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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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[(3-Methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl]({2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9- yl]ethyl})amine

Phase III

A mu-opioid receptor ligand potentially for treatment of acute postoperative pain.

TRV-130; TRV-130A

CAS No.1401028-24-7

Molecular Formula: C22H30N2O2S
Molecular Weight: 386.5508 g/mol
  • Originator Trevena

Trevena, Inc.

  • Class Analgesics; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Beta arrestin inhibitors; Opioid mu receptor agonists
  • Orphan Drug Status No
  • On Fast track Postoperative pain
    • Phase III Postoperative pain
    • Phase II Pain

    Most Recent Events

    • 09 Mar 2016Trevena intends to submit NDA to US FDA in 2017
    • 22 Feb 2016Oliceridine receives Breakthrough Therapy status for Pain in USA
    • 19 Jan 2016Phase-III clinical trials in Postoperative pain in USA (IV) (NCT02656875)

Oliceridine (TRV130) is an opioid drug that is under evaluation in human clinical trials for the treatment of acute severe pain. It is afunctionally selective μ-opioid receptor agonist developed by Trevena Inc. Oliceridine elicits robust G protein signaling, with potencyand efficacy similar to morphine, but with far less β-arrestin 2 recruitment and receptor internalization, it displays less adverse effectsthan morphine.[1][2][3]

In 2015, the product was granted fast track designation in the U.S. for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain. In 2016, the compound was granted FDA breakthrough therapy designation for the management of moderate to severe acute pain.

Oliceridine (TRV130) is an intravenous G protein biased ligand that targets the mu opioid receptor. Trevena is developing TRV130 for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain where intravenous therapy is preferred, with a clinical development focus in acute postoperative pain

TRV 130 HCl is a novel μ-opioid receptor (MOR) G protein-biased ligand; elicits robust G protein signaling(pEC50=8.1), with potency and efficacy similar to morphine, but with far less beta-arrestin recruitment and receptor internalization.



Oliceridine (TRV130) – Mu Opioid Biased Ligand for Acute Pain

Target Indication Lead
Oliceridine (TRV130) Mu-receptor Moderate to
Severe Pain
intravenous Trevena Logo

Oliceridine (TRV130) is an intravenous G protein biased ligand that targets the mu opioid receptor. Trevena is developing TRV130 for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain where intravenous therapy is preferred, with a clinical development focus in acute postoperative pain.

Recent TRV130 News

Opioid receptors (ORs) mediate the actions of morphine and morphine-like opioids, including most clinical analgesics. Three molecularly and pharmacologically distinct opioid receptor types have been described: δ, κ and μ. Furthermore, each type is believed to have sub-types. All three of these opioid receptor types appear to share the same functional mechanisms at a cellular level. For example, activation of the opioid receptors causes inhibition of adenylate cyclase, and recruits β-arrestin.

When therapeutic doses of morphine are given to patients with pain, the patients report that the pain is less intense, less discomforting, or entirely gone. In addition to experiencing relief of distress, some patients experience euphoria. However, when morphine in a selected pain-relieving dose is given to a pain-free individual, the experience is not always pleasant; nausea is common, and vomiting may also occur. Drowsiness, inability to concentrate, difficulty in mentation, apathy, lessened physical activity, reduced visual acuity, and lethargy may ensue.

There is a continuing need for new OR modulators to be used as analgesics. There is a further need for OR agonists as analgesics having reduced side effects. There is a further need for OR agonists as analgesics having reduced side effects for the treatment of pain, immune dysfunction, inflammation, esophageal reflux, neurological and psychiatric conditions, urological and reproductive conditions, medicaments for drug and alcohol abuse, agents for treating gastritis and diarrhea, cardiovascular agents and/or agents for the treatment of respiratory diseases and cough.


Structure activity relationships and discovery of a g protein biased mu opioid receptor ligand, ((3-Methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl)a2((9R)-9-(pyridin-2-y1)-6-oxaspiro-(4.5)clecan-9-yl)ethylpamine (TRV130), for the treatment of acute severe pain
J Med Chem 2013, 56(20): 8019

Structure–Activity Relationships and Discovery of a G Protein Biased μ Opioid Receptor Ligand, [(3-Methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl]({2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro-[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethyl})amine (TRV130), for the Treatment of Acute Severe Pain

Trevena, Inc., 1018 West 8th Avenue, Suite A, King of Prussia, Pennsylvania 19406, United States
J. Med. Chem., 2013, 56 (20), pp 8019–8031
DOI: 10.1021/jm4010829
Publication Date (Web): September 24, 2013
Copyright © 2013 American Chemical Society
*Phone: 610-354-8840. Fax: 610-354-8850. E-mail:


Abstract Image

The concept of “ligand bias” at G protein coupled receptors has been introduced to describe ligands which preferentially stimulate one intracellular signaling pathway over another. There is growing interest in developing biased G protein coupled receptor ligands to yield safer, better tolerated, and more efficacious drugs. The classical μ opioid morphine elicited increased efficacy and duration of analgesic response with reduced side effects in β-arrestin-2 knockout mice compared to wild-type mice, suggesting that G protein biased μ opioid receptor agonists would be more efficacious with reduced adverse events. Here we describe our efforts to identify a potent, selective, and G protein biased μ opioid receptor agonist, TRV130 ((R)-30). This novel molecule demonstrated an improved therapeutic index (analgesia vs adverse effects) in rodent models and characteristics appropriate for clinical development. It is currently being evaluated in human clinical trials for the treatment of acute severe pain.

[(3-Methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl]({2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl] ethyl})amine ((R)-30)

Using a procedure described in method A, (R)-39e was converted to (R)-30 as a TFA salt. 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 11.70 (brs, 1H), 9.14 (d, J = 66.6, 2H), 8.72 (d, J = 4.3, 1H), 8.19 (td,J = 8.0, 1.4, 1H), 7.70 (d, J = 8.1, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J = 7.0, 5.8, 1H), 7.22 (d, J = 5.5, 1H), 6.78 (d,J = 5.6, 1H), 4.08 (m, 2H), 3.80 (m, 4H), 3.69 (dd, J = 11.2, 8.7, 1H), 2.99 (d, J = 4.8, 1H), 2.51 (t, J = 9.9, 1H), 2.35 (m, 3H), 2.18 (td, J = 13.5, 5.4, 1H), 1.99 (d, J = 14.2, 1H), 1.82 (m, 2H), 1.65 (m, 1H), 1.47 (m, 4H), 1.14 (m, 1H), 0.73 (dt, J = 13.2, 8.9, 1H). LC-MS (API-ES) m/z = 387.0 (M + H).


WO 2012129495

Scheme 1: Synthesis of Spirocyclic Nitrile


Figure imgf000050_0001
Figure imgf000050_0002

1-5 1-6 1-7

Chiral HPLC separation n=1-2

R= phenyl, substituted phenyl, aryl,

Figure imgf000050_0003


Scheme 2: Converting the nitrile to the opioid receptor ligand (Approach 1)

Figure imgf000051_0001


Scheme 3: Converting the nitrile to the opioid receptor ligand (Approach 2)

Figure imgf000051_0002

1-8B 3-1 3-2 n=1-2

In some embodiments, the same scheme is applied to 1 -7 and 1 -8A. Scheme 4: Synthesis of Non-Spirocyclic Nitrile

Figure imgf000052_0001

4-1 4-2 4-3

KOH, ethylene glycol R= phenyl, substituted phenyl, aryl,

substituted aryl, pyridyl, substituted pyridyl, heat heteroaryl, substituted heteroaryl,

Figure imgf000052_0002

carbocycle, heterocycle and etc.

In some embodiments, 4-1 is selected from the group consisting of

Figure imgf000052_0003

4-1 A 4-1 B 4-1 C 4-1 D 4-1 E

Scheme 5: Synthesis of Other Spirocyclic Derived Opioid Ligands

Figure imgf000053_0001

5-1 5-2 5-3

Scheme 6: Allyltrimethylsilane Approach to Access the Quaternary Carbon Center

RMgX, or RLi

Figure imgf000053_0002

Scheme 7: N-linked Pyrrazole Opioid Receptor Ligand

Figure imgf000054_0001
Figure imgf000055_0001

[(3-Methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl]({2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9- yl]ethyl})amine

Figure imgf000144_0001

Into a vial were added 2-[(9R)-9-(Pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethan-l -amine (500 mg, 1.92 mmole), 18 mL CH2C12 and sodium sulfate (1.3 g, 9.6 mmole). The 3- methoxythiophene-2-carboxaldehyde (354 mg, 2.4 mmole) was then added, and the misture was stirred overnight. NaBH4 (94 mg, 2.4 mmole) was added to the reaction mixture, stirred for 10 minutes, and then MeOH (6.0 mL) was added, stirred l h, and finally quenched with water. The organics were separated off and evaporated. The crude residue was purified by a Gilson prep HPLC. The desired fractions collected and concentrated and lyophilized. After lyophilization, residue was partitioned between CH2C12 and 2N NaOH, and the organic layers were collected. After solvent was concentrated to half of the volume, 1.0 eq of IN HC1 in Et20 was added,and majority of solvent evaporated under reduced pressure. The solid obtained was washed several times with Et20 and dried to provide [(3-methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl]({2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2- yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethyl})amine monohydrochloride (336 mg, 41% yield, m/z 387.0 [M + H]+ observed) as a white solid. The NMR for Compound 140 is described herein.

Example 15: Synthesis of [(3-methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl]({2-[(9R)-9- (pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethyl})amine (Compound 140).

Methyl 2-cyano-2-[6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-ylidene]acetate (mixture of E and Z isomers)

Figure imgf000141_0001

A mixture of 6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-one (13.74 g, 89.1 mmol), methylcyanoacetate (9.4 ml, 106.9 mmol), ammonium acetate (1.79 g, 26.17.mmol) and acetic acid (1.02 ml, 17.8 mmol) in benzene (75 ml) was heated at reflux in a 250 ml round bottom flask equipped with a Dean-Stark and a reflux condenser. After 3h, TLC (25%EtOAc in hexane, PMA stain) showed the reaction was completed. After cooling, benzene (50 ml) was added and the layer was separated, the organic was washed by water (120 ml) and the aqueous layer was extracted by CH2CI2 (3 x 120 ml). The combined organic was washed with sat’d NaHCCb, brine, dried and concentrated and the residual was purified by flash chromatography (340 g silica gel column, eluted by EtOAc in hexane: 5% EtOAc, 2CV; 5-25%, 14CV; 25-40%,8 CV) gave a mixture of E and Z isomers: methyl 2-cyano-2-[6- oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-ylidene]acetate ( 18.37 g, 87.8 % yield, m/z 236.0 [M + H]+ observed) as a clear oil. -cyano-2-[9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]acetate

Figure imgf000141_0002

A solution of 2-bromopyridine (14.4 ml, 150 mmo) in THF (75 ml) was added dropwise to a solution of isopropylmagnesium chloride (75 ml, 2M in THF) at 0°C under N2, the mixture was then stirred at rt for 3h, copper Iodide(2.59 g, 13.6 mmol) was added and allowed to stir at rt for another 30 min before a solution of a mixture of E and Z isomers of methyl 2-cyano-2-[6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-ylidene]acetate (16 g, 150 mmol) in THF (60 ml) was added in 30 min. The mixture was then stirred at rt for 18h. The reaction mixture was poured into a 200 g ice/2 N HC1 (100 ml) mixture. The product was extracted with Et20 (3×300 ml), washed with brine (200 ml), dried (Na2S04) and concentrated. The residual was purified by flash chromatography (100 g silica gel column, eluted by EtOAc in hexane: 3% 2CV; 3-25%, 12 CV; 25-40% 6CV gave methyl 2-cyano-2-[9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]acetate (15.44 g, 72% yield, m/z 315.0 [M + H]+ observed) as an amber oil .


Figure imgf000142_0001

Ethylene glycol (300 ml) was added to methyl 2-cyano-2-[9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6- oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]acetate( 15.43 g, 49 mmol) followed by potassium hydroxide (5.5 g , 98 mmol), the resulting mix was heated to 120oC, after 3 h, the reaction mix was cooled and water (300 ml) was added, the product was extracted by Et20(3 x 400 ml), washed with water(200 ml), dried (Na2S04) and concentrated, the residual was purified by flash chromatography (340 g silica gel column, eluted by EtOAc in hexane: 3% 2CV; 3-25%, 12 CV; 25-40% 6CV to give 2-[9-(Pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9- yl]acetonitrile (10.37 g, 82% yield, m/z 257.0 [M + H]+ observed).


Figure imgf000142_0002

racemic 2-[9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]acetonitrile was separated by chiral HPLC column under the following preparative-SFC conditions: Instrument: SFC-80 (Thar, Waters); Column: Chiralpak AD-H (Daicel); column temperature: 40 °C; Mobile phase: Methanol /CO2=40/60; Flow: 70 g/min; Back pressure: 120 Bar; Cycle time of stack injection: 6.0min; Load per injection: 225 mg; Under these conditions, 2-[9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]acetonitrile (4.0 g) was separated to provide the desired isomer, 2-[(9R)-9-(Pyridin-2-yI)-6- oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]acetonitrile (2.0 g, >99.5% enantiomeric excess) as a slow- moving fraction. The absolute (R) configuration of the desired isomer was later determined by an X-ray crystal structure analysis of Compound 140. [0240] -[(9R)-9-(Pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethan-l-amine

Figure imgf000143_0001

LAH (1M in Et20, 20ml, 20 mmol) was added to a solution of 2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2-yl)- 6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]acetonitrile (2.56 g, 10 mmol) in Et20 (100 ml, 0.1M ) at OoC under N2. The resulting mix was stirred and allowed to warm to room temperature. After 2 h, LCMS showed the reaction had completed. The reaction was cooled at OoC and quenched with water ( 1.12 ml), NaOH (10%, 2.24 ml) and another 3.36 ml of water. Solid was filtered and filter pad was washed with ether (3 x 20 ml). The combined organic was dried and concentrated to give 2-[(9R)-9-(Pyridin-2-yl)-6- oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethan-l -amine (2.44 g, 94% yield, m/z 260.6 [M + H]+ observed) as a light amber oil.

Alternatively, 2-[(9R)-9-(Pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethan-l -amine was prepared by Raney-Nickel catalyzed hydrogenation.

An autoclave vessel was charged with 2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4,5]decan-9- yl] acetonitrile and ammonia (7N solution in methanol). The resulting solution was stirred at ambient conditions for 15 minutes and treated with Raney 2800 Nickel, slurried in water. The vessel was pressurized to 30 psi with nitrogen and agitated briefly. The autoclave was vented and the nitrogen purge repeated additional two times. The vessel was pressurized to 30 psi with hydrogen and agitated briefly. The vessel was vented and purged with hydrogen two additional times. The vessel was pressurized to 85-90 psi with hydrogen and the mixture was warmed to 25-35 °C. The internal temperature was increased to 45-50 °C over 30-60 minutes. The reaction mixture was stirred at 45-50 °C for 3 days. The reaction was monitored by HPLC. Once reaction was deemed complete, it was cooled to ambient temperature and filtered through celite. The filter cake was washed with methanol (2 x). The combined filtrates were concentrated under reduced pressure at 40-45 °C. The resulting residue was co-evaporated with EtOH (3 x) and dried to a thick syrupy of 2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethan-l -amine.


  1.  Chen XT, Pitis P, Liu G, Yuan C, Gotchev D, Cowan CL, Rominger DH, Koblish M, Dewire SM, Crombie AL, Violin JD, Yamashita DS (October 2013). “Structure-Activity Relationships and Discovery of a G Protein Biased μ Opioid Receptor Ligand, [(3-Methoxythiophen-2-yl)methyl]({2-[(9R)-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-6-oxaspiro-[4.5]decan-9-yl]ethyl})amine (TRV130), for the Treatment of Acute Severe Pain”. J. Med. Chem. 56 (20): 8019–31.doi:10.1021/jm4010829. PMID 24063433.
  2.  DeWire SM, Yamashita DS, Rominger DH, Liu G, Cowan CL, Graczyk TM, Chen XT, Pitis PM, Gotchev D, Yuan C, Koblish M, Lark MW, Violin JD (March 2013). “A G protein-biased ligand at the μ-opioid receptor is potently analgesic with reduced gastrointestinal and respiratory dysfunction compared with morphine”. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 344 (3): 708–17.doi:10.1124/jpet.112.201616. PMID 23300227.
  3.  Soergel DG, Subach RA, Sadler B, Connell J, Marion AS, Cowan C, Violin JD, Lark MW (October 2013). “First clinical experience with TRV130: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in healthy volunteers”. J Clin Pharmacol 54(3): 351–7. doi:10.1002/jcph.207. PMID 24122908.

External links

Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015246904 2015-09-03 Opioid Receptor Ligands And Methods Of Using And Making Same
US8835488 2014-09-16 Opioid receptor ligands and methods of using and making same
US2013331408 2013-12-12 Opioid Receptor Ligands and Methods of Using and Making Same
Systematic (IUPAC) name
Clinical data
Routes of
Legal status
Legal status
CAS Number 1401028-24-7
ATC code none
PubChem CID 66553195
ChemSpider 30841043
Synonyms TRV130
Chemical data
Formula C22H30N2O2S
Molar mass 386.55 g·mol−1

////////TRV-130; TRV-130A, Oliceridine, Phase III, Postoperative pain, trevena, mu-opioid receptor ligand, fast track designation, breakthrough therapy designation


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