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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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WO 2016113415, Sandoz, Riociguat, New Patent

WO 2016113415, Sandoz, Riociguat, New Patent

STEFINOVIC, Marijan; (AT).
RICHTER, Frank; (AT).
GRIESSER, Ulrich; (AT).
LANGES, Christoph; (AT)

SANDOZ AG [CH/CH]; Lichtstrasse 35 4056 Basel (CH)

WO 2016113415

Novel method for purifying riociguat, useful for treating chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension, systemic sclerosis and Raynaud’s phenomenon. Also claims novel crystalline solvates of riociguat (eg ethyl acetate or butan-2-one solvate), useful as intermediates in the purification of riociguat. Bayer and licensee Merck have developed and launched riociguat.

The present filing appears to be the first filing from Sandoz on riociguat; however see WO2015095515, assigned to Novartis, parent company of Sandoz, claiming an ophthalmic composition comprising a soluble guanylate cyclase activator (eg riociguat).

Riociguat (BAY 63-2521 ), having the chemical name N-[4,6-Diamino-2-[1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1 H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-3-yl]pyrimidin-5-yl]-N-methylcarbamic acid methyl ester, or sometimes also called or also sometimes called Methyl-(4,6-diamino-2-(1-(2-fluorobenzyl)-1 H-pyrazolo[3, 4-b]pyridin-3-yl)-5-pyrimidinyl)(methyl)carbamate is a stimulator of the soluble guanylate cyclase.

Riociguat has been approved for the treatment of inoperable, or persistent, recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) after surgery in adult patients and for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and is in development for the treatment of systemic sclerosis and Raynaud’s phenomenon.


The preparation of the compound of formula (I) and its purification are known. According to the experimental procedure of Example 8 of WO 03/095451 (comparable description in Chem. Med. Chem 2009, 4, 853-865), iodomethane is used as an alkylating agent in a late step and the purification of the crude riociguat either comprised preparatory HPLC steps or several steps of extracting, precipitating, suspending, washing, redissolving and reprecipitating riociguat, resulting in a long and tedious workup procedure with moderate yield.

In WO 201 1/064171 a potential genotoxic azo compound of formula III is used as a key intermediate, which under catalytic hydrogenation forms a compound of formula VIII.

The compound of formula VIII is further reacted with a methyl chloroformate or with a dimethyl carbonate derivative to form a compound of formula VI. The compound of formula VI is then methylated to form crude riociguat of formula (I).

Crude riociguat of formula (I) is then purified by a process comprising the intermediate isolation of a riociguat DMSO solvate of formula (II).

For the pharmaceutical use of riociguat, the solvent DMSO has to be removed. To that end, the compound of formula (II) is boiled in pharmaceutically acceptable solvents such as ketones, esters, ethers or alcohols. However, the riociguat obtained in this manner contains detectable amounts of DMSO.

These processes for the preparation of riociguat and their laborious purification protocols have a number of disadvantages which are unfavorable for industrial realization on a large scale.

On the one hand, the purification process according to WO 03/095451 require the repeated isolation of solid intermediates or preparatory HPLC, which ultimately results in a reduced yield of pure riociguat of formula (I) of pharmaceutical grade. Yet, traces of compound of formula (III) remain.

It is therefore one of the objects of the present invention to provide a process for the preparation of pure riociguat – compound of the formula (I) – which yields riociguat free from any genotoxic impurity and/or mutagenic impurity.

On the other hand, the process for the preparation of riociguat described in WO 201 1/064171 has a different serious drawback. It comprises the use of a DMSO solvate.

DMSO is an active pharmaceutical ingredient by itself. It is used as an active pharmaceutical ingredient in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. DMSO removal is difficult to achieve by the published processes. It is thus a further object of the invention to provide riociguat essentially free from DMSO and suitable for pharmaceutical use.

WO 2014/128109 discloses forms of riociguat, such as polymorphs and solvates, and describes a ¼ ethyl acetate solvate of riociguat in example 6. The X-ray powder

diffractogram in Tab.3 and figure 4 comprises reflexes at °2Theta positions of 9.1 and 25.6.

Thus, there is a need in the art for a process, which allows the preparation of pure riociguat free from any genotoxic impurity and/or mutagenic impurity which at the same time does not comprise residual DMSO.

Surprisingly, we have now identified a process for the purification of crude riociguat which yields riociguat which is essentially free from genotoxic impurities and DMSO. In particular, this novel process differs from the processes known to date in that the isolation of intermediates prior to the formation of riociguat is not required. This process allows to overcome the disadvantages of the processes known to date and to obtain riociguat in high yield and high purity and pharmaceutical acceptable quality essentially free of genotoxic impurities.



Preparative example

Preparation of crude riociguat

Riociguat was prepared as disclosed in example 7 of WO 201 1/064171 and had a chemical purity of 91.7% by the area of the riociguat peak in the HPLC-UV elution profile.

Comparative Example 1

Preparation of DMSO solvate

An amount of 4.505 g (0.0107 moles) of crude riociguat was dissolved in 8 ml DMSO at 100 °C. The obtained brownish, turbid solution was then cooled to 75 °C within 16 minutes. After that 55 ml of ethylacetate were added and the mixture was cooled to 25 °C (30 minutes). After 22 h the obtained precipiate was filtered off, washed with 14 ml EtOAc and dried for 4 hours at 50 °C at reduced pressure (50 mbar). The precipitate was analysed with XRPD, confirming that riociguat DMSO was obtained. The product was also analyzed by HPLC-UV-MS. Purity was calculated based on UV detection at 254nm. The so obtained riociguat DMSO solvate was 91 .92% pure.

Comparative Example 2

Preparation of riociguat form I from riociguat DMSO solvate

The entire product prepared in comparative example 1 (4.283 g = 0.009 moles) was reflux heated in 77 ml of ethylacetate at 78 °C for 1 h and then cooled to 25 °C. The white solid was filtered off with suction, washed with a total of 18 ml of ethyl acetate and dried at 50 °C under reduced pressure (50 mbar) for 5 hours. The dried product was then analyzed by XRPD, confirming identity of riociguat form I unequivocally.

Yield (dry): 3.224 g (0.0076 moles) = 75% for comparative example 2 and 72% overall (C.ex. 1 and 2). Total organic volatile impurity is higher than 1000 ppm and total DMSO content is higher than 100 ppm.

Example 1 ; Preparation of Riociguat ethylacetate solvate

Crude Riociguat (500 mg; Form I; 91 .7% percentage area purity) was dissolved in 2 ml DMF and heated to 100 °C to obtain a slightly turbid solution. After filtration through a 0.44 micron filter, 20 ml EtOAc were added to the hot solution (water bath 70°C) and allowed to stand. The temperature was slowly decreased to ambient temperature. Crystallization started after

10min. The yellowish, fine powder was filtered off and dried at ambient conditions. The PXRD indicated the formation of a new ethylacetate solvate. Yield 71 %, 97.8% purity.

Example 2; Preparation of the Methyl ethyl ketone (butan-2-one) solvate of Riociguat.

Crude Riociguat (500 mg; Form I; 91 .7% percentage area purity) was dissolved in 2 ml DMF at 100 °C to obtain a clear solution. After filtration through a 0.44 micron filter, 20 ml MEK were added. The hot solution (water bath 70 °C) was allowed stand. The temperature was then slowly decreased to ambient temperature. After 30 minutes yellowish, square-shaped crystals appeared, which were analyzed. Analysis confirmed that they were a new crystalline MEK-solvate. Yield 43%, 97.2% purity.

Example 3 ; Conversion of Solvated forms to Form I

Both the solvates from examples 1 and 2 can be converted to riociguat Form I by heating the material to 150°C under vacuum for an appropriate amount of time.

Example 4; Direct preparation of riociguat form I from crude riociguat using DMF-Acetone Crude Riociguat (200 mg; Form I; 91 .7% percentage area purity) was dissolved in 1.0 ml DMF at 100 °C to obtain a clear solution. After filtration through a 0.44 micron filter, 5 ml acetone was added. The hot solution (water bath 70 °C) was allowed to stand. Crystallisation occurred while the temperature was slowly decreased to ambient temperature. After 24 hours the precipitate was filtered off and dried at ambient conditions to obtain form I. Yield 78% ; 97.6% purity

///////////WO 2016113415, Sandoz, Riociguat, New Patent

Sandoz, Pfizer closing Mumbai API plant

Sandoz is closing a facility in Navi Mumbai, near Mumbai in India

Sandoz closing Mumbai API plant but says it remains committed to India

By Dan Stanton+, 15-Jul-2015

Dan Stanton

Sandoz will shutter an Indian API facility in 2016 as part of a manufacturing refocus in the region.

Drug major Sandoz will discontinue operations at its Turbhe site (Maharashtra) by end December 2016, as part of global plans to optimise its manufacturing network.

The Turbhe sites employs 170 people and manufactures antibiotics and active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), a note from the company said. Sandoz is the generic drugs arm of pharmaceutical company Novartis.

“Sandoz will refocus its manufacturing set up in India as part of its strategy to optimise its global manufacturing network, while continuing to serve patients in India,” the company said. As part of the plan, Sandoz will focus its manufacturing at other sites which employ over 1,300 employees and produce over three billion tablets and 180 tonnes of API annually, it added. The company has two manufacturing facilities at Kalwe and Mahad.

“We made the announcement today to ensure our associates are informed as soon as possible about our decisions and to ensure a transparent process,” Vivek Devaraj, Sandoz Country Head in India, said in the statement. “We are committed to managing the process with care, sensitivity and respect for all impacted associates at Turbhe, to supporting our customers through the transition and to meeting patient needs for access to important medicines,” he added.

In 2012, the company had shut down its formulations and API development centres, respectively. Drug companies have in the past shut down plants in India as a fallout of global strategies, mergers and acquisitions. At present, Pfizer’s plant in Thane faces an uncertain future.



There has been practically no production at Pfizer’s Thane plant (pic above) since 2013.

Sandoz India’s Turbhe plant to down shutters by December 2016

Less than a week after Sandoz, the generic division of Novartis, announced that it would discontinue operations at its Turbhe site by end December 2016, another MNC, Pfizer India announced the closure of its manufacturing facility at Thane, two months from today, from September 16, 2015.

According to Pfizer India spokesperson, the Thane plant was commissioned in the 1960s, manufacturing medicines for both domestic and international markets but there has been ‘practically been no production activity at this plant since 2013′. Hence closure of the site would not impact supply of Pfizer India’s medicines.

Both plant closures are a consolidation of manufacturing facilities, with the shutting down of older facilities and re-direction to more modern facilities, with Pfizer India’s statement attributing the decision to ‘an assessment of its long term viability and its ability to achieve the needed production.’

132 of the 212 Pfizer India workmen at the Thane plant had already taken up the voluntary retirement scheme (VRS) offered by the company and the statement indicated that the remaining 80 workmen who continued to receive full wages despite plant inactivity, would also receive requisite compensation as mandated by law.

While the close down process is in the final stages at Pfizer India’s Thane facility, Sandoz’ July 10 announcement is the beginning of the process at its Turbhe plant, which employs 170 associates and manufactures antibiotics and APIs.

“We made the announcement (on July 10) to ensure our associates are informed as soon as possible about our decisions and to ensure a transparent process,” said Vivek Devaraj, Sandoz Country Head in India. He said the company was “committed to managing the process with the utmost care, sensitivity and respect for all impacted associates at Turbhe, to supporting our customers through the transition and to meeting patient needs for access to important medicines.” Manufacturing would now focus at its other sites which employ over 1,300 associates and produce over three billion tablets and 180 tonnes of API annually.”

/////////Sandoz, shutter, Indian API facility, Pfizer

FDA approves first generic Copaxone to treat multiple sclerosis

04/16/2015 01:10 PM EDT

April 16, 2015

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration today approved the first generic version of Copaxone (glatiramer acetate injection), used to treat patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Sandoz has received FDA approval to market generic glatiramer acetate in a 20 mg/1 ml daily injection.

“Health care professionals and patients can be assured that FDA-approved generic drugs have met the same rigorous standards of quality as the brand-name drug,” said Janet Woodcock, M.D., director of the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research. “Before approving this generic product, given its complexity, we reviewed additional information to make sure that the generic product is as safe and effective as the brand name product.”

The FDA applies the same rigorous and reliable standards to evaluate all generic drug products. As needed, the agency requires appropriate information to demonstrate sameness for complex active ingredients, such as glatiramer acetate. For this approval, FDA scientists established a thorough scientific approach for demonstrating active ingredient sameness that takes into consideration the complexity of glatiramer acetate.

MS is a chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that disrupts communication between the brain and other parts of the body. It is among the most common causes of neurological disability in young adults and occurs more frequently in women than men. For most people with MS, episodes of worsening function (relapses) are initially followed by recovery periods (remissions). Over time, recovery periods may be incomplete, leading to progressive decline in function and increased disability. MS patients often experience muscle weakness and difficulty with coordination and balance. Most people experience their first symptoms of MS between the ages of 20 and 40.

In the clinical trials for Copaxone, the most common adverse reactions reported by those taking Copaxone were skin problems at the injection site (redness, pain, swelling and itching), flushing (vasodilation), rash, shortness of breath and chest pain.


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P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.
P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.
P.S. : The views expressed are my personal and in no-way suggest the views of the professional body or the company that I represent.

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Sandoz’s Zarzio (filgrastim) would be the first ‘biosimilar’ drug available in the US

Neupogen vial and syringe


A key advisory committee of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has voted in favour of licencing a copycat version of a biological drug. If approved, Sandoz’s Zarxio (filgrastim) would be the first ‘biosimilar’ drug available in the US.

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On 7 January, the FDA’s Oncological Drugs Advisory Committee unanimously cleared Sandoz’ version of filgrastim – marketed as Neupogen by Amgen – for all five indications approved for the Amgen drug. The medication is used to prevent infection and low white blood cell counts caused by chemotherapy.


Systematic (IUPAC) name
Human granulocyte colony stimulating factor
Clinical data
Trade names Neupogen
AHFS/ monograph
Legal status
CAS number 143011-72-7
ATC code L03AA02
DrugBank DB00099
Chemical data
Formula C845H1343N223O243S9 
Molecular mass 18802.8 g/mol

Filgrastim is a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) analog used to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation ofgranulocytes;[1] it is a pharmaceutical analog of naturally occurring G-CSF. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology. The gene for human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is inserted into the genetic material of Escherichia coli. The G-CSF then produced byE. coli is different from G-CSF naturally made in humans.


Filgrastim is marketed under several brand names, including:

Company Brand
Cadila Pharmaceuticals Filcad
Abbott Laboratories Imumax
Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories Grafeel
Intas Biopharmaceuticals Neukine
Amgen Neupogen[2]
Emcure Pharmaceuticals Emgrast
Reliance Life Sciences Religrast
Sandoz Zarzio
Biocon Nufil


Apricus Biosciences is currently developing and testing a product under the brand name Nupen which can deliver filgrastim through the skin to improve post-chemotherapy recovery of neutrophil counts.

Therapeutic uses

Filgrastim is used to treat neutropenia,[3] stimulating the bone marrow to increase production of neutrophils. Causes of neutropenia include chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation.

Filgrastim is also used to increase the number of hematopoietic stem cells in the blood before collection by leukapheresis for use in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Mechanism of Action: Filgrastim is a human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) produced by recombinant DNA technology. G-CSF regulates the production of neutrophils within the bone marrow; endogenous G-CSF is a glycoprotein produced by monocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells.

G-CSF is a colony stimulating factor which has been shown to have minimal direct in vivo or in vitro effects on the production of other haematopoietic cell types.NEUPOGEN (filgrastim) is the name for recombinant methionyl human granulocyte colony stimulating factor (r-metHuG-CSF). ref: [1]


Filgrastim should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to E. coli-derived proteins.

Adverse effects

The most commonly observed adverse effect is mild-to-moderate bone pain after repeated administration and local skin reactions at the site of injection.[4] Other observed adverse effects include serious allergic reactions (including a rash over the whole body, shortness of breath, wheezing, dizziness, swelling around the mouth or eyes, fast pulse, and sweating), ruptured spleen (sometimes resulting in death), alveolar hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and hemoptysis.[4] Severe sickle cell crises, in some cases resulting in death, have been associated with the use of filgrastim in patients with sickle cell disorders.[5]


Drug interactions between filgrastim and other drugs have not been fully evaluated. Drugs which may potentiate the release of neutrophils‚ such as lithium‚ should be used with caution.

Increased hematopoietic activity of the bone marrow in response to growth factor therapy has been associated with transient positive bone imaging changes; this should be considered when interpreting bone-imaging results.[6]

Filgrastim has not been studied in pregnant women and its effects on the foetus is unknown. If taking filgrastim while pregnant, it is possible that traces of the drug could be found in the baby’s blood. It is not known if the drug can get into human breast milk.


  1.  Beveridge, R. A.; Miller, J. A.; Kales, A. N.; Binder, R. A.; Robert, N. J.; Harvey, J. H.; Windsor, K.; Gore, I.; Cantrell, J.; Thompson, K. A.; Taylor, W. R.; Barnes, H. M.; Schiff, S. A.; Shields, J. A.; Cambareri, R. J.; Butler, T. P.; Meister, R. J.; Feigert, J. M.; Norgard, M. J.; Moraes, M. A.; Helvie, W. W.; Patton, G. A.; Mundy, L. J.; Henry, D.; Sheridan, B.; Staddon, A.; Ford, P.; Katcher, D.; Houck, W.; Major, W. B. (1998). “A Comparison of Efficacy of Sargramostim (Yeast-Derived RhuGM-CSF) and Filgrastim (Bacteria-Derived RhuG-CSF) in the Therapeutic Setting of Chemotherapy-Induced Myelosuppression”. Cancer Investigation 16 (6): 366–373. doi:10.3109/07357909809115775. PMID 9679526. edit
  2.  “FDA Reviews What Could Be First Biosimilar”. Discov. Dev. Mag. (Rockaway, New Jersey, United States). Associated Press. 25 July 2014.
  3.  Crawford, J.; Glaspy, J. A.; Stoller, R. G.; Tomita, D. K.; Vincent, M. E.; McGuire, B. W.; Ozer, H. (2005). “Final Results of a Placebo-Controlled Study of Filgrastim in Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Exploration of Risk Factors for Febrile Neutropenia”. Supportive Cancer Therapy 3 (1): 36–46. doi:10.3816/SCT.2005.n.023. PMID 18632435. edit
  4.  Neupogen “Neupogen: Patient Information Leaflet”. Amgen. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  5.  “NEUPOGEN® Patient Guide”. Amgen. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  6.  “Neupogen”. RxList. 4 June 2012. Retrieved 23 June 2013.

Further reading

  • Budiono Santoso; Chris J. van Boxtel; Boxtel, Christoffel Jos van (2001). Drug benefits and risks: international textbook of clinical pharmacology. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0-471-89927-5.
  • “Neupogen information”. Retrieved 20 October 2005.

Sandoz launches Phase III clinical trial for biosimilar etanercept


is made from the combination of two naturally occurring soluble human 75-kilodalton TNF receptors linked to an Fc portion of an IgG1. The effect is an artificially engineered dimeric fusion protein.

Sandoz launches Phase III clinical trial for biosimilar etanercept
Trial expected to support registration in the U.S. and European Union
•    Sandoz continues to advance biosimilar pipeline with seven Phase III trials across five molecules
•    Global program underscores Sandoz’s leadership in biosimilarsHolzkirchen, Germany, June 24, 2013 – Sandoz, the global leader in biosimilars, announced it has initiated a major Phase III clinical trial with its biosimilar version of etanercept (Amgen’s Enbrel®).

Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a biopharmaceutical that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with tumor necrosis factor (TNF; a soluble inflammatory cytokine) by acting as a TNF inhibitor. It has U.S. F.D.A. approval to treat rheumatoid, juvenile rheumatoid andpsoriatic arthritis, plaque psoriasis and ankylosing spondylitis. TNF-alpha is the “master regulator” of the inflammatory (immune) response in many organ systems. Autoimmune diseases are caused by an overactive immune response. Etanercept has the potential to treat these diseases by inhibiting TNF-alpha.
Etanercept is a fusion protein produced by recombinant DNA. It fuses the TNF receptor to the constant end of the IgG1 antibody. First, the developers isolated the DNA sequence that codes the human gene for soluble TNF receptor 2, which is a receptor that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Second, they isolated the DNA sequence that codes the human gene for the Fc end of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). Third, they linked the DNA for TNF receptor 2 to the DNA for IgG1 Fc. Finally, they expressed the linked DNA to produce a protein that links the protein for TNF receptor 2 to the protein for IgG1 Fc.

The prototypic fusion protein was first synthesized and shown to be highly active and unusually stable as a modality for blockade of TNF in vivo in the early 1990s by Bruce A. Beutler, an academic researcher then at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, and his colleagues.[2][3][4] These investigators also patented the protein, selling all rights to its use to Immunex, a biotechnology company that was acquired by Amgen in 2002.

It is a large molecule, with a molecular weight of 150 kDa., that binds to TNFα and decreases its role in disorders involving excess inflammation in humans and other animals, including autoimmune diseases such as ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and, potentially, in a variety of other disorders mediated by excess TNFα.

In North America, etanercept is co-marketed by Amgen and Pfizer under the trade name Enbrel in two separate formulations, one in powder form, the other as a pre-mixed liquid. Wyeth is the sole marketer of Enbrel outside North America excluding Japan whereTakeda Pharmaceuticals markets the drug.

Etanercept is an example of a protein-based drug created using the tools of biotechnologyand conceived through an understanding afforded by modern cell biology.

Sandoz launches generic metronidazole in the US

Sandoz  has launched metronidazole 1% topical gel, the first generic version of METROGEL® 1%.

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