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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Ranbaxy to introduce malarial treatment Synriam in African nations


 

 

Ranbaxy to introduce malarial treatment Synriam in African nations
Ranbaxy Laboratories has obtained regulatory approval to introduce India’s first new chemical entity (NCE) Synriam (arterolane maleate 150mg and piperaquine phosphate 750mg drug) in seven African countries.

read at

http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newsmalarial-treatment-synriam-4471331?WT.mc_id=DN_News

Synriam is a new age therapy recommended to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in adults. It was launched in India in April 2012.

The product was also launched in Uganda and is set to be introduced in Nigeria, Senegal, Cameroon, Guinea, Kenya and Ivory Coast by the end of January 2015.

 

Arterolane.png

 

Arterolane

cas 664338-39-0, UNII-3N1TN351VB, OZ277, RBX-11160, NCGC00274173-01
Molecular Formula: C22H36N2O4
 Molecular Weight: 392.53224
Ranbaxy Lab Ltd innovator
 cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3’-8’-[[[(2’-amino-2’ methylpropyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl] 1’,2’,4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane
cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′- amino-2′-methylpropyl)amino]carbonyl]-methyl]- 1 ‘,2′,4′-trioxaspiro[4.5]decane

Arterolane, also known as OZ277 or RBx 11160,is a substance being tested for antimalarial activity[1] by Ranbaxy Laboratories.[2] It was discovered by US and European scientists who were coordinated by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV).[3] Its molecular structure is uncommon for pharmacological compounds in that it has both an ozonide group and an adamantane substituent.[4]

Phase III clinical trials of arterolane, in combination with piperaquine, began in India in 2009.[5] When clinical trial results were disappointing, the MMV withdrew support[2] and Ranbaxy continued developing the drug combination on its own.

Ranbaxy launched India’s first new drug, SynriamTM, treating Plasmodium falciparummalaria in adults. The drug provides quick relief from most malaria-related symptoms, including fever, and has a high cure rate of over 95 %.

Just one tablet per day is required, for three days, instead of two to four tablets, twice daily, for three or more days with other medicines. The drug is independent of dietary restrictions for fatty foods or milk.

Ranbaxy developed Synriam as a fixed-dose combination of arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate, where arterolane is the new chemical entity (NCE) that was developed as an alternative to artemisinin. It is the first recently developed antimalarial not based on artemisinin, one of the most effective treatments for malaria, which has shown problems with resistance in recent years. Arterolane was discovered by a collaborative drug discovery project funded by the Medicines for Malaria Venture. Since SynriamTM has a synthetic source, unlike artemisinin-based drugs, production can be scaled up whenever required and a consistent supply can be maintained at a low cost.

The new drug, has been approved by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) for marketing in India and conforms to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) for using combination therapy in malaria. Ranbaxy is also working to make it available in African, Asian and South American markets where Malaria is rampant. SynriamTM trials are ongoing for Plasmodium vivax malaria and a paediatric formulation.

Derek Lowe of the famous In the Pipeline blog had written about arterolane in 2009. At the time it was in Phase III trial, which I assumed were the trials that Ranbaxy was conducting. But it turned out that arterolane was developed by a collaboration between researchers in the US, the UK, Switzerland and Australia who were funded by the World Health Organization and Medicines for Malaria Venture (a Swiss non-profit).

They published this work in Nature in 2004 and further SAR (Structure Activity Relationship) studies in J Med Chem in 2010. So Ranbaxy did not develop the drug from scratch? But the press release quotes Arun Sawhney, CEO and Managing Director of Ranbaxy which misleads people to think so: “It is indeed gratifying to see that Ranbaxy’s scientists have been able to gift our great nation its first new drug, to treat malaria, a disease endemic to our part of the world.

This is a historic day for science and technology in India as well as for the pharmaceutical industry in the country. Today, India joins the elite and exclusive club of nations of the world that have demonstrated the capability of developing a new drug”. So Ranbaxy mixes a known active compound (piperaquine) with a new compound that someone else found to be active (arterolane) and claims that they developed a new drug?

In an interview in LiveMint, Sawhney says, “Ranbaxy spent around $30 million on Synriam and the contribution from DST [India’s Department of Science & Technology] was Rs.5 crore.

The drug went through several phases of development since the project began in 2003. We did not look at this as a commercial development. Instead, this is a CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] venture for us.” That’s a give away because developing a new drug from scratch has to cost more than $30 million + Rs.50 million.


Ranbaxy  now taken over by sun

SynriamTM

Generic Name
Arterolane Maleate and Piperaquine Phosphate Tablets
Composition
Each film coated tablet contains: Arterolane maleate equivalent to Arterolane ……………………………150 mg Piperaquinephosphate……………750 mg
Dosage Form
Tablets
Inactive ingredients:
Microcrystalline cellulose, Crospovidone, Magnesium stearate, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Hypromellose, Titanium dioxide, Macrogol/ Polyethylene glycol, Talc, Ferric Oxide (Yellow), Ferric Oxide (Red)

Description SynriamTM is a fixed dose combination of two antimalarial active ingredients arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate.

Arterolane maleate is a synthetic trioxolane compound. The chemical name of arterolane maleate is cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3’-8’-[[[(2’-amino-2’ methylpropyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl] 1’,2’,4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane hydrogen maleate. The molecular formula is C26H40N2O8 and molecular weight is 508.61. The structural formula is as follows:

MALARIA
Malaria is one of the most prevalent and deadly parasitic diseases in the world. Up to 289 million cases of malaria may have occurred in 2010, causing between 660,000 and 1.25 million deaths, mainly in Africa and mostly of children younger than 5 years.
(WHO: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2012/en/index.html; Fidock, D. A. Eliminating Malaria. Science 2013, 340, 1531-1533.)

The most serious problem in malaria treatment is that the parasites causing the disease, particularly the deadly Plasmodium falciparum, have developed resistance to widely used drugs, particularly chloroquine (CQ). Currently, the most efficacious therapies are combinations of an artemisinin-type compound with a long-lasting partner drug like lumefantrine, amodiaquine or mefloquine.

Malaria, the most common parasitic disease of humans, remains a major health and economic burden in most tropical countries. Large areas of Central and South America, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Oceania are considered as malaria-risk areas. It leads to a heavy toll of illness and death, especially amongst children and pregnant women.

According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that the disease infects about 400 million people each year, and around two to three million people die from malaria every year. There are four kinds of malaria parasites that infect human: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae.

Malaria spreads from one person to another by the bite of mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, which serves as vector. When a mosquito sucks the blood of human, sporozoites are transfused into the human body together with saliva of the mosquito. The sporozoites enter into the hepatocytes, reproduce asexually and finally enter into the blood stream. The parasites continue to multiply inside the red blood cells, until they burst and release large number of merozoites.

This process continues, destroying a significant number of blood cells and causing the characteristic paroxysm (“chills and fever”) associated with the disease. In the red blood cells, some of the merozoites become male or female gametocytes. These gametocytes are ingested by the mosquito when it feeds on blood. The gametocytes fuse in the vector’s gut; sporozoites are produced and are migrated to the vector’s salivary glands.

The clinical symptoms of malaria are generally associated with the bursting of red blood cells causing an intense fever associated with chills that can leave the infected individual exhausted and bedridden. More severe symptoms associated with repeat infections and/or infection by Plasmodium falciparum include anaemia, severe headaches, convulsions, delirium and, in some instances, death.

Quinine, an antimalarial compound that is extracted from the bark of cinchona tree, is one of the oldest and most effective drugs in existence. Chloroquine and mefloquine are the synthetic analogs of quinine developed in 1940’s, which due to their effectiveness, ease of manufacture, and general lack of side effects, became the drugs of choice. The downside to quinine and its derivatives is that they are short-acting and have bitter taste.

Further, they fail to prevent disease relapses and are also associated with side effects commonly known as “Chinchonism syndrome” characterized by nausea, vomiting, dizziness, vertigo and deafness. However, in recent years, with the emergence of drug- resistant strains of parasite and insecticide-resistant strains of vector, the treatment and/or control of malaria is becoming difficult with these conventional drugs.

Malarial treatment further progressed with the discovery of Artemisinin

(qinghaosu), a naturally occurring endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the plant Artemisia annua (Meshnick et al., Microbiol. Rev. 1996, 60, p. 301-315; Vroman et al., Curr. Pharm. Design, 1999, 5, p. 101-138; Dhingra et al., 2000, 66, p. 279-300), and a number of its precursors, metabolites and semi-synthetic derivatives which have shown to possess antimalarial properties. The antimalarial action of artemisinin is due to its reaction with iron in free heme molecules of the malaria parasite, with the generation of free radicals leading to cellular destruction. This initiated a substantial effort to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action (Jefford, dv. Drug Res. 1997, 29, p. 271-325; Cumming et al., Adv. Pharmacol. 1997, 37, p. 254-297) and to identify novel antimalarial peroxides (Dong and Vennerstrom, Expert Opin. Ther. Patents 2001, 1 1, p. 1753-1760).

Although the clinically useful artemisinin derivatives are rapid acting and potent antimalarial drugs, they have several disadvantages including recrudescence,

neurotoxicity, (Wesche et al., Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 1994, 38, p. 1813-1819) and metabolic instability (White, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1994, 88, p. 41-43). A fair number of these compounds are quite active in vitro, but most suffer from low oral activity (White, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1994, 88, p. 41-43 and van Agtmael et al., Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 1999, 20, p. 199-205). Further all these artemisinin derivatives are conventionally obtained from plant source and are therefore expensive.

As the cultivation of the plant material is dependent on many factors including the weather conditions, the supply source thus becomes finite and there are chances of varying yield and potency. This leads to quality inconsistencies and supply constraints. As malaria is more prevalent in developing countries, a switch to cheaper and effective medicine is highly desirable.

Thus there exists a need in the art to identify new peroxide antimalarial agents, especially those which are not dependent on plant source and can be easily synthesized, are devoid of neurotoxicity, and which possess improved solubility, stability and pharmacokinetic properties.

Following that, many synthetic antimalarial 1 ,2,4-trioxanes (Jefford, Adv. Drug Res. 1997, 29, p. 271-325; Cumming et al., Adv. Pharmacol. 1997, 37, p. 254-297), 1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes (Vennerstrom et al., J. Med. Chem., 2000, 43, p. 2753-2758), and other endoperoxides have been prepared. Various patents/applications disclose means and method for treating malaria using Spiro or dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolanes for example, U.S.

Patent Application No. 2004/0186168 and U.S. Patent Nos. 6,486, 199 and 6,825,230. The present invention relates to solid dosage forms of the various spiro or dispiro 1 ,2,4- trioxolanes antimalarial compounds disclosed in these patents/applications and are incorporated herein by reference.

Active compounds representing various Spiro and dispiro 1 ,2,4-trioxolane derivatives possess excellent potency, efficacy against Plasmodium parasites, and a lower degree of neurotoxicity, in addition to their structural simplicity and ease of synthesis. Furthermore, these compounds have half-lives which are believed to permit short-term treatment regimens comparing favorably to other artemisinin-like drugs. In general, the therapeutic dose of trioxolane derivative may range between about 0.1-1000 mg/kg/day, in particular between about 1-100 mg/kg/day. The foregoing dose may be administered as a single dose or may be divided into multiple doses. For malaria prevention, a typical dosing schedule could be, for example, 2.0-1000 mg/kg weekly beginning 1-2 weeks prior to malaria exposure, continued up to 1-2 weeks post-exposure.

Monotherapy with artemisinin (natural or synthetic) class of drugs might cure the patients within 3 days, however perceiving the potential threat of the malarial parasite developing resistance towards otherwise very potent artemisinin class of drugs, WHO had strictly called for an immediate halt to the provision of single-drug artemisinin malaria pills. Combination therapy in case of malaria retards the development of resistance, improve efficacy by lowering recrudescence rate, provides synergistic effect, and increase exposure of the parasite to the drugs.

Artemsinin based combinations are available in the market for a long time.

Artemether-lumafentrine (Co-artem®) was the first fixed dose antimalarial combination containing an artemisinin derivative and has been known since 1999. This combination has passed extensive safety and efficacy trials and has been approved by more than 70 regulatory agencies. Co-artem® is recommended by WHO as the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria.

Other artemisinin based combinations include artesunate and amodiaquine (Coarsucam®), and dihydroartemisin and piperaquine (Eurartesim®). Unfortunately, all the available artemisinin based combinations have complicated dosage regimens making it difficult and inconvenient for a patient to comply completely with the total prescribed duration. For example, the dosage regimen of Co-artem®for an adult having body weight of more than 35 kg includes 6 doses over three days.

The first dose comprises four tablets initially, the second dose comprises four tablets after eight hours, the third to sixth doses comprise four tablets twice for another two days; making it a total of 24 tablets. The dosage regimen of Coarsucam® for an adult having body weight of more than 36 kg or age above 14 years includes three doses over three days; each dose comprises two tablets; making it a total of six tablets. The dosage regimen of Eurartesim® for an adult having body weight between 36 kg – 75 kg includes 3 doses over three days, each dose comprises of three tablets, making it a total of nine tablets.

It is evident that the available artemisinin-based combinations have a high pill burden on patients as they need to consume too many tablets. As noted above, this may increase the possibility of missing a few doses, and, consequently, could result in reduced efficacy due to non-compliance and may even lead to development of resistance for the drug. Therefore, there is an urgent and unmet need for anti-malarial combinations with a simplified daily dosing regimen that reduces the pill burden and would increase patient compliance.

Apart from simplifying the regimen, there are certain limitations for formulators developing formulations with trioxolones, the first being their susceptibility to degradation in presence of moisture that results in reduced shelf lives. Another is their bitter taste, which can result in poor compliance of the regimen or selection of another, possibly less effective, therapeutic agent.

……………………..

PATENT

http://www.google.st/patents/US6906205

Figure US06906205-20050614-C00051

……………………

PATENT

http://www.google.st/patents/WO2013008218A1?cl=en

structural Formula II.

 

Figure imgf000013_0001

Formula II

Active compound includes one or more of the various spiro and dispiro trioxolane derivatives disclosed in U.S. Application No. 2004/0186168 and U.S. Patent Nos.

6,486,199 and 6,825,230, which are incorporated herein by reference. These trioxolanes are relatively sterically hindered on at least one side of the trioxolane heterocycle which provides better in vivo activity, especially with respect to oral administration. Particularly, spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolanes derivatives possess excellent potency and efficacy against Plasmodium parasites, and a lower degree of neurotoxicity.

The term “Active compound I” herein means cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′- amino-2′-methylpropyl)amino]carbonyl]-methyl]- 1 ‘,2′,4′-trioxaspiro[4.5]decane hydrogen maleate. The Active compound I may be present in an amount of from about 5% to about 25%, w/w based on the total dosage form.

 

………………

PATENT

http://www.google.st/patents/WO2007138435A2?cl=en

A synthetic procedure for preparing compounds of Formula I, salts of the free base c«-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′-amino-2′-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]- 1 ‘, 2′, 4′-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane has been disclosed in U.S. 6,906,205.

Figure imgf000002_0001

 

The process for the preparation of compounds of Formula I wherein a compound of Formula II (wherein R is lower alkyl) is reacted with a compound of Formula III (wherein R is lower alkyl) to obtain compound of Formula IV;

Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000005_0002

Formula Formula IV

followed by hydrolysis of the compounds of Formula IV to give a compound of Formula V;

Figure imgf000005_0003

Formula V followed by the reaction of the compound of Formula V with an activating agent, for example, methyl chloroformate, ethyl chloroformate, propyl chloro formate, n-butyl chloro formate, isobutyl chloroformate or pivaloyl chloride leads to the formation of mixed anhydride, which is reacted in situ reaction with 1 ,2-diamino-2-methyl propane to give a compound of Formula VI; and

Figure imgf000005_0004

Formula Vl reacting the compound of Formula VI with an acid of Formula HX (wherein X can be the same as defined earlier) to give compounds of Formula I.

Example 1 : Preparation of O-methyl-2-adamantanone oxime

To a solution of 2-adamantanone (50 g, 0.3328 mol, 1 equiv.) in methanol (0.25 lit), sodium hydroxide solution (15 g, 0.3761mol, 1.13 equiv, in 50 mL water) was added followed by methoxylamine hydrochloride (37.5 g x 81.59% Purity= 30.596 g, 0.366 mol, 1.1 equiv) at room temperature under stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 to 2 h. The reaction was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was concentrated at 40- 45°C under vacuum to get a thick residue. Water (250 mL) was added at room temperature and the reaction mixture was stirred for half an hour. The white solid was filtered, washed with water (50 mL), and dried at 40 to 45°C under reduced pressure. O-methyl 2- adamantanone oxime (57 g, 95 % yield) was obtained as a white solid.

(M++l) 180, 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 ): δ 1.98 – 1.79 (m, 12H), 2.53 (s, IH), 3.46 ( s, IH), 3.81 (s, 3H).

Example 2: Preparation of 4-(methoxycarbonvmethvPcvclohexanone A high pressure autoclave was charged with a mixture of methyl (4- hydroxyphenyl)acetate (50 g, 0.30 mol), palladium ( 5g) (10 %) on carbon (50 % wet) and O- xylene (250 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred under 110 to 115 psi of hydrogen pressure for 7 to 8 h at 1400C. The reaction was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature, and the catalyst was filtered off. Filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to get 4-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)cyclohexanone as light yellow to colorless oily liquid (48.7 g, 97.4 %).

(M++!) 171, ‘ HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3): δ 1.48 – 1.51 ( m, 2H), 2.1 1-2.07 (m, 2H), 2.4- 2.23 (m, 7H), 3.7 (s, 3H).

Example 3: Preparation of methyl (Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-l, 3′-f 1,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricvclor3.3.1.1371decan1-4-ylacetate

A solution of O-methyl-2-adamantanone oxime (example 1) (11.06 g, 61.7 mmol, 1.5 equiv.) and 4-(methoxycarbonymethyl)cyclohexanone (example 2) (7.0 g, 41.1 mmol, 1 equiv.) in cyclohexane ( 200ml) and dichloromethane (40 mL) was treated with ozone (ozone was produced with an OREC ozone generator [0.6 L/min. O2, 60 V] passed through an empty gas washing bottle that was cooled to -780C). The solvent was removed after the reaction was complete. After removal of solvents, the crude product was purified by crystallization from 80% aqueous ethanol (200 mL) to afford the title compound as a colorless solid. Yield: 10.83 g, 78%, mp: 96-980C; 1HNMR (500 Hz3CDCl3): δ 1.20-1.33 (m, 2H), 1.61-2.09 (m, 5 21H), 2.22 (d, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 3.67(s,3H).

Example 4: Preparation of (Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3′-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″- tricvclo [3.3.1.137] decanl-4-ylacetic acid

Sodium hydroxide (3.86 g, 96.57 mmol, 3 equiv.) in water (80 mL) was added to a solution of methyl (\s, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3′-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricyclo

10 [3.3.1.I37] decan]-4-ylacetate (example 3) (10.83 g, 32.19 mmol, 1 equiv.) in 95% ethanol (150 mL). The mixture was stirred at 500C for about 4 h, cooled to O0C, and treated with IM hydrochloric acid (129ml, 4 equiv). The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with 50 % aqueous ethanol (150 mL) and dried in vacuum at 40 0C to give the title compound as colorless solid. Yield: 9.952 g, 96%, mp: 146-1480C ( 95% ethanol), 1HNMR (500 Hz,

15 CDCl3): δ 1.19-1.41 (m,2H), 1.60-2.05 (m,21H), 2.27 (d, J=6.8 Hz,2H).

Example 5: Preparation of c?s-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′-amino-2′-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]-! ‘, T , 4′-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane

Method A:

(Is, 4s)-dispiro[cyclohexane- 1 ,3 ‘-[ 1 ,2,4]trioxolane-5 ‘,2 ‘ ‘-tricyclo[3.3.1.137]decan]-4-

.0 ylacetic acid (example 4) (5 g ,15.5mmol, 1 equiv) was mixed with triethylamine (2.5 g , 24.8 mmol, 1.6 equiv) in 100ml of dichloromethane. The reaction mixture was cooled to – 1O0C to 00C. Ethyl chloro formate (1.68 g, 17 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in 15 mL dichloromethane was charged to the above reaction mixture at – 100C to 00C. The reaction mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 10 to 30 minutes. The resulting mixed anhydride reaction mixture

15 was added dropwise to a previously prepared solution of l,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (1.64 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.2 equiv), in 100 mL dichloromethane at -100C to O0C. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the same temperature till the reaction was complete. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. The reaction was complete

>0 within 2 h. Nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (50 mL) was charged, organic layer was separated and washed with 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (50 mL) and water (50 mL) at room temperature. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulphate and the solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. Hexane (50ml) was added to obtain residue under stirring at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with 5 mL of chilled hexane. The solid was dried under reduced pressure at room 5 temperature.

Yield: 5.2 g (85.4 %), (M++l) 393, 1HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6 ): δ 0.929 ( s, 6H), 1.105 – 1.079 (m, 2H), 1.887-1.641 (m, 21H), 2.030-2.017 (d, 2H), 2.928 (d, 2H).

Method B:

(Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3′-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricyclo [3.3.1.I37]

10 decan]-4-ylacetic acid (example 4) (10 g, 31mmol, 1 equiv) was treated with isobutyl chloroformate (4.5 g, 33mmol, 1.1 equiv) in presence of organic base like triethyl amine (5 g, 49.6mmol, 1.6 equiv) at 00C to 7°C in 250ml of dichloromethane. The solution was stirred at O0C to 7°C for aboutlO to 30 minutes. To the above reaction mixture, previously prepared solution of l,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (3.27 g, 37 mmol, 1.2 equiv), in 50 mL of

15 dichloromethane was added at O0C to 7°C in one lot. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the room temperature till reaction was over. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. Reaction was complete within 2 h. The reaction nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (250 mL) was charged, organic

20 layer was separated and washed with 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) and water (100 mL) at room temperature and the solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. Hexane (100ml) was added to the residue, under stirring, at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with chilled hexane (10 mL). The resultant solid was dried under reduced pressure at room temperature. Yield: 10.63 g (87%), (M++l) 393, 1HNMR

>5 (400 MHz, DMSO-J6 ) :δ 0.928 ( s, 6H), 1.102 – 1.074 (m, 2H), 1.859-1.616 (m, 21H), 2.031- 2.013 (d, 2H), 2.94-2.925 (d, 2H). Method C:

(\s, 4s)-dispiro[cyclohexane-l,3′-[l,2,4]trioxolane-5′,2″-tricyclo[3.3.1.13>7]decan]-4- ylacetic acid (example 4) (5 g, 15.5mmol, 1 equiv) was treated with pivaloyl chloride (1.87 g, 15.5 mmol, 1 equiv) and triethylamine (2.5gm, 24.8mmol, 1.6 equiv) at -15°C to -100C in dichloromethane (125 mL). The solution was stirred at -150C to -100C for aboutlO to 30 minutes. It resulted in the formation of mixed anydride. To the above reaction mixture, previously prepared solution of 1 ,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (1.64 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.2 equiv) in 25 mL dichloromethane was added at -15°C to -100C. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the room temperature till reaction was over. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. The reaction was complete within 2 h. Nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (125 mL) was charged, organic layer was separated and washed with 50 mL of 10% sodium bicarbonate solution and 125 mL of water, respectively at room temperature. Finally solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. 50 mL of 5% Ethyl acetate – hexane solvent mixture was added to the residue under stirring at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with 5 mL of chilled hexane. Solid was dried under reduced pressure at room temperature. Yield: 5.03 g (83 %), (M++l) 393, 1JINMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6 ):δ 0.93 ( s, 6H), 1.113 – 1.069 (m, 2H), 1.861-1.644 (m, 21H), 2.033-2.015 (d, 2H), 2.948-2.933 (d, 2H).

Example 6: Preparation of c/s-adamantane-2-spiro-3′ -8 ‘-πT(2′-amino-2′ -methyl propyl) amino! carbonyl] methyli-l ‘, 2\ 4′-U-JoXaSpJrQ [4.51 decane maleate To a solution of c/s-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′-amino-2′-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]-! ‘, 2′, 4′-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane (example 5) (60 g, 0.153 moles) in ethanol (150 mL) was added a solution of maleic acid (17.3 g, 0.15 moles, 0.98 equiv. in ethanol 90 mL) and the reaction mixture was stirred for about 1 h. To this clear solution, n- heptane (720 mL) was added at room temperature in 1 h and the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 h. It was then cooled to 0 to 100C and filtered. The cake was washed with n-heptane (60 mL) and dried under vacuum at 40-450C.

Yield: 67 g, 77.4%, mp: 1490C (decomp), (M++l) 393.5, 1HNMR (300 MHz, DMSO-^ ): δ 1.05-1.11 (2H,m), 1.18 (6H,s), 1.64-1.89 (21H,m), 2.07(2H,d), 3.21 (2H,d), 6.06 (2H,d), 7.797 (2H, bs), 8.07 (IH, t).

 

References

  1.  Dong, Yuxiang; Wittlin, Sergio; Sriraghavan, Kamaraj; Chollet, Jacques; Charman, Susan A.; Charman, William N.; Scheurer, Christian; Urwyler, Heinrich et al. (2010). “The Structure−Activity Relationship of the Antimalarial Ozonide Arterolane (OZ277)”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 53 (1): 481–91. doi:10.1021/jm901473sPMID 19924861.
  2.  Blow to Ranbaxy drug research plans at LiveMint.com, Sep 21 2007
  3.  Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Arbe-Barnes, Sarah; Brun, Reto; Charman, Susan A.; Chiu, Francis C. K.; Chollet, Jacques; Dong, Yuxiang; Dorn, Arnulf et al. (2004). “Identification of an antimalarial synthetic trioxolane drug development candidate”. Nature 430 (7002): 900–4.doi:10.1038/nature02779PMID 15318224.
  4.  In the Pipeline: “Ozonides As Drugs: What Will They Think Of Next?”, by Derek Lowe, November 23, 2009, at Corante.com
  5.  Indian company starts Phase III trials of synthetic artemisinin, May 4 2009, at the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network
  6. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n7002/full/nature02779.html
5-27-2011
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF DISPIRO 1,2,4-TRIOXOLANE ANTIMALARIALS (OZ277)
2-13-2009
STABLE DOSAGE FORMS OF SPIRO AND DISPIRO 1,2,4-TRIOXOLANE ANTIMALARIALS
6-15-2005
Spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolane antimalarials
11-31-2004
Spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trixolane antimalarials

ANTIMALARIALS

 

 

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2013/03/new-antimalarial-drug-class-resistance-elq-300-quinolone

 

Antimalarial drugsSpeeding to a new lead

http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v9/n11/full/nrd3301.html
Structure of NITD609; the 1R,3Sconfiguration is fundamental for its antimalarial activity

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Antimalarials………….Arterolane from Ranbaxy


Arterolane.png

664338-39-0 

Arterolane

664338-39-0, UNII-3N1TN351VB, OZ277, RBX-11160, NCGC00274173-01
Molecular Formula: C22H36N2O4
 Molecular Weight: 392.53224
 cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3’-8’-[[[(2’-amino-2’ methylpropyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl] 1’,2’,4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane
cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′- amino-2′-methylpropyl)amino]carbonyl]-methyl]- 1 ‘,2′,4’-trioxaspiro[4.5]decane

Arterolane, also known as OZ277 or RBx 11160,is a substance being tested for antimalarial activity[1] by Ranbaxy Laboratories.[2] It was discovered by US and European scientists who were coordinated by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV).[3] Its molecular structure is uncommon for pharmacological compounds in that it has both an ozonide group and an adamantane substituent.[4]

Phase III clinical trials of arterolane, in combination with piperaquine, began in India in 2009.[5] When clinical trial results were disappointing, the MMV withdrew support[2] and Ranbaxy continued developing the drug combination on its own.

Ranbaxy launched India’s first new drug, SynriamTM, treating Plasmodium falciparummalaria in adults. The drug provides quick relief from most malaria-related symptoms, including fever, and has a high cure rate of over 95 %.

Just one tablet per day is required, for three days, instead of two to four tablets, twice daily, for three or more days with other medicines. The drug is independent of dietary restrictions for fatty foods or milk.

Ranbaxy developed Synriam as a fixed-dose combination of arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate, where arterolane is the new chemical entity (NCE) that was developed as an alternative to artemisinin. It is the first recently developed antimalarial not based on artemisinin, one of the most effective treatments for malaria, which has shown problems with resistance in recent years. Arterolane was discovered by a collaborative drug discovery project funded by the Medicines for Malaria Venture. Since SynriamTM has a synthetic source, unlike artemisinin-based drugs, production can be scaled up whenever required and a consistent supply can be maintained at a low cost.

The new drug, has been approved by the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) for marketing in India and conforms to the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) for using combination therapy in malaria. Ranbaxy is also working to make it available in African, Asian and South American markets where Malaria is rampant. SynriamTM trials are ongoing for Plasmodium vivax malaria and a paediatric formulation.

Derek Lowe of the famous In the Pipeline blog had written about arterolane in 2009. At the time it was in Phase III trial, which I assumed were the trials that Ranbaxy was conducting. But it turned out that arterolane was developed by a collaboration between researchers in the US, the UK, Switzerland and Australia who were funded by the World Health Organization and Medicines for Malaria Venture (a Swiss non-profit). They published this work in Nature in 2004 and further SAR (Structure Activity Relationship) studies in J Med Chem in 2010. So Ranbaxy did not develop the drug from scratch? But the press release quotes Arun Sawhney, CEO and Managing Director of Ranbaxy which misleads people to think so: “It is indeed gratifying to see that Ranbaxy’s scientists have been able to gift our great nation its first new drug, to treat malaria, a disease endemic to our part of the world. This is a historic day for science and technology in India as well as for the pharmaceutical industry in the country. Today, India joins the elite and exclusive club of nations of the world that have demonstrated the capability of developing a new drug”. So Ranbaxy mixes a known active compound (piperaquine) with a new compound that someone else found to be active (arterolane) and claims that they developed a new drug? In an interview in LiveMint, Sawhney says, “Ranbaxy spent around $30 million on Synriam and the contribution from DST [India’s Department of Science & Technology] was Rs.5 crore. The drug went through several phases of development since the project began in 2003. We did not look at this as a commercial development. Instead, this is a CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] venture for us.” That’s a give away because developing a new drug from scratch has to cost more than $30 million + Rs.50 million.


Ranbaxy  now taken over by sun

SynriamTM

Generic Name
Arterolane Maleate and Piperaquine Phosphate Tablets
Composition
Each film coated tablet contains: Arterolane maleate equivalent to Arterolane ……………………………150 mg Piperaquinephosphate……………750 mg
Dosage Form
Tablets
Inactive ingredients:
Microcrystalline cellulose, Crospovidone, Magnesium stearate, Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose/Hypromellose, Titanium dioxide, Macrogol/ Polyethylene glycol, Talc, Ferric Oxide (Yellow), Ferric Oxide (Red)

Description SynriamTM is a fixed dose combination of two antimalarial active ingredients arterolane maleate and piperaquine phosphate.

Arterolane maleate is a synthetic trioxolane compound. The chemical name of arterolane maleate is cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3’-8’-[[[(2’-amino-2’ methylpropyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl] 1’,2’,4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane hydrogen maleate. The molecular formula is C26H40N2O8 and molecular weight is 508.61. The structural formula is as follows:

MALARIA
Malaria is one of the most prevalent and deadly parasitic diseases in the world. Up to 289 million cases of malaria may have occurred in 2010, causing between 660,000 and 1.25 million deaths, mainly in Africa and mostly of children younger than 5 years.
(WHO: http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world_malaria_report_2012/en/index.html; Fidock, D. A. Eliminating Malaria. Science 2013, 340, 1531-1533.)

The most serious problem in malaria treatment is that the parasites causing the disease, particularly the deadly Plasmodium falciparum, have developed resistance to widely used drugs, particularly chloroquine (CQ). Currently, the most efficacious therapies are combinations of an artemisinin-type compound with a long-lasting partner drug like lumefantrine, amodiaquine or mefloquine.

Malaria, the most common parasitic disease of humans, remains a major health and economic burden in most tropical countries. Large areas of Central and South America, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Africa, the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Oceania are considered as malaria-risk areas. It leads to a heavy toll of illness and death, especially amongst children and pregnant women.

According to the World Health Organization, it is estimated that the disease infects about 400 million people each year, and around two to three million people die from malaria every year. There are four kinds of malaria parasites that infect human: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae.

Malaria spreads from one person to another by the bite of mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, which serves as vector. When a mosquito sucks the blood of human, sporozoites are transfused into the human body together with saliva of the mosquito. The sporozoites enter into the hepatocytes, reproduce asexually and finally enter into the blood stream. The parasites continue to multiply inside the red blood cells, until they burst and release large number of merozoites. This process continues, destroying a significant number of blood cells and causing the characteristic paroxysm (“chills and fever”) associated with the disease. In the red blood cells, some of the merozoites become male or female gametocytes. These gametocytes are ingested by the mosquito when it feeds on blood. The gametocytes fuse in the vector’s gut; sporozoites are produced and are migrated to the vector’s salivary glands.

The clinical symptoms of malaria are generally associated with the bursting of red blood cells causing an intense fever associated with chills that can leave the infected individual exhausted and bedridden. More severe symptoms associated with repeat infections and/or infection by Plasmodium falciparum include anaemia, severe headaches, convulsions, delirium and, in some instances, death.

Quinine, an antimalarial compound that is extracted from the bark of cinchona tree, is one of the oldest and most effective drugs in existence. Chloroquine and mefloquine are the synthetic analogs of quinine developed in 1940’s, which due to their effectiveness, ease of manufacture, and general lack of side effects, became the drugs of choice. The downside to quinine and its derivatives is that they are short-acting and have bitter taste. Further, they fail to prevent disease relapses and are also associated with side effects commonly known as “Chinchonism syndrome” characterized by nausea, vomiting, dizziness, vertigo and deafness. However, in recent years, with the emergence of drug- resistant strains of parasite and insecticide-resistant strains of vector, the treatment and/or control of malaria is becoming difficult with these conventional drugs.

Malarial treatment further progressed with the discovery of Artemisinin

(qinghaosu), a naturally occurring endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the plant Artemisia annua (Meshnick et al., Microbiol. Rev. 1996, 60, p. 301-315; Vroman et al., Curr. Pharm. Design, 1999, 5, p. 101-138; Dhingra et al., 2000, 66, p. 279-300), and a number of its precursors, metabolites and semi-synthetic derivatives which have shown to possess antimalarial properties. The antimalarial action of artemisinin is due to its reaction with iron in free heme molecules of the malaria parasite, with the generation of free radicals leading to cellular destruction. This initiated a substantial effort to elucidate its molecular mechanism of action (Jefford, dv. Drug Res. 1997, 29, p. 271-325; Cumming et al., Adv. Pharmacol. 1997, 37, p. 254-297) and to identify novel antimalarial peroxides (Dong and Vennerstrom, Expert Opin. Ther. Patents 2001, 1 1, p. 1753-1760).

Although the clinically useful artemisinin derivatives are rapid acting and potent antimalarial drugs, they have several disadvantages including recrudescence,

neurotoxicity, (Wesche et al., Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 1994, 38, p. 1813-1819) and metabolic instability (White, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1994, 88, p. 41-43). A fair number of these compounds are quite active in vitro, but most suffer from low oral activity (White, Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1994, 88, p. 41-43 and van Agtmael et al., Trends Pharmacol. Sci., 1999, 20, p. 199-205). Further all these artemisinin derivatives are conventionally obtained from plant source and are therefore expensive. As the cultivation of the plant material is dependent on many factors including the weather conditions, the supply source thus becomes finite and there are chances of varying yield and potency. This leads to quality inconsistencies and supply constraints. As malaria is more prevalent in developing countries, a switch to cheaper and effective medicine is highly desirable.

Thus there exists a need in the art to identify new peroxide antimalarial agents, especially those which are not dependent on plant source and can be easily synthesized, are devoid of neurotoxicity, and which possess improved solubility, stability and pharmacokinetic properties.

Following that, many synthetic antimalarial 1 ,2,4-trioxanes (Jefford, Adv. Drug Res. 1997, 29, p. 271-325; Cumming et al., Adv. Pharmacol. 1997, 37, p. 254-297), 1,2,4,5-tetraoxanes (Vennerstrom et al., J. Med. Chem., 2000, 43, p. 2753-2758), and other endoperoxides have been prepared. Various patents/applications disclose means and method for treating malaria using Spiro or dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolanes for example, U.S.

Patent Application No. 2004/0186168 and U.S. Patent Nos. 6,486, 199 and 6,825,230. The present invention relates to solid dosage forms of the various spiro or dispiro 1 ,2,4- trioxolanes antimalarial compounds disclosed in these patents/applications and are incorporated herein by reference.

Active compounds representing various Spiro and dispiro 1 ,2,4-trioxolane derivatives possess excellent potency, efficacy against Plasmodium parasites, and a lower degree of neurotoxicity, in addition to their structural simplicity and ease of synthesis. Furthermore, these compounds have half-lives which are believed to permit short-term treatment regimens comparing favorably to other artemisinin-like drugs. In general, the therapeutic dose of trioxolane derivative may range between about 0.1-1000 mg/kg/day, in particular between about 1-100 mg/kg/day. The foregoing dose may be administered as a single dose or may be divided into multiple doses. For malaria prevention, a typical dosing schedule could be, for example, 2.0-1000 mg/kg weekly beginning 1-2 weeks prior to malaria exposure, continued up to 1-2 weeks post-exposure.

Monotherapy with artemisinin (natural or synthetic) class of drugs might cure the patients within 3 days, however perceiving the potential threat of the malarial parasite developing resistance towards otherwise very potent artemisinin class of drugs, WHO had strictly called for an immediate halt to the provision of single-drug artemisinin malaria pills. Combination therapy in case of malaria retards the development of resistance, improve efficacy by lowering recrudescence rate, provides synergistic effect, and increase exposure of the parasite to the drugs.

Artemsinin based combinations are available in the market for a long time.

Artemether-lumafentrine (Co-artem®) was the first fixed dose antimalarial combination containing an artemisinin derivative and has been known since 1999. This combination has passed extensive safety and efficacy trials and has been approved by more than 70 regulatory agencies. Co-artem® is recommended by WHO as the first line treatment for uncomplicated malaria.

Other artemisinin based combinations include artesunate and amodiaquine (Coarsucam®), and dihydroartemisin and piperaquine (Eurartesim®). Unfortunately, all the available artemisinin based combinations have complicated dosage regimens making it difficult and inconvenient for a patient to comply completely with the total prescribed duration. For example, the dosage regimen of Co-artem® for an adult having body weight of more than 35 kg includes 6 doses over three days. The first dose comprises four tablets initially, the second dose comprises four tablets after eight hours, the third to sixth doses comprise four tablets twice for another two days; making it a total of 24 tablets. The dosage regimen of Coarsucam® for an adult having body weight of more than 36 kg or age above 14 years includes three doses over three days; each dose comprises two tablets; making it a total of six tablets. The dosage regimen of Eurartesim® for an adult having body weight between 36 kg – 75 kg includes 3 doses over three days, each dose comprises of three tablets, making it a total of nine tablets.

It is evident that the available artemisinin-based combinations have a high pill burden on patients as they need to consume too many tablets. As noted above, this may increase the possibility of missing a few doses, and, consequently, could result in reduced efficacy due to non-compliance and may even lead to development of resistance for the drug. Therefore, there is an urgent and unmet need for anti-malarial combinations with a simplified daily dosing regimen that reduces the pill burden and would increase patient compliance.

Apart from simplifying the regimen, there are certain limitations for formulators developing formulations with trioxolones, the first being their susceptibility to degradation in presence of moisture that results in reduced shelf lives. Another is their bitter taste, which can result in poor compliance of the regimen or selection of another, possibly less effective, therapeutic agent.

……………………..

http://www.google.st/patents/US6906205

Figure US06906205-20050614-C00051

……………………

http://www.google.st/patents/WO2013008218A1?cl=en

structural Formula II.

 

Figure imgf000013_0001

Formula II

Active compound includes one or more of the various spiro and dispiro trioxolane derivatives disclosed in U.S. Application No. 2004/0186168 and U.S. Patent Nos.

6,486,199 and 6,825,230, which are incorporated herein by reference. These trioxolanes are relatively sterically hindered on at least one side of the trioxolane heterocycle which provides better in vivo activity, especially with respect to oral administration. Particularly, spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolanes derivatives possess excellent potency and efficacy against Plasmodium parasites, and a lower degree of neurotoxicity.

The term “Active compound I” herein means cis-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′- amino-2′-methylpropyl)amino]carbonyl]-methyl]- 1 ‘,2′,4’-trioxaspiro[4.5]decane hydrogen maleate. The Active compound I may be present in an amount of from about 5% to about 25%, w/w based on the total dosage form.

 

………………

http://www.google.st/patents/WO2007138435A2?cl=en

A synthetic procedure for preparing compounds of Formula I, salts of the free base c«-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′-amino-2′-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]- 1 ‘, 2′, 4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane has been disclosed in U.S. 6,906,205.

Figure imgf000002_0001

 

The process for the preparation of compounds of Formula I wherein a compound of Formula II (wherein R is lower alkyl) is reacted with a compound of Formula III (wherein R is lower alkyl) to obtain compound of Formula IV;

Figure imgf000005_0001
Figure imgf000005_0002

Formula Formula IV

followed by hydrolysis of the compounds of Formula IV to give a compound of Formula V;

Figure imgf000005_0003

Formula V followed by the reaction of the compound of Formula V with an activating agent, for example, methyl chloroformate, ethyl chloroformate, propyl chloro formate, n-butyl chloro formate, isobutyl chloroformate or pivaloyl chloride leads to the formation of mixed anhydride, which is reacted in situ reaction with 1 ,2-diamino-2-methyl propane to give a compound of Formula VI; and

Figure imgf000005_0004

Formula Vl reacting the compound of Formula VI with an acid of Formula HX (wherein X can be the same as defined earlier) to give compounds of Formula I.

Example 1 : Preparation of O-methyl-2-adamantanone oxime

To a solution of 2-adamantanone (50 g, 0.3328 mol, 1 equiv.) in methanol (0.25 lit), sodium hydroxide solution (15 g, 0.3761mol, 1.13 equiv, in 50 mL water) was added followed by methoxylamine hydrochloride (37.5 g x 81.59% Purity= 30.596 g, 0.366 mol, 1.1 equiv) at room temperature under stirring. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 to 2 h. The reaction was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was concentrated at 40- 45°C under vacuum to get a thick residue. Water (250 mL) was added at room temperature and the reaction mixture was stirred for half an hour. The white solid was filtered, washed with water (50 mL), and dried at 40 to 45°C under reduced pressure. O-methyl 2- adamantanone oxime (57 g, 95 % yield) was obtained as a white solid.

(M++l) 180, 1HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl3 ): δ 1.98 – 1.79 (m, 12H), 2.53 (s, IH), 3.46 ( s, IH), 3.81 (s, 3H).

Example 2: Preparation of 4-(methoxycarbonvmethvPcvclohexanone A high pressure autoclave was charged with a mixture of methyl (4- hydroxyphenyl)acetate (50 g, 0.30 mol), palladium ( 5g) (10 %) on carbon (50 % wet) and O- xylene (250 mL). The reaction mixture was stirred under 110 to 115 psi of hydrogen pressure for 7 to 8 h at 1400C. The reaction was monitored by HPLC. The reaction mixture was then cooled to room temperature, and the catalyst was filtered off. Filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to get 4-(methoxycarbonylmethyl)cyclohexanone as light yellow to colorless oily liquid (48.7 g, 97.4 %).

(M++!) 171, ‘ HNMR (400 MHz, CDCl 3): δ 1.48 – 1.51 ( m, 2H), 2.1 1-2.07 (m, 2H), 2.4- 2.23 (m, 7H), 3.7 (s, 3H).

Example 3: Preparation of methyl (Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-l, 3′-f 1,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricvclor3.3.1.1371decan1-4-ylacetate

A solution of O-methyl-2-adamantanone oxime (example 1) (11.06 g, 61.7 mmol, 1.5 equiv.) and 4-(methoxycarbonymethyl)cyclohexanone (example 2) (7.0 g, 41.1 mmol, 1 equiv.) in cyclohexane ( 200ml) and dichloromethane (40 mL) was treated with ozone (ozone was produced with an OREC ozone generator [0.6 L/min. O2, 60 V] passed through an empty gas washing bottle that was cooled to -780C). The solvent was removed after the reaction was complete. After removal of solvents, the crude product was purified by crystallization from 80% aqueous ethanol (200 mL) to afford the title compound as a colorless solid. Yield: 10.83 g, 78%, mp: 96-980C; 1HNMR (500 Hz3CDCl3): δ 1.20-1.33 (m, 2H), 1.61-2.09 (m, 5 21H), 2.22 (d, J = 6.8Hz, 2H), 3.67(s,3H).

Example 4: Preparation of (Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3′-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″- tricvclo [3.3.1.137] decanl-4-ylacetic acid

Sodium hydroxide (3.86 g, 96.57 mmol, 3 equiv.) in water (80 mL) was added to a solution of methyl (\s, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3′-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricyclo

10 [3.3.1.I37] decan]-4-ylacetate (example 3) (10.83 g, 32.19 mmol, 1 equiv.) in 95% ethanol (150 mL). The mixture was stirred at 500C for about 4 h, cooled to O0C, and treated with IM hydrochloric acid (129ml, 4 equiv). The precipitate was collected by filtration, washed with 50 % aqueous ethanol (150 mL) and dried in vacuum at 40 0C to give the title compound as colorless solid. Yield: 9.952 g, 96%, mp: 146-1480C ( 95% ethanol), 1HNMR (500 Hz,

15 CDCl3): δ 1.19-1.41 (m,2H), 1.60-2.05 (m,21H), 2.27 (d, J=6.8 Hz,2H).

Example 5: Preparation of c?s-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′-amino-2′-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]-! ‘, T , 4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane

Method A:

(Is, 4s)-dispiro[cyclohexane- 1 ,3 ‘-[ 1 ,2,4]trioxolane-5 ‘,2 ‘ ‘-tricyclo[3.3.1.137]decan]-4-

.0 ylacetic acid (example 4) (5 g ,15.5mmol, 1 equiv) was mixed with triethylamine (2.5 g , 24.8 mmol, 1.6 equiv) in 100ml of dichloromethane. The reaction mixture was cooled to – 1O0C to 00C. Ethyl chloro formate (1.68 g, 17 mmol, 1.0 equiv) in 15 mL dichloromethane was charged to the above reaction mixture at – 100C to 00C. The reaction mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 10 to 30 minutes. The resulting mixed anhydride reaction mixture

15 was added dropwise to a previously prepared solution of l,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (1.64 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.2 equiv), in 100 mL dichloromethane at -100C to O0C. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the same temperature till the reaction was complete. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. The reaction was complete

>0 within 2 h. Nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (50 mL) was charged, organic layer was separated and washed with 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (50 mL) and water (50 mL) at room temperature. The organic layer was dried over sodium sulphate and the solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. Hexane (50ml) was added to obtain residue under stirring at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with 5 mL of chilled hexane. The solid was dried under reduced pressure at room 5 temperature.

Yield: 5.2 g (85.4 %), (M++l) 393, 1HNMR (400 MHz, DMSO-J6 ): δ 0.929 ( s, 6H), 1.105 – 1.079 (m, 2H), 1.887-1.641 (m, 21H), 2.030-2.017 (d, 2H), 2.928 (d, 2H).

Method B:

(Is, 4s)-dispiro [cyclohexane-1, 3′-[l,2,4] trioxolane-5′, 2″-tricyclo [3.3.1.I37]

10 decan]-4-ylacetic acid (example 4) (10 g, 31mmol, 1 equiv) was treated with isobutyl chloroformate (4.5 g, 33mmol, 1.1 equiv) in presence of organic base like triethyl amine (5 g, 49.6mmol, 1.6 equiv) at 00C to 7°C in 250ml of dichloromethane. The solution was stirred at O0C to 7°C for aboutlO to 30 minutes. To the above reaction mixture, previously prepared solution of l,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (3.27 g, 37 mmol, 1.2 equiv), in 50 mL of

15 dichloromethane was added at O0C to 7°C in one lot. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the room temperature till reaction was over. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. Reaction was complete within 2 h. The reaction nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (250 mL) was charged, organic

20 layer was separated and washed with 10% sodium bicarbonate solution (200 mL) and water (100 mL) at room temperature and the solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. Hexane (100ml) was added to the residue, under stirring, at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with chilled hexane (10 mL). The resultant solid was dried under reduced pressure at room temperature. Yield: 10.63 g (87%), (M++l) 393, 1HNMR

>5 (400 MHz, DMSO-J6 ) :δ 0.928 ( s, 6H), 1.102 – 1.074 (m, 2H), 1.859-1.616 (m, 21H), 2.031- 2.013 (d, 2H), 2.94-2.925 (d, 2H). Method C:

(\s, 4s)-dispiro[cyclohexane-l,3′-[l,2,4]trioxolane-5′,2″-tricyclo[3.3.1.13>7]decan]-4- ylacetic acid (example 4) (5 g, 15.5mmol, 1 equiv) was treated with pivaloyl chloride (1.87 g, 15.5 mmol, 1 equiv) and triethylamine (2.5gm, 24.8mmol, 1.6 equiv) at -15°C to -100C in dichloromethane (125 mL). The solution was stirred at -150C to -100C for aboutlO to 30 minutes. It resulted in the formation of mixed anydride. To the above reaction mixture, previously prepared solution of 1 ,2-diamino-2-methylpropane (1.64 g, 18.6 mmol, 1.2 equiv) in 25 mL dichloromethane was added at -15°C to -100C. The temperature of reaction mixture was raised to room temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at the room temperature till reaction was over. Reaction monitoring was done by thin layer chromatography using 5 to 10% methanol in dichloromethane. The reaction was complete within 2 h. Nitrogen atmosphere was maintained throughout the reaction. Water (125 mL) was charged, organic layer was separated and washed with 50 mL of 10% sodium bicarbonate solution and 125 mL of water, respectively at room temperature. Finally solvent was removed at 25 to 4O0C under reduced pressure. 50 mL of 5% Ethyl acetate – hexane solvent mixture was added to the residue under stirring at room temperature. The mixture was filtered and washed with 5 mL of chilled hexane. Solid was dried under reduced pressure at room temperature. Yield: 5.03 g (83 %), (M++l) 393, 1JINMR (400 MHz, OMSO-d6 ):δ 0.93 ( s, 6H), 1.113 – 1.069 (m, 2H), 1.861-1.644 (m, 21H), 2.033-2.015 (d, 2H), 2.948-2.933 (d, 2H).

Example 6: Preparation of c/s-adamantane-2-spiro-3′ -8 ‘-πT(2′-amino-2’ -methyl propyl) amino! carbonyl] methyli-l ‘, 2\ 4′-U-JoXaSpJrQ [4.51 decane maleate To a solution of c/s-adamantane-2-spiro-3′-8′-[[[(2′-amino-2’-methyl propyl) amino] carbonyl] methyl]-! ‘, 2′, 4’-trioxaspiro [4.5] decane (example 5) (60 g, 0.153 moles) in ethanol (150 mL) was added a solution of maleic acid (17.3 g, 0.15 moles, 0.98 equiv. in ethanol 90 mL) and the reaction mixture was stirred for about 1 h. To this clear solution, n- heptane (720 mL) was added at room temperature in 1 h and the reaction mixture was stirred for 3 h. It was then cooled to 0 to 100C and filtered. The cake was washed with n-heptane (60 mL) and dried under vacuum at 40-450C.

Yield: 67 g, 77.4%, mp: 1490C (decomp), (M++l) 393.5, 1HNMR (300 MHz, DMSO-^ ): δ 1.05-1.11 (2H,m), 1.18 (6H,s), 1.64-1.89 (21H,m), 2.07(2H,d), 3.21 (2H,d), 6.06 (2H,d), 7.797 (2H, bs), 8.07 (IH, t).

 

 

References

  1.  Dong, Yuxiang; Wittlin, Sergio; Sriraghavan, Kamaraj; Chollet, Jacques; Charman, Susan A.; Charman, William N.; Scheurer, Christian; Urwyler, Heinrich et al. (2010). “The Structure−Activity Relationship of the Antimalarial Ozonide Arterolane (OZ277)”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 53 (1): 481–91. doi:10.1021/jm901473sPMID 19924861.
  2.  Blow to Ranbaxy drug research plans at LiveMint.com, Sep 21 2007
  3.  Vennerstrom, Jonathan L.; Arbe-Barnes, Sarah; Brun, Reto; Charman, Susan A.; Chiu, Francis C. K.; Chollet, Jacques; Dong, Yuxiang; Dorn, Arnulf et al. (2004). “Identification of an antimalarial synthetic trioxolane drug development candidate”. Nature 430 (7002): 900–4.doi:10.1038/nature02779PMID 15318224.
  4.  In the Pipeline: “Ozonides As Drugs: What Will They Think Of Next?”, by Derek Lowe, November 23, 2009, at Corante.com
  5.  Indian company starts Phase III trials of synthetic artemisinin, May 4 2009, at the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network
  6. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v430/n7002/full/nature02779.html
5-27-2011
PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION OF DISPIRO 1,2,4-TRIOXOLANE ANTIMALARIALS (OZ277)
2-13-2009
STABLE DOSAGE FORMS OF SPIRO AND DISPIRO 1,2,4-TRIOXOLANE ANTIMALARIALS
6-15-2005
Spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trioxolane antimalarials
11-31-2004
Spiro and dispiro 1,2,4-trixolane antimalarials

ANTIMALARIALS

 

 

http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/2013/03/new-antimalarial-drug-class-resistance-elq-300-quinolone

 

Antimalarial drugsSpeeding to a new lead

http://www.nature.com/nrd/journal/v9/n11/full/nrd3301.html


Structure of NITD609; the 1R,3Sconfiguration is fundamental for its antimalarial activity

Sun Pharma has bought Ranbaxy for $4 billion to create the world’s fifth-biggest generic drugmaker.


Sun buys Ranbaxy for $4 billion

Dilip sanghvi, sun pharma promoter

The move will make the company the largest pharma firm in India, while Daiichi Sankyo – majority owner of Ranbaxy – will become the second largest shareholder in Sun Pharma with a 9% stake and the right to nominate one director to Sun Pharma’s Board of Directors. http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/14-04-07/Sun_buys_Ranbaxy_for_4_billion.aspx

Read more at: http://www.pharmatimes.com/Article/14-04-07/Sun_buys_Ranbaxy_for_4_billion.aspx#ixzz2yGIjkMob

 

 

Dilip Shanghvi, Managing Director of Sun Pharma said in a release, “Ranbaxy has a significant presence in the Indian pharma market and in the US where it offers a broad portfolio of ANDAs and first-to-file opportunities. In high-growth emerging markets, it provides a strong platform which is highly complementary to Sun Pharma’s strengths,”

Under the agreement, Ranbaxy shareholders will get 0.8 shares of Sun Pharma for each Ranbaxy share.

Arun Sahwney, managing director and chief executive officer of Ranbaxy said in a statement, “Sun Pharma has a proven track record of creating significant long-term shareholder value and successfully integrating acquisitions into its growing portfolio of assets,”

Who Will Benefit?

Daiichi Sankyo Co. Ltd is the parent company of Ranbaxy as they acquired it from previous promoters and investors. As soon as Ranbaxy was acquired, their plants came under a scanner from US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which troubled Daiichi as their own reputation was under stake.

Now, they will be the most relived entity as Sun Pharma will manage all such cases pertaining to Ranbaxy. Daiichi will now control 9% of Sun Pharma as a result of the current acquisition.

Insiders are claiming that Daiichi will sell this 9% stake as well and come out of the business all together.

Ranbaxy shareholders have cheered this latest development as their shares have gained since the announcement of this deal.

Ranbezolid from Ranbaxy as an oxazolidinone antibacterial


Ranbezolid structure.svg

Ranbezolid

392659-39-1 hydrochloride

392659-38-0 (free base)

N-{[(5S)-3-(3-Fluoro-4-{4-[(5-nitro-2-furyl)methyl]-1-piperazinyl}phenyl)-2-oxo-1,3-oxazolidin-5-yl]methyl}acetamide

(S)-N-[[3-fluoro-4-[N-1[4-{2-furyl-(5-nitro)methyl}]piperazinyl]-phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]-methyl]acetamide

AC1LAX1P,  RBx7644 (*Hydrochloride*),RBx-7644
Molecular Formula: C21H24FN5O6   Molecular Weight: 461.443563
Ranbaxy Lab Ltd  ORIGINATOR
Ranbezolid is a novel oxazolidinone antibacterial. It competitively inhibits monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A).[1]

Infections due to Gram-positive bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae(PRSP) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in hospital settings and community today. Oxazolidinones are a new class of totally synthetic antibacterial agents active against Gram-positive infections. Linezolid  (Zyvox™, Pharmacia/Pfizer,  is a drug in this class, approved in the United States and Europe for treatment of Gram-positive nosocomial and community-acquired pneumoniae and skin infections. Oxazolidinones inhibit the bacterial protein synthesis prior to the chain initiation step, by binding to the 23S rRNA of 50S ribosomal subunit, and interfering with the initiator fMet–tRNA binding to the P-site of the ribosomal peptidyltransferase centre

 

 

Ranbezolid hydrochloride, RBx-7644

9-23-2005
Plymorphic forms of phenyl oxazolidinone derivatives

The title compound is prepared by reductive alkylation of the known piperazinyl oxazolidinone derivative (I) with 5-nitro-2-furfural (II) in the presence of NaBH(OAc)3, followed by conversion to the corresponding hydrochloride salt.

EP 1303511; US 2002103186; WO 0206278; WO 0307870; WO 0308389

…………….

synthesis

The antibacterial activity of RBx-7644 is due to the 5(S)-acetamidomethyl configuration at the oxazolidinone ring, and thus, asymmetric synthesis of only the 5(S)-enantiomer was desirable: 3,4-Difluoronitrobenzene (I) is condensed with piperazine in acetonitrile to give 4-(2-fluoro-4-nitrophenyl)-piperazine (II) as a light yellow compound. Compound (II) is dissolved in dichloromethane and triethylamine, followed by the addition of Boc-anhydride, to provide compound (III). 4-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-1-(2-fluoro-4-nitrophenyl)piperazine (III), upon hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C in methanol at 50 psi, yields 4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-1-(2-fluoro-4-aminophenyl)piperazine (IV) as a dark solid. Compound (IV) reacts with benzylchloroformate in dry THF in the presence of solid sodium bicarbonate to afford the desired compound (V). 4-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-1-[2-fluoro-4-(benzyloxycarbonylamino)phenyl]piperazine (V), upon treatment with n-BuLi and (R)-glycidyl butyrate at -78 癈, gives the desired (R)-(-)-3-[3-fluoro-4-[4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl]-5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-oxazolidinone (VI). The hydroxymethyl compound (VI) is treated with methanesulfonyl chloride in dichloromethane in the presence of triethylamine to give (R)-(-)-3-[3-fluoro-4-[4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl]phenyl]-5-(methylsulfonyloxymethyl)-2-oxazolidinone (VII). The sulfonyl derivative (VII) is treated with sodium azide in dimethylformamide to provide the azide (VIII) as a white solid. (R)-(-)-3-[3-Fluoro-4-[4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)piperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-5-(azidomethyl)-2-oxazolidinone (VIII), upon hydrogenation with H2 over Pd/C at 45 psi, gives (S)-(-)-3-[3-fluoro-4-[4-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-piperazin-1-yl]phenyl]-5-(aminomethyl)-2-oxazolidinone (IX). The aminomethyl compound (IX), upon treatment with acetic anhydride in dichloromethane in the presence of triethylamine, affords the acetamide derivative (X). The acetamidomethyl-oxazolidinone derivative (X), upon treatment with trifluoroacetic acid, gives (S)-(-)-3-[3-fluoro-4-(1-piperazinyl)phenyl]-5-(acetamidomethyl)-2-oxazolidinone, which, without isolation, is treated with 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde in the presence of sodium triacetoxy borohydride to provide compound (XI). Compound (XI), upon treatment with ethanolic HCl, affords RBx-7644 as a light yellow crystalline solid.

 

………………….

polymorphs

http://www.google.com/patents/US20050209248

(S)-N-[[3-fluoro-4-[N-1[4-{2-furyl-(5-nitro)methyl}]piperazinyl]-phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]-methyl]acetamidehydrochloride having the Formula I.

Figure US20050209248A1-20050922-C00001

 

The compound of Formula I, namely, (S)-N-[[3-fluoro-4-[N-1 [4-{2-furyl-(5-nitro)methyl}] piperazinyl]-phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]-methyl]acetamide hydrochloride is a phenyl oxazolidinone derivative, as disclosed in PCT application WO 02/06278. It is said to be useful as antimicrobial agent, effective against a number of human and veterinary pathogens, including gram-positive aerobic bacteria, such as multiply resistant staphylococci, streptococci and enterococci as well as anaerobic organisms such as Bacterioides spp. andClostridia spp. species, and acid fast organisms such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium spp.

The PCT application WO 02/06278 describes the preparation of compounds of Formula I. The products of Formula I obtained by following the cited methods tend to be hygroscopic and difficult to filter. These types of disadvantageous properties have proven to be serious obstacles to the large-scale manufacture of a compound. Further, handling problems are encountered during the preparation of pharmaceutical compositions comprising the hygroscopic compound of Formula I obtained by following the method disclosed in WO 02/06278.

EXAMPLE 1 Preparation of Polymorphic ‘Form A’ of the Compound of Formula I

50 gm of free base of Formula I was dissolved in ethanol (750 ml) by heating at about 60° C. and to this solution was added ethanolic HCl (13.36 ml, 8.9 N) at about 45-50° C. The reaction mixture was cooled to about 10° C., and stirred for about 4 hours. The separated solid was filtered off and dried under vacuum at 60° C. The solid was then digested in ethanol (150 ml) at 70-80° C. for about 4 hours. It was then cooled to about 10° C., the solid was filtered and dried under vacuum at 60-65° C. to give 30 gm of the pure polymorphic ‘Form A’ of compound of Formula I.

………………

 

Synthesis and SAR of novel oxazolidinones: Discovery of ranbezolid

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005, 15(19): 4261

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X05008310

Synthesis and SAR of novel oxazolidinones: Discovery of ranbezolid

Pages 4261-4267
Biswajit Das, Sonali Rudra, Ajay Yadav, Abhijit Ray, A.V.S. Raja Rao, A.S.S.V. Srinivas, Ajay Soni, Suman Saini, Shalini Shukla, Manisha Pandya, Pragya Bhateja, Sunita Malhotra, Tarun Mathur, S.K. Arora, Ashok Rattan, Anita Mehta

 

Graphical abstract

Novel oxazolidinones were synthesized containing a number of substituted five-membered heterocycles attached to the ‘piperazinyl–phenyl–oxazolidinone’ core of eperezolid. Further, the piperazine ring of the core was replaced by other diamino-heterocycles. These modifications led to several compounds with potent activity against a spectrum of resistant and susceptible Gram-positive organisms, along with the identification of ranbezolid (RBx 7644) as a clinical candidate.

Substitution of five-membered heterocycles on to the ‘piperazinyl–phenyl–oxazolidinone’ core structure led to the identification of ranbezolid as a clinical candidate. Further replacement of piperazine ring with other diamino-heterocycles led to compounds with potent antibacterial activity.

image

Full-size image (8 K)

Scheme 5.

Reagents and conditions: (a) Method A: TFA, CH2Cl2, 0 °C → rt; 5-chloromethyl-2-furaldehyde, potassium carbonate, DMF, rt; or (b) Method B: TFA, CH2Cl2, 0 °C → rt; 5-nitrofuran-2-carboxaldehyde, sodiumtriacetoxyborohydride, THF, molecular sieves 3 Å, rt. 7 = ranbezolid

 

  • Synthesis of compound 7: (S)-N-[[3-[3-Fluoro-4-(N-4-tert-butoxycarbonyl-piperazin-1-yl)phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxa-zolidinyl]-methyl]acetamide (28a, 3.65 kg, 8.37 mol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (30.86 L) and cooled to 5 °C. To it trifluoroacetic acid (6.17 L) added dropwise and stirred for 14 h allowing the reaction mixture to warm to rt. The reaction mixture was evaporated in vacuo and the residue dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (58 L) followed by addition of molecular sieves 4 Å (4.2 kg). To the resulting mixture 5-nitro-2-furaldehyde (1.5 kg, 10.77 mol) was added followed by sodium triacetoxyborohydride (5.32 kg, 25.1 mol) and stirred for 14 h. The reaction mixture was filtered over Celite and filtrate evaporated in vacuo. The residue was dissolved in ethylacetate (85.6 L) and washed with satd sodium bicarbonate solution (36 L) and water (36 L). The organic layer was dried over anhyd sodium sulfate (3 kg) and evaporated in vacuo. The crude residue was purified by column chromatography (1–3% methanol in ethylacetate) to obtain (S)-N-[[3-[3-fluoro-4-[N-4-(5-nitro-2-furylmethyl)-piperazin-1-yl]phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxa-zolidinyl]methyl]acetamide (39, 2.6 kg, yield 67%). Mp: 136 °C. 1H NMR (CDCl3): δ 7.42 (dd, 1H, phenyl–H), 7.29 (m, 2H, furyl–H), 7.07 (d, 1H, phenyl–H), 6.92 (t, 1H, phenyl–H), 6.51 (d, 1H, furyl–H), 6.11 (t, 1H, –NHCO–), 4.77 (m, 1H, oxazolidinone ring C5–H), 4.01 (t, 1H), 3.85–3.45 (m, 5H), 3.09 (m, 4H, piperazine–H), 2.72 (m, 4H, piperazine–H), 2.02 (s, 3H, –COCH3). MS m/z (rel. int.): 462.1 [(M+H)+, 100%], 484 [(M+Na)+, 25%], 500.2 [(M+K)+, 20%]. HPLC purity: 98%.

  • Compound 39(3.6 kg, 7.81 mol) was dissolved in abs ethanol (53.8 L) by heating to 60 °C. The resulting solution was cooled to 45 °C and ethanolic hydrochloride (1.48 L, 7.9 N) was added dropwise in 10 min. The mixture was then cooled to 10 °C and stirred for 4 h and the precipitate formed was filtered and washed with ethanol and dried to obtain (S)-N-[[3-[3-fluoro-4-[N-4-(5-nitro-2-furylmethyl)-piperazin-1-yl]phenyl]-2-oxo-5-oxazolidinyl]-methyl]acetamide hydrochloride, ranbezolid (7, 3.2 kg, yield from 39: 82%, yield from 28a: 55%).

  • Ranbezolid
  • Mp: 207–209 °C.

  •  1H NMR (DMSO, 300 MHz): δ 8.30 (t, 1H, –NHCO–), 7.75 (d, J = 3.3 Hz, 1H, furyl–H), 7.52 (dd, 1H, phenyl–H), 7.3–7.0 (m, 3H, phenyl–H, furyl–H), 4.70 (m, 1H, oxazolidinone ring C5H), 4.63 (s, 2H), 4.08 (t, J = 8.8 Hz, 1H, –CH2–), 3.73 (t, J = 7.5 Hz, 1H), 3.43 (br m, piperazine–H merged with H2O in DMSO), 1.83 (s, 3H, –COCH3).

  • HPLC purity: 98%. Anal. Calcd for C21H25ClN5O6·0.5H2O: C, 50.76; H, 5.48; N, 14.09. Anal. Found: C, 50.83; H, 5.17; N, 13.83.

ADDED communication FROM/by DR VIJAY KAUL

vijay kaul

vijay kaul   EX RANBAXY SCIENTIST

General Manager, R&D at Calyx Chemicals & Pharmaceuticals Ltd.

  • in.linkedin.com/pub/vijay-kaul/b/aa9/962

DR VIJAY KAUL       QUOTE……………Kindly go through my patent describing a two step cost effective environmentally benign process for the key intermediate of Ranbezolid.
Process for the preparation of 4-(4-benzyloxy-carbonylamino-2-fluorophenyl)-piperazine-1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester W02005051933  ,……………….UNQUOTE

novel methods for the synthesis of the 4-(4- benzyloxy-carbonylamino-2-fluorophenyl)-piperazine-l-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester of Formula I, which provides improvements over prior methods of synthesis. In one aspect, there is provided a process for the synthesis of highly pure 4-(4- benzyloxy-carbonylamino-2-fluorophenyl)-piperazine-l-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester of Formula I,

 

Figure imgf000003_0001

Formula I comprising the steps of: condensing piperazine with l,2-difluoro-4-nitrobenzene to form l-(2-fluoro-4-nitro-phenyl)- piperazine of Formula II,

 

Figure imgf000004_0001

contacting the compound of Formula II with di-tert-butoxycarbonyl anhydride to form 4- (2- fluoro-4-nitrophenyl)-piperazine 1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester of Formula III,

 

Figure imgf000004_0002

reducing the compound of Formula III to form 4-(4-amino-2-fluorophenyl)-piperazin-l- carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester of Formula IV,

 

Figure imgf000004_0003

Formula IV and reacting the compound of Formula IN with benzylchloroformate to form 4-(4-benzyloxy- carbonylamino-2-fluorophenyl)-piperazine- 1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester of Formula I. In one aspect, the step of condensing piperazine with l,2-difluoro-4-nitrobenzene is carried out in an aromatic hydrocarbon, such as toluene, xylene and the like, or mixtures thereof, and at a temperature of, for example, about 40 °C to about 90 °C, or from about 80 °C to about 90 °C.

Oxazolidinone compounds can be prepared from compounds of Formula I using, for example, using methods disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 6,734,307 and PCT Publication Nos. WO 02/06278, WO 03/007870, WO 03/097059, WO04/089944 and WO04/14392, which are incorporated herein by reference. Scheme I below shows a synthetic route starting from a compound of Formula I to oxazolidinone compounds.

 

Figure imgf000006_0001

Formula lb

 

Figure imgf000006_0002

Formula lc

 

Figure imgf000006_0003

Formula Id Scheme I A compound of Formula I

 

Figure imgf000007_0001

Formula I can be reacted with a base, e.g., butyl lithium, and glycidyl butyrate to form a compound of

Formula la.

 

Figure imgf000007_0002

Formula la

The compound of Formula la can be reacted with methane sulphonyl chloride, followed by ammonium hydroxide, and finally acetyl halide of Formula CH3CO-hal (wherein hal is Br, CI or I) to form a compound of Formula lb.

 

Figure imgf000007_0003

Formula lb

The compound of Formula lb can be deprotected to form a compound of Formula Ic.

 

Figure imgf000007_0004

The compound of Formula Ic can be reacted with R-T-(W)0-ι-R12 to form a compound of Formula Id

Figure imgf000008_0001

EXAMPLE Preparation of 4-(4-benzyloxy-carbonylamino-2-fluorophenyl -piperazine- 1 – carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester of Formula I

Piperazine (0.77 mol, 66.2 g) was mixed with toluene (500 mL) and stirred at room temperature and subsequently stirred at 50 °C until a homogenous solution was obtained. 1,2- difluoro-4-nitrobenzene (0.314 mol, 50 g) was added to the piperazine/toluene solution and the reaction mixture was stirred at 80-90 °C for 3-6 hours.

The reaction mixture then was cooled to 40-45 °C and diluted with deionized water. The organic layer was separated and about 250-350 mL of toluene was evaporated off under reduced pressure at 40 °C. Di-tert- butoxycarbonyl anhydride (0.334mol, 75 g) was then added dropwise to the reaction mixture at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1-2 hours and then further diluted with hexane (200 mL) and stirred for 15-20 minutes at room temperature.

The solid product formed in the reaction mixture was filtered, washed with hexane (150 mL), and dried under reduced pressure at 60-70°C to yield 4-(2-fluoro-4- nitrophenyl)-piperazine- 1-carboxylic acid tert butyl ester of Formula III. Yield = 1.8-1.9 (w\w); Purity = 96-98% by HPLC.

The compound of Formula III (0.246 mol, 80 g) was added to toluene (800 mL) followed by the addition of palladium on carbon (4 g) at room temperature with continuous stirring. Hydrogen gas was bubbled into the resulting reaction mixture at a pressure of 72 psi. The reaction mixture was stirred for 12-16 hours and then diluted with toluene (150 mL). The reaction mixture was filtered through a celite pad and washed with toluene (200 mL).

Sodium bicarbonate solution was added to the reaction mixture at room temperature with continuous stirring. Benzyl chloroformate (0.310 mol, 103 g) was added dropwise to the reaction mixture with continuous stirring for 2-3 hours. Ethyl acetate (1600 mL) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred for about 30 minutes followed by addition of deionized water (400 mL). The organic layer was separated and the solvent was removed under reduced pressure. The semi-solid product was washed with hexane (350 mL) to obtain 4-(4-benzyloxy- carbonylamino-2-fluorophenyl)-piperazine- 1-carboxylic acid tert-butyl ester of Formula I as a solid. Yield = 1.16-1.23 (w/w); Purity = 97-99% by HPLC.

References

  1. European Journal of Pharmacology. 2006. 545, 167–172
  2. US2005209248, 9-23-2005
    Plymorphic forms of phenyl oxazolidinone derivatives

  3. DU YU ET AL: “Synthesis and antibacterial activity of linezolid analogUES” BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, OXFORD, GB, vol. 12, 2002, pages 857-859, XP002245432 ISSN: 0960-894X
    2 * IN HWA CHUNG ET AL: “SYNTHESIS AND IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF QUATERNARY AMMONIUM CEPHALOSPORIN DERIVATIVES BEARING OXAZOLIDINONE MOIETY” ARCHIVES OF PHARMACAL RESEARCH, NATL. FISHERIES UNIVERSITY, PUSAN, KR, vol. 22, no. 6, 1999, pages 579-584, XP001037701 ISSN: 0253-6269
    3 * PAE A N ET AL: “3D QSAR studies on new oxazolidinone antibacterial agents by comparative molecular field analysis” BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, OXFORD, GB, vol. 9, no. 18, 20 September 1999 (1999-09-20), pages 2685-2690, XP004179952 ISSN: 0960-894X
    4 * PAE A N ET AL: “Synthesis and In Vitro Activity of new Oxazolidinone Antibacterial Agents Having Substituted Isoxazoles” BIOORGANIC & MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY LETTERS, OXFORD, GB, vol. 9, 1999, pages 2679-2684, XP002301080 ISSN: 0960-894X
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Ranbaxy Laboratories gets tentative approval for HIV combination therapy


HIV

pic credit-www.pharmaceutical-technology.com

http://www.allfordrugs.com/2013/05/22/ranbaxy-laboratories-gets-tentative-approval-for-hiv-combination-therapy/

or

http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newsranbaxy-laboratories-gets-tentative-approval-for-hiv-combination-therapy?WT.mc_id=DN_News

The US Food and Drug Administration has granted tentative approval for a fixed dose formulation of two generic drugs for use in combination with antiretrovirals.

Lamivudine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate tablets, manufactured by India’s Ranbaxy Laboratories, will not be available for marketing in the US because of existing patent protections, but will be eligible for purchase elsewhere under the President’s Emergency Plan for Aids Relief programme.

lamuvudine

Lamivudine (2′,3′-dideoxy-3′-thiacytidine, commonly called 3TC) is a potent nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (nRTI).

It is marketed by GlaxoSmithKline with the brand names Zeffix, Heptovir, Epivir, and Epivir-HBV.

Lamivudine has been used for treatment of chronic hepatitis B at a lower dose than for treatment of HIV. It improves the seroconversion of e-antigen positive hepatitis B and also improves histology staging of the liver. Long term use of lamivudine unfortunately leads to emergence of a resistant hepatitis B virus (YMDD) mutant. Despite this, lamivudine is still used widely as it is well tolerated.

tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF or PMPA), marketed by Gilead Sciences under the trade name Viread, belongs to a class of antiretroviral drugs known as nucleotide analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), which block reverse transcriptase, a crucial virus enzyme in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B virus infections.

 

 

NDA-US Marketing by Ranbaxy, Alembic has announced that it has received an NDA approval for extended release version of Pfizer’s anti depressant drug Pristiq, Desvenlafaxine Base


DESVENLAFAXINE

read at

http://www.pharmaintellect.com/2013/03/alembic-gets-approval-for-extended.html?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+Pharmainvest+%28PharmaInvest%29

http://www.business-standard.com/article/companies/alembic-pharma-gets-us-nod-for-antidepressant-tablets-113030500304_1.html

5 march 2013

Alembic has announced that it has received an NDA approval for extended release version of  Pfizer’s anti depressant drug Pristiq. Pristiq sell approximately  $550m in the US. Alembic has outlicensed rights to  Ranbaxy for marketing in the US. The company will start marketing the product immediately.

Alembic will manufacture and supply the drug to Ranbaxy for marketing in the US. Vadodara-based pharma player, Alembic Pharmaceuticals Limited has received the approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) for a bioequivalent version of Pristiq by Pfizer.

In a statement filed with the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) on Tuesday, Alembic informed that it has received USFDA approval for its new drug application (NDA), desvenlafaxine base extended release tablets.
The company is the sponsor and manufacturer of the NDA. Desvenlafaxine base extended release tablets is a prescription medicine and it is Alimbic’s first 505 (B) (2) filing. The product is indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder.”The company has entered into an out-licensing arrangement with Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited for exclusively marketing the product in the US market,” the statement said.

The product will be available in 50 mg and 100 mg disage strengths. The product will be launched immediately.
As per the industry data, the current market size for Pristiq is approximately US $ 538 million (approx. Rs 2900 crore).
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