hence human obesity and diabetes. Chen, H. C., et al., J Clin Invest, 109(8), 1049-55 (2002).

Although studies show that DGAT-1 inhibition is useful for treating obesity and diabetes, there remains a need for DGAT-1 inhibitors that have efficacy for the treatment of metabolic disorders (e.g., obesity, Type 2 diabetes, and insulin resistance syndrome (also referred to as “metabolic syndrome”)).

Figure

 

 

 

………………………………..

 US 20100197591

Figure US20100197591A1-20100805-C00008

Scheme II outlines the general procedures one could use to provide compounds of the general Formula (II).

Figure US20100197591A1-20100805-C00009
Figure US20100197591A1-20100805-C00010

Scheme IV outlines a general procedure for the preparation of compounds of the general Formula VI.

 

Figure US20100197591A1-20100805-C00011

 

 

Figure US20100197591A1-20100805-C00066

 

1-[4-(4-amino-2-methoxy-5-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl)phenyl]cyclobutanecarbonitrilePotassium nitrate (7.88 g, 77.0 mmol) was suspended in sulfuric acid (45 mL) at 0° C. and stirred for 30 minutes until a clear and colorless solution was obtained (NOTE—a blast shield is highly recommended). An addition funnel was charged with 1-phenylcyclobutanecarbonitrile (11.40 g, 72.5 mmol), and this neat starting material was added drop wise at such a rate that the internal reaction temperature did not exceed 10° C. Upon completion of the addition (which required 90 min), the mixture was poured onto 300 g of ice and stirred vigorously for 30 minutes. The resulting suspension was filtered, and the solid was washed with water and dried under vacuum to afford give 1-(4-nitrophenyl)cyclobutanecarbonitrile (13.53 g, 92%) as a light tan powder.

1H NMR (500 MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ ppm 2.11-2.21 (m, 1H) 2.47-2.58 (m, 1H) 2.66 (s, 2H) 2.88-2.96 (m, 2H) 7.63 (d, J=8.54 Hz, 2H) 8.29 (d, J=8.54 Hz, 2H).

A steel hydrogenation vessel was loaded with 1-(4-nitrophenyl)cyclobutanecarbonitrile (103.6 g, 0.51 mol), 10% palladium on activated carbon (10.3 g; contains ˜50% of water), and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (1.3 L). The mixture was stirred under 30 psi of hydrogen gas at 45° C. for 4 h. The mixture was filtered through a pad of celite and filtrate concentrated. Heptane (1 L) was added to the obtained oil and the heterogeneous mixture was stirred while slowly cooled to room temperature, causing the product aniline to solidify. The solid was filtered off and dried in vacuum to give 1-(4-aminophenyl)cyclobutanecarbonitrile (86.6 g, 98%).

1H NMR (CHLOROFORM-d) δ ppm 7.12-7.25 (m, 2H), 6.61-6.76 (m, 2H), 3.68 (br. s., 2H), 2.68-2.88 (m, 2H), 2.48-2.64 (m, 2H), 2.30-2.45 (m, 1H), 1.94-2.14 (m, 1H)

A mixture of 1-(4-aminophenyl)cyclobutanecarbonitrile (42.2 g, 245 mmol), triethylamine (27.1 mL, 394 mmol), and ethyl acrylate (28.0 mL, 258 mmol) were combined in ethanol (27 mL) and heated to reflux for 24 hours. The mixture was concentrated to dryness and toluene (600 mL) added and concentrated to dryness to give ethyl N-[4-(1-cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl]beta-alaninate as brown oil, which was used without further purification.

1H NMR (CHLOROFORM-d) δ ppm 7.22 (d, 2H), 6.63 (d, 2H), 4.12-4.21 (m, 3H), 3.47 (q, J=6.3 Hz, 2H), 2.74-2.83 (m, 2H), 2.53-2.66 (m, 4H), 2.33-2.45 (m, 1H), 2.00-2.11 (m, 1H), 1.28 (t, 3H)

Ethyl N-[4-(1-cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl]-beta-alaninate was combined with cyanoacetic acid (22.9 g, 270 mmol) and 4-dimethylaminopyridine (2.30 g, 18.8 mmol) in N,N-dimethylformamide (400 mL) and cooled to 0° C. Diisopropylcarbodiimide (41.7 mL, 270 mmol) was then added drop wise over 30 minutes. Once addition was complete, the reaction was slowly warmed up to room temperature and stirred for 16 hours. Reaction was then poured into saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (600 mL) and stirred for 30 mintues. Ethyl acetate (1 L) was added and the mixture was filtered to remove the insoluble diisopropylurea. The phases of the filtrate were separated, and the organic phase was washed with brine and dried over sodium sulfate and concentrated to give ethyl N-(cyanoacetyl)-N-[4-(1-cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl]-beta-alaninate as yellow oil that was used with out further purification in the following step.

ethyl N-(cyanoacetyl)-N-[4-(1-cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl]-beta-alaninate and 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (350 mmol) were combined in methanol (400 mL) and heated to 70° C. for 30 minutes. The mixture was concentrated to dryness then partitioned between water (400 mL) and 2:1 ethyl acetate:heptane (400 mL). The aqueous phase was separated and acidified to pH 2 by the addition of 1M hydrochloric acid (400 mL). The precipitate was filtered off and washed with water (300 mL) and 2:1 ethyl acetate:heptane (300 mL) give 1-(4-(1-cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (31.7 g, 44% over 3 steps) as an off-white solid.

1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ ppm 7.39-7.45 (m, 2H), 7.31 (d, 2H), 3.78 (t, J=6.7 Hz, 2H), 2.79 (t, 2H), 2.66-2.75 (m, 2H), 2.53-2.64 (m, 2H), 2.16-2.31 (m, 1H), 1.91-2.04 (m, 1H)

m/z (M+1)=294.4

1-(4-(1-Cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl)-4-hydroxy-2-oxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (50.0 g, 170 mmol) and N,N-dimethylformamide (0.66 mL, 8.5 mmol) in dichloromethane (350 mL) was cooled to 0° C. Oxalyl chloride (18.0 mL, 203 mmol) was added over 15 minutes. The mixture was warmed to room temperature over 2 hours. Methanol (300 mL) was then added as a steady stream, and the mixture was heated at 45° C. for 16 hours. The mixture was cooled to room temperature and concentrated to get rid of most of the dichloromethane. Methanol (200 mL) was added and the thick slurry was stirred for 2 hours. The solid was filtered and dried under vacuum to give 1-(4-(1-cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl)-4-methoxy-2-oxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (48.3 g, 92%) as an off-white powder.

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.91-2.03 (m, 1H) 2.18-2.31 (m, 1H) 2.54-2.63 (m, 2H) 2.67-2.75 (m, 2H) 3.03 (t, J=6.73 Hz, 2H) 3.85 (t, J=6.73 Hz, 2H) 4.01 (s, 3H) 7.33 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2H) 7.44 (d, J=8.78 Hz, 2H)

m/z (M+1)=308.4

1-(4-(1-Cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl)-4-methoxy-2-oxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (12.04 g, 37.9 mmol) and cyanamide (1.64 g, 41.0 mmol) were suspended in methanol (200 mL) at room temperature. A solution of 25% sodium methoxide in methanol (45.0 mmol) was then added drop wise over 10 minutes to obtain a clear homogeneous solution of the intermediate cyanamide adduct. In one portion, sulfuric acid (5.06 mL, 94.9 mmol) was added, and the mixture was heated to 50° C. for 16 hours. The mixture was then cooled to room temperature and basified to pH 10-11 by the addition of 1N sodium hydroxide, and the thick suspension was stirred for 20 minutes. The solid was filtered, washed with cold methanol and water, and dried under vacuum to obtain the crude product as a mixture contaminated with the vinylogous amide (4-amino-1-[4-(1-cyanocyclobutyl)phenyl]-2-oxo-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-3-carbonitrile). This solid mixture was heated to reflux in methanol (150 mL) for 3 hours then cooled to room temperature and filtered. The solid collected was then dissolved in a minimal amount of acetic acid (30 mL) at 60° C. to obtain a clear yellow solution. Water was then added drop wise at 60° C. until the cloudiness persisted, and the mixture was allowed to return to room temperature. Another 50 mL of water was added and the fine suspension was filtered, washed with water, and dried under vacuum to afford the title compound (4A) (6.80 g, 51%) as a light yellow solid.

1H NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-d6) δ ppm 1.97-2.06 (m, 1H) 2.23-2.34 (m, 1H) 2.59-2.67 (m, 2H) 2.71-2.79 (m, 2H) 2.96 (t, J=6.71 Hz, 2H) 3.86 (s, 3H) 3.91 (t, J=6.71 Hz, 2H) 7.39-7.44 (d, J=8.54, 2H) 7.47-7.51 (d, J=8.54, 2H) 7.81 (br. s., 1H) 8.35 (br. s., 1H).

m/z (M+1)=350.4

………………………..

paper

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op400215h

 

Org. Process Res. Dev.201317 (12), pp 1510–1516
DOI: 10.1021/op400215h
Abstract Image
A practical large-scale synthesis was developed for 1, a DGAT-1 inhibitor, involving an aza-Michael reaction, amidation, Dieckman cyclization, and conjugate addition of cyanamide followed by cyclization, to form the fused 4-amino-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-5-one scaffold. The enabled process presented here substantially improved safety (in particular, due to eliminating a nitration step and optimizing a high-energy intermediate step), reproducibility, and scalability, resulting in delivery of a multikilogram quantity of the API with high purity. The controls of API quality and particle size were also discussed.
Purification of Crude 1-(4-(4-Amino-2-methoxy-5-oxo-7,8-dihydropyrido[4,3-d]pyrimidin-6(5H)-yl)phenyl)cyclobutanecarbonitrile (1)
 compound 1 as a white powder (2.61 kg, 51.8%). HPLC purity was 99.63%, associated with 0.16% of 14 and 0.13% of 15. Particle Size: D[4, 3] = 25 μm, D[v, 0.95] = 58 μm. Residual Solvents: acetic acid 0.4 wt %, water 0.1 wt % and DMF <0.1 wt %.
1H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 1.93–2.05 (m, 1H), 2.18–2.32 (m, 1H), 2.55–2.65 (m, 2H), 2.68–2.77 (m, 2H), 2.93 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 3.83 (s, 3H), 3.88 (t, J = 6.7 Hz, 2H), 7.39 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.46 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 2H), 7.78 (d, J = 3.9 Hz, 1H), 8.32 (d, J = 3.9 Hz, 1H).
13C NMR (DMSO-d6) δ 17.5, 31.4, 34.6, 47.5, 54.9, 98.8, 125.0, 126.6, 126.7, 137.7, 142.8, 164.9, 165.3, 165.9, 171.0;
HRMS (m/z): calculated for C19H19N5O2, [M + H]+ 350.1612; found 350.1620.
Elemental analysis: calculated for C19H19N5O2: C 65.32, H 5.48, N 20.04; found: C 65.40, H 5.45, N 20.16.
hplc
Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS) was performed on an Agilent 1100 Series (Waters Atlantis C18 column, 4.6 mm × 50 mm, 5 μm; 95% water/acetonitrile linear gradient to 5% water/acetonitrile over 4 min, hold at 5% water/acetonitrile to 5 min, trifluoroacetic acid modifier (0.05%); flow rate = 2.0 mL/min). Reaction monitoring and purity of intermediates and the final compound were checked by HPLC in the following conditions: Column: Zorbax SB-CN, 5 μm, 4.6 mm × 150 mm; Column Temperature: 30 °C; Flow Rate: 2 mL/min; Detection: UV @ 210 nm; Mobile phase: A: 0.2% phosphoric acid in water, B: Acetonitrile; Linear Gradient: from 95% of A to 5% of A within 15 min. HPLC purity was reported at 210 nm wavelength.
  1. (a) BirchA. M.; BuckettL. K.; TurnbullA. V. Opin. Drug Discovery Dev. 201013,489

    (b) ZammitV. A.; BuckettL. K.; TurnbullA. V.; WureH. Pharmacol. Ther. 2008118295

  2. (a) DowR. L.MunchhofM. J. U.S. Patent Appl.2010/0197590.

    (b) AspnesG. E.DowR. L.MunchhofM. J. U.S. Patent Appl. 2010/0197591.

    (c) BahnckK. B.; ShavnyaA.; Tao,Y.; LilleyS. C.; AndrewsM. P.; AspnesG. E.; BernhardsonD. J.; BillD. R.; BundesmannM. W.; DowR. L.; KarkiK.; LeT.; LiQ.; MunchhofM. J.; NematallaA.; NihlawiM.; PatelL.; PerreaultC.; WaldoM. Synthesis 2012443152

  3. (a) YendapallyR.; HurdleJ. G.; CarsonE. I.; LeeR. B.; LeeR. E. J. Med. Chem. 2008,511487

    (b) KulkarniB. A.; GanesanA. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 19971092565

FDA Approves Cyramza, ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) for Stomach Cancer


 

April 21, 2014 — The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved Cyramza (ramucirumab) to treat patients with advanced stomach cancer or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma, a form of cancer located in the region where the esophagus joins the stomach.

Stomach cancer forms in the tissues lining the stomach and mostly affects older adults. According to the National Cancer Institute, an estimated 22,220 Americans will be diagnosed with stomach cancer and 10,990 will die from the disease, this year.

Cyramza is an angiogenesis inhibitor that blocks the blood supply to tumors. It is intended for patients whose cancer cannot be surgically removed (unresectable) or has spread (metastatic) after being treated with a fluoropyrimidine- or platinum-containing therapy.

“Although the rates of stomach cancer in the United States have decreased over the past 40 years, patients require new treatment options, particularly when they no longer respond to other therapies,” said Richard Pazdur, M.D., director of the Office of Hematology and Oncology Products in the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Cyramza is new treatment option that has demonstrated an ability to extend patients’ lives and slow tumor growth.”

Cyramza’s safety and effectiveness were evaluated in a clinical trial of 355 participants with unresectable or metastatic stomach or gastroesophageal junction cancer. Two-thirds of trial participants received Cyramza while the remaining participants received a placebo. The trial was designed to measure the length of time participants lived before death (overall survival).

Results showed participants treated with Cyramza experienced a median overall survival of 5.2 months compared to 3.8 months in participants receiving placebo. Additionally, participants who took Cyramza experienced a delay in tumor growth (progression-free survival) compared to participants who were given placebo. Results from a second clinical trial that evaluated the efficacy of Cyramza plus paclitaxel (another cancer drug) versus paclitaxel alone also showed an improvement in overall survival.

Common side effects experienced by Cyramza-treated participants during clinical testing include diarrhea and high blood pressure.

The FDA reviewed Cyramza under its priority review program, which provides an expedited review for drugs that have the potential, at the time the application was submitted, to be a significant improvement in safety or effectiveness in the treatment of a serious condition. Cyramza was also granted orphan product designation because it is intended to treat a rare disease or condition.

Cyramza is marketed by Indianapolis-based Eli Lilly.

Source: FDA

http://www.drugs.com/newdrugs/fda-approves-cyramza-stomach-cancer-4033.html?utm_source=ddc&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Today%27s+news+summary+-+April+21%2C+2014

 

 

old article

Eli Lilly’s third-quarter earnings fell 9 percent compared with last year, when the maker of Cymbalta and Cialis booked a sizeable revenue-sharing payment from a former drug developer partner.

The Indianapolis company beat Wall Street expectations for the quarter and narrowed its earnings forecast for the year.

Lilly also said Wednesday that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will give its stomach cancer treatment ramucirumab a priority review, which means the drugmaker will learn about its fate inside of eight months rather than a year, which is the norm.

read at

http://www.dddmag.com/news/2013/10/eli-lillys-profit-slides-gets-priority-review

cut paste old article

Eli Lilly and Co. announced that results from the Phase 3 REGARD trial of ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) as a single agent in patients with advanced gastric cancer who have had disease progression after initial chemotherapy were published today in The Lancet. REGARD is the first Phase 3 study with either a single-agent biologic or an anti-angiogenic therapy to show improved overall survival and progression-free survival in advanced gastric cancer patients.

READ ALL AT

http://www.dddmag.com/news/2013/10/ramucirumab-trial-shows-improved-os-gastric-cancer?et_cid=3516952&et_rid=523035093&type=cta

Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B)[1] is a fully human monoclonal antibody (IgG1) being developed for the treatment of solid tumors. It is directed against the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). By binding to VEGFR2 it works as a receptor antagonist blocking the binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to VEGFR2. VEGFR2 is known to mediate the majority of the downstream effects of VEGF inangiogenesis.

Ramucirumab is being tested in several phase III clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma,[2] non-small cell lung cancer,[3] among other types of cancer. On September 26, 2013 Eli Lilly announced that its Phase III study for ramucirumab failed to hit its primary endpoint on progression-free survival among women with metastatic breast cancer.[4][5]

This drug was developed by ImClone Systems Inc. It was isolated from a native phage display library from Dyax.

  1.  Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council – RamucirumabAmerican Medical Association.
  2.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01170663 A Study of Paclitaxel With or Without Ramucirumab in Metastatic Gastric Adenocarcinoma (RAINBOW)
  3.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01168973 A Study in Second Line Non Small Cell Lung Cancer
  4. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00703326 Phase III Study of Docetaxel + Ramucirumab or Placebo in Breast Cancer
  5.  Fierce Biotech. “In another stinging setback, Eli Lilly’s ramucirumab fails PhIII breast cancer study”. Retrieved 27 September 2013.

 

Novel Oxazolidinone Antibacterial Candidate FYL-67 …..(S)-N-((3-(3-Fluoro-4-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-yl)methyl)acetamide


Figure imgf000027_0001

cas no 1416314-55-0

C20 H18 F N5 O3

FYL-67  IS HYDROCHLORIDE

(S)-N-((3-(3-Fluoro-4-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-yl)methyl)acetamide

N-​[[(5S)​-​3-​[3-​fluoro-​4-​[4-​(2-​pyridinyl)​-​1H-​pyrazol-​1-​yl]​phenyl]​-​2-​oxo-​5-​oxazolidinyl]​methyl]​-Acetamide,

 (S)-N-((3-(3-fluoro-4-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) phenyl)-2-oxooxazolidin-5-yl)methyl)acetamide.

Inventores Youfu LUO罗有福Zhenling WANG王震玲,Yuquan Wei魏于全
Requerente Si Chuan University四川大学

The discovery and application of antibiotics is one of the greatest achievements of mankind in the 20th century, the field of medicine, called a revolution of the history of the human fight against illness. Since then, the field of medicine into a bacterial disease caused by greatly reducing the golden age. Today, however, due to the widespread use of antibiotics or even abuse, the growing problem of bacterial resistance, humans are gradually approaching the “post-antibiotic era, the efficacy of antibiotics is gradually reduced. Clinical have been found on many new drug-resistant strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) has seriously jeopardize the clinical treatment , the number of varieties of drugs less.

The compounds of the oxazolidinone linezolid was in the United States in 2000, mainly used in clinical acquired pneumonia, soft tissue infections, can also be used for the surgical treatment of infectious diseases, bones, lungs, cerebrospinal fluid permeability pharmacokinetic and tissue concentrations. Domestic and foreign the oxazolidinone drug development is a hot field

WO 2012171479

http://www.google.st/patents/WO2012171479A1?cl=en

Figure imgf000012_0002

 

Figure imgf000013_0001

 

Figure imgf000013_0002

 

 

The object compound (S N-{[3 - (3 - fluoro-4 - (4 - (2 - pyridyl) pyrazol-yl) phenyl) -2 - oxo-oxazol the embankment -5 - yl] methanone yl}

 

Figure imgf000027_0001

Weigh 150mg of the compound (26f), was dissolved with 10 ml of anhydrous THF was added under nitrogen protection, an ice water bath 154.1 mg t-BuOLi, ice-water bath after stirring for 5 minutes, 149.9 mg Compound 11, followed by ice-water bath was removed, go reaction at room temperature for 36 hours the reaction was stopped, by adding 10 mL of methylene chloride and 10 ml of water and 22μί acetic acid, stirred for 1 minute, the liquid separation, the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane three times, the organic phases were combined, dried and purified by column chromatography to give the product ( 130 white solid 58 mg of yield of 38.2%.

1H-MR (400 MHz, CDC1 3): δ 8.61 (d, J = 4Hz, IH), 8.52 (d, J = 6.8Hz, 2.4H), 8.22 (s, IH), 7.94 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, IH), 7.77-7.69 (m, 2H), 7.55 (d, J = 8Hz, IH), 7.27-7.26 (m, IH), 7.18-7.15 (m, IH), 6.06 (t, J = 6Hz , IH), 4.86-4.80 (m, IH), 4.11 (t, J = 9.2Hz, IH), 3.86-3.82 (m, IH), 3.78-3.62 (m, 2H), 2.04 (s, 3H ;) .

13 C-MR (DMSO-e): δ 170.51, 154.47, 152.94, 151.26, 149.94, 139.70, 139.15, 137.43 129.96, 125.61, 125.19, 123.42, 122.19, 120.38, 114.52, 106.68, 72.29, 47.70, 41.84, 22.91.

ESI-MSm / z 418.08 (M + Na +).

………………….

Nanoscale (2013), 5(1), 275-283

 

Carrier-free nanoassemblies of a novel oxazolidinone compound FYL-67 display antimicrobial activity on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

Changyang Gong,a   Tao Yang,a   Xiaoyan Yang,a   Yuanyuan Liu,a  Wei Ang,a   Jianying Tang,a   Weiyi Pi,a   Li Xiong,a   Ying Chang,a  WeiWei Ye,a   Zhenling Wang,*a   Youfu Luo,*a   Xia Zhaob and  Yuquan Weia  
Show Affiliations
a
State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China
E-mail: luo_youfu@scu.edu.cnwangzhenling2007@126.com;
Fax: +86-28-85164060 ;
Tel: +86-28-85164063
b
Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Second West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041, China
Nanoscale, 2013,5, 275-283

DOI: 10.1039/C2NR32505E

In this work, a novel oxazolidinone compound FYL-67 was synthesized, and the obtained FYL-67 could form nanoassemblies in aqueous solution by a self-assembly method without using any carrier, organic solvent, or surfactant. The prepared FYL-67 nanoassemblies had a particle size of 264.6 ± 4.3 nm. The FYL-67 nanoassemblies can be lyophilized into a powder form without any cryoprotector or excipient, and the re-dissolved FYL-67 nanoassemblies are stable and homogeneous. The in vitro release profile showed a significant difference between rapid release of free FYL-67 and much slower and sustained release of FYL-67 nanoassemblies. In vitro susceptibility tests were conducted in three strains of methicillin-susceptibleStaphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and three strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA), using linezolid as a positive control. FYL-67 nanoassemblies exhibited excellent in vitro activity, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.5 μg mL−1 against MRSA. In the in vitro post-antibiotic effect (PAE) evaluation, FYL-67 nanoassemblies showed a more powerful effect than linezolid. Besides, in vitro cytotoxicity tests indicated that FYL-67 nanoassemblies had a very low cytotoxicity on HEK293 cells and L02 cells. Furthermore, in both MSSA and MRSA systemic infection mouse models, FYL-67 nanoassemblies showed a lower ED50 than linezolid. In a murine model of MRSA systemic infection, FYL-67 nanoassemblies displayed an ED50 of less than 4.0 mg kg−1, which is 2.3-fold better than that oflinezolid. Our findings suggested that the FYL-67 nanoassemblies may be a potential drugcandidate in MRSA therapy.



Graphical abstract: Carrier-free nanoassemblies of a novel oxazolidinone compound FYL-67 display antimicrobial activity on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Synthetic route of the novel compound FYL-67. (i) 2-(pyridin-2-yl)malonaldehyde, p-TsOH (cat.), ethanol, reflux, 2 h; (ii) Fe, HCl, 95% ethanol, 1 h; (iii) Cbz–Cl, K2CO3, CH2Cl2, 2 h; (iv) (S)-1-acetamido-3-chloropropan-2-yl acetate, LiOt-Bu, THF, r.t.; (v) HCL (g), acetone, ethyl ether.
Fig. 1 Synthetic route of the novel compound FYL-67. (i) 2-(pyridin-2-yl)malonaldehydep-TsOH (cat.),ethanol, reflux, 2 h; (ii) Fe, HCl, 95% ethanol, 1 h; (iii) Cbz–Cl, K2CO3, CH2Cl2, 2 h; (iv) (S)-1-acetamido-3-chloropropan-2-yl acetate, LiOt-Bu, THF, r.t.; (v) HCL (g), acetoneethyl ether
Synthesis of (S)-N-((3-(3-fluoro-4-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) phenyl)-2-oxooxazolidin-5-yl)methyl)acetamide.
 Benzyl(3-fluoro-4-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl) carbamate (150 mg) was dissolved in absolute tetrahydrofuran under a nitrogen atmosphere in an ice bath. After stirring for 5 minutes, (S)-1-acetamido-3-chloropropan-2-yl acetate (149.9 mg) was added. The reactant was stirred at room temperature for another 36 hours. Then a mixture of dichloromethane (10 mL), distilled water (10 mL) and glacial acetic acid (0.022 mL) was added in order. The dichloromethane phase was collected using a separation funnel. The water phase was extracted with dichloromethane (10 mL) for another 2 times. The organic layer was combined and dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate. After removal of thesolvent, the residue was purified by flash chromatography and the title compound (58 mg) was obtained in a yield of 38.2%.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 8.61 (d, J = 4 Hz, 1H), 8.52 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 2.4H), 8.22 (s, 1H), 7.94 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.77–7.69 (m, 2H), 7.55 (d, J = 8 Hz, 1H), 7.27–7.26 (m, 1H), 7.18–7.15 (m, 1H), 6.06 (t, J = 6 Hz, 1H), 4.86–4.80 (m, 1H), 4.11 (t, J = 9.2 Hz, 1H), 3.86–3.82 (m, 1H), 3.78–3.62 (m, 2H), 2.04 (s, 3H).

13C-NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 170.51, 154.47, 152.94, 151.26, 149.94, 139.70, 139.15, 137.43, 129.96, 125.61, 125.19, 123.42, 122.19, 120.38, 114.52, 106.68, 72.29, 47.70, 41.84, 22.91.

ESI-MS m/z418.08 (M + Na+).

2.2.5. Prepration of FYL-67. 25 mg of (S)-N-((3-(3-fluoro-4-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl) phenyl)-2-oxooxazolidin-5-yl)methyl)acetamide was put in a 25 mL round-bottom flask, and 10 mL of acetonewas then added. After stirring for 5 minutes, the mixture turned transparent. Ethyl ether saturated with anhydrous hydrogen chloride was dropped in, and a white precipitate appeared. The collected yellowish powder was dried in a vacuum and 24.1 mg of powder was obtained with a yield of 88.3%.

1H-NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6δ: 9.33 (s, 1H), 8.80 (s, 1H), 8.74 (d, J = 5.6 Hz, 1H), 8.45 (t, J = 7.2 Hz, 1H), 8.38–8.31 (m, 2H), 7.90 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 7.81 (dd, J = 2.4 Hz, J = 16.4 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (t,J = 6.0 Hz, 1H); 7.55 (dd, J = 1.6 Hz, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 4.83–4.76 (m, 1H), 4.60 (br s, 1H), 4.20 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H), 3.91–3.82 (m, 1H), 3.45 (t, J = 5.2 Hz, 2H), 1.85 (s, 3H);

 13C-NMR (DMSO-d6δ: 170.51, 154.47, 152.94, 151.26, 149.94, 139.70, 139.15, 137.43, 129.96, 125.61, 125.19, 123.42, 122.19, 120.38, 114.52, 106.68, 72.29, 47.70, 41.84, 22.91;

HR-MS(TOF) m/z calcd for C20H18FN5O3 [M + Cl]: 430.1082, found: 430.1085; for C20H18FN5O3 [M + H+]: 396.1472, found: 396.1472.

……………………………

PAPER

Org. Process Res. Dev.201418 (4), pp 511–519
DOI: 10.1021/op500030v

Abstract Image

 

A concise, environmentally benign, and cost-effective route was developed for the large-scale preparation of 1, a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial candidate. The key intermediate 2-(1-(2-fluoro-4-nitrophenyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)pyridine 7 was prepared with high purity by mild deamination of the regioisomeric mixture 21. The mixture was prepared from a nucleophilic SNAr reaction by selective C–N coupling of the secondary amine functionality of 4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-3-amine 14 with 1,2-difluoro-4-nitrobenzene 10 in optimized conditions with the primary amine group remaining intact. The gaseous nitrogen release rate and reaction mixture temperature of the deamination step can be well controlled by altering the feeding manner, thereby providing safety guarantees. The optimized synthetic strategy of 1 with an overall yield of 27.6%, including seven sequential transformations by only five solid–liquid isolations, significantly improved the product separation workup. The strategy bypassed time-consuming and laborious procedures for any intermediate involved as well as for the final API. This study presents a process enabling the rapid delivery of a multikilogram quantity of API with high purity.

\Figure

 

(S)-N-((3-(3-Fluoro-4-(4-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-2-oxo-oxazolidin-5-yl)methyl)acetamide (1)

In a 50-L reactor, 9 (1.8 kg, 4.64 mol) and 8 (1.79 kg, 9.27 mol) were dissolved in THF (12.6 L) at −5 °C. The reaction mixture was degassed by purging with N2. Then, methanol (375 mL, 9.27 mol) was added to the mixture under N2 atmosphere. After stirring for about 10 min at −5 °C, lithium tert-amylate (1.11 kg, 13.91 mol) was added to the mixture in one portion with an exotherm from −5 to 17 °C. The resulting solution was cooled to −5 °C, yielding a thick slurry, and stirred for about 1 h and stirred again at 25 °C for about 15 h. The slurry was cooled to 10 °C. The reaction was quenched by adding acetic acid (525 mL, 9.27 mol) in one portion and stirred for 30 min. The reaction mixture was then evaporated to dryness at 30 °C. The solid residue was allowed to soak for 3 h in water (30 L), stirred, filtered under reduced pressure, and washed with water (10 L × 3). The solid filtered cake was suspended in ethyl acetate (10 L). The resulting suspension was heated to reflux for 2 h, cooled to 25 °C, and filtered under reduced pressure. The collected solid was resuspended in a mixture of EtOH and water (6 L/2 L) and heated to reflux for 2 h. The slurry was cooled to 25 °C, filtered under reduced pressure, and washed with EtOH (3 L × 2). The filtered cake was dried in an oven to a constant weight at 45 °C. The final product was an off-white solid 1 (1.5 kg, isolated yield of 82%).
The HPLC purity was over 99.9%.
1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): δ 8.61 (d, J = 4 Hz, 1 H), 8.52 (d, J = 6.8 Hz, 2 H), 8.22 (s, 1 H), 7.94 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1 H), 7.77–7.69 (m, 2 H), 7.55 (d, J = 8 Hz, 1 H), 7.27–7.26 (m, 1 H), 7.18–7.15 (m, 1 H), 6.06 (t, J = 6 Hz, 1 H), 4.86–4.80 (m, 1 H), 4.11 (t, J = 9.2 Hz, 1 H), 3.86–3.82 (m, 1 H), 3.78–3.62 (m, 2 H), 2.04 (s, 3 H);
13C NMR (DMSO-d6): δ 170.51, 154.47, 152.94, 151.26, 149.94, 139.70, 139.15, 137.43, 129.96, 125.61, 125.19, 123.42, 122.19, 120.38, 114.52, 106.68, 72.29, 47.70, 41.84, 22.91;
ESI-MS m/z 418.08 (M + Na+).
  1. BricknerS. J.; HutchinsonD. K.; BarbachynM. R.; ManninenP. R.; UlanowiczD. A.; GarmonS. A.; GregaK. C.; HendgesS. K.; ToopsD. S.; FordC. W.; ZurenkoG. E.J. Med. Chem. 199639673– 679
(b) BarbachynM. R.; FordC. W. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2003422010– 2023
  • (a) GongC. Y.; YangT.; YangX. Y.; LiuY. Y.; AngW.; TangJ. Y.; PiW. Y.; XiongL.; ChangY.; YeW. W.; WangZ. L.; LuoY. F.; ZhaoX.; WeiY. Q. Nanoscale. 20135275283

    (b) LuoY. F.WangZ. L.WeiY. Q.GengF. WO/2012/171479,2012.
    WO2008143649A2 * 4 Dez 2007 27 Nov 2008 Das Jagattaran Novel oxazolidinone compounds as antiinfective agents
    CN1172484A * 29 Jan 1996 4 Fev 1998 法玛西雅厄普约翰美国公司 Hetero-aromatic ring substituted phenyloxazolidinone antimicrobials

Evacetrapib, LY2484595 for Treatment of high cholesterol and preventing cardiac events


File:Evacetrapib.svg

Evacetrapib,  LY2484595

Evacetrapib  is an experimental drug being investigated to raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) via inhibition of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)

Trans-4-({(5S)-5-[{[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl}(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5- yl)amino]-7,9-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzazepin-1-yl}methyl) cyclohexanecarboxylic acid

trans-4-[[(5S)-5-[[[3 ,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl] (2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-2, 3,4,5- tetrahydro-7,9-dimethyl- IH- 1 -benzazepin- 1 -yl]methyl]-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid

trans-4-[5(S)-[N-[3,5-Bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl]-N-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-7,9-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-1-benzazepin-1-ylmethyl]cyclohexanecarboxylic acid

1186486-62-3 is cas

UNII-51XWV9K850

  • C31-H36-F6-N6-O2
  • 638.6534
  • lily……….. .innovator

Evacetrapib is a drug under development by Eli Lilly & Company (investigational name LY2484595) that inhibits cholesterylester transfer protein, which transfers and thereby increases high-density lipoprotein and lowers low-density lipoprotein. It is thought that modifying lipoprotein levels modifies the risk of cardiovascular disease.[1]

The first CETP inhibitor, torcetrapib, was unsuccessful because it increased levels of the hormone aldosterone and increased blood pressure,[2] which led to excess cardiac events when it was studied.[2] Evacetrapib does not have the same effect.[1] When studied in a small clinical trial in people with elevated LDL and low HDL, significant improvements were noted in their lipid profile.[3]

LY-2484595 is in phase III clinical trials at Lilly for the treatment of high-risk vascular disease and in phase II for the treatment of dyslipidemia.

Evacetrapib is one of two CETP inhibitors currently being evaluated (the other being anacetrapib).[1] Two other CETP inhibitors (torcetrapib and dalcetrapib) were discontinued during trials due to increased deaths and little identifiable cardiovascular benefit (despite substantial increases in HDL). Some hypothesize that CETP inhibitors may still be useful in the treatment of dyslipidemia, though significant caution is warranted.[2]

……………………………..

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2006002342A1?cl=en

Intermediate Preparation Scheme 1

Figure imgf000028_0001
Figure imgf000028_0002

Preparation Scheme 2

 

Figure imgf000029_0001

Intermediate Preparation Scheme 3

 

Figure imgf000029_0002
Scheme 5
Figure imgf000031_0001

 

Figure imgf000031_0002
Figure imgf000032_0001

Scheme 7

Figure imgf000033_0001

Scheme 8

 

Figure imgf000034_0001

 Scheme 11

 

Figure imgf000038_0001
Figure imgf000039_0001

…………………

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2011002696A1?cl=en

trans-4-[[(5S)-5-[[[3 ,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl] (2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino]-2, 3,4,5- tetrahydro-7,9-dimethyl- IH- 1 -benzazepin- 1 -yl]methyl]-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid, (identified according to its Chemical Abstracts Index Name (referred to herein as BCCA) having the structure of Formula I illustrated below, and pharmaceutically acceptable salts of this compound.

Figure imgf000004_0001

I

The compound, BCCA, can be a free acid (referred to herein as BCCA free acid), or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, as a solvate (referred herein as BCCA’solvate) and a hydrate (referred to herein as BCCA ‘hydrate). The solvate molecules include water (as the hydrate), methanol, ethanol, formic acid, acetic acid, and isopropanol.

Scheme 1

(MeO) SO

Figure imgf000011_0001

 

Figure imgf000011_0002

Scheme 2

 

Figure imgf000012_0001

Scheme 3 : Alternate method for preparing BCCA

Figure imgf000019_0001

Preparation 11 Preparation 12

 

Figure imgf000019_0002

Preparation 13 Preparation 14 Preparation 15

 

Figure imgf000019_0003

Preparation 16

 

Figure imgf000019_0004

Preparation 17

Example 16

Scheme 4

 

Figure imgf000019_0005

………….

http://www.google.com/patents/US8299060

 formula III below

Figure US08299060-20121030-C00007


with

Figure US08299060-20121030-C00008

Preparation 10 (Trans)-methyl 4-(((S)-5-((3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)amino)-7,9-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[b]azepin-1-yl)methyl)cyclohexanecarboxylate (12)

Charge a flask equipped with an overhead stirrer, temperature probe, nitrogen inlet with (S)—N-(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-7,9-dimethyl-N-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-benzo[b]azepin-5-amine (5 g, 10.03 mmoles) and sodium triacetoxyborohydride (3.19 g, 15.05 mmoles) and acetonitrile (40 mL). Immerse the flask in an ice bath to cool the slurry to below about 5° C., then add (trans)-methyl 4-formylcyclohexanecarboxylate (2.99 g, 17.57 mmoles, prepared essentially according to the procedures in Houpis, I. N. et al, Tetrahedron Let. 1993, 34(16), 2593-2596 and JP49048639) dissolved in THF (10 mL) via a syringe while maintaining the reaction mixture at or below about 5° C. Allow the reaction to warm to RT and stir overnight. Add NH4Cl (25 mL, 50% saturated aqueous solution) and separate the aqueous layer from the organic layer. The pH of the organic layer should be about 5.5. Warm the organic layer to about 45° C. and add water (16 mL). Add a seed crystal of the titled compound and cool to about 35° C. Collect the resulting solid by filtration and rinse with ACN. Dry to provide 5.80 g of the title compound.

………….

Evacetrapib

http://www.platinummetalsreview.com/article/56/4/229-235/

…………………….paper

Figure   THE ESTER OF EVACETRAPIB

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/op500025v

Development of a Hydrogenative Reductive Amination for the Synthesis of Evacetrapib: Unexpected Benefits of Water

pp 546–551
Publication Date (Web): March 18, 2014 (Communication)
DOI: 10.1021/op500025v
For the synthesis of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitor evacetrapib, a hydrogenative reductive amination was chosen to join the substituted cyclohexyl subunit to the benzazepine core. The addition of water, which suppressed undesired epimerization without affecting the rate of product formation, was key to the reaction’s success. The process was scaled to produce more than 1100 kg of material.
Figure
Scheme 1. Synthesis of evacetrapib (5) via a STAB-mediated reductive amination.
aReagents and conditions: a) Na2CO3 (3.0 equiv), toluene, water, 25 °C, 3 h, 98% yield, 99.8:0.2 anti:syn; b) 3 (1.5 equiv), NaBH(OAc)3 (1.5 equiv), ACN, toluene, −10 °C, 2.5 h, 88% yield, 99.2:0.8 anti:syn; c) NaOH (3.0 equiv), water, IPA, 60 °C, 7 h, 92% yield, 99.5:0.5 anti:syn.

References

  1.  Cao G, Beyer TP, Zhang Y, et al. (December 2011). “Evacetrapib is a novel, potent, and selective inhibitor of cholesteryl ester transfer protein that elevates HDL cholesterol without inducing aldosterone or increasing blood pressure”. J. Lipid Res. 52 (12): 2169–76.doi:10.1194/jlr.M018069PMID 21957197.
  2. Joy T, Hegele RA (July 2009). “The end of the road for CETP inhibitors after torcetrapib?”. Curr. Opin. Cardiol. 24 (4): 364–71.doi:10.1097/HCO.0b013e32832ac166PMID 19522058.
  3.  Nicholls SJ, Brewer HB, Kastelein JJ, Krueger KA, Wang MD, Shao M, Hu B, McErlean E, Nissen SE (2011). “Effects of the CETP inhibitor evacetrapib administered as monotherapy or in combination with statins on HDL and LDL cholesterol”. JAMA 306 (19): 2099–109.doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1649.

 

 

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