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Read all about Organic Spectroscopy on ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY INTERNATIONAL 

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, CLEANCHEM LABS as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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cas 2541451-24-3

A lipid-enabled and UnlockedNucleomonomer Agent modified RNA (LUNAR) of self-replicating RNA for vaccination against spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (Arcturus)

Self-replicating RNA vaccine

Arcturus Therapeutics and Duke-NUS Medical School, Singapore
  • OriginatorArcturus Therapeutics
  • ClassCOVID-19 vaccines; RNA vaccines; Viral vaccines
  • Mechanism of ActionImmunostimulants
  • Orphan Drug StatusNo
  • New Molecular EntityNo
  • Available For LicensingYes – COVID 2019 infections
  • Phase IICOVID 2019 infections
  • 01 Mar 2021Arcturus Therapeutics has patent pending for STARR platform in USA
  • 01 Mar 2021Immunogenicity data from a preclinical studies in COVID-2019 infections released by Arcturus Therapeutics
  • 01 Mar 2021Arcturus Therapeutics completes a phase I/II trial in COVID-2019 infection in the Singapore

ref International Journal of Biological Sciences (2021), 17(6), 1446-1460.

LUNAR-COV19T7m7GpppNmNYesVEEV-FL-SN1-methyl pseudouridineSilicon column 

ARCT-021: Currently undergoing phase 1/2 clinical trials, it combines two technologies, i.e., saRNA STARR™ and LUNAR® lipid-mediated delivery method. It was designed to enhance and extend antigen expression, enabling vaccination at lower doses [87]. In addition, LUNAR® lipids are pH-sensitive and biodegradable, causing minimal lipid accumulation in cells after multiple dosing [87]The Arcturus COVID-19 vaccine, commonly known as ARCT-021 and LUNAR-COV19, is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Arcturus Therapeutics.

1Day 00.2 μg and 10 μg (Preclinical)IMArcturus TherapeuticsN/APhase 2NCT04668339 NCT04480957[54]

54. de Alwis R, Gan ES, Chen S, Leong YS, Tan HC, Zhang SL. et alA Single Dose of Self-Transcribing and Replicating RNA Based SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Produces Protective Adaptive Immunity In MicebioRxiv. 2020. 2020 09.03.280446

Arcturus Therapeutics partnered with Singapore’s Duke–NUS Medical School to develop a COVID-19 vaccine.[1] The company also partnered with Catalent, a contract development and manufacturing organization, to manufacture multiple batches of Arcturus’ COVID-19 mRNA vaccine candidate.[2]

Clinical research

Phase I-II

LUNAR-COV19 clinical trials in humans began in July 2020.[3] On 4 January 2021, Arcturus Therapeutics started phase-2 clinical trials.[4]


Arcturus has entered into development and supply agreements with the Economic Development Board of Singapore and supply agreements with the Israel Ministry of Health for LUNAR-COV19.[5][6]

Arcturus Therapeutics Receives FDA Allowance to Proceed with Phase 2 Study of ARCT-021 (LUNAR-COV19) Vaccine Candidate in the United States

Phase 2 study to be conducted in the U.S. and Singapore, and will evaluate both single dose and two dose priming regimens of ARCT-021 in up to 600 participants

Anticipate interim Phase 2 data in early 2021; targeting global Phase 3 study start in Q2 2021 which could allow application for emergency use authorization/conditional approval in H2 2021January 04, 2021 07:01 AM Eastern Standard Time

SAN DIEGO–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Arcturus Therapeutics Holdings Inc. (the “Company”, “Arcturus”, Nasdaq: ARCT), a leading clinical-stage messenger RNA medicines company focused on the development of infectious disease vaccines and significant opportunities within liver and respiratory rare diseases, today announced that the Company has received allowance of the Investigational New Drug (IND) application from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the Phase 2 clinical study of its vaccine candidate ARCT-021 following review of data from the Phase 1/2 study.

Arcturus Therapeutics Receives FDA Allowance to Proceed with Phase 2 Study of ARCT-021 (LUNAR-COV19) Vaccine Candidate in the United States

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Arcturus previously announced that the ARCT-021 Phase 2 study had been approved to proceed by the Singapore Health Sciences Authority (HSA), who reviewed the same data as reviewed by the FDA. These Phase 1/2 study results demonstrated favorable tolerability and both humoral and cellular immunogenicity following administration of ARCT-021.

The Phase 2 study will enroll 600 participants, with 450 receiving ARCT-021 and 150 receiving placebo. Both older and younger adult participants will be included. Early interim analyses of safety and immunogenicity will be performed to inform dose selection for a Phase 3 study, which is targeted to start in Q2 2021, if the Phase 2 study is successful.

“Allowance of the IND for our ARCT-021 Phase 2 clinical study represents an important milestone for the program and we look forward to starting to screen study participants at U.S. and Singapore clinical sites very soon,” said Steve Hughes, M.D., Chief Medical Officer of Arcturus. “We have advanced ARCT-021 to Phase 2 based on promising interim results from our Phase 1/2 study and extensive preclinical data. Our prior clinical results show that ARCT-021 administration results in humoral and cellular immunogenicity, and we are encouraged by an increasing body of evidence highlighting the potential importance of T cells in providing protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19. We believe that ARCT-021 holds promise to be a highly effective vaccine with a differentiated clinical profile, including the potential to only require a single dose for protection.”

About Arcturus Therapeutics

Founded in 2013 and based in San Diego, California, Arcturus Therapeutics Holdings Inc. (Nasdaq: ARCT) is a clinical-stage mRNA medicines and vaccines company with enabling technologies: (i) LUNAR® lipid-mediated delivery, (ii) STARR™ mRNA Technology and (iii) mRNA drug substance along with drug product manufacturing expertise. Arcturus’ diverse pipeline of RNA therapeutic and vaccine candidates includes self-replicating mRNA vaccine programs for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and Influenza, and other programs to potentially treat Ornithine Transcarbamylase (OTC) Deficiency, Cystic Fibrosis, and Cardiovascular Disease along with partnered programs including Glycogen Storage Disease Type 3, Hepatitis B Virus, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Arcturus’ versatile RNA therapeutics platforms can be applied toward multiple types of nucleic acid medicines including messenger RNA, small interfering RNA, replicon RNA, antisense RNA, microRNA, DNA, and gene editing therapeutics. Arcturus’ technologies are covered by its extensive patent portfolio (205 patents and patent applications, issued in the U.S., Europe, Japan, China and other countries). Arcturus’ commitment to the development of novel RNA therapeutics has led to collaborations with Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., part of the Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, Ultragenyx Pharmaceutical, Inc., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, CureVac AG, Synthetic Genomics Inc., Duke-NUS Medical School, and the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation. For more information visit In addition, please connect with us on Twitter and LinkedIn.


  1. ^ Teo J (15 April 2020). “Coronavirus: Clinical trials for Singapore’s vaccine project could start in August”The Straits Times. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
  2. ^ Stanton D (6 May 2020). “With Arcturus, Catalent bags another COVID project”Bioprocess Insider. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
  3. ^ Clinical trial number NCT04480957 for “Phase 1/2 Ascending Dose Study of Investigational SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine ARCT-021 in Healthy Adult Subjects” at
  4. ^ “Arcturus Therapeutics Receives FDA Allowance to Proceed with Phase 2 Study of ARCT-021 (LUNAR-COV19) Vaccine Candidate in the”. Bloomberg. 4 January 2021. Retrieved 17 January 2021.
  5. ^ Anwar N (26 November 2020). “Singapore’s co-developed vaccine candidate is in ‘good shape’ for delivery in 2021”. CNBC. Retrieved 18 March 2021.
  6. ^ Cheok M, Mookerjee I (5 August 2020). “Singapore Will Get First Claim to Any Successful Arcturus Vaccine”. Bloomberg. Retrieved 18 March 2021.

External links

Scholia has a profile for Lunar-COV19 (Q98713328).
Vaccine description
Vaccine typemRNA
Clinical data
Other namesARCT-021, LUNAR-COV19
Routes of
Part of a series on the
COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 (disease)SARS-CoV-2 (virus)
showInternational response
showMedical response
 COVID-19 portal

/////////COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, corona virus, singapore, ARCT 021, LUNAR-COV19



one time


Anthony Melvin Crasto gets International award for Outstanding contribution to Pharma society by CMO ASIA 31st July 2018 Le Méridien Sentosa Singapore


Conferred CMO Asia award 2018 🇸🇬 singapore

Shobha and Aishal crasto collect my International award for Excellence in Pharma by CMO ASIA 31st July 2018 | at an award function in Le Méridien Singapore, Sentosa

Thanking one and all for support

They went thru the paralysis trauma for years and now getting recognition for the efforts
God when he shuts one door he opens many more
My family proudly hold the honor outstanding contribution to pharma society at CMO Asia 🇸🇬 singapore

38023456_2178691365506916_280834219129700352_n 38036900_2178700298839356_1342673288593145856_n 38085187_2178688402173879_4072726979227418624_n 38124063_2178691528840233_6170388139010424832_n 38191997_2178688405507212_7669136166863503360_n cmo 2018 unnamed

//////////////Anthony Crasto, International award,   outstanding contribution to Pharma society, CMO ASIA,  31st July 2018 ,  Le Méridien,  Sentosa,  Singapore, 

Christopher Conway has been appointed to lead AMRI ’s discovery business strategy as SrVP of Discovery and Development and Global Commercial Sales.

Christopher Conway

Christopher Conway, Senior Vice President,
Global Sales and Marketing

Christopher Conway has been appointed to lead the company’s discovery business strategy as Senior Vice President of Discovery and Development and Global Commercial Sales.

September 3, 2015




Dear industry colleague,

As we continue to support the research and development that leads to the commercialization of pharmaceutical products, it is critical that we align our focus on R&D with the commercial demands of the market. Today, AMRI has announced an organizational change in our Discovery and Development Services (DDS) business. These changes are expected to drive top and bottom line growth for the Discovery and Development Solutions (DDS) business through strong commercial leadership; strengthen the DDS strategy and aggressively pursue the most valuable growth opportunities, externally and internally; and ensure that our service offerings are well aligned with your needs and the needs of the market.

Effective immediately, Christopher Conway has been appointed to lead the company’s discovery business strategy as Senior Vice President of Discovery and Development and Global Commercial Sales. In this role, Chris will head up the global Discovery and Development Solutions (DDS) business leading these businesses in the United States, Europe and Asia. Sales and marketing will also continue to report to him. He succeeds Michael A. Luther, Ph.D., MBA, who will be leaving AMRI to pursue other opportunities. We thank Dr. Luther for his efforts in moving the DDS business along over the last year and wish him the best in his future endeavors.

Related to this announcement, we would like to take the opportunity to announce the hiring of Rory Curtis, Ph.D., who has joined AMRI as Vice President of Discovery Biology and Pharmacology. Rory will also serve as site head with responsibility for scientific operations at AMRI’s Buffalo, N.Y. location. Rory was most recently Senior Director of Human Diseases in Discovery at Cubist Pharmaceuticals, where he developed Cubist’s antibacterial drug discovery into new disease areas such as pain, inflammation and gastro-intestinal disease. Before this, he held positions of increasing responsibility at Elixir Pharmaceuticals, Millennium Pharmaceuticals and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.

Rory Curtis

Rory Curtis

Vice President of Discovery Biology and Pharmacology, Site Head AMRI Buffalo

In addition to Chris’ current direct reports and Rory, he will have a scientific leadership team reporting into him, which includes Michael P. Trova, Ph.D., Senior Vice President of Chemistry; Raj Shenoy, Senior Director of Global Chemical Development; and Pete Michels, Ph.D., Senior Director of Metabolism and Biotransformations.

Michael P. Trova, Ph.D.

Pete C. Michels, Ph.D., Senior Director, Chemical Development, Fermentation and Biocatalysis, AMRI

We are very excited about the future of AMRI Drug Discovery and Development and are pleased to welcome Rory to the AMRI discovery team. Market demand for our DDS services continues to grow and these changes will help us increase our market share and strengthen AMRI’s global position in Discovery and Development.

As we approach the second half of 2015, we are looking forward to working with you on a great number of new opportunities in 2016 and beyond. We appreciate your loyalty and support, and continue to remain dedicated to enhancing your pharmaceutical services experience from early discovery through to the commercialization and delivery of drug product. If you have any questions, please feel free to read today’s related press release at, or contact us here.



William S. Marth
President and CEO
Albany Molecular Research Inc. (AMRI)

William S. Marth. President and Chief Executive Officer Albany Molecular Research, Inc.


Albany Molecular Research Locations
Albany Molecular Research Inc. (AMRI)
26 Corporate Circle
Albany, NY 12203

Albany Molecular Research Inc. provides global contract research and manufacturing services to the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries. Our services include Drug Discovery, such as medicinal chemistry, discovery biology and in vitro ADME; Development, such as pre-formulation, formulation and validation; and Manufacturing, such as cGMP API manufacturing.



AMRI SingaporeAMRI’s Singapore Research Centre, Pte. Ltd. provides chemistry and biology services to support drug discovery and development programs. AMRI is one of the first drug discovery R&D companies to establish operations in Singapore. Fully integrated with AMRI’s locations in the United States, Asia, and Europe, the Singapore centre offers medicinal chemistry services such as hit-to-lead andlead optimization as well as focused library synthesis / custom synthesis. In the area of biology / in vitro pharmacology, the Singapore Research Centre provides target validation; assay development; HTS; rapid production of SAR quality data; and in vitro ADMET support, including CYP inhibition, metabolic stability (liver microsome assays), and aqueous solubility. As a signatory to the World Patent Treaty, Singapore provides an environment that protects intellectual property, enabling our scientists to conduct proprietary and cutting-edge research on behalf of our customers.

Areas of Expertise: Discovery Services

Contact Information:
61 Science Park Road
#05-01 The Galen
Singapore Science Park II
Singapore 117525

Phone: +65-6398-5500
Fax: +65-6398-5511



AMRI Hyderabad IndiaThe Hyderabad Research Centre, Pvt. Ltd. (AMRHRC) is located in Hyderabad, India, an emerging technology metropolis located in South Central India.

All fully integrated with AMRI’s U.S.-based resources, this Centre’s core area of expertise is in the areas of medicinal chemistrysupport, chemical development, custom synthesis of scaffolds and building blocks, process development, GMP analytical services,scale-up and preparation of reference standards.

Areas of Expertise: Chemical Development and Small Scale Manufacturing

Contact Information:
Hyderabad Research Centre Pvt. Ltd.
Plot # 9, Alexandria Knowledge Park, Turkapally, Shameerpet
Genome Valley, RR District, Hyderabad – 500 078, India

Tel : +91 – 40 – 6687 6666  (Board)
Fax : +91 – 40 – 6687 6600


GRANT CARR, PH.D. Follow Grant Carr at Linked In


Robert Kargbo, Ph.D.

ROBERT B. KARGBO, PH.D. linkedin


Guidance on Medicinal Product Registration in Singapore


Singapore Government

Singapore Drug Registration Information and Guidelines

Guidance on Medicinal Product Registration in Singapore

– See more at:

Innovative Regulatory Review Practices for Better Efficiencies- The Singapore Experience

Republic of Singapore

Republik Singapura  (Malay)
新加坡共和国 (Chinese)
சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசு (Tamil)
Flag Coat of arms
“Majulah Singapura” (Malay)
“Onward, Singapore”

Innovative Regulatory Review Practices for Better Efficiencies- The Singapore Experience


Dr Daniel Tan
Health Products Regulation Group
Health Sciences Authority

read all this at



Regulatory Principles

Evaluation Routes
Data Requirements
Regulatory Process
Application Statistics

Pre-market Evaluation
Depth of evaluation varies following a risk-
& confidence-based approach
Three evaluation routes allowing flexibility
yet ensuring robustness in the registration
In-house capabilities complemented by
external experts and advisory committee

Resources are always limited in most regulatory agencies
Adopting a risk based approach to triage drug applications
Titrate the evaluation workload by levaraging on reference agencies
assessment reports
Managing Access to important medicines without prolonging
For small markets like Singapore, this unique system of drug evaluation,
ensures that market entry of drug products is vetted in an efficient manner
without compromising on stringent standards for safety and efficacy.





Nexium Tablet

Active Ingredient: esomeprazole
Licence Holder: AstraZeneca Singapore Pte Ltd
Date of Approval: 28 May 2013

20MG & 40MG Indications: Patients requiring continued low dose aspirin


Galvus Met Tablet

Active Ingredient: vildagliptin/metformin
Licence Holder: Novartis (Singapore) Pte Ltd
Date of Approval: 22 May 2013

50MG/500MG, 50MG/850MG & 50MG/1000MG Indications: For patients with Type 2


Active Ingredient: vildagliptin
Licence Holder: Novartis (Singapore) Pte Ltd
Date of Approval: 22 May 2013

50MG Indications: Galvus is indicated as an adjunct to diet

Firmagon Powder & Solvent for Solution for Injection

Active Ingredient: degarelix
Licence Holder: Ferring Pharmaceuticals Pte Ltd
Date of Approval: 13 May 2013

120MG & 80MG Indications: FIRMAGON® is a gonadotrophin releasing hormone

Votrient Tablet

Active Ingredient: pazopanib
Licence Holder: GlaxoSmithKline Pte Ltd
Date of Approval: 10 May 2013

200MG & 400MG Indications: Soft tissue sarcoma (STS) VOTRIENT is indicated

Menarini launches premature ejaculation drug in Singapore

File:Dapoxetine Structural Formulae V.1.svg


Menarini has launched dapoxetine for premature ejaculation in Singapore, having recently published a survey highlighting the rising problem of sexual dissatisfaction in the Asia-Pacific region.

The Italian drugmaker acquired Priligy (dapoxetine)from Johnson & Johnson last year and the drug is now approved in over 50 countries. It estimates that PE affects 34% of men in Singapore at some point in their lives.


Dapoxetine, marketed as Priligy (among and other brands) is the first compound developed specially for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) in men 18–64 years old.Dapoxetine works by inhibiting the serotonin transporter, increasing serotonin’s action at the post synaptic cleft, and as a consequence promoting ejaculatory delay. As a member of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) family, dapoxetine was initially created as an antidepressant. However, unlike other SSRIs, dapoxetine is absorbed and eliminated rapidly in the body. Its fast acting property makes it suitable for the treatment of PE but not as an antidepressant.[3]

Originally created by Eli Lilly pharmaceutical company, dapoxetine was sold to Johnson & Johnson in 2003 and submitted as a new drug application to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of PE in 2004. Dapoxetine has been sold in several European and Asian countries, and lately in Mexico. In the US, dapoxetine is in phase III development and expected to be marketed soon. In 2012, Menarini acquired the rights to commercialise Priligy in Europe, most of Asia, Africa, Latin America and the Middle East.

Premature ejaculation

Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trials have confirmed the efficacy of dapoxetine for the treatment of PE. Different dosage has different impacts on different type of PE. Dapoxetine 60 mg significantly improves the mean intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) compare to that of dapoxetine 30 mg in men with lifelong PE, but there is no different in men with acquired PE. Dapoxetine, given 1–3 hours before sexual episode, prolongs IELT, increases the sense of control and sexual satisfaction in men of 18 to 64 years of age with PE. Since PE is associated with personal distress, interrelationship difficulty, dapoxetine provides help for men with PE to overcome this condition.Because lack of specific approval treatment for PE in the US and some other countries, other SSRIs such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, fluvoxamine, and citalopram have been used as off label drugs to treat PE. Waldinger’s meta analysis shows that the use of these conventional antidepressants increasing IELT from two to ninefold above base line in comparison of three to eightfold when dapoxetine is used. However, these SSRIs must be taken daily in order to achieve meaningful efficacy, and the long half-life increases the risk of the drug accumulation and as a consequence increased of adverse effects such as decreasing sexual libido and causing erectile dysfunction. Dapoxetine, on the other hand, is a fast-acting SSRI. It is rapidly absorbed and eliminated from the body within a few hours. This favorable pharmacokinetics minimizes the risk of the drug’s accumulation in the body, and therefore reducing side effects.

New Drug Target Identified For Treating Deadly Form Of Leukemia

Dr Sharon Lim (left), first author of the study published in PNAS, with Prof Ong Sin Tiong, principal investigator.

A research team in Singapore has identified a promising drug target for the treatment of patients with terminal-stage chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).

AsianScientist (Jun. 4, 2013) – A research team in Singapore has identified ways to inhibit the function of a key protein linked to stem cell-like behavior in terminal-stage chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The discovery makes it possible to develop drugs that may extend the survival of patients suffering from this deadly form of all this at

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