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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Piclidenoson, иклиденозон , بيكليدينوسون , 匹利诺生 ,


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ChemSpider 2D Image | Piclidenoson | C18H19IN6O4

DB05511.png

CF 101, Piclidenoson

ALB-7208

CAS 152918-18-8
Chemical Formula: C18H19IN6O4
Molecular Weight: 510.28

(2S,3S,4R,5R)-3,4-Dihydroxy-5-{6-[(3-iodobenzyl)amino]-9H-purin-9-yl}-N-methyltetrahydro-2-furancarboxamide

N6-(3-Iodobenzyl)adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide

β-D-Ribofuranuronamide, 1-deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-

1-Deoxy-1-[6-[[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-D-ribofuranuronamide

10136
1-Deoxy-1-[6-[((3-Iodophenyl)methyl)amino]-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-methyl-β-D-ribofuranuronamide
30679UMI0N
UNII-30679UMI0N
Пиклиденозон [Russian] [INN]
بيكليدينوسون [Arabic] [INN]
匹利诺生 [Chinese] [INN]

CF 101 (known generically as IB-MECA) is an anti-inflammatory drug for rheumatoid arthritis patients. Its novel mechanism of action relies on antagonism of adenoside A3 receptors. CF101 is supplied as an oral drug and has an excellent safety profile. It is also being considered for the treatment of other autoimmune-inflammatory disorders, such as Crohn’s disease, psorasis and dry eye syndrome.

Image result for CF 101, Piclidenoson

  • Originator Can-Fite BioPharma
  • Class Amides; Anti-inflammatories; Antineoplastics; Antipsoriatics; Antirheumatics; Eye disorder therapies; Iodobenzenes; Neuroprotectants; Purine nucleosides; Ribonucleosides; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Adenosine A3 receptor agonists; Immunosuppressants; Interleukin 23 inhibitors; Interleukin-17 inhibitors
  • Phase III Plaque psoriasis; Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Phase II Glaucoma; Ocular hypertension
  • Phase I Uveitis
  • Preclinical Osteoarthritis
  • Discontinued Colorectal cancer; Dry eyes; Solid tumours
  • 05 Feb 2019 Can-Fite BioPharma receives patent allowance for A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists in USA
  • 05 Feb 2019 Can-Fite BioPharma receives patent allowance for A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonists in North America, South America, Europe and Asia
  • 21 Aug 2018 Phase-III clinical trials in Plaque psoriasis (Monotherapy) in Israel (PO)

Piclidenoson, also known as CF101, is a specific agonist to the A3 adenosine receptor, which inhibits the development of colon carcinoma growth in cell cultures and xenograft murine models. CF101 has been shown to downregulate PKB/Akt and NF-κB protein expression level. CF101 potentiates the cytotoxic effect of 5-FU, thus preventing drug resistance. The myeloprotective effect of CF101 suggests its development as an add-on treatment to 5-FU.

Piclidenoson is known to be a TNF-α synthesis inhibitor and a neuroprotectant. use as an A3 adenosine receptor agonist, useful for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, osteoarthritis and glaucoma.

Can-Fite BioPharma , under license from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), is developing a tablet formulation of CF-101, an adenosine A3 receptor-targeting, TNF alpha-suppressing low molecular weight molecule for the potential treatment of psoriasis, RA and liver cancer. The company is also investigating a capsule formulation of apoptosis-inducing namodenoson, the lead from a program of adenosine A3 receptor agonist, for treating liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In January 2019, preclinical data for the treatment of obesity were reported. Also, see WO2019105217 , WO2019105359 and WO2019105082 , published alongside.

PATENT

WO-2019105388

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2019105388&tab=FULLTEXT&maxRec=1000

Novel crystalline forms of CF-101 (also known as piclidenoson; designated as Forms CS1, CS2 and CS3), processes for their preparation, compositions comprising them and their use as an A3 adenosine receptor agonist for treating rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, osteoarthritis and glaucoma are claimed

CF-101 was developed by Kan-Fete Biomedical Co., Ltd. By the end of 2018, CF-101 is in clinical phase III for the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and psoriasis, as well as glaucoma. CF-101 is an A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR) agonist, and adenosine plays an important role in limiting inflammation through its receptor. Adenosine can produce anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting TNF-a, interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Studies have shown that A3AR agonists are in different experimental autoimmune models, such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease, and silver swarf. In the disease, it acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by improving the inflammatory process.
The chemical name of CF-101 is: 1-deoxy-I-(6-{[(3-iodophenyl)methyl]amino}-9H-fluoren-9-yl)-N-methyl-bD-ribofuranose Carbonamide (hereinafter referred to as “Compound I”) has the following structural formula:
A crystal form is a solid in which a compound molecule is orderedly arranged in a microstructure to form a crystal lattice, and a drug polymorphism phenomenon means that two or more different crystal forms of a drug exist.
Due to different physical and chemical properties, different crystal forms of drugs may have different dissolution and absorption in the body, which may affect the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug to a certain extent; especially for poorly soluble solid drugs, the crystal form will have greater influence. Therefore, the drug crystal form is inevitably an important part of drug research and an important part of drug quality control. Most importantly, the study of crystal forms is beneficial to find a crystal form that is clinically therapeutically meaningful and has stable and physicochemical properties.
There are no reports of CF-101 related crystal forms so far. Amorphous is generally not suitable as a medicinal form, and the molecules in the amorphous material are disorderly arranged, so they are in a thermodynamically unstable state. Amorphous solids are in a high-energy state, and generally have poor stability. During the production and storage process, amorphous drugs are prone to crystal transformation, which leads to the loss of consistency in drug bioavailability, dissolution rate, etc., resulting in changes in the clinical efficacy of the drug. In addition, the amorphous preparation is usually a rapid kinetic solid precipitation process, which easily leads to excessive residual solvents, and its particle properties are difficult to control by the process, making it a challenge in the practical application of the drug.
Therefore, there is a need to develop a crystalline form of CF-101 that provides a usable solid form for drug development. The inventors of the present application have unexpectedly discovered the crystalline forms CS1, CS2 and CS3 of Compound I, which have melting point, solubility, wettability, purification, stability, adhesion, compressibility, fluidity, dissolution in vitro and in vivo, and biological effectiveness. There is an advantage in at least one of the properties and formulation processing properties. Crystalline CS1 has advantages in physical and chemical properties, especially physical and chemical stability, low wettability, good solubility and good mechanical stability. It provides a new and better choice for the development of drugs containing CF-101, which is very important. The meaning.
Figure 7 is a 1 H NMR spectrum of the crystalline form CS3 obtained according to Example 7 of the present invention
The nuclear magnetic data of the crystalline form CS3 obtained in Example 7 was: { 1 H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO) δ 8.82 – 8.93 (m, 1H), 8.53 – 8.67 (m, 1H), 8.45 (s, 1H), 8.31 ( s, 1H), 7.73 (s, 1H), 7.59 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.36 (d, J = 7.7 Hz, 1H), 7.11 (t, J = 7.8 Hz, 1H), 5.98 ( d, J = 7.4 Hz, 1H), 5.74 (s, 1H), 5.56 (s, 1H), 4.64 (d, J = 29.3 Hz, 3H), 4.32 (s, 1H), 4.15 (s, 1H), 2.71 (d, J = 4.6 Hz, 3H), 1.91 (s, 3H).}. Form CS3 has a single peak at 1.91, corresponding to the hydrogen chemical shift of the acetic acid molecule. According to the nuclear magnetic data, the molar ratio of acetic acid molecule to CF-101 is 1:1, and its 1 H NMR is shown in FIG.7

PAPER

Journal of medicinal chemistry (1994), 37(5), 636-46

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/jm00031a014

PAPER

Journal of medicinal chemistry (1998), 41(10), 1708-15

https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm9707737

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2006), 14(5), 1618-1629

PATENT

WO 2015009008

https://patentscope.wipo.int/search/en/detail.jsf?docId=WO2015009008

Example 1
Preparation Example 1: Synthesis of Compound (5) (S) -2 – ((R) -1- (2-Chloro-6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin- Hydroxyethoxy) -3-hydroxy-N-methylpropanamide)
Scheme 1
Step 1: A solution of (2R, 3S, 4S, 5R) -2- (benzoyloxymethyl) -5- (2,6- dichloro-9H- purin-9- yl) tetrahydrofuran- Preparation of benzoate (7)
Starting material A mixture of (2R, 3R, 4S, 5R) -2-acetoxy-5- (benzoyloxymethyl) tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyldibenzoate (7.5 g, 14.9 mmol) (3.09 g, 16.4 mmol) was dissolved in acetonitrile (50 mL), and a solution of N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl) acetamid (8.9 mL, 36.4 mmol) was slowly added dropwise for 10-15 minutes Then, the mixture is stirred at 60 DEG C for 30 minutes. After cooling the reaction solution to -30 ° C, TiCl 4 (60 mL, 1 M methylene chloride solution, 59.5 mmol) is added dropwise, and the mixture is stirred at 60-65 ° C for 20 minutes. After confirming the completion of the reaction, methylene chloride (500 mL) and saturated sodium hydrogencarbonate solution (500 mL) are added. The reaction solution was stirred at 0 ° C for 30 minutes, and the organic layer was extracted and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. After concentration under reduced pressure, the obtained residue was separated by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound (2R, 3S, 4S, 5R) -2- (benzoyloxymethyl) -5- (2,6- dichloro- Yl) tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl dibenzoate (9.3 g, 98.8%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ ppm 4.71-4.74 (dd, J = 12.22, 3.91 Hz, 1H), 4.85-4.93 (m, 2H), 6.12-6.14 (t, J = 4.89 Hz, 1H) (M, 1H), 6.16-6.19 (t, J = 5.38 Hz, 1H), 6.47-6.48 (d, J = 5.38 Hz, 1H), 7.35-7.38 4H), 7.54-7.61 (m, 3H), 7.92-7.93 (d, J = 7.33 Hz, 2H), 8.02-8.06 (m, 4H), 8.28 (s, 1H); 13C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ 63.50, 71.59, 74.33, 81.56, 87.05, 128.14, 128.59 (3), 128.63 (2), 128.73 (2), 129.10, 129.63 (2), 129.88 (2), 129.92 (2), 131.38, 133.63, 133.87, 133.98, 143.81, 152.36, 152.64, 153.51, 165.13, 165.29, 166.03; mp = 76-80 [deg.] C.
Step 2: (2R, 3S, 4S, 5R) -2- (Benzoyloxymethyl) -5- (2-chloro-6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin-9-yl) tetrahydrofuran -3,4-diyl dibenzoate (8)
The intermediate compound (204 mg, 0.32 mmol) and 3-iodobenzylamine hydrochloride (113 mg, 0.41 mmol) prepared in the above step 1 were dissolved in anhydrous ethanol (5 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere, triethylamine (0.13 mL, 0.96 mmol) is stirred at room temperature for 24 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the obtained residue was separated by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound (2R, 3S, 4S, 5R) -2- (benzoyloxymethyl) (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H-purin-9-yl) tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyldibenzoate (230 mg, 86.14%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ ppm 4.71-4.90 (m, 5H), 6.13-6.17 (m, 2H), 6.33 (.. Br s, 1H), 6.43-6.44 (d, J = 4.89 Hz (M, 4H), 7.31-7.33 (m, 6H), 7.33-7.46 (m, 6H) 7.70-7.71 (t, J = 1.46 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (s, 1H), 7.94-7.96 (m, 2H), 7.99-8.01 (m, 2H), 8.07-8.09 (m, 2H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3) δ 43.91, 63.79, 71.56, 74.43, 80.97, 86.40, 94.49, 119.07, 127.14, 128.40, 128.52 (3), 128.62 (2), 128.71, 129.32, 129.68 (3), 129.86 (2), 129.93 (2), 130.39 (2), 133.41, 133.69, 133.78, 136.72, 136.80, 138.39, 140.20, 150.05, 155.00, 165.17, 165.31, 166.11; mp = 80-84 [deg.] C.
Step 3: ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (2-Chloro-6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin-9- yl) -2,2- dimethyltetrahydrofur [3,4-d] [1,3] dioxol-4-yl) methanol (9)
The intermediate compound (20 g, 24.09 mmol) prepared in the above step 2 was dissolved in methanolic ammonia (1 L) and stirred at room temperature for 3 days. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a triol intermediate. The triol intermediate thus obtained (20 g, 38.63 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous acetone (400 mL), and 2,2-dimethoxypropane (23.68 mL, 193.15 mmol) and p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (7.34 g, 38.63 mmol) was added dropwise thereto, followed by stirring at room temperature for 12 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, saturated sodium hydrogencarbonate solution (400 mL) was added thereto. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The organic layer was extracted with chloroform (4 x 250 mL), washed with a saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the obtained residue was then separated by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (2-Chloro-6- (3-iodobenzylamino) Yl] -2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuro [3,4-d] [1,3] dioxol-4-yl) methanol (12 g, 89.35%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 )? Ppm 1.36 (s, 3H), 1.62 (s, 3H), 3.77-3.80 (dd, J = 12.71, 1.95 Hz, 1H), 3.95-3.98 12.71, 1.95 Hz, 1H), 4.48-4.49 (d, J = 1.46 Hz, 1H), 4.68 (br. s., 1H, exchangeable with d 2 O, OH), 4.74 (br. s., 2H), (D, J = 5.86, 1.46 Hz, 1H), 5.15-5.17 (t, J = 5.38 Hz, 1H), 5.77-5.78 (d, J = 4.40 Hz, 1H), 6.81 (br s. , 1H, exchangeable with d 2 O, NH), 7.03-7.06 (t, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.30-7.31 (d, J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 7.59-7.61 (d, J = 7.82 Hz , & Lt; / RTI & gt; 1H), 7.67 (s, 1H), 7.70 (s, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3) [delta] 25.26, 27.63, 43.93, 63.37, 81.52, 82.98, 86.12, 93.89, 94.55, 114.18, 120.09, 127.19, 130.44, 136.86 (2), 139.93, 140.01, 148.80, 154.50, 155.14; mp = 82-86 [deg.] C.
Step 4: (2S, 5R) -5- (2-Chloro-6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin-9- yl) -3,4- dihydroxy- -2-carboxamide & lt; / RTI & gt; (10)
The intermediate compound (15 g, 26.89 mmol) prepared in step 3 was dissolved in a solution of acetonitrile-water (130 mL, 1: 1) and then (diacetoxy iodo) -benzene (19 g, 59.16 mmol) 2,2,6,6-Tetramethyl 1-piperidinyloxyl (840 mg, 5.37 mmol) was added dropwise, followed by stirring at room temperature for 4 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain an acid intermediate without purification. The obtained intermediate (15 g, 26.23 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous ethanol (500 mL) under a nitrogen stream, cooled to 0 ° C, thionyl chloride (9.52 mL, 131.17 mmol) was slowly added dropwise and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain an ethyl ester intermediate without purification. Methylamine (750 mL, 2 N THF solution) was added dropwise to the resulting ethyl ester intermediate (15.5 g, 25.84 mmol) and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound (2S, 5R) -5- (2-Chloro-6- (3- -9-yl) -3,4-dihydroxy-N-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (5 g, 31.80%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; DMSO-d 6 )? Ppm 2.72-2.73 (d, J = 3.91 Hz, 3H), 4.17 (brs, 1H), 4.33 (s, 1H), 4.55-4.56 (D, J = 6.35 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, 2′-OH), 5.71-5.72 d, J = 3.91 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with d 2 O, 3′-OH), 5.92-5.93 (d, J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 7.11-7.14 (t, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.35 (D, J = 6.84 Hz, 1H), 7.59-7.61 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 8.27-8.28 exchangeable with D 2 O, NH), 8.48 (s, 1 H), 8.98-8.99 (br. t, J = 5.86 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, N 6 H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; DMSO-d 6) [delta] 26.07, 43.02, 72.79, 73.42, 84.95, 88.10, 95.12, 119.46, 127.31, 130.99, 136.06, 136.51, 141.57, 142.23, 150.00, 153.44, 155.31, 170.14; mp = 207-209 [deg.] C.
Step 5: (S) -2 – ((R) -1- (2-Chloro-6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin-9- yl) -2-hydroxyethoxy) -3 – & lt; / RTI & gt; hydroxy-N-methylpropanamide (5)
The intermediate compound (2.0 g, 3.67 mmol) prepared in step 4 was dissolved in water / methanol (210 mL, 1: 2), cooled to 0 ° C and then sodium per iodate (1.57 g, 7.34 mmol) And then stirred at the same temperature for 2 hours. After completion of the reaction was confirmed, sodium borohydride (694 mg, 18.35 mmol) was added and stirred for 1 hour. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was concentrated under reduced pressure using toluene (3 x 50 mL). The residue was separated by column chromatography to obtain the title compound (1.58 g, 79%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; DMSO-d 6 ) δ ppm 2.40 (.. Br s, 3H), 3.53-3.60 (m, 1H), 3.71-3.73 (d, J = 10.27 Hz, 1H), 3.85 (br . s., 1H), 3.95 (br. s., 2H), 4.60 (br. s., 2H), 4.98-5.00 (t, J = 5.38 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, OH), 5.19 -5.20 (t, J = 5.86 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, OH), 5.78-5.80 (t, J = 5.38 Hz, 1H), 7.10-7.13 (t, J = 7.82Hz, 1H), 7.35 -7.36 (d, J = 6.84Hz, 1H), 7.59-7.60 (d, J = 5.86 Hz, 2H, exchangeable with D 2 O, NH), 7.73 (br. s., 1H), 8.30 (s, 1H ), 8.85 (br s, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, NH); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; DMSO-d 6) [delta] 25.59, 42.98, 62.02, 62.25, 80.43, 84.90, 95.11, 118.57, 127.27, 130.96, 136.03, 136.45, 140.78, 142.34, 150.69, 153.53, 155.17, 169.31; HRMS (FAB) m / z calcd for C 18 H20 ClIN 6 O 4 [M + Na] + 546.0279, found 569.0162; mp = 226-229 [deg.] C.
Example 2
Preparation Example 2: Synthesis of Compound (11) ((R) -2- (1- (2-Chloro-6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin-9-yl) -2- hydroxyethoxy) Propane-1,3-diol)
Scheme 2
The intermediate compound (230 mg, 0.27 mmol) prepared in Step 2 of Example 1 was dissolved in methanolic ammonia (25 mL) and stirred at room temperature for 3 days. The reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a triol intermediate. The obtained triol intermediate (248 mg, 0.47 mmol) was treated in the same manner as in Step 5 of Example 1 to obtain the desired compound (109 mg, 75.69%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; DMSO-d 6 )? Ppm 3.13-3.17 (m, 1H), 3.22-3.26 (m, 1H), 3.43-3.47 (m, 2H), 3.54-3.56 (Br s, 2H), 4.41-4.42 (br t, J = 5.38 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, OH), 4.60 , J = 5.38 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, OH), 5.13 (br. s., 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, OH), 5.80-5.82 (t, J = 4.89 Hz, 1H), 7.11 (D, J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 7.36-7.37 (d, J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 7.59-7.60 s, 1 H), 8.82 (br s, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, NH); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; DMSO-d 6) [delta] 43.01, 61.12, 61.23, 62.64, 80.90, 84.53, 95.12, 118.56, 127.36, 130.99, 136.04, 136.58, 140.68, 142.44, 150.73, 153.40, 155.12; HRMS (FAB) m / z calcd for C 17 H 19 ClIN 5 O 4 [M + Na] + 519.0170, found 542.0054; mp = 170-172 [deg.] C.
Example 3
Preparation Example 3: Synthesis of Compound (12) ((S) -3-Hydroxy-2 – ((R) -2-hydroxy- 1- (6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- Yl) ethoxy) -N-methylpropanamide & lt; / RTI & gt;
Scheme 3
Step 1: ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (6-Chloro-9H- purin-9- yl) -2,2- dimethyltetrahydrofuro [3,4 d] [1,3 ] Dioxol-4-yl) methanol (14)
(Hydroxymethyl) tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol (4.8 g, 16.74 mmol) and 2,2 & lt; RTI ID = 0.0 & -Dimethoxypropane (10.26 mL, 83.71 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous acetone (120 mL) under a nitrogen stream, p-toluenesulfonic acid monohydrate (3.18 g, 16.74 mmol) was added dropwise and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 4 hours . After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction is terminated with a saturated sodium hydrogencarbonate solution. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the organic layer was extracted with chloroform (4 x 20 mL), washed with a saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. After concentration under reduced pressure, the obtained residue was separated by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (6-Chloro-9H-purin-9- 3,4-d] [1,3] dioxol-4-yl) methanol (4.87 g, 89.03%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 )? Ppm 1.38 (s, 3H), 1.65 (s, 3H), 3.80-3.83 (dd, J = 12.22, 1.46 Hz, 1H), 3.95-3.98 (Dd, J = 5.86, 1.46 Hz, 1H), 5.19 (d, J = 8.6 Hz, 1H), 4.53-4.55 5.21 (dd, J = 5.86, 4.40 Hz, 1H), 5.99-6.00 (d, J = 4.89 Hz, 1H), 8.25 (s, 1H), 8.75 (s, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3 )? 25.22, 27.55, 63.22, 81.51, 83.35, 86.43, 94.02, 114.51, 133.25, 144.73, 150.50, 151.71, 152.31; mp = 146-150 [deg.] C.
Step 2: ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (6-Chloro-9H-purin-9- yl) -2,2- dimethyltetrahydrofuro [3,4- d] 3] dioxol-4-yl) methyl benzoate (15)
The intermediate compound (2.8 g, 8.56 mmol) prepared in Step 1 was dissolved in anhydrous methylene chloride (100 mL), and then cooled to 0 ° C. Triethylamine (3.6 mL, 25.70 mmol) and dimethylaminopyridine (21 mg, 0.17 mmol). Benzoyl chloride (1.5 mL, 12.85 mmol) is slowly added dropwise at the same temperature and then stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction is terminated with a saturated sodium hydrogencarbonate solution. The reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, the organic layer was extracted with methylene chloride, washed with a saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. After concentration under reduced pressure, the obtained residue was separated by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (6-Chloro-9H-purin-9- 3,4-d] [1,3] dioxol-4-yl) methyl benzoate (3.68 g, 99.72%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ ppm 1.40 (s, 3H), 1.62 (s, 3H), 4.42-4.46 (dd, J = 11.73, 3.9 Hz, 1H), 4.61-4.64 (m, 2H) (D, J = 7.33 Hz, 2H), 5.51-5.13 (d, J = 2.93 Hz, 1H), 5.53-5.54 7.47-7.50 (t, J = 7.33 Hz, 1 H), 7.79-7.81 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 2H), 8.21 (s, 1H), 8.64 (s, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ 25.36, 27.15, 63.99, 81.42, 84.07, 85.04, 91.87, 114.92, 128.31 (2), 129.07, 129.39 (2), 132.42, 133.33, 144.10, 150.79, 151.40, 152.02 , 165.80; mp = 50-54 [deg.] C.
Step 3: ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (6- (3-Iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin- 9-yl) -2,2 dimethyltetrahydrofuro [3,4 -d] [1,3] dioxol-4-yl) methyl benzoate (16)
The intermediate compound (1.24 g, 2.87 mmol) prepared in the above step 2 was prepared in the same manner as in step 2 of Example 1 to give the intermediate compound ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (6- Yl) -2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuro [3,4-d] [1,3] dioxol-4-yl) methyl benzoate (1.73 g, 96.11 %).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 )? Ppm 1.42 (s, 3H), 1.63 (s, 3H), 4.45-4.59 (m, 1H), 4.59-4.61 (m, 2H), 4.80 (br s. J = 5.38 Hz, 1H), 5.17 (d, J = 3.43 Hz, 1H), 5.58-5.59 , 7.32-7.05 (t, J = 7.33 Hz, 2H), 7.49-7.52 (t, J = = 7.33 Hz, 1 H), 7.58-7.60 (d, J = 7.33 Hz, 1 H), 7.71 (s, (br. s., 1 H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ 25.47, 27.21, 43.81, 64.35, 81.71, 84.21, 85.03, 91.38, 94.55, 114.61, 120.52, 126.85, 128.32 (3), 129.43, 129.62 (2), 130.34, 133.18 , 136.53, 139.16, 140.99, 148.68, 153.34, 154.60, 166.02; mp = 68-72 [deg.] C.
Step 4: ((2R, 3R, 4R, 5R) -3,4-Bis (tert- butyldimethylsilyloxy) -5- (6- (3- iodobenzylamino) -9H-purin- ) Tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methyl benzoate (17)
The intermediate compound (4.93 g, 7.85 mmol) prepared in the above step 3 was dissolved in 80% acetic acid (250 mL), and the mixture was refluxed at 100 ° C for 12 hours. After completion of the reaction was confirmed, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, toluene (4 x 50 mL) was added, and the filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure to obtain a diol intermediate without purification. The obtained diol intermediate (8.5 g, 14.47 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous pyridine (250 mL), followed by addition of tetrabutyldimethylsilyl triflate (TBDMSOTf) (13.3 mL, 57.88 mmol) followed by stirring at 50 ° C for 5 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was partitioned into methylene chloride / water. The organic layer was washed with water, saturated sodium hydrogencarbonate solution and saturated saturated sodium bicarbonate solution, and then dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. After concentration under reduced pressure, the obtained residue was separated by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound ((2R, 3R, 4R, 5R) -3,4-bis (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy) -9H-purin-9-yl) tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methylbenzoate (4.47 g, 69.73%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ ppm -0.17 (s, 3H), 0.01 (s, 3H), 0.1 (s, 3H), 0.12 (s, 3H), 0.83 (s, 9H), 0.93 ( (t, J = 4.40 Hz, 1H), 4.74-4.78 (dd, J = J = 4.40 Hz, 1H), 4.82 (br s, 2H), 5.07-5.09 (t, J = 4.40 Hz, 1H), 5.88-5.89 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.31-7.33 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.41 (t, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H) , 7.52-7.55 (t, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.59-7.60 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 7.84 dd, J = 8.31, 0.97 Hz, 2H), 8.32 (s, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3)? -0.00, 0.11, 0.26, 0.54, 30.63 (3), 34.61 (2), 49.19, 68.45, 77.09, 79.28, 87.24, 94.71, 99.46, 125.63, 131.74, 133.32 , 134.59, 135.23, 138.10, 141.41, 141.46, 144.66, 145.99, 153.87, 157.99, 159.53, 171.15; mp = 68-70 [deg.] C.
Step 5: ((2R, 3R, 4R, 5R) -3,4-Bis (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy) -5- (6- (3- iodobenzylamino) -9H-purin- ) Tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methanol (18)
The intermediate compound (1.28 g, 1.56 mmol) prepared in step 4 was dissolved in anhydrous methanol (100 mL), 25% sodium methoxide / methanol (15 mL) was added, and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the obtained residue was separated by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound ((2R, 3R, 4R, 5R) -3,4- bis (tert- butyldimethylsilyloxy) Yl) tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methanol (960 mg, 86.48%) was obtained as a pale-yellow amorphous solid.
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ ppm -0.58 (s, 3H), -0.13 (s, 3H), 0.11-0.13 (d, J = 7.33 Hz, 6H), 0.74 (s, 9H), 0.95 (s, 9H), 3.68-3.71 (d, J = 12.71 Hz, 1H), 3.92-3.95 (d, J = 12.71 Hz, (D, J = 7.33, 4.40 Hz, 1H), 5.75-5.77 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 6.39 (br s). J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.30-7.32 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.59-7.61 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (s, 1H), 7.76 (br s, 1H), 8.35 (br s, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ 0.00, 1.30, 1.35, 1.38, 31.62 (3), 31.75 (3), 35.61 (2), 49.54, 68.95, 79.91, 79.96, 95.50, 96.96, 100.51, 127.37, 132.70, 136.30, 142.42, 142.57, 146.54, 146.61, 153.78, 158.46, 160.79; mp = 82-86 [deg.] C.
Step 6: (2S, 5R) -3,4-Bis (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy) -5- (6- (3- iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin- Preparation of tetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (19)
The intermediate compound (450 mg, 0.63 mmol) prepared in Step 5 and pyridinium dichromate (5.47 g, 14.54 mmol) were dissolved in DMF (50 mL) under a nitrogen stream, followed by stirring at room temperature for 12 hours. After confirming completion of the reaction, the resulting solid was washed with water to obtain an acid intermediate. The obtained intermediate (450 mg, 0.62 mmol) was dissolved in anhydrous ethanol (10 mL) under a nitrogen stream, cooled to 0 ° C, thionyl chloride (0.25 mL, 3.10 mmol) was slowly added dropwise and the mixture was stirred at room temperature for 5 hours Lt; / RTI & gt; After completion of the reaction was confirmed, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the residue was partitioned into ethyl acetate / water. The organic layer was washed with water and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution, and dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate. After concentration under reduced pressure, an intermediate ethyl ester was obtained. The ethyl ester thus obtained is added with a methylamine / 2N-THF solution under a nitrogen stream, followed by stirring at room temperature for 12 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure and the residue was purified by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound (2S, 5R) -3,4-bis (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy) -5- -9H-purin-9-yl) -N-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (400 mg, 85.65%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ ppm -0.61 (s, 3H), -0.16 (s, 3H), 0.15 (s, 3H), 0.25 (s, 3H), 0.71 (s, 9H), 0.97 (s, 9H), 2.93-2.94 (d, J = 4.40 Hz, 3H), 4.33-4.34 (d, J = 3.42 Hz, (D, J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 6.42 (br s, 1H), 7.03-7.06 (t, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.30-7.32 ), 7.59-7.61 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.70 (s, 1H), 7.75 (s, 1H), 8.36 , 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ 0.00, 1.19, 1.21, 1.40, 23.71, 24.00, 31.53 (3), 31.58, 31.78 (2), 35.64, 49.60, 78.09, 81.25, 92.53, 95.48, 100.56, 127.30 , 132.72, 136.34, 142.44, 142.61, 146.64, 146.79, 154.27, 158.70, 160.96, 175.92; mp = 80-84 [deg.] C.
Step 7: (2S, 5R) -3,4-Dihydroxy-5- (6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin-9- yl) -N- methyltetrahydrofuran- Manufacture of Radiate (20)
The intermediate compound (65 mg, 0.08 mmol) prepared in Step 6 was dissolved in anhydrous THF under a nitrogen stream, and then tetrabutylammonium fluoride (TBAF) (0.44 mL, 0.43 mmol, (1 M solution THF) Stir at room temperature for 1 hour. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure, and the resulting residue was purified by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate compound (2S, 5R) -3,4-dihydroxy-5- (6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H-purin-9-yl) -N-methyltetrahydrofuran-2-carboxamide (52 mg, 95.45%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; DMSO-d 6 ) δ ppm 2.70-2.71 (d, J = 4.40 Hz, 3H), 4.14-4.16 (t, J = 3.91 Hz, 1H), 4.31 (s, 1H), 4.57 (D, J = 4.40 Hz, 1H), 4.67 (d, 1H), 5.96-5.97 (d, J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 7.09-7.12 (t, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.35-7.36 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.56-7.58 1H, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.72 (s, 1H), 8.29 (s, 1H), 8.42 (s, 1H), 8.53 (br s., 1H), 8.85-8.86 (m, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; DMSO-d 6 )? 25.81, 42.74, 72.56, 73.49, 85.09, 88.26, 95.06, 120.42, 127.11, 130.95, 135.86, 136.13, 141.17, 143.10, 148.70, 152.94, 154.86, 170.34; mp = 178-182 [deg.] C.
Step 8: (S) -3-Hydroxy-2 – ((R) -2-hydroxy-1- (6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin- Preparation of N-methylpropanamide (12)
The intermediate compound (52 mg, 0.10 mmol) prepared in the above Step 7 was treated in the same manner as in Step 5 of Example 1 to obtain the title compound (35 mg, 83.33%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; DMSO-d 6 .) Δ ppm 2.35 (s, 3H), 3.5-3.6 (m, 1H), 3.72-3.74 (d, J = 9.29 Hz, 1H), 3.86 (br s. 2H), 4.99 (br s, 1H, exchangeable with D2O, OH), 5.21 (br. S., 1H), 4.00 (d, J = (d, J = 6.84 Hz, 1H), 7.56 d, J = 6.35 Hz, 2H, exchangeable with D 2 O, NH), 7.71 (s, 1H), 8.22 (s, 1H), 8.30 (s, 1H), 8.37 (br. s., 1H, exchangeable with D2O, NH); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; DMSO-d 6 ) δ 25.53, 42.81, 61.98, 62.26, 80.30, 84.62, 95.09, 119.43, 127.11, 130.91, 135.81, 136.16, 140.19, 143.31, 149.79, 152.98, 154.66, 169.42; HRMS (FAB) m / z calcd for C 1821 IN 6 O 4 [M + Na] +512.0669, found 535.0578; mp = 176-182 [deg.] C.
Example 4
Production Example 4: Synthesis of Compound (21) ((R) -2- (2-hydroxy-1- (6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin- 3-diol)
Scheme 4
Step 1: ((3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- (6- (3-Iodobenzylamino) -9H-purin-9- yl) -2,2-dimethyltetrahydrofuro [ 4-d] [1,3] dioxol-4-yl) methanol (22)
The intermediate compound (1.73 g, 2.75 mmol) prepared in the step 2 of Example 1 was treated in the same manner as in the step 5 of Example 3 with (3aR, 4R, 6R, 6aR) -6- L, 3-dioxol-4-yl) methanol (1.04 g, 93.69 & lt; RTI ID = 0.0 & gt; %).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ ppm 1.36 (s, 3H), 1.63 (s, 3H), 3.75-3.80 (t, J = 11.24 Hz, 1H), 3.95-3.97 (d, J = 12.71 Hz , 5.19 (br, s, 2H), 5.10-5.11 (d, J = 4.89 Hz, 1H), 5.19 = 3.91 Hz, 1H), 6.58 (br s, 2H), 7.01-7.04 (t, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.29-7.30 (d, J = 6.84 Hz, 1H), 7.58-7.59 , J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 7.69 (br s, 2H), 8.33 (br s, 1H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CDCl 3 ) δ 25.24, 27.66, 29.65, 63.36, 81.68, 83.03, 86.12, 94.26, 94.54, 113.93, 121.24, 126.80, 130.32, 136.52, 136.58, 139.71, 140.72, 147.66, 152.73, 154.94 ; mp = 72-76 [deg.] C.
Step 2: (2R, 3S, 4R, 5R) -2- (hydroxymethyl) -5- (6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H- purin-9- yl) tetrahydrofuran- – Preparation of diol (23)
The intermediate compound (250 mg, 0.47 mmol) prepared in the above step 1 was dissolved in 80% acetic acid (250 mL), and the mixture was heated under reflux at 100 ° C for 12 hours. After confirming the completion of the reaction, the reaction solution was concentrated under reduced pressure, toluene (4 x 50 mL) was added, and the mixture was concentrated under reduced pressure. The obtained residue was purified by column chromatography to obtain the intermediate (2R, 3S, 4R, Methyl) -5- (6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H-purin-9-yl) tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diol (177 mg, 76.95%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; DMSO-d 6 )? Ppm 3.56 (br s, 1H), 3.67-3.69 (d, J = 10.27 Hz, 1H), 3.97 ), 4.61-4.67 (m, 3H), 5.17 (d, J = 2.93 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, OH), 5.35-5.36 (t, J = 5.38 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, OH), 5.43-5.44 (d, J = 5.38 Hz, 1H, exchangeable with d 2O, OH), 5.89-5.90 (d, J = 4.89 Hz, 1H), 7.09-7.11 (t, J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 7.35-7.36 (d, J = 6.84 Hz, 1H), 7.56-7.58 (d, J = 7.33 Hz, 1H), 7.72 ), 8.45 (br s, 1H, exchangeable with D 2 O, NH); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; DMSO-d 6) [delta] 42.69, 62.08, 71.06, 73.97, 86.32, 88.42, 95.09, 120.24, 127.08, 130.91, 135.81, 136.16, 140.47, 143.22, 149.00, 152.76, 154.79; mp = 174-178 [deg.] C.
Step 3: (R) -2- (2-Hydroxy-1- (6- (3-iodobenzylamino) -9H-purin-9-yl) ethoxy) propane- )
The intermediate compound (77 mg, 0.15 mmol) prepared in the above Step 2 was treated in the same manner as in Step 5 of Example 1 to obtain the desired compound (62 mg, 80.51%).
The analytical data of the obtained compound are as follows.
1 H NMR (500 MHz; CD 3 OD)? Ppm 3.42 – 3.44 (d, J = 5.38 Hz, 2H), 3.54-3.58 (m, 1H), 3.65-3.68 ), 3.75-3.78 (dd, J = 11.73,4.44 Hz, 1H), 4.01-4.02 (d, J = 5.38 Hz, 2H), 4.53 (s, 2H), 6.04-6.06 J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.76 (s, 1H), 7.07-7.10 (t, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.38-7.40 (d, J = 7.82 Hz, 1H), 7.59-7.60 ), 8.27 (s, 1 H), 8.29 (s, 1 H); 13 C NMR (125 MHz; CD 3 OD)? 42.88, 60.80, 61.25, 62.76, 80.26, 84.02, 93.52, 119.00, 126.44, 129.93, 135.90, 136.10, 139.65, 141.72, 148.97, 152.52, 154.53; HRMS (FAB) m / z calcd for C 17 H 20 IN 5 O 4 [M + H] +485.0560, found 486.0625; mp = 72-76 [deg.] C.

PATENT

WO 2008111082

REFERENCES

1: Avni I, Garzozi HJ, Barequet IS, Segev F, Varssano D, Sartani G, Chetrit N, Bakshi E, Zadok D, Tomkins O, Litvin G, Jacobson KA, Fishman S, Harpaz Z, Farbstein M, Yehuda SB, Silverman MH, Kerns WD, Bristol DR, Cohn I, Fishman P. Treatment of Dry Eye Syndrome with Orally Administered CF101 Data from a Phase 2 Clinical Trial. Ophthalmology. 2010 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 20304499.

2: Bar-Yehuda S, Rath-Wolfson L, Del Valle L, Ochaion A, Cohen S, Patoka R, Zozulya G, Barer F, Atar E, Piña-Oviedo S, Perez-Liz G, Castel D, Fishman P. Induction of an antiinflammatory effect and prevention of cartilage damage in rat knee osteoarthritis by CF101 treatment. Arthritis Rheum. 2009 Oct;60(10):3061-71. PubMed PMID: 19790055.

3: Borea PA, Gessi S, Bar-Yehuda S, Fishman P. A3 adenosine receptor: pharmacology and role in disease. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2009;(193):297-327. Review. PubMed PMID: 19639286.

4: Moral MA, Tomillero A. Gateways to clinical trials. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 2008 Mar;30(2):149-71. PubMed PMID: 18560631.

5: Silverman MH, Strand V, Markovits D, Nahir M, Reitblat T, Molad Y, Rosner I, Rozenbaum M, Mader R, Adawi M, Caspi D, Tishler M, Langevitz P, Rubinow A, Friedman J, Green L, Tanay A, Ochaion A, Cohen S, Kerns WD, Cohn I, Fishman-Furman S, Farbstein M, Yehuda SB, Fishman P. Clinical evidence for utilization of the A3 adenosine receptor as a target to treat rheumatoid arthritis: data from a phase II clinical trial. J Rheumatol. 2008 Jan;35(1):41-8. Epub 2007 Nov 15. PubMed PMID: 18050382

/////////////CF 101, Piclidenoson, CF101, CF-101, CF 101, ALB-7208,  ALB 7208, ALB7208,  IB MECA, Phase III,  Plaque psoriasis, Rheumatoid arthritis, UNII-30679UMI0N, Пиклиденозон بيكليدينوسون 匹利诺生 , Can-Fite BioPharma

CNC(=O)[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1O)N1C=NC2=C(NCC3=CC(I)=CC=C3)N=CN=C12

AMISELIMOD


Image result for AMISELIMOD

AMISELIMOD

UNII-358M5150LY; CAS 942399-20-4; 358M5150LY; MT-1303; Amiselimod, MT-1303

Molecular Formula: C19H30F3NO3
Molecular Weight: 377.448 g/mol

2-amino-2-[2-[4-heptoxy-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl]propane-1,3-diol

Phase II Crohn’s disease; Multiple sclerosis; Plaque psoriasis

Image result for AMISELIMOD

AMISELIMOD HYDROCHLORIDE

  • Molecular FormulaC19H31ClF3NO3
  • Average mass413.902 Da
1,3-Propanediol, 2-amino-2-[2-[4-(heptyloxy)-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl]-, hydrochloride (1:1)
2-Amino-2-{2-[4-(heptyloxy)-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl}-1,3-propanediol hydrochloride (1:1)
942398-84-7 [RN]
MT-1303
UNII-AY898D6RU1
2-amino-2-[2-[4-(heptyloxy)-3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]ethyl]-1,3-propanediol, monohydrochloride
  • Originator Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation
  • Class Propylene glycols; Small molecules
  • Mechanism of Action Immunosuppressants; Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor antagonist

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase II Crohn’s disease; Multiple sclerosis; Plaque psoriasis
  • Phase I Autoimmune disorders; Inflammation; Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • No development reported Inflammatory bowel diseases

Most Recent Events

  • 04 Nov 2017 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Autoimmune-disorders in Japan (PO, Capsule)
  • 04 Nov 2017 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Autoimmune-disorders in USA (PO, Capsule)
  • 04 Nov 2017 No recent reports of development identified for phase-I development in Inflammation in Japan (PO, Capsule)
  • Image result

Amiselimod, also known as MT1303, is a potent and selective immunosuppressant and sphingosine 1 phosphate receptor modulator. Amiselimod may be potentially useful for treatment of multiple sclerosis; inflammatory diseases; autoimmune diseases; psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Amiselimod is currently being developed by Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation

Mitsubishi Tanabe is developing amiselimod, an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor antagonist, for treating autoimmune diseases, primarily multiple sclerosis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohn’s disease.

WO2007069712

EU states expire 2026, and

Expire in the US in June 2030 with US154 extension.

Inventors Masatoshi KiuchiKaoru MarukawaNobutaka KobayashiKunio Sugahara
Applicant Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation

In recent years, calcineurin inhibitors such as cyclosporine FK 506 have been used to suppress rejection of patients receiving organ transplantation. While doing it, certain calcineurin inhibitors like cyclosporin can cause harmful side effects such as nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity, etc. For this reason, in order to suppress rejection reaction in transplant patients, development of drugs with higher safety and higher effectiveness is advanced.

[0003] Patent Documents 1 to 3 are useful as inhibitors of (acute or chronic) rejection in organ or bone marrow transplantation and also useful as therapeutic agents for various autoimmune diseases such as psoriasis and Behcet’s disease and rheumatic diseases 2 aminopropane 1, 3 dioly intermediates are disclosed.

[0004] One of these compounds, 2-amino-2- [2- (4-octylphenel) propane] 1, 3 diol hydrochloride (hereinafter sometimes referred to as FTY 720) is useful for renal transplantation It is currently under clinical development as an inhibitor of rejection reaction. FTY 720 is phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase in vivo in the form of phosphorylated FTY 720 [hereinafter sometimes referred to as FTY 720-P]. For example, 2 amino-2-phosphoryloxymethyl 4- (4-octafil-el) butanol. FTY720 – P has four types of S1 P receptors (hereinafter referred to as S1 P receptors) among five kinds of sphingosine – 1 – phosphate (hereinafter sometimes referred to as S1P) receptors It acts as an aggroove on the body (other than S1P2) (Non-Patent Document 1).

[0005] It has recently been reported that S1P1 among the S1P receptors is essential for the export of mature lymphocytes with thymus and secondary lymphoid tissue forces. FTY720 – P downregulates S1P1 on lymphocytes by acting as S1P1 ghost. As a result, the transfer of mature lymphocytes from the thymus and secondary lymphatic tissues is inhibited, and the circulating adult lymphocytes in the blood are isolated in the secondary lymphatic tissue to exert an immunosuppressive effect Has been suggested (

Non-Patent Document 2).

[0006] On the other hand, conventional 2-aminopropane 1, 3 dioly compounds are concerned as transient bradycardia expression as a side effect, and in order to solve this problem, 2-aminopropane 1, 3 diiori Many new compounds have been reported by geometrically modifying compounds. Among them, as a compound having a substituent on the benzene ring possessed by FTY 720, Patent Document 4 discloses an aminopropenol derivative as a S1P receptor modulator with a phosphate group, Patent Documents 5 and 6 are both S1P Discloses an amino-propanol derivative as a receptor modulator. However, trihaloalkyl groups such as trifluoromethyl groups are not disclosed as substituents on the benzene ring among them. In any case, it is currently the case that it has not yet reached a satisfactory level of safety as a pharmaceutical.

Patent Document 1: International Publication Pamphlet WO 94 Z 08943

Patent Document 2: International Publication Pamphlet WO 96 Z 06068

Patent Document 3: International Publication Pamphlet W 0 98 z 45 429

Patent Document 4: International Publication Pamphlet WO 02 Z 076995

Patent document 5: International public non-fret WO 2004 Z 096752

Patent Document 6: International Publication Pamphlet WO 2004 Z 110979

Non-patent document 1: Science, 2002, 296, 346-349

Non-patent document 2: Nature, 2004, 427, 355-360

Reference Example 3

5 bromo 2 heptyloxybenzonitrile

(3- 1) 5 Synthesis of bromo-2 heptyloxybenzonitrile (Reference Example Compound 3- 1)

1-Heptanol (1.55 g) was dissolved in N, N dimethylformamide (24 ml) and sodium hydride (0.321 g) was added at room temperature. After stirring for 1 hour, 5 bromo-2 fluoborosyl-tolyl (2.43 g) was added and the mixture was further stirred for 50 minutes. The reaction solution was poured into water, extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, saturated brine, dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate, and the solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure. After eliminating the 5 bromo 2 fluconate benzonitrile as a raw material, the reaction was carried out again under the same conditions and purification was carried out by silica gel column chromatography (hexane: ethyl acetate = 50: 1 to 5: 1) to obtain the desired product (3.10 g ) As a colorless oil.

– NMR (CDCl 3) δ (ppm): 0.89 (3H, t, J = 6.4 Hz), 1.24-1.35 (6H, m

J = 8.8 Hz), 1.48 (2H, quint, J = 7.2 Hz), 1.84 7.59 (1 H, dd, J = 8.8, 2.4 Hz), 7.65 (1 H, d, J = 2.4 Hz).

Example 1

2 Amino 2- [2- (4-heptyloxy-3 trifluoromethylph enyl) propane-1, 3-diol hydrochloride

(1 – 1) {2, 2 Dimethyl 5- [2- (4 hydroxy 3 trifluoromethylfuethyl) ethyl] 1,3 dioxane 5 mercaptothenylboronic acid t butyl ester (synthesis compound 1 1)

Reference Example Compound 2-5 (70.3 g) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (500 ml), t-butoxycallium (13.Og) was added, and the mixture was stirred for 1 hour. To the mixed solution was dropwise added a solution of the compound of Reference Example 1 (15.Og) in tetrahydrofuran (100 ml) under ice cooling, followed by stirring for 2 hours under ice cooling. Water was added to the reaction solution, the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water, saturated brine, dried with anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and the solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column chromatography (hexane: ethyl acetate = 3: D to obtain 31. Og of a pale yellow oily matter.) The geometric isomer ratio of the obtained product was (E : Z = 1: 6).

This pale yellow oil was dissolved in ethyl acetate (200 ml), 10% palladium carbon (3.00 g) was added, and the mixture was stirred under a hydrogen atmosphere at room temperature for 7 hours. After purging the inside of the reaction vessel with nitrogen, the solution was filtered and the filtrate was concentrated. The residue was washed with diisopropyl ether to obtain the desired product (2.2 g) as a colorless powder.

1 H-NMR (CDCl 3) δ (ppm): 1. 43 (3H, s), 1.44 (3H, s), 1. 47 (9H, s), 1

(2H, m), 91- 1. 98 (2H, m), 2. 50-2.66 (2H, m), 3. 69 (2H, d, J = Il. 6 Hz), 3. 89 J = 8.2 Hz), 7. 22 (1 H, dd J = 8 Hz), 5. 02 (1 H, brs), 5. 52 . 2, 1. 7 Hz), 7. 29 (1 H, d, J = l. 7 Hz).

(1-2) {2,2 Dimethyl-5- [2- (4heptyloxy-3 trifluoromethyl) ethyl] 1,3 dioxane 5-mercaptobutyric acid t-butyl ester Synthesis (compound 1 2)

Compound 1-1 (510 mg) was dissolved in N, N dimethylformamide (10 ml), potassium carbonate (506 mg) and n-heptyl bromide (0.235 ml) were added and stirred at 80 ° C. for 2 hours. Water was added to the reaction solution, the mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate, washed with water and saturated brine, dried with anhydrous sulfuric acid

The resultant was dried with GENSCHUM and the solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure to obtain the desired product (640 mg) as a colorless oil.

– NMR (CDCl 3) δ (ppm): 0.89 (3H, t, J = 6.8 Hz), l.30-1.37 (6H, m

(2H, m), 1.91-1.98 (2H, m), 1.42-1.50 (2H, m), 1.42 (3H, s), 1.44 (3H, s), 1.47 J = 16.6 Hz), 4.00 (2H, t, J = 6.4 Hz), 4.9 8 (2H, d, J = 11.6 Hz), 3.69 1 H, brs), 6.88 (1 H, d, J = 8.5 Hz), 7.26 – 7.29 (1 H, m), 7.35 (1 H, d, J = 1.5 Hz).

(1-3) Synthesis of 2-amino-2- [2- (4heptyloxy 3 trifluoromethyl) ethyl] propane 1, 3 diol hydrochloride (Compound 1- 3)

Compound 12 (640 mg) was dissolved in ethanol (15 ml), concentrated hydrochloric acid (3 ml) was caught and stirred at 80 ° C. for 2 hours. The reaction solution was concentrated, and the residue was washed with ethyl ether to give the desired product (492 mg) as a white powder.

MS (ESI) m / z: 378 [M + H]

– NMR (DMSO-d) δ (ppm): 0.86 (3H,

6 t, J = 6.8 Hz), 1.24 – 1.39 (6

(4H, m), 3.51 (4H, d, J = 5. lHz), 4.06 (2H, m), 1.39-1.46 (2H, m), 1.68-1.78 (4H, m), 2.55-2.22 , 7.32 (2H, t, J = 5.1 Hz), 7.18 (1 H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 7.42 – 7.45 (2 H, m), 7.76 (3 H, brs;).

PATENT

WO 2009119858

JP 2011136905

WO 2017188357

PATENT

WO-2018021517

Patent Document 1 discloses 2-amino-2- [2- (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylphenyl) ethyl] propane- 1,3 which is useful as a medicine excellent in immunosuppressive action, rejection- – diol hydrochloride is disclosed.
The production method includes the step of reducing 4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid (Ia) to 4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylbenzyl alcohol (IIa). However, until now, there has been a problem such that the conversion is low and the by-product (IIa ‘) in which the trifluoromethyl group is reduced together with the compound (IIa) is generated in this step.
[Chemical formula 1]
 In particular, since a series of analogous substances derived from by-products (IIa ‘) are difficult to be removed in a later process, it is necessary to suppress strict production thereof in the manufacture of drug substances requiring high quality there were.

Patent Document 1: WO2007 / 069712

[Chemical formula 3]

(2-amino-2- [2- (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylphenyl) ethyl] propane- 1,3-diol hydrochloride) From
the compound (IIa), the following scheme Based on the route, 2-amino-2- [2- (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylphenyl) ethyl] propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride was prepared.
[Chemical Formula 9]

STR1
Example 2
Synthesis of 4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylbenzyl chloride (Step A) A
few drops of N, N-dimethylformamide was added to a solution of compound (IIa) (26.8 g) in methylene chloride (107 mL), and 0 At 0 ° C., thionyl chloride (8.09 mL) was added dropwise. The mixture was stirred at the same temperature for 2 hours, and water (50 mL) was added to the reaction solution. The organic layer was separated and extracted, washed with water (50 mL), saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (70 mL), dried over anhydrous magnesium sulfate, and the solvent was distilled off under reduced pressure to give 4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylbenzyl Chloride (28.3 g) as white crystals.
1H-NMR (CDCl 3) δ (ppm): 0.89 (3H, t, J = 6.5 Hz), 1.26-1.54 (8H, m), 1.77-1.86 (2H, m , 4.49 (2H, t, J = 6.4 Hz), 4.56 (2H, s), 6.96 (IH, d, J = 8.6 Hz), 7.49 (IH, dd, J = 2.0 Hz, 8.5 Hz), 7.58 (1 H, d, J = 1.9 Hz)
Example 3
Synthesis of dimethyl (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylbenzyl) phosphonate (Step B) To
a solution of N, N (3-trifluoromethylbenzyl ) phosphonate of 4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylbenzyl chloride (6.00 g, 19.4 mmol) (2.57 g, 23.3 mmol), cesium carbonate (7.60 g, 23.3 mmol) and tetrabutylammonium iodide (7.54 g, 20.4 mmol) were added to a dimethylformamide (36 mL) And the mixture was stirred at 25 ° C. for 1 day. Toluene (36 mL) and water (18 mL) were added for phase separation, and the resulting organic layer was washed twice with a mixture of N, N-dimethylformamide (18 mL) and water (18 mL). After concentration under reduced pressure, column purification using hexane and ethyl acetate gave 4.71 g of dimethyl (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylbenzyl) phosphonate.
1
H-NMR (CDCl 3) δ (ppm): 0.89 (3 H, t, J = 6.9 Hz), 1.20 – 1.41 (6 H, m) , 1.43-1.49 (2H, m), 1.72-1.83 (2H, m), 3.09 (IH, s), 3.14 (IH, s), 3.68 (3H , 7.41 – 7.44 (2 H, t, J = 6.4 Hz), 6.94 (1 H, d, J = 8.4 Hz), 3.70 (3 H, s), 4.02 (2H, m)
Example 4
tert-Butyl (E) – {2,2-dimethyl-5- [2- (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylphenyl) vinyl] -1, 3-dioxan-5- yl} carbamate Ester synthesis (Step C) A
solution of dimethyl (1.18 g, 3.09 mmol ) (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylbenzyl) phosphonate in 1.25 mL of N, N- dimethylformamide and (2, -dimethyl-5-formyl-1,3-dioxan-5-yl) carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (961 mg, 3.71 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (4 mL) was treated with potassium tert-butoxide (1.28 g, 4 mmol) in tetrahydrofuran (7 mL), and the mixture was stirred at 0 ° C. for 6 hours. Heptane (7 mL) and water (3 mL) were added and the layers were separated, and the obtained organic layer was washed twice with water (3 mL) and concentrated. Heptane was added and the mixture was cooled in an ice bath. The precipitated crystals were collected by filtration and dried under reduced pressure to give (E) – {2,2-dimethyl-5- [2- (4-heptyloxy- Phenyl) vinyl] -1, 3-dioxan-5-yl} carbamic acid tert-butyl ester.
1
H-NMR (CDCl 3) δ (ppm): 0.89 (3 H, t, J = 6.9 Hz), 1.29 – 1.38 (6 H, m) , 1.44 – 1.59 (17 H, m), 1.77 – 1.83 (2 H, m), 3.83 – 3.93 (2 H, m), 3.93 – 4.08 (4 H, J = 16.5 Hz), 6.48 (1 H, d, J = 16.5 Hz), 6.91 (1 H, d, J), 5.21 (1 H, brs), 6.10 J = 8.5 Hz), 7.44 (1 H, dd, J = 8.6, 2.1 Hz), 7.55 (1 H, d, J = 2.0 Hz)
Example 5
Synthesis of 2-amino-2- [2- (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylphenyl) ethyl] propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride (Step D)
(E) – {2, -dimethyl-5- [2- (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylphenyl) vinyl] -1,3-dioxan- 5-yl} carbamic acid tert-butyl ester (6.50 g, 12.6 mmol) Methanol (65 mL) solution was heated to 50 ° C., a solution of concentrated hydrochloric acid (2.55 g) in methanol (5.3 mL) was added dropwise, and the mixture was stirred at 60 ° C. for 6 hours. The mixture was cooled to around room temperature, 5% palladium carbon (0.33 g) was added thereto, and the mixture was stirred under a hydrogen gas atmosphere for 3 hours. After filtration and washing the residue with methanol (39 mL), the filtrate was concentrated and stirred at 5 ° C. for 1 hour. Water (32.5 mL) was added and the mixture was stirred at 5 ° C for 1 hour, and the precipitated crystals were collected by filtration. Washed with water (13 mL) and dried under reduced pressure to obtain 4.83 g of 2-amino-2- [2- (4-heptyloxy-3-trifluoromethylphenyl) ethyl] propane-1,3-diol hydrochloride .
MS (ESI) m / z: 378 [M + H]

Image result

PATENTS

Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2017029378 KINASE INHIBITOR
2016-10-12
US2014296183 AMINE COMPOUND AND USE THEREOF FOR MEDICAL PURPOSES
2014-06-17
2014-10-02
Patent ID

Patent Title

Submitted Date

Granted Date

US2017253563 KINASE INHIBITORS
2017-05-24
US9499486 Kinase inhibitor
2015-10-01
2016-11-22
US9751837 KINASE INHIBITORS
2015-10-01
2016-04-14
US8809304 Amine Compound and Use Thereof for Medical Purposes
2009-05-28
US2017209445 KINASE INHIBITORS
2015-10-01

////////////AMISELIMOD, Phase II, Crohn’s disease, Multiple sclerosis, Plaque psoriasis,  MT-1303,  MT1303,  MT 1303, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Mitsubishi , JAPAN, PHASE 2

CCCCCCCOC1=C(C=C(C=C1)CCC(CO)(CO)N)C(F)(F)F

GSK 2982772


str1Image result

CAS: 1622848-92-3 (free base),  1987858-31-0 (hydrate)

Chemical Formula: C20H19N5O3

Molecular Weight: 377.404

5-Benzyl-N-[(3S)-5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1,5-benzoxazepin-3-yl]-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide

(S)-5-benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazole-3-carboxamide

  • 3-(Phenylmethyl)-N-[(3S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-5-methyl-4-oxo-1,5-benzoxazepin-3-yl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5-carboxamide
  • (S)-5-Benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][1,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide

GSK2982772 is a potent and selective receptor Interacting Protein 1 (RIP1) Kinase Specific Clinical Candidate for the Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases. GSK2982772 is, currently in phase 2a clinical studies for psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. GSK2982772 potently binds to RIP1 with exquisite kinase specificity and has excellent activity in blocking many TNF-dependent cellular responses. RIP1 has emerged as an important upstream kinase that has been shown to regulate inflammation through both scaffolding and kinase specific functions.

GSK-2982772, an oral receptor-interacting protein-1 (RIP1) kinase inhibitor, is in phase II clinical development at GlaxoSmithKline for the treatment of active plaque-type psoriasis, moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, and active ulcerative colitis. A phase I trial was also completed for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease using capsule and solution formulations.

  • Originator GlaxoSmithKline
  • Class Antipsoriatics
  • Mechanism of Action Receptor-interacting protein serine-threonine kinase inhibitors

Highest Development Phases

  • Phase II Plaque psoriasis; Rheumatoid arthritis; Ulcerative colitis
  • Phase I Inflammatory bowel diseases

Most Recent Events

  • 15 Dec 2016 Biomarkers information updated
  • 01 Nov 2016 Phase-II clinical trials in Ulcerative colitis (Adjunctive treatment) in USA (PO) (NCT02903966)
  • 01 Oct 2016 Phase-II clinical trials in Rheumatoid arthritis in Poland (PO) (NCT02858492)

PHASE 2 Psoriasis, plaque GSK

Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Agents for
Rheumatoid Arthritis, Treatment of
Antipsoriatics
Inventors Deepak BANDYOPADHYAYPatrick M. EidamPeter J. GOUGHPhilip Anthony HarrisJae U. JeongJianxing KangBryan Wayne KINGShah Ami LakdawalaJr. Robert W. MarquisLara Kathryn LEISTERAttiq RahmanJoshi M. RamanjuluClark A SehonJR. Robert SINGHAUSDaohua Zhang
Applicant Glaxosmithkline Intellectual Property Development Limited

Deepak Bandyopadhyay

Deepak BANDYOPADHYAY

Data Science and Informatics Leader | Innovation Advocate

GSK 

 University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

He is  a data scientist and innovator with experience in both early and late stages of drug development. his current role involves the late stage of drug product development. I’m leading a project to bring GSK’s large molecule process and analytical data onto our big data platform and develop new data analysis and modeling capabilities. Also, working within GSK’s Advanced Manufacturing Technology (AMT) initiative provides plenty of other opportunities to impact how we make medicines.

Previously as a computational chemist (i.e. a data scientist in drug discovery), he worked with scientists from many domains, including chemists, biologists, and other informaticians. he enjoys digging into all the computational aspects of life science research, and solving data challenges by exploiting adjacencies and connections – between diverse fields of knowledge, and the equally diverse scientists trained in them. 

He has supported multiple drug discovery projects at GSK starting from target identification (“how should we modulate disease X?”) through to candidate selection and early clinical development (“let’s see if what we discovered can become a medicine”). Deriving insight by custom data integration is one of my specialties; recently he designed and implemented a platform for integrating data sets from multiple experiments that will be used by GSK screening scientists to find and combine hits. 

A trained computer scientist and cheminformatician, he is  an active member of the algorithms, data science and internal innovation communities at GSK, leading many of these efforts. 

His Ph.D. work introduced new computational geometry techniques for structural bioinformatics and protein function prediction. I have touched on several other subject areas:

* data mining/machine learning (predictive modeling and graph mining), 
* computer graphics and augmented reality (one of the pioneers of projection mapping)
* robotics (keen current interest and future aspiration)

Receptor-interacting protein- 1 (RIP1) kinase, originally referred to as RIP, is a TKL family serine/threonine protein kinase involved in innate immune signaling. RIPl kinase is a RHIM domain containing protein, with an N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal death domain ((2005) Trends Biochem. Sci. 30, 151-159). The death domain of RIPl mediates interaction with other death domain containing proteins including Fas and TNFR-1 ((1995) Cell 81 513-523), TRAIL-Rl and TRAIL-R2 ((1997) Immunity 7, 821-830) and TRADD ((1996) Immunity 4, 387-396), while the RHIM domain is crucial for binding other RHFM domain containing proteins such as TRIF ((2004) Nat Immunol. 5, 503-507), DAI ((2009) EMBO Rep. 10, 916-922) and RIP3 ((1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 16871-16875); (1999) Curr. Biol. 9, 539-542) and exerts many of its effects through these interactions. RIPl is a central regulator of cell signaling, and is involved in mediating both pro-survival and programmed cell death pathways which will be discussed below.

The role for RIPl in cell signaling has been assessed under various conditions

[including TLR3 ((2004) Nat Immunol. 5, 503-507), TLR4 ((2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280,

36560-36566), TRAIL ((2012) J .Virol. Epub, ahead of print), FAS ((2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 7925-7933)], but is best understood in the context of mediating signals downstream of the death receptor TNFRl ((2003) Cell 114, 181-190). Engagement of the TNFR by TNF leads to its oligomerization, and the recruitment of multiple proteins, including linear K63-linked polyubiquitinated RIPl ((2006) Mol. Cell 22, 245-257), TRAF2/5 ((2010) J. Mol. Biol. 396, 528-539), TRADD ((2008) Nat. Immunol. 9, 1037-1046) and cIAPs ((2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 105, 1 1778-11783), to the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor. This complex which is dependent on RIPl as a scaffolding protein (i.e. kinase

independent), termed complex I, provides a platform for pro-survival signaling through the activation of the NFKB and MAP kinases pathways ((2010) Sci. Signal. 115, re4).

Alternatively, binding of TNF to its receptor under conditions promoting the

deubiquitination of RIPl (by proteins such as A20 and CYLD or inhibition of the cIAPs) results in receptor internalization and the formation of complex II or DISC (death-inducing signaling complex) ((2011) Cell Death Dis. 2, e230). Formation of the DISC, which contains RIPl, TRADD, FADD and caspase 8, results in the activation of caspase 8 and the onset of programmed apoptotic cell death also in a RIPl kinase independent fashion ((2012) FEBS J 278, 877-887). Apoptosis is largely a quiescent form of cell death, and is involved in routine processes such as development and cellular homeostasis.

Under conditions where the DISC forms and RJP3 is expressed, but apoptosis is inhibited (such as FADD/caspase 8 deletion, caspase inhibition or viral infection), a third RIPl kinase-dependent possibility exists. RIP3 can now enter this complex, become phosphorylated by RIPl and initiate a caspase-independent programmed necrotic cell death through the activation of MLKL and PGAM5 ((2012) Cell 148, 213-227); ((2012) Cell 148, 228-243); ((2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 109, 5322-5327). As opposed to apoptosis, programmed necrosis (not to be confused with passive necrosis which is not programmed) results in the release of danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) from the cell.

These DAMPs are capable of providing a “danger signal” to surrounding cells and tissues, eliciting proinflammatory responses including inflammasome activation, cytokine production and cellular recruitment ((2008 Nat. Rev. Immunol 8, 279-289).

Dysregulation of RIPl kinase-mediated programmed cell death has been linked to various inflammatory diseases, as demonstrated by use of the RIP3 knockout mouse (where RIPl -mediated programmed necrosis is completely blocked) and by Necrostatin-1 (a tool inhibitor of RIPl kinase activity with poor oral bioavailability). The RIP3 knockout mouse has been shown to be protective in inflammatory bowel disease (including Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease) ((2011) Nature 477, 330-334), Psoriasis ((2011) Immunity 35, 572-582), retinal-detachment-induced photoreceptor necrosis ((2010) PNAS 107, 21695-21700), retinitis pigmentosa ((2012) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 109:36, 14598-14603), cerulein-induced acute pancreatits ((2009) Cell 137, 1100-1111) and Sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) ((2011) Immunity 35, 908-918). Necrostatin-1 has been shown to be effective in alleviating ischemic brain injury ((2005) Nat. Chem. Biol. 1, 112-119), retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury ((2010) J. Neurosci. Res. 88, 1569-1576), Huntington’s disease ((2011) Cell Death Dis. 2 el 15), renal ischemia reperfusion injury ((2012) Kidney Int. 81, 751-761), cisplatin induced kidney injury ((2012) Ren. Fail. 34, 373-377) and traumatic brain injury ((2012) Neurochem. Res. 37, 1849-1858). Other diseases or disorders regulated at least in part by RIPl -dependent apoptosis, necrosis or cytokine production include hematological and solid organ malignancies ((2013) Genes

Dev. 27: 1640-1649), bacterial infections and viral infections ((2014) Cell Host & Microbe 15, 23-35) (including, but not limited to, tuberculosis and influenza ((2013) Cell 153, 1-14)) and Lysosomal storage diseases (particularly, Gaucher Disease, Nature Medicine Advance Online Publication, 19 January 2014, doi: 10.1038/nm.3449).

A potent, selective, small molecule inhibitor of RIP1 kinase activity would block RIP 1 -dependent cellular necrosis and thereby provide a therapeutic benefit in diseases or events associated with DAMPs, cell death, and/or inflammation.

str1

Patent

WO 2014125444

Example 12

Method H

(S)-5-benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-l,2,4- triazole-3-carboxamide

A mixture of (S)-3-amino-5-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-4(5H)-one, hydrochloride (4.00 g, 16.97 mmol), 5-benzyl-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid, hydrochloride (4.97 g, 18.66 mmol) and DIEA (10.37 mL, 59.4 mmol) in isopropanol (150 mL) was stirred vigorously for 10 minutes and then 2,4,6-tripropyl-l,3,5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphinane 2,4,6-trioxide (T3P) (50% by wt. in EtOAc) (15.15 mL, 25.5 mmol) was added. The mixture was stirred at rt for 10 minutes and then quenched with water and concentrated to remove isopropanol. The resulting crude material is dissolved in EtOAc and washed with 1M HC1, satd. NaHC03 and brine. Organics were concentrated and purified by column chromatography (220 g silica column; 20-90% EtOAc/hexanes, 15 min.; 90%, 15 min.) to give the title compound as a light orange foam (5.37 g, 83%). 1H NMR (MeOH-d4) δ: 7.40 – 7.45 (m, 1H), 7.21 – 7.35 (m, 8H), 5.01 (dd, J = 11.6, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.60 (dd, J = 9.9, 7.6 Hz, 1H), 4.41 (dd, J = 11.4, 9.9 Hz, 1H), 4.17 (s, 2H), 3.41 (s, 3H); MS (m/z) 378.3 (M+H+).

Alternative Preparation:

To a solution of (S)-3-amino-5-methyl-2,3-dihydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-4(5H)-one hydrochloride (100 g, 437 mmol), 5-benzyl-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (110 g, 459 mmol) in DCM (2.5 L) was added DIPEA (0.267 L, 1531 mmol) at 15 °C. The reaction mixture was stirred for 10 min. and 2,4,6-tripropyl-l, 3, 5,2,4,6-trioxatriphosphinane 2,4,6-trioxide >50 wt. % in ethyl acetate (0.390 L, 656 mmol) was slowly added at 15 °C. After stirring for 60 mins at RT the LCMS showed the reaction was complete, upon which time it was quenched with water, partitioned between DCM and washed with 0.5N HCl aq (2 L), saturated aqueous NaHC03 (2 L), brine (2 L) and water (2 L). The organic phase was separated and activated charcoal (100 g) and sodium sulfate

(200 g) were added. The dark solution was shaken for 1 h before filtering. The filtrate was then concentrated under reduced pressure to afford the product as a tan foam (120 g). The product was dried under a high vacuum at 50 °C for 16 h. 1H MR showed 4-5% wt of ethyl acetate present. The sample was dissolved in EtOH (650 ml) and stirred for 30 mins, after which the solvent was removed using a rotavapor (water-bath T=45 °C). The product was dried under high vacuum for 16 h at RT (118 g, 72% yield). The product was further dried under high vacuum at 50 °C for 5 h. 1H NMR showed <1% of EtOH and no ethyl acetate. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ ppm 4.12 (s, 2 H), 4.31 – 4.51 (m, 1 H), 4.60 (t, J=10.36 Hz, 1 H), 4.83 (dt, 7=11.31, 7.86 Hz, 1 H), 7.12 – 7.42 (m, 8 H), 7.42 – 7.65 (m, 1 H), 8.45 (br. s., 1 H), 14.41 (br. s., 1 H). MS (m/z) 378 (M + H+).

Crystallization:

(S)-5-Benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b][l,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-l,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (100 mg) was dissolved in 0.9 mL of toluene and 0.1 mL of methylcyclohexane at 60 °C, then stirred briskly at room temperature (20 °C) for 4 days. After 4 days, an off-white solid was recovered (76 mg, 76% recovery). The powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern of this material is shown in Figure 7 and the corresponding diffraction data is provided in Table 1.

The PXRD analysis was conducted using a PANanalytical X’Pert Pro

diffractometer equipped with a copper anode X-ray tube, programmable slits, and

X’Celerator detector fitted with a nickel filter. Generator tension and current were set to 45kV and 40mA respectively to generate the copper Ka radiation powder diffraction pattern over the range of 2 – 40°2Θ. The test specimen was lightly triturated using an agate mortar and pestle and the resulting fine powder was mounted onto a silicon background plate.

Table 1.

Paper

Discovery of a first-in-class receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase specific clinical candidate (GSK2982772) for the treatment of inflammatory diseases
J Med Chem 2017, 60(4): 1247

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01751

RIP1 regulates necroptosis and inflammation and may play an important role in contributing to a variety of human pathologies, including immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors of RIP1 kinase that are suitable for advancement into the clinic have yet to be described. Herein, we report our lead optimization of a benzoxazepinone hit from a DNA-encoded library and the discovery and profile of clinical candidate GSK2982772 (compound 5), currently in phase 2a clinical studies for psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ulcerative colitis. Compound 5 potently binds to RIP1 with exquisite kinase specificity and has excellent activity in blocking many TNF-dependent cellular responses. Highlighting its potential as a novel anti-inflammatory agent, the inhibitor was also able to reduce spontaneous production of cytokines from human ulcerative colitis explants. The highly favorable physicochemical and ADMET properties of 5, combined with high potency, led to a predicted low oral dose in humans.

J. Med. Chem. 2017, 60, 1247−1261

(S)-5-Benzyl-N-(5-methyl-4-oxo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydrobenzo[b]- [1,4]oxazepin-3-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide (5).

EtOAc solvate. 1 H NMR (DMSO-d6) δ ppm 14.41 (br s, 1 H), 8.48 (br s, 1 H), 7.50 (dd, J = 7.7, 1.9 Hz, 1 H), 7.12−7.40 (m, 8 H), 4.83 (dt, J = 11.6, 7.9 Hz, 1 H), 4.60 (t, J = 10.7 Hz, 1 H), 4.41 (dd, J = 9.9, 7.8 Hz, 1 H), 4.12 (s, 2 H), 3.31 (s, 3 H). Anal. Calcd for C20H20N5O3·0.026EtOAc·0.4H2O C, 62.36; H, 5.17; N, 18.09. Found: C, 62.12; H, 5.05; N, 18.04.

Synthesis of (<it>S</it>)-3-amino-benzo[<it>b</it>][1,4]oxazepin-4-one via Mitsunobu and S<INF>N</INF>Ar reaction for a first-in-class RIP1 kinase inhibitor GSK2982772 in clinical trials
Tetrahedron Lett 2017, 58(23): 2306
Harris, P.A.
Identification of a first-in-class RIP1 kinase inhibitor in phase 2a clinical trials for immunoinflammatory diseases
ACS MEDI-EFMC Med Chem Front (June 25-28, Philadelphia) 2017, Abst 

Harris, P.
Identification of a first-in-class RIP1 kinase inhibitor in phase 2a clinical trials for immuno-inflammatory diseases
253rd Am Chem Soc (ACS) Natl Meet (April 2-6, San Francisco) 2017, Abst MEDI 313

1H NMR AND 13C NMR PREDICT

////////////GSK 2982772, phase 2, Plaque psoriasis, Rheumatoid arthritis, Ulcerative colitis

CN3c4ccccc4OC[C@H](NC(=O)c2nnc(Cc1ccccc1)n2)C3=O

Novartis obtains European approval for Cosentyx to treat psoriasis


Novartis obtains European approval for Cosentyx to treat psoriasis
Swiss drug-maker Novartis has received approval from the European Commission (EC) for its Cosentyx (secukinumab, formerly known as AIN457) to treat moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in adults who are candidates for systemic therapy.SEE

http://www.pharmaceutical-technology.com/news/newsnovartis-obtains-european-approval-for-cosentyx-to-treat-psoriasis-4492415?WT.mc_id=DN_News

PSORIAIS

secukinumab

Secukinumab is a human monoclonal antibody designed for the treatments of uveitis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis. It targets member A from the cytokine family of interleukin 17.[1][2] At present, Novartis Pharma AG, the drug’s developer, plans to market it under the trade name “Cosentyx.” [3] It is highly specific to the human immunoglobulin G1k (IgG1k) subclass.[2]

In July 2014 secukinumab established superiority to placebo and to etanercept for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis in Phase III clinical trials.[4] In October 2014, the FDA Dermatologic and Ophthalmic Drugs Advisory Committee unanimously voted to recommend the drug for FDA approval, although this vote in and of itself does not constitute an approval. However, the FDA typically follows recommendations from these committees.[5] In October 2014, Novartis announced that the drug had achieved a primary clinical endpoint in two phase III clinical trials for ankylosing spondylitis.[6] As of 28 October, the relevant FDA committee had not yet responded to these results. In early November 2014, Novartis also released the results of a Phase 3 study on Psoriatic Arthritis that yielded very promising results.[7]

Although the drug was originally intended to treat rheumatoid arthritis, phase II clinical trials for this condition yielded disappointing results.[8] Similarly, while patients in a phase II clinical trial for [psoriatic arthritis] did show improvement over placebo, the improvement did not meet adequate endpoints and Novartis is considering whether to do more research for this condition.[9] Novartis has said that it is targeting approval and release in early 2015 for plaque psoriasis and ankyloding spondylitis indications.

It is also in a phase II clinical trial for Multiple Sclerosis [10] as it has exhibited efficacy in treating experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS.

CAS registry numbers

  • 875356-43-7 (heavy chain)
  • 875356-44-8 (light chain)

References

  1. “Statement On A Nonproprietary Name Adopted By The USAN Council: Secukinumab”. American Medical Association.
  2.  Hueber, W.; Patel, D. D.; Dryja, T.; Wright, A. M.; Koroleva, I.; Bruin, G.; Antoni, C.; Draelos, Z.; Gold, M. H.; Psoriasis Study, P.; Durez, P. P.; Tak, J. J.; Gomez-Reino, C. S.; Rheumatoid Arthritis Study, R. Y.; Foster, C. M.; Kim, N. S.; Samson, D. S.; Falk, D.; Chu, Q. D.; Callanan, K.; Nguyen, A.; Uveitis Study, F.; Rose, K.; Haider, A.; Di Padova, F. (2010). “Effects of AIN457, a Fully Human Antibody to Interleukin-17A, on Psoriasis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and Uveitis”. Science Translational Medicine 2 (52): 52ra72.doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3001107. PMID 20926833. edit
  3.  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/835331
  4.  Langley RG, Elewski BE, Mark Lebwohl M, et al., for the ERASURE and FIXTURE Study Groups (July 24, 2014). “Secukinumab in Plaque Psoriasis — Results of Two Phase 3 Trials”. N Engl J Med 371: 326–338. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1314258.
  5.  committees.http://www.familypracticenews.com/index.php?id=2934&type=98&tx_ttnews=306073[dead link]
  6. http://inpublic.globenewswire.com/2014/10/23/Novartis+AIN457+secukinumab+meets+primary+endpoint+in+two+Phase+III+studies+in+ankylosing+spondylitis+a+debilitating+joint+condition+of+the+spine+HUG1864939.html
  7.  http://www.medpagetoday.com/MeetingCoverage/ACR/48743
  8.  http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/806510_6
  9.  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23361084
  10. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01874340
Secukinumab 
Monoclonal antibody
Type Whole antibody
Source Human
Target IL17A
Clinical data
Legal status
  • Investigational
Identifiers
CAS number  Yes
ATC code L04AC10
DrugBank DB09029
Synonyms AIN457
Chemical data
Formula C6584H10134N1754O2042S44 
Molecular mass 147.94 kDa

INCB-039110, Janus kinase-1 (JAK-1) inhibitor……..for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, myelofibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and plaque psoriasis.


Figure imgf000005_0001 INCB-39110,

CAS 1334298-90-6

INCB-039110, Jak1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor

3-​Azetidineacetonitril​e, 1-​[1-​[[3-​fluoro-​2-​(trifluoromethyl)​-​4-​pyridinyl]​carbonyl]​-​4-​piperidinyl]​-​3-​[4-​(7H-​pyrrolo[2,​3-​d]​pyrimidin-​4-​yl)​-​1H-​pyrazol-​1-​yl]​-

 C26H23F4N9O (MW, 553.51)

{ l- { l-[3-fluoro-2- (trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl]piperidin-4-yl}-3-[4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4- yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile

2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-( Jpyrimidin-4-yl)-lH- pyrazol- 1 -yl)- 1 -( 1 -(3 -fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin- 3-yl)acetonitrile

2-(3-(4-(7H- Pyrrolo[2,3 -i/]pyrimidin-4-yl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)- 1 -(1 -(3 -fluoro-2- (trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile adipate MAY BE THE DRUG… HAS CAS 1334302-63-4

Figure imgf000005_0001Adipic acidADIPATE OF INCB-39110

ALSO/OR

 

Figure US20130060026A1-20130307-C00027

3-​Azetidineacetonitril​e, 1-​[1-​(3-​fluorobenzoyl)​-​4-​methyl-​4-​piperidinyl]​-​3-​[4-​(7H-​pyrrolo[2,​3-​d]​pyrimidin-​4-​yl)​-​1H-​pyrazol-​1-​yl]​-​, 2,​2,​2-​trifluoroacetateMAY BE THE DRUG ????…  HAS CAS  1334300-52-5

US 2011/0224190 is the pdt patent

 

 

Incyte Corporation

 

Clinical trials

 

IN PHASE 2 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, myelofibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and plaque psoriasis.

SEE

http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01633372

 

 

Jak2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor; Jak1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Breast tumor; Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Crohns disease; Inflammatory bowel disease; Influenza virus infection; Insulin dependent diabetes; Liver tumor; Multiple sclerosis; Prostate tumor; Rheumatoid arthritis; SARS coronavirus infection

Used for treating cancers (eg prostate cancer, hepatic cancer and pancreatic cancer) and autoimmune diseases. Follows on from WO2013036611, claiming the process for preparing the same JAK inhibitor. Incyte is developing INCB-39110 (phase II, September 2014), for the oral treatment of myelofibrosis, hematological neoplasm and non-small cell lung cancer.

INCB-039110 is a Jak1 inhibitor in phase II clinical studies at Incyte for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, myelofibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and plaque psoriasis. The company is also conducting a phase I clinical study for the treatment of advanced or metastatic solid tumors.

Protein kinases (PKs) regulate divINCB-039110 is a Jak1 inhibitor in phase II clinical studies at Incyte for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, myelofibrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and plaque psoriasis. The company is also conducting a phase I clinical study for the treatment of advanced or metastatic solid tumors.erse biological processes including cell growth, survival, differentiation, organ formation, morphogenesis, neovascularization, tissue repair, and regeneration, among others. Protein kinases also play specialized roles in a host of human diseases including cancer. Cytokines, low-molecular weight polypeptides or glycoproteins, regulate many pathways involved in the host

inflammatory response to sepsis. Cytokines influence cell differentiation,

proliferation and activation, and can modulate both pro-inflammatory and antiinflammatory responses to allow the host to react appropriately to pathogens.

Signaling of a wide range of cytokines involves the Janus kinase family (JAKs) of protein tyrosine kinases and Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription

(STATs). There are four known mammalian JAKs: JAK1 (Janus kinase-1), JAK2, JAK3 (also known as Janus kinase, leukocyte; JAKL; and L-JAK), and TYK2

(protein-tyros ine kinase 2).

Cytokine-stimulated immune and inflammatory responses contribute to pathogenesis of diseases: pathologies such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) arise from suppression of the immune system, while a hyperactive or inappropriate immune/inflammatory response contributes to the pathology of autoimmune diseases (e.g., asthma, systemic lupus erythematosus, thyroiditis, 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT myocarditis), and illnesses such as scleroderma and osteoarthritis (Ortmann, R. A., T. Cheng, et al. (2000) Arthritis Res 2(1): 16-32).

Deficiencies in expression of JAKs are associated with many disease states. For example, Jakl-/- mice are runted at birth, fail to nurse, and die perinatally (Rodig, S. J., M. A. Meraz, et al. (1998) Cell 93(3): 373-83). Jak2-/- mouse embryos are anemic and die around day 12.5 postcoitum due to the absence of definitive

erythropoiesis.

The JAK/STAT pathway, and in particular all four JAKs, are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthmatic response, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchitis, and other related inflammatory diseases of the lower respiratory tract. Multiple cytokines that signal through JAKs have been linked to inflammatory diseases/conditions of the upper respiratory tract, such as those affecting the nose and sinuses (e.g., rhinitis and sinusitis) whether classically allergic reactions or not. The JAK/STAT pathway has also been implicated in inflammatory diseases/conditions of the eye and chronic allergic responses.

Activation of JAK/STAT in cancers may occur by cytokine stimulation (e.g. IL-6 or GM-CSF) or by a reduction in the endogenous suppressors of JAK signaling such as SOCS (suppressor or cytokine signaling) or PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) (Boudny, V., and Kovarik, J., Neoplasm. 49:349-355, 2002).

Activation of STAT signaling, as well as other pathways downstream of JAKs (e.g., Akt), has been correlated with poor prognosis in many cancer types (Bowman, T., et al. Oncogene 19:2474-2488, 2000). Elevated levels of circulating cytokines that signal through JAK/STAT play a causal role in cachexia and/or chronic fatigue. As such, JAK inhibition may be beneficial to cancer patients for reasons that extend beyond potential anti-tumor activity.

JAK2 tyrosine kinase can be beneficial for patients with myeloproliferative disorders, e.g., polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis (MMM) (Levin, et al, Cancer Cell, vol. 7, 2005: 387- 397). Inhibition of the JAK2V617F kinase decreases proliferation of hematopoietic cells, suggesting JAK2 as a potential target for pharmacologic inhibition in patients with PV, ET, and MMM. 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT

Inhibition of the JAKs may benefit patients suffering from skin immune disorders such as psoriasis, and skin sensitization. The maintenance of psoriasis is believed to depend on a number of inflammatory cytokines in addition to various chemokines and growth factors (JCI, 1 13 : 1664-1675), many of which signal through JAKs (Adv Pharmacol. 2000;47: 113-74).

JAKl plays a central role in a number of cytokine and growth factor signaling pathways that, when dysregulated, can result in or contribute to disease states. For example, IL-6 levels are elevated in rheumatoid arthritis, a disease in which it has been suggested to have detrimental effects (Fonesca, J.E. et al, Autoimmunity

Reviews, 8:538-42, 2009). Because IL-6 signals, at least in part, through JAKl, antagonizing IL-6 directly or indirectly through JAKl inhibition is expected to provide clinical benefit (Guschin, D., N., et al Embo J 14: 1421, 1995; Smolen, J. S., et al. Lancet 371 :987, 2008). Moreover, in some cancers JAKl is mutated resulting in constitutive undesirable tumor cell growth and survival (Mullighan CG, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.106:9414-8, 2009; Flex E., et al.J Exp Med. 205:751-8, 2008). In other autoimmune diseases and cancers elevated systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines that activate JAKl may also contribute to the disease and/or associated symptoms. Therefore, patients with such diseases may benefit from JAKl inhibition. Selective inhibitors of JAKl may be efficacious while avoiding unnecessary and potentially undesirable effects of inhibiting other JAK kinases.

Selective inhibitors of JAKl, relative to other JAK kinases, may have multiple therapeutic advantages over less selective inhibitors. With respect to selectivity against JAK2, a number of important cytokines and growth factors signal through JAK2 including, for example, erythropoietin (Epo) and thrombopoietin (Tpo)

(Parganas E, et al. Cell. 93:385-95, 1998). Epo is a key growth factor for red blood cells production; hence a paucity of Epo-dependent signaling can result in reduced numbers of red blood cells and anemia (Kaushansky K, NEJM 354:2034-45, 2006). Tpo, another example of a JAK2-dependent growth factor, plays a central role in controlling the proliferation and maturation of megakaryocytes – the cells from which platelets are produced (Kaushansky K, NEJM 354:2034-45, 2006). As such, reduced Tpo signaling would decrease megakaryocyte numbers (megakaryocytopenia) and lower circulating platelet counts (thrombocytopenia). This can result in undesirable 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT and/or uncontrollable bleeding. Reduced inhibition of other JAKs, such as JAK3 and Tyk2, may also be desirable as humans lacking functional version of these kinases have been shown to suffer from numerous maladies such as severe-combined immunodeficiency or hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome (Minegishi, Y, et al.

Immunity 25:745-55, 2006; Macchi P, et al. Nature. 377:65-8, 1995). Therefore a JAK1 inhibitor with reduced affinity for other JAKs would have significant

advantages over a less-selective inhibitor with respect to reduced side effects involving immune suppression, anemia and thrombocytopenia.

……………………….

http://www.google.com/patents/US20110224190

 

EXAMPLESThe example compounds below containing one or more chiral centers were obtained in enantiomerically pure form or as scalemic mixtures, unless otherwise specified.Unless otherwise indicated, the example compounds were purified by preparativeHPLC using acidic conditions (method A) and were obtained as a TFA salt or using basic conditions (method B) and were obtained as a free base.Method A:Column: Waters Sun Fire C18, 5 μm particle size, 30×100 mm;
Mobile phase: water (0.1% TFA)/acetonitrile
Flow rate: 60 mL/min
Gradient: 5 min or 12 min from 5% acetonitrile/95% water to 100% acetonitrileMethod B:Column: Waters X Bridge C18, 5 μm particle size, 30×100 mm;
Mobile phase: water (0.15% NH4OH)/acetonitrileMethod C:Column: C18 column, 5 μm OBD
Mobile phase: water+0.05% NH4OH (A), CH3CN+0.05% NH4OH (B)Gradient: 5% B to 100% B in 15 minFlow rate: 60 mL/minExample 1
{1-{1-[3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl]piperidin-4-yl}-3-[4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile

Step A: tert-Butyl 3-Oxoazetidine-1-carboxylate

To a mixture of tert-butyl 3-hydroxyazetidine-1-carboxylate (10.0 g, 57.7 mmol), dimethyl sulfoxide (24.0 mL, 338 mmol), triethylamine (40 mL, 300 mmol) and methylene chloride (2.0 mL) was added sulfur trioxide-pyridine complex (40 g, 200 mmol) portionwise at 0° C. The mixture was stirred for 3 hours, quenched with brine, and extracted with methylene chloride. The combined extracts were dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered, and concentrated under reduced pressure. The residue was purified by silica gel column (0-6% ethyl acetate (EtOAc) in hexanes) to give tert-butyl 3-oxoazetidine-1-carboxylate (5.1 g, 52% yield).

Step B: tert-Butyl 3-(Cyanomethylene)azetidine-1-carboxylate

An oven-dried 1 L 4-neck round bottom flask fitted with stir bar, septa, nitrogen inlet, 250 ml addition funnel and thermocouple was charged with sodium hydride (5.6 g, 0.14 mol) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) (140 mL) under a nitrogen atmosphere. The mixture was chilled to 3° C., and then charged with diethyl cyanomethylphosphonate (22.4 mL, 0.138 mol) dropwise via a syringe over 20 minutes. The solution became a light yellow slurry. The reaction was then stirred for 75 minutes while warming to 18.2° C. A solution of tert-butyl 3-oxoazetidine-1-carboxylate (20 g, 0.1 mol) in tetrahydrofuran (280 mL) was prepared in an oven-dried round bottom, charged to the addition funnel via canula, then added to the reaction mixture dropwise over 25 minutes. The reaction solution became red in color. The reaction was allowed to stir overnight. The reaction was checked after 24 hours by TLC (70% hexane/EtOAc) and found to be complete. The reaction was diluted with 200 mL of 20% brine and 250 mL of EtOAc. The solution was partitioned and the aqueous phase was extracted with 250 mL of EtOAc. The combined organic phase was dried over MgSO4 and filtered, evaporated under reduced pressure, and purified by flash chromatography (0% to 20% EtOAc/hexanes, 150 g flash column) to give the desired product, tert-butyl 3-(cyanomethylene)azetidine-1-carboxylate (15 g, 66.1% yield).

Step C: 4-Chloro-7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine

To a suspension of sodium hydride (36.141 g, 903.62 mmol) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (118 mL) at −5° C. (ice/salt bath) was added a dark solution of 4-chloropyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (119.37 g, 777.30 mmol) in N,N-dimethylacetamide (237 mL) slowly. The flask and addition funnel were rinsed with N,N-dimethylacetamide (30 mL). A large amount of gas was evolved immediately. The mixture became a slightly cloudy orange mixture. The mixture was stirred at 0° C. for 60 min to give a light brown turbid mixture. To the mixture was slowly added [2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl chloride (152.40 g, 914.11 mmol) and the reaction was stirred at 0° C. for 1 h. The reaction was quenched by addition of 12 mL of H2O slowly. More water (120 mL) was added followed by methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (120 mL). The mixture was stirred for 10 min. The organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with another portion of MTBE (120 mL). The organic extracts were combined, washed with brine (120 mL×2) and concentrated under reduced pressure to give the crude product 4-chloro-7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine as a dark oil. Yield: 85.07 g (97%); LC-MS: 284.1 (M+H)+. It was carried to the next reaction without purification.

Step D: 4-(1H-Pyrazol-4-yl)-7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine

A 1000 mL round bottom flask was charged with 4-chloro-7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (10.00 g, 35.23 mmol), 1-butanol (25.0 mL), 1-(1-ethoxyethyl)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole (15.66 g, 52.85 mmol), water (25.0 mL) and potassium carbonate (12.17 g, 88.08 mmol). This solution was degased 4 times, filling with nitrogen each time. To the solution was added tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (4.071 g, 3.523 mmol). The solution was degased 4 times, filling with nitrogen each time. The mixture was stirred overnight at 100° C. After being cooled to room temperature, the mixture was filtered through a bed of celite and the celite was rinsed with ethyl acetate (42 mL). The filtrate was combined, and the organic layer was separated. The aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate. The organic extracts were combined and concentrated under vacuum with a bath temperature of 30-70° C. to give the final compound 4-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine. Yield: 78%. LC-MS: 316.2 (M+H)+.

Step E: tert-Butyl 3-(Cyanomethyl)-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidine-1-carboxylate

A 2 L round bottom flask fitted with overhead stirring, septa and nitrogen inlet was charged with tert-butyl 3-(cyanomethylene)azetidine-1-carboxylate (9.17 g, 0.0472 mol), 4-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (14.9 g, 0.0472 mol) and acetonitrile (300 mL). The resulting solution was heterogeneous. To the solution was added 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (8.48 mL, 0.0567 mol) portionwise via syringe over 3 min at room temperature. The solution slowly became homogeneous and yellow in color. The reaction was allowed to stir at room temperature for 3 h. The reaction was complete by HPLC and LC/MS and was concentrated by rotary evaporation to remove acetonitrile (˜150 mL). EtOAc (100 mL) was added followed by 100 ml of 20% brine. The two phases were partitioned. The aqueous phase was extracted with 150 mL of EtOAC. The combine organic phases were dried over MgSO4, filtered and concentrated to yield an orange oil. Purification by flash chromatography (150 grams silica, 60% EtOAc/hexanes, loaded with CH2Cl2) yielded the title compound tert-butyl 3-(cyanomethyl)-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidine-1-carboxylate as a yellow oil (21.1 g, 88% yield). LC-MS: [M+H]+=510.3.

Step F: {3-[4-(7-{[2-(Trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile dihydrochloride

To a solution of tert-butyl 3-(cyanomethyl)-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidine-1-carboxylate (2 g, 3.9 mmol) in 10 mL of THF was added 10 mL of 4 N HCl in dioxane. The solution was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour and concentrated in vacuo to provide 1.9 g (99%) of the title compound as a white powder solid, which was used for the next reaction without purification. LC-MS: [M+H]+=410.3.

Step G: tert-Butyl 4-{3-(Cyanomethyl)-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl}piperidine-1-carboxylate

Into the solution of {3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile dihydrochloride (2.6 g, 6.3 mmol), tert-butyl 4-oxo-1-piperidinecarboxylate (1.3 g, 6.3 mmol) in THF (30 mL) were added N,N-diisopropylethylamine (4.4 mL, 25 mmol) and sodium triacetoxyborohydride (2.2 g, 10 mmol). The mixture was stirred at room temperature overnight. After adding 20 mL of brine, the solution was extracted with EtOAc. The extract was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4 and concentrated. The residue was purified by combiflash column eluting with 30-80% EtOAc in hexanes to give the desired product, tert-butyl 4-{3-(cyanomethyl)-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl}piperidine-1-carboxylate. Yield: 3.2 g (86%); LC-MS: [M+H]+=593.3.

Step H: {1-Piperidin-4-yl-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile trihydrochloride

To a solution of tert-butyl 4-{3-(cyanomethyl)-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-1-yl}piperidine-1-carboxylate (3.2 g, 5.4 mmol) in 10 mL of THF was added 10 mL of 4 N HCl in dioxane. The reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. Removing solvents under reduced pressure yielded 3.25 g (100%) of {1-piperidin-4-yl-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile trihydrochloride as a white powder solid, which was used directly in the next reaction. LC-MS: [M+H]+=493.3. 1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6): δ 9.42 (s 1H), 9.21 (s, 1H), 8.89 (s, 1H), 8.69 (s, 1H), 7.97 (s, 1H), 7.39 (d, 1H), 5.68 (s, 2H), 4.96 (d, 2H), 4.56 (m, 2H), 4.02-3.63 (m, 2H), 3.55 (s, 2H), 3.53 (t, 2H), 3.49-3.31 (3, 3H), 2.81 (m, 2H), 2.12 (d, 2H), 1.79 (m, 2H), 0.83 (t, 2H), −0.10 (s, 9H).

Step I: {1-{1-[3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl]piperidin-4-yl}-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile

A mixture of {1-piperidin-4-yl-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile trihydrochloride (1.22 g, 2.03 mmol), 3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinic acid (460 mg, 2.2 mmol), benzotriazol-1-yloxytris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (1.07 g, 2.42 mmol), and triethylamine (2.0 mL, 14 mmol) in dimethylformamide (DMF) (20.0 mL) was stirred at room temperature overnight. LS-MS showed the reaction was complete. EtOAc (60 mL) and saturated NaHCO3 aqueous solution (60 mL) were added to the reaction mixture. After stirring at room temperature for 10 minutes, the organic phase was separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with EtOAc three times. The combined organic phase was washed with brine, dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and evaporated under reduced pressure. Purification by flash chromatography provided the desired product {1-{1-[3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl]piperidin-4-yl}-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile. LC-MS: 684.3 (M+H)+.

Step J: {1-{1-[3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl]piperidin-4-yl}-3-[4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile

Into a solution of {1-{1-[3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl]piperidin-4-yl}-3-[4-(7-{[2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile (56 mg, 0.1 mmol) in methylene chloride (1.5 mL) was added trifluoroacetic acid (1.5 mL). The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 2 hours. After removing the solvents in vacuum, the residue was dissolved in a methanol solution containing 20% ethylenediamine. After being stirred at room temperature for 1 hour, the solution was purified by HPLC (method B) to give the title compound. LC-MS: 554.3 (M+H)+; 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3): 9.71 (s, 1H), 8.82 (s, 1H), 8.55 (d, J=4.6 Hz, 1H), 8.39 (s, 1H), 8.30 (s, 1H), 7.52 (t, J=4.6 Hz, 1H), 7.39 (dd, J1=3.4 Hz, J2=1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.77 (dd, J1=3.6 Hz, J2=0.7 Hz, 1H), 4.18 (m, 1H), 3.75 (m, 2H), 3.63 (dd, J1=7.8 Hz, J2=3.7 Hz, 2H), 3.45 (m, 2H), 3.38 (s, 2H), 3.11 (m, 1H), 2.57 (m, 1H), 1.72 (m, 1H), 1.60 (m, 1H), 1.48 (m, 1H), 1.40 (m, 1H).

 

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http://www.google.com/patents/US20130060026

Example 1Synthesis of 4-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (5)

Step 1. 4-Chloro-7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (3)

To a flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, an addition funnel, a thermowell, and the mechanical stirrer was added 4-chloro-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (1, 600 g, 3.91 mol) and N,N-dimethylacetimide (DMAC, 9.6 L) at room temperature. The mixture was cooled to 0-5° C. in an ice/brine bath before solid sodium hydride (NaH, 60 wt %, 174 g, 4.35 mol, 1.1 equiv) was added in portions at 0-5° C. The reaction mixture turned into a dark solution after 15 minutes. Trimethylsilylethoxymethyl chloride (2, SEM-Cl, 763 mL, 4.31 mol, 1.1 equiv) was then added slowly via an addition funnel at a rate that the internal reaction temperature did not exceed 5° C. The reaction mixture was then stirred at 0-5° C. for 30 minutes. When the reaction was deemed complete determined by TLC and HPLC, the reaction mixture was quenched by water (1 L). The mixture was then diluted with water (12 L) and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) (8 L). The two layers were separated and the aqueous layer was extracted with MTBE (8 L). The combined organic layers were washed with water (2×4 L) and brine (4 L) and solvent switched to 1-butanol. The solution of crude product (3) in 1-butanol was used in the subsequent Suzuki coupling reaction without further purification. Alternatively, the organic solution of the crude product (3) in MTBE was dried over sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The solvents were removed under reduced pressure. The residue was then dissolved in heptane (2 L), filtered and loaded onto a silica gel (SiO2, 3.5 Kg) column eluting with heptane (6 L), 95% heptane/ethyl acetate (12 L), 90% heptane/ethyl acetate (10 L), and finally 80% heptane/ethyl acetate (10 L). The fractions containing the pure desired product were combined and concentrated under reduced pressure to give 4-chloro-7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (3, 987 g, 1109.8 g theoretical, 88.9% yield) as a pale yellow oil which partially solidified to an oily solid on standing at room temperature. For 3: 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz) δ 8.67 (s, 1H), 7.87 (d, 1H, J=3.8 Hz), 6.71 (d, 1H, J=3.6 Hz), 5.63 (s, 2H), 3.50 (t, 2H, J=7.9 Hz), 0.80 (t, 2H, J=8.1 Hz), 1.24 (s, 9H) ppm; 13C NMR (DMSO-d6, 100 MHz) δ 151.3, 150.8, 150.7, 131.5, 116.9, 99.3, 72.9, 65.8, 17.1, −1.48 ppm; C12H18ClN3OSi (MW 283.83), LCMS (EI) m/e 284/286 (M++H).

Step 2. 4-(1H-Pyrazol-4-yl)-7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (5)

To a reactor equipped with the overhead stirrer, a condenser, a thermowell, and a nitrogen inlet was charged water (H2O, 9.0 L), solid potassium carbonate (K2CO3, 4461 g, 32.28 mol, 2.42 equiv), 4-chloro-7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (3, 3597 g, 12.67 mol), 1-(1-ethoxyethyl)-4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazole (4, 3550 g, 13.34 mol, 1.05 equiv), and 1-butanol (27 L) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was degassed three timed backfilling with nitrogen each time before being treated with tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (Pd(PPh3)4, 46 g, 0.040 mol, 0.003 equiv) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was heated to gentle reflux (about 90° C.) for 1-4 hours. When the reaction was deemed complete determined by HPLC, the reaction mixture was gradually cooled down to room temperature before being filtered through a Celite bed. The Celite bed was washed with ethyl acetate (2×2 L) before the filtrates and washing solution were combined. The two layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (12 L). The combined organic layers were concentrated under reduced pressure to remove solvents, and the crude 4-(1-(1-ethoxyethyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (6) was directly charged back to the reactor with tetrahydrofuran (THF, 4.2 L) for the subsequent acid-promoted de-protection reaction without further purification.

To a suspension of crude 4-(1-(1-ethoxyethyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (6), made as described above, in tetrahydrofuran (THF, 4.2 L) in the reactor was charged water (H2O, 20.8 L), and a 10% aqueous HCl solution (16.2 L, 45.89 mol, 3.44 equiv) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 16-30° C. for 2-5 hours. When the reaction was deemed complete by HPLC analysis, the reaction mixture was treated with a 30% aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution (4 L, 50.42 mol, 3.78 equiv) at room temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1-2 hours. The solids were collected by filtration and washed with water (2×5 L). The wet cake was charged back to the reactor with acetonitrile (21.6 L), and resulting suspension was heated to gentle reflux for 1-2 hours. The clear solution was then gradually cooled down to room temperature with stirring, and solids were precipitated out from the solution with cooling. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for an additional 1-2 hours. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with acetonitrile (2×3.5 L), and dried in oven under reduced pressure at 45-55° C. to constant weight to afford 4-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-7-(2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (5, 3281.7 g, 3996.8 g theoretical, 82.1% yield) as white crystalline solids (99.5 area % by HPLC). For 5: 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 400 MHz) δ 13.41 (br. s, 1H), 8.74 (s, 1H), 8.67 (br. s, 1H), 8.35 (br. s, 1H), 7.72 (d, 1H, J=3.7 Hz), 7.10 (d, 1H, J=3.7 Hz), 5.61 (s, 2H), 3.51 (t, 2H, J=8.2 Hz), 0.81 (t, 2H, J=8.2 Hz), 0.13 (s, 9H) ppm; C15H21N5OSi (MW, 315.45), LCMS (EI) m/e 316 (M++H).

Example 2tert-Butyl 3-(cyanomethylene)azetidine-1-carboxylate (13)

Step 1. 1-Benzhydrylazetidin-3-ol hydrochloride (9)

A solution of diphenylmethanamine (7, 2737 g, 15.0 mol, 1.04 equiv) in methanol (MeOH, 6 L) was treated with 2-(chloromethyl)oxirane (8, 1330 g, 14.5 mol) from an addition funnel at room temperature. During the initial addition a slight endotherm was noticed. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at room temperature for 3 days before being warmed to reflux for an additional 3 days. When TLC showed that the reaction was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was first cooled down to room temperature and then to 0-5° C. in an ice bath. The solids were collected by filtration and washed with acetone (4 L) to give the first crop of the crude desired product (9, 1516 g). The filtrate was concentrated under reduced pressure and the resulting semisolid was diluted with acetone (1 L). This solid was then collected by filtration to give the second crop of the crude desired product (9, 221 g). The crude product, 1-benzhydrylazetidin-3-ol hydrochloride (9, 1737 g, 3998.7 g theoretical, 43.4% yield), was found to be sufficiently pure to be used in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For 9: 1H NMR (DMSO-d6, 300 MHz), δ 12.28 (br. d, 1H), 7.7 (m, 5H), 7.49 (m, 5H), 6.38 (d, 1H), 4.72 (br. s, 1H), 4.46 (m, 1H), 4.12 (m, 2H), 3.85 (m, 2H) ppm; C16H18ClNO (free base of 9, C16K7NO MW, 239.31), LCMS (EI) m/e 240 (M++H).

Step 2. tert-Butyl 3-hydroxyazetidine-1-carboxylate (10)

A suspension of 1-benzhydrylazetidin-3-ol hydrochloride (9, 625 g, 2.27 mol) in a 10% solution of aqueous sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, 5 L) and dichloromethane (CH2Cl2, 5 L) was stirred at room temperature until all solids were dissolved. The two layers were separated, and the aqueous layer was extracted with dichloromethane (CH2Cl2, 2 L). The combined organics extracts were dried over sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and concentrated under reduced pressure. This resulting crude free base of 9 was then dissolved in THF (6 L) and the solution was placed into a large Parr bomb. Di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (BOC2O, 545 g, 2.5 mol, 1.1 equiv) and 20% palladium (Pd) on carbon (125 g, 50% wet) were added to the Parr bomb. The vessel was charged to 30 psi with hydrogen gas (H2) and stirred under steady hydrogen atmosphere (vessel was recharged three times to maintain the pressure at 30 psi) at room temperature for 18 h. When HPLC showed that the reaction was complete (when no more hydrogen was taken up), the reaction mixture was filtered through a Celite pad and the Celite pad was washed with THF (4 L). The filtrates were concentrated under reduced pressure to remove the solvent and the residue was loaded onto a Biotage 150 column with a minimum amount of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2). The column was eluted with 20-50% ethyl acetate in heptane and the fractions containing the pure desired product (10) were collected and combined. The solvents were removed under reduced pressure to afford tert-butyl 3-hydroxyazetidine-1-carboxylate (10, 357 g, 393.2 g theoretical, 90.8% yield) as colorless oil, which solidified upon standing at room temperature in vacuum. For 10: 1HNMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ 4.56 (m 1H), 4.13 (m, 2H), 3.81 (m, 2H), 1.43 (s, 9H) ppm.

Step 3. tert-Butyl 3-oxoazetidine-1-carboxylate (11)

A solution of tert-butyl 3-hydroxyazetidine-1-carboxylate (10, 50 g, 289 mmol) in ethyl acetate (400 mL) was cooled to 0° C. The resulting solution was then treated with solid TEMPO (0.5 g, 3.2 mmol, 0.011 equiv) and a solution of potassium bromide (KBr, 3.9 g, 33.2 mmol, 0.115 equiv) in water (60 mL) at 0-5° C. While keeping the reaction temperature between 0-5° C. a solution of saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 450 mL) and an aqueous sodium hypochlorite solution (NaClO, 10-13% available chlorine, 450 mL) were added. Once the solution of sodium hypochlorite was added, the color of the reaction mixture was changed immediately. When additional amount of sodium hypochlorite solution was added, the color of the reaction mixture was gradually faded. When TLC showed that all of the starting material was consumed, the color of the reaction mixture was no longer changed. The reaction mixture was then diluted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 500 mL) and two layers were separated. The organic layer was washed with water (500 mL) and the saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (500 mL) and dried over sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The solvent was then removed under reduced pressure to give the crude product, tert-butyl 3-oxoazetidine-1-carboxylate (11, 48 g, 49.47 g theoretical, 97% yield), which was found to be sufficiently pure and was used directly in the subsequent reaction without further purification. For crude 11: 1HNMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ 4.65 (s, 4H), 1.42 (s, 9H) ppm.

Step 4. tert-Butyl 3-(cyanomethylene)azetidine-1-carboxylate (13)

Diethyl cyanomethyl phosphate (12, 745 g, 4.20 mol, 1.20 equiv) and anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 9 L) was added to a four-neck flask equipped with a thermowell, an addition funnel and the nitrogen protection tube at room temperature. The solution was cooled with an ice-methanol bath to −14° C. and a 1.0 M solution of potassium tert-butoxide (t-BuOK) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 3.85 L, 3.85 mol, 1.1 equiv) was added over 20 minutes keeping the reaction temperature below −5° C. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred for 3 hours at −10° C. and a solution of 1-tert-butoxycarbonyl-3-azetidinone (11, 600 g, 3.50 mol) in anhydrous tetrahydrofuran (THF, 2 L) was added over 2 h keeping the internal temperature below −5° C. The reaction mixture was stirred at −5 to −10° C. over 1 hour and then slowly warmed up to room temperature and stirred at room temperature for overnight. The reaction mixture was then diluted with water (4.5 L) and saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (NaCl, 4.5 L) and extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc, 2×9 L). The combined organic layers were washed with brine (6 L) and dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The organic solvent was removed under reduced pressure and the residue was diluted with dichloromethane (CH2Cl2, 4 L) before being absorbed onto silica gel (SiO2, 1.5 Kg). The crude product, which was absorbed on silica gel, was purified by flash column chromatography (SiO2, 3.5 Kg, 0-25% EtOAc/hexanes gradient elution) to afford tert-butyl 3-(cyanomethylene)azetidine-1-carboxylate (13, 414.7 g, 679.8 g theoretical, 61% yield) as white solid. For 13: 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300 MHz), δ 5.40 (m, 1H), 4.70 (m, 2H), 4.61 (m, 2H), 1.46 (s, 9H) ppm; C10H14N2O2 (MW, 194.23), LCMS (EI) m/e 217 (M′+Na).

Example 3(3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)(1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4,5]decan-8-yl)methanone (17)

Step 1. 1,4-Dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane (15)

To a 30 L reactor equipped with a mechanic stirrer, an addition funnel and a septum was charged sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 1.4 kg, 35 mol) and water (7 L, 3.13 kg, 17.43 mol). To the solution thus obtained was added 1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane hydrochloric acid (14, 3.13 kg, 17.43 mol). The mixture was stirred at 25° C. for 30 minutes. Then the solution was saturated with sodium chloride (1.3 kg) and extracted with 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran (3×7 L). The combined organic layer was dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate (1.3 kg), filtered and concentrated under reduced pressure (70 mmHg) at 50° C. The yellow oil thus obtained was distilled under reduced pressure (80 mmHg, bp: 115° C. to 120° C.) to give compound 15 (2.34 kg, 16.36 mol, 93.8%) as a clear oil, which was used directly in the subsequent coupling reaction.

Step 2. (3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)(1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4,5]decan-8-yl)methanone (17)

To a dried 100 L reactor equipped with a mechanic stirrer, an addition funnel, a thermometer and a vacuum outlet were placed 3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinic acid (16, 3.0 kg, 14.35 mol), benzotriazol-1-yloxytris(dimethylamino)phosphonium hexafluorophosphate (BOP reagent, 7.6 kg, 17.2 mol, 1.20 equiv) in dimethylformamide (DMF, 18 L). To the resulting solution was added 1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane (15, 2.34 kg, 16.36 mol, 1.14 equiv) with stirring over 20 minutes. Triethylamine (Et3N, 4 L, 28.67 mol, 2.00 equiv) was then added over 1 hour. The temperature was kept between 5° C. and 10° C. during the additions. The dark brown solution thus obtained was stirred for 12 hours at 20° C. and then chilled to 10° C. With vigorous stirring, 18 L of saturated sodium bicarbonate solution and 36 L of water were sequentially added and the temperature was kept under 15° C. The precipitation (filter cake) thus obtained was collected by filtration. The aqueous phase was then saturated with 12 kg of solid sodium chloride and extracted with EtOAc (2×18 L). The combined organic layer was washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (18 L), and water (2×18 L) in sequence. The filter cake from the previous filtration was dissolved back in the organic phase. The dark brown solution thus obtained was washed twice with 18 L of water each and then concentrated under reduced pressure (40-50° C., 30 mm Hg) to give 5.0 kg of the crude product as viscous brown oil. The crude product 17 obtained above was dissolved in EtOH (8.15 L) at 50° C. Water (16.3 L) was added over 30 minutes. The brown solution was seeded, cooled to 20° C. over 3 hours with stirring and stirred at 20° C. for 12 h. The precipitate formed was filtered, washed with a mixture of EtOH and water (EtOH:H2O=1:20, 2 L) and dried under reduced pressure (50 mmHg) at 60° C. for 24 hours to afford (3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)(1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4,5]decan-8-yl)methanone (17, 3.98 kg, 11.92 mol, 83.1%) as a white powder. For 17: 1H NMR (300 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 8.64 (d, 3JHH=4.68 Hz, 1H, NCH in pyridine), 7.92 (dd, 3JHH=4.68 Hz, 4JHF=4.68 Hz, 1H, NCCH in pyridine), 3.87-3.91 (m, 4H, OCH2CH2O), 3.70 (br s, 2H, one of NCH2 in piperidine rine, one of another NCH2 in piperidine ring, both in axial position), 3.26 (t, 3JHH=5.86 Hz, 2H, one of NCH2 in piperidine rine, one of another NCH2 in piperidine ring, both in equatorial position), 1.67 (d, 3JHH=5.86 Hz, 2H, one of NCCH2 in piperidine ring, one of another NCCH2 in piperidine ring, both in equatorial position), 1.58 (br s, 2H, one of NCCH2 in piperidine ring, one of another NCCH2 in piperidine ring, both in axial position) ppm; 13C NMR (75 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 161.03 (N—C═O), 151.16 (d, 1JCF=266.03 Hz, C—F), 146.85 (d, 4JCF=4.32 Hz, NCH in pyridine), 135.24 (d, 2JCF=11.51 Hz, C—C═O), 135.02 (quartet, 2JCF=34.57 Hz, NCCF3), 128.24 (d, 4JCF=7.48 Hz, NCCH in pyridine), 119.43 (d×quartet, 1JCF=274.38 Hz, 3JCF=4.89 Hz, CF3), 106.74 (OCO), 64.60 (OCCO), 45.34 (NC in piperidine ring), 39.62 (NC in piperidine ring), 34.79 (NCC in piperidine ring), 34.10 (NCC in piperidine ring) ppm; 19F NMR (282 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ-64.69 (d, 4JFF=15.85 Hz, F3C), −129.26 (d×quartet, 4JFF=15.85 Hz, 4JFH=3.96 Hz, FC) ppm; C14H14F4N2O3 (MW, 334.27), LCMS (EI) m/e 335.1 (M++H).

Example 4(3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl) (1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4,5]decan-8-yl)methanone (18)

In a 5 L 4-necked round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple, an addition funnel and a nitrogen inlet was placed (3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)pyridin-4-yl)(1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4,5]decan-8-yl)methanone (17, 100 g, 0.299 mol) in acetonitrile (ACN, 400 mL) at room temperature. The resultant solution was cooled to below 10° C. To the reaction mixture was added 6.0 N aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl, 450 mL, 2.70 mol, 9.0 equiv), while the internal temperature was kept below 10° C. The resulting reaction mixture was then warmed to room temperature and an additional amount of 6.0 N aqueous hydrochloric acid (HCl, 1050 mL, 6.30 mol, 21.0 equiv) was slowly introduced to the reaction mixture at room temperature in 8 hours via the addition funnel. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 0° C. before being treated with 30% aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH, 860 mL, 8.57 mmol, 28.6 equiv) while the internal temperature was kept at below 10° C. The resulting reaction mixture was subsequently warmed to room temperature prior to addition of solid sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 85.0 g, 1.01 mol, 3.37 equiv) in 1 hour. The mixture was then extracted with EtOAc (2×1.2 L), and the combined organic phase was washed with 16% aqueous sodium chloride solution (2×800 mL) and concentrated to approximately 1.0 L by vacuum distillation. Heptane (2.1 L) was added to the residue, and the resulting mixture was concentrated to 1.0 L by vacuum distillation. To the concentrated mixture was added heptane (2.1 L). The resulting white slurry was then concentrated to 1.0 L by vacuum distillation. To the white slurry was then added methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 1.94 L). The white turbid was heated to 40° C. to obtain a clear solution. The resulting solution was concentrated to about 1.0 L by vacuum distillation. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 1 hour. The white precipitate was collected by filtration with pulling vacuum. The filter cake was washed with heptane (400 mL) and dried on the filter under nitrogen with pulling vacuum to provide compound 18 (78.3 g, 90.1%) as an off-white solid. For 18: 1H NMR (300 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 8.68 (d, 3JHH=4.69 Hz, 1H, NCH in pyridine), 7.97 (dd, 3JHH=4.69 Hz, 4JHF=4.69 Hz, 1H, NCCH in pyridine), 3.92 (br s, 2H, one of NCH2 in piperidine rine, one of another NCH2 in piperidine ring, both in axial position), 3.54 (t, 3JHH=6.15 Hz, 2H, one of NCH2 in piperidine rine, one of another NCH2 in piperidine ring, both in equatorial position), 2.48 (t, 3JHH=6.44 Hz, 2H, NCCH2), 2.34 (t, 3JHE=6.15 Hz, 2H, NCCH2) ppm; 13C NMR (75 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 207.17 (C═O), 161.66 (N—C═O), 151.26 (d, 1JCF=266.89 Hz, C—F), 146.90 (d, 4JCF=6.05 Hz, NCH in pyridine), 135.56 (C—C═O), 134.78-135.56 (m, NCCF3), 128.27 (d, 3JCF=7.19 Hz, NCCH in pyridine), 119.52 (d×quartet, 1JCF=274.38 Hz, 3JCF=4.89 Hz, CF3), 45.10 (NC in piperidine ring) ppm, one carbon (NCC in piperidine ring) missing due to overlap with (CD3)2SO; 19F NMR (282 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ-64.58 (d, 4JFF=15.85 Hz, F3C), −128.90 (d×quartet, 4JFF=15.85 Hz, 4JFH=4.05 Hz, FC) ppm; C12H10F4N2O2 (MW, 290.21), LCMS (EI) m/e 291.1 (M++H).

Example 53-[4-(7-{[2-(Trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile dihydrochloride (20)

Step 1. tent-Butyl 3-(cyanomethyl)-3-(4-(7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)azetidine-1-carboxylate (19)

In a dried 30 L reactor equipped with a mechanic stirrer, a thermometer, an addition funnel and a vacuum outlet were placed 4-(1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-7-((2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine (5, 4.50 kg, 14.28 mol), tert-butyl 3-(cyanomethylene)azetidine-1-carboxylate (13, 3.12 kg, 16.08 mol, 1.126 equiv) in acetonitrile (9 L) at 20±5° C. To the resultant pink suspension was added 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU, 225 mL, 1.48 mol, 0.10 equiv) over 40 minutes. The batch temperature was kept between 10° C. and 20° C. during addition. The brown solution obtained was stirred at 20° C. for 3 hours. After the reaction was complete, water (18 L) was added with stirring over 80 minutes at 20° C. The mixture was seeded and the seeded mixture was stirred at room temperature for 12 hours. The solids were collected by filtration and the filter cake was washed with a mixture of acetonitrile and water (1:2, 9 L) and dried in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge for 12 hours at 60° C. to provide the crude product (19, 7.34 kg) as a light yellow powder. The crude product obtained above was dissolved in methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 22 L) at 60° C. in a 50 L reactor equipped with a mechanic stirrer, a thermometer, an addition funnel and a septum. Hexanes (22 L) was added over 1 hour at 60° C. The solution was then seeded, cooled to 20° C. over 3 hours and stirred at 20° C. for 12 hours. The precipitation was collected by filtration. The resultant cake was washed with a mixture of MTBE and hexane (1:15, 3 L) and dried in a vacuum oven for 10 hours at 50° C. to provide the compound 19 (6.83 kg, 13.42 mol, 94.0%) as a white powder. For 19: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 8.87 (s, 1H), 8.46 (d, J=0.6 Hz, 1H), 8.36 (d, J=0.7 Hz, 1H), 7.44 (d, J=3.7 Hz, 1H), 6.82 (d, J=3.7 Hz, 1H), 5.69 (s, 2H), 4.57 (d, J=9.6 Hz, 2H), 4.32 (d, J=9.5 Hz, 2H), 3.59-3.49 (m, 2H), 3.35 (s, 2H), 1.49 (s, 9H), 0.96-0.87 (m, 2H), −0.03-−0.10 (s, 9H) ppm; 13C NMR (101 MHz, CDCl3) δ 157.22, 153.67, 153.24, 151.62, 142.13, 130.16, 129.67, 124.47, 116.72, 115.79, 102.12, 82.54, 74.23, 68.01, 60.25, 58.23, 29.65, 29.52, 19.15, −0.26 ppm; C25H35N7O3Si (MW, 509.68), LCMS (EI) m/e 510.1 (M++H).

Step 2. 3-[4-(7-{[2-(Trimethylsilyl)ethoxy]methyl}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl]azetidin-3-yl}acetonitrile dihydrochloride (20)

In a 2 L 4-necked round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple, an addition funnel and a nitrogen inlet was added compound 19 (55.0 g, 0.108 mol) and methanol (MeOH, 440 mL) at 20±5° C. The resulting white turbid was stirred for 20 minutes at room temperature to provide a light yellow solution. A solution of hydrochloric acid (HCl) in isopropanol (5.25 M, 165 mL, 0.866 mol, 8.02 equiv) was then added to the reaction mixture via the addition funnel in 5 minutes. The resulting reaction mixture was then heated to 40° C. by a heating mantle. After 2 hours at 40° C., water (165 mL, 9.17 mol, 84.8 equiv) was added to the reaction mixture via the addition funnel to provide a light green solution at 40° C. Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE, 440 mL) was added to the resulting mixture via the addition funnel at 40° C. The resulting mixture was slowly cooled to 10° C. The solids were collected by filtration and washed with MTBE (2×220 mL). The white solids were dried in the filter under nitrogen with a pulling vacuum for 18 hours to afford compound 20 (52.2 g, KF water content 5.42%, yield 94.9%). For 20: 1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 10.39 (brs, 1H), 10.16 (brs, 1H), 9.61 (s, 1H), 9.12 (s, 1H), 9.02 (s, 1H), 8.27-8.21 (d, J=3.8 Hz, 1H), 7.72-7.66 (d, J=3.8 Hz, 1H), 5.82 (s, 2H), 4.88-4.77 (m, 2H), 4.53-4.44 (m, 2H), 4.12 (s, 2H), 3.69-3.60 (m, 2H), 0.98-0.89 (m, 2H), 0.01 (s, 9H) ppm; 13C NMR (101 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 151.25, 146.45, 145.09, 140.75, 133.38, 132.44, 116.20, 116.09, 112.79, 102.88, 73.07, 66.14, 59.16, 53.69, 26.44, 17.15, −1.36 ppm; C20H29Cl2N7OSi (free base of 20, C20H27N7OSi, MW 409.56), LCMS (EI) m/e 410.2 (M++H).

Example 62-(1-(1-(3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-(7-(2-(trimethylsilyl)ethoxy)methyl)-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile (21)

In a 100 L dried reactor equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple, a condenser, and a nitrogen inlet was added (20, 3.24 kg, 6.715 mol) and dichloromethane (32 L) at 20±5° C. The mixture was stirred at room temperature for 10 minutes before being treated with triethylamine (TEA, 1.36 kg, 13.44 mol, 2.00 equiv) at an addition rate which keeping the internal temperature at 15-30° C. Compound 18 (2.01 kg, 6.926 mol, 1.03 equiv) was then added to the reactor at room temperature. After 10 minutes, sodium triacetoxyborohydride (NaBH(OAc)3, 2.28 kg, 10.75 mol, 1.60 equiv) was added portion wise to the reactor in 1 hour while the internal temperature was kept at 15-30° C. The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at 15-30° C. for an additional one hour. Once the reductive amination reaction is deemed complete, the reaction mixture was treated with a 4% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (NaHCO3, 32 L) to adjust the pH to 7-8. After stirring for 30 minutes at room temperature, the two phases were separated. The aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (29 L). The combined organic phase was sequentially washed with 0.1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (16 L), 4% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (16 L), 8% aqueous sodium chloride solution (2×16 L). The resultant organic phase was partially concentrated and filtered. The filtrate was subjected to solvent exchange by gradually adding acetonitrile (65 L) under vacuum. The white solids were collected by filtration, washed with acetonitrile (10 L) and dried at 40-50° C. in a vacuum oven with nitrogen purge to afford compound 21 (4.26 kg, 6.23 mol, 92.9%). For 21: 1H NMR (500 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 8.84 (s, 1H), 8.76 (s, 1H), 8.66 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 8.43 (s, 1H), 7.90 (t, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.78 (d, J=3.7 Hz, 1H), 7.17 (d, J=3.7 Hz, 1H), 5.63 (s, 2H), 4.07 (dt, J=11.1, 4.9 Hz, 1H), 3.75 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.57 (dd, J=10.2, 7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.55 (s, 2h), 3.52 (dd, J=8.5, 7.4 Hz, 2H), 3.41 (dq, J=13.3, 4.3 Hz, 1H), 3.26 (t, J=10.0 Hz, 1H), 3.07 (ddd, J=13.1, 9.4, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.56 (dt, J=8.5, 4.7 Hz, 1H), 1.81-1.73 (m, 1H), 1.63 (m, 1H), 1.29 (m, 1H), 1.21 (m, 1H), 0.82 (dd, J=8.5, 7.4 Hz, 2H), −0.12 (s, 9H) ppm; 13C NMR (101 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 161.68, (154.91, 152.27), 153.08, 152.69, 151.53, 147.69, 140.96, (136.19, 136.02), (136.48, 136.36, 136.13, 136.0, 135.78, 135.66, 135.43, 135.32), 131.43, 130.84, 129.03, (126.17, 123.42, 120.69), 117.99, 122.77, 118.78, 114.71, 102.02, 73.73, 67.04, 62.86, 61.88, 58.51, 45.63, 30.03, 29.30, 28.60, 18.52, 0.00 ppm; C32H37F4N9O2Si (MW, 683.77), LCMS (EI) m/e 684.2 (M++H).

Example 72-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile (22)

Figure US20130060026A1-20130307-C00025 BASE OF INCB 39110

To a 250 mL 4-necked round bottom flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple, an addition funnel and a nitrogen inlet was added compound 21 (9.25 g, 13.52 mmol, KF water content 3.50%) and acetonitrile (74 mL) at 20±5° C. The resulting white slurry was cooled to below 5° C. Boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BF3.OEt2, 6.46 mL, 51.37 mmol, 3.80 equiv) was then added at a rate while the internal temperature was kept at below 5.0° C. The reaction mixture was then warmed to 20±5° C. After stirring at 20±5° C. for 18 hours, the reaction mixture was cooled to 0-5° C. and an additional amount of BF3.OEt2 (0.34 mL, 2.70 mmol, 0.2 equiv) was introduced to the reaction mixture at below 5.0° C. The resulting reaction mixture was warmed to 20±5° C., and kept stirring at room temperature for an additional 5 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 0-5° C. before water (12.17 mL, 0.676 mol, 50 equiv) was added. The internal temperature was kept at below 5.0° C. during addition of water. The resultant mixture was warmed to 20±5° C. and kept stirring at room temperature for 2 hours. The reaction mixture was then cooled to 0-5° C. and aqueous ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH, 5 N, 121.7 mmol, 9.0 equiv) was added. During addition of aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution, the internal temperature was kept at below 5.0° C. The resulting reaction mixture was warmed to 20±5° C. and stirred at room temperature for 20 hours. Once the SEM-deprotection was deemed complete, the reaction mixture was filtered, and the solids were washed with EtOAc (9.25 mL). The filtrates were combined and diluted with EtOAc (74 mL). The diluted organic solution was washed with 13% aqueous sodium chloride solution (46.2 mL). The organic phase was then diluted with EtOAc (55.5 mL) before being concentrated to a minimum volume under reduced pressure. EtOAc (120 mL) was added to the residue, and the resulting solution was stirred at 20±5° C. for 30 minutes. The solution was then washed with 7% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (2×46 mL) and 13% aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (46 mL). The resultant organic phase was diluted with EtOAc (46 mL) and treated with water (64 mL) at 50±5° C. for 30 minutes. The mixture was cooled to 20±5° C. and the two phases were separated. The organic phase was treated with water (64 mL) at 50±5° C. for 30 minutes for the second time. The mixture was cooled to 20±5° C. and the two phases were separated. The resultant organic phase was concentrated to afford crude compound 22 (free base), which was further purified by column chromatography (SiO2, 330 g, gradient elution with 0-10% of MeOH in EtOAc) to afford analytically pure free base (22, 7.00 g, 93.5%) as an off-white solid. For 22:

 

1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 12.17 (d, J=2.8 Hz, 1H), 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.70 (m, 2H), 8.45 (s, 1H), 7.93 (t, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J=3.6, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (dd, J=3.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (m, 1H), 3.78 (d, J=7.9 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (t, J=7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 3.46 (m, 1H), 3.28 (t, J=10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (ddd, J=13.2, 9.5, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 2.58 (m, 1H), 1.83-1.75 (m, 1H), 1.70-1.63 (m, 1H), 1.35-1.21 (m, 2H) ppm;

13C NMR (101 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 160.28, (153.51, 150.86), 152.20, 150.94, 149.62, (146.30, 146.25), 139.48, (134.78, 134.61), (135.04, 134.92, 134.72, 134.60, 134.38, 134.26, 134.03, 133.92), 129.22, 127.62, 126.84, 121.99, 122.04, (124.77, 122.02, 119.19, 116.52), 117.39, 113.00, 99.99, 61.47, 60.49, 57.05, 44.23, 28.62, 27.88, 27.19 ppm;

C26H23F4N9O (MW, 553.51), LCMS (EI) m/e 554.1 (M′+H).

ADIPATE

Example 8

2-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile adipate (25)

Step 1. 2-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile adipate crude salt (24)

The process of making compound 22 in Example 7 was followed, except that the final organic phase was concentrated by vacuum distillation to the minimum volume to afford crude compound 22, which was not isolated but was directly used in subsequent adipate salt formation process. To the concentrated residue which containing crude compound 22 was added methanol (200 mL) at room temperature. The mixture was the concentrated by vacuum distillation to a minimum volume. The residue was then added methanol (75 mL) and the resulting solution was heated to reflux for 2 hours. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK, 75 mL) was added to the solution and the resulting mixture was distilled under vacuum to about 30 mL while the internal temperature was kept at 40-50° C. Methanol (75 mL) was added and the resulting mixture was heated to reflux for 2 hours. To the solution was added MIBK (75 mL). The mixture was distilled again under vacuum to about 30 mL while the internal temperature was kept at 40-50° C. To the solution was added a solution of adipic acid (23, 2.15 g, 14.77 mmol) in methanol (75 mL). The resultant solution was then heated to reflux for 2 hours. MIBK (75 mL) was added. The mixture was distilled under vacuum to about 60 mL while the internal temperature was kept at 40-50° C. Heating was stopped and heptane (52.5 mL) was added over 1-2 hours. The resultant mixture was stirred at 20±5° C. for 3-4 hours. The white precipitates were collected by filtration, and the filter cake was washed with heptane (2×15 mL). The solid was dried on the filter under nitrogen with a pulling vacuum at 20±5° C. for 12 hours to provide compound 24 (crude adipate salt, 8.98 g, 12.84 mmol., 95.0%). For 24: 1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 12.16 (s, 1H), 12.05 (brs, 2H), 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.72 (s, 1H), 8.69 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 8.45 (s, 1H), 7.93 (t, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J=3.6, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (dd, J=3.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), δ 4.11 (dt, J=11.0, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (t, J=7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 3.44 (dt, J=14.4, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (t, J=10.4 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (ddd, J=13.2, 9.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.58 (tt, J=8.6, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 2.28-2.17 (m, 4H), 1.83-1.74 (m, 1H), 1.67 (d, J=11.0 Hz, 1H), 1.59-1.46 (m, 4H), 1.37-1.21 (m, 2H) ppm; 13C NMR (101 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 174.38, 160.29, (153.52, 150.87), 152.20, 150.94, 149.63, (146.30, 146.25), 139.48, (134.79, 134.62), (135.08, 134.97, 134.74, 134.62, 134.38, 134.28, 134.04, 133.93), 129.21, 127.62, 126.84, 122.05, (124.75, 122.02, 119.29, 116.54), 117.39, 113.01, 99.99, 61.47, 60.50, 57.06, 44.24, 33.42, 30.70, 28.63, 27.89, 27.20, 24.07 ppm; C32H33F4N9O5 (Mol. Wt: 699.66; 24: C26H23F4N9O, MW 553.51), LCMS (EI) m/e 554.0 (M++H).

Step 2.

2-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile adipate (25)

In a 100 L dried reactor equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple, an addition funnel and a nitrogen inlet was added compound 24 (3.40 kg, 4.86 mol) and acetone (23.8 L). The resulting white turbid was heated to 55-60° C. to provide a clear solution. The resultant solution was filtered through an in-line filter to another 100 L reactor. Heptane (23.8 L) was filtered through an in-line filter to a separated 50 L reactor. The filtered heptane was then charged to the acetone solution in the 100 L reactor at a rate while the internal temperature was kept at 55-60° C. The reaction mixture in the 100 L reactor was then cooled to 20±5° C. and stirred at 20±5° C. for 16 hours. The white precipitates were collected by filtration and the cake was washed with heptane (2×5.1 L) and dried on the filter under nitrogen with a pulling vacuum. The solid was further dried in a vacuum oven at 55-65° C. with nitrogen purge to provide compound 25 (3.11 kg, 92.2%) as white to off-white powder. For 25:

ADIPATE OF INCB 39110

1H NMR (400 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 12.16 (s, 1H), 12.05 (brs, 2H), 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.72 (s, 1H), 8.69 (d, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 8.45 (s, 1H), 7.93 (t, J=4.7 Hz, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J=3.6, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (dd, J=3.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), δ 4.11 (dt, J=11.0, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (d, J=7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (t, J=7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 3.44 (dt, J=14.4, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (t, J=10.4 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (ddd, J=13.2, 9.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.58 (tt, J=8.6, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 2.28-2.17 (m, 4H), 1.83-1.74 (m, 1H), 1.67 (d, J=11.0 Hz, 1H), 1.59-1.46 (m, 4H), 1.37-1.21 (m, 2H) ppm;

 

13C NMR (101 MHz, (CD3)2SO) δ 174.38, 160.29, (153.52, 150.87), 152.20, 150.94, 149.63, (146.30, 146.25), 139.48, (134.79, 134.62), (135.08, 134.97, 134.74, 134.62, 134.38, 134.28, 134.04, 133.93), 129.21, 127.62, 126.84, 122.05, (124.75, 122.02, 119.29, 116.54), 117.39, 113.01, 99.99, 61.47, 60.50, 57.06, 44.24, 33.42, 30.70, 28.63, 27.89, 27.20, 24.07 ppm;

 

C32H33F4N9O5 (Mol. Wt: 699.66; free base: C26H23F4N9O (MW, 553.51), LCMS (EI) m/e 554.0 (M++H).

 

…………………………

WO-2014138168

 http://www.google.com/patents/WO2014138168A1?cl=en

Processes for preparing JAK inhibitor (preferably INCB-39110) comprising the reaction of a substituted 1H-pyrazole compound with 4-chloro-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine in the presence of a base (eg cesium fluoride) and a solvent under Suzuki coupling conditions ([1,1′- bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium (II)), followed by deprotection and then reaction with a piperidine derivative, and salt synthesis are claimed. Also claimed are novel intermediates and processes for their preparation. The compound is disclosed to be useful for treating disease mediated by JAK activity (targeting JAK-1 and 2), such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, type I diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, COPD, prostate cancer, hepatic cancer, breast cancer, influenza, and SARS.

Example 1. Synthesis of 2-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-< ]pyrimidin-4-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l- yl)-l-(l-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3- yl)acetonitrile Adipate (9)20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT

tert-Butyl 3-(cyanomethyl)-3-(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-l-yl)azetidine-l-carboxylate (3). To a 1-L flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a thermocouple, and a mechanical stirrer were sequentially added isopropanol (IP A, 200 mL), l,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-ene (DBU, 9.8 g, 64.4 mmol, 0.125 equiv), 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazole (1, 101 g, 520.51 mmol, 1.01 equiv) and tert-butyl 3-(cyanomethylene)azetidine-l-carboxylate (2, 100 g, 514.85 mmol) at ambient temperature to generate a reaction mixture as a

suspension. The resulting reaction mixture was heated to reflux in 30 minutes to provide a homogenous solution and the mixture was maintained at reflux for an additional 2 – 3 hours. After the reaction was complete as monitored by HPLC, n- heptane (400 mL) was gradually added to the reaction mixture in 45 minutes while maintaining the mixture at reflux. Solids were precipitated out during the w-heptane addition. Once w-heptane addition was complete, the mixture was gradually cooled to ambient temperature and stirred at ambient temperature for an additional 1 hour. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with w-heptane (200 mL), and dried under vacuum at 50 °C with nitrogen sweeping to constant weight to afford tert-butyl 3- 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT

(cyanomethyl)-3-(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl- 1 ,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)- IH-pyrazol- 1 – yl)azetidine-l -carboxylate (3, 181 g, 199.9 g theoretical, 90.5%) as a white to pale yellow solid. For 3: XH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 8.31 (s, 1H), 7.74 (s, 1H), 4.45 – 4.23 (m, 2H), 4.23 – 4.03 (m, 2H), 3.56 (s, 2H), 1.38 (s, 9H), 1.25 (s, 12H) ppm; 13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-i/6) δ 155.34, 145.50, 135.88, 1 16.88, 107.08 (br), 83.15, 79.36, 58.74 (br), 56.28, 27.96, 26.59, 24.63 ppm; Ci9H29B 404 (MW 388.27),

LCMS (EI) mle 389 (M+ + H). teri-Butyl 3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-< |pyrimidin-4-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-3- (cyanomethyl)-azetidine-l-carboxylate (5). To a 1-L flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a thermocouple, and a mechanical stirrer were added 4-chloro-7H-pyrrolo[2,3- i/]pyrimidine (4, 39.6 g, 257.6 mmol), tert-butyl 3-(cyanomethyl)-3-(4-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl- 1 ,3 ,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)- IH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)azetidine- 1 -carboxylate (3, 100 g, 257.6 mmol, 1.0 equiv), cesium fluoride (136.9 g, 901.4 mmol, 3.5 equiv), tert- butanol (250 mL), water (250 mL), and [l, l’-bis(di- cyclohexylphosphino)ferrocene]dichloropalladium(II) (Pd-127, 351.4 mg, 0.46 mmol, 0.0018 equiv) at ambient temperature. The resulting reaction mixture was de-gassed and refilled with nitrogen for 3 times before being heated to reflux and maintained at reflux under nitrogen for 20 – 24 hours. When HPLC showed the reaction was complete, the reaction mixture was cooled to 45 – 55 °C in 30 minutes, the two phases were separated, and the aqueous phase was discarded. To the organic phase was added w-heptane (125 mL) in 30 minutes at 45 – 55 °C. The resulting mixture was slowly cooled to ambient temperature in one hour and stirred at ambient temperature for an additional 2 hours. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with n- heptane (100 mL), and dried under vacuum at 50 °C with nitrogen sweeping to constant weight to afford tert-butyl 3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-<i]pyrimidin-4-yl)-lH- pyrazol-l-yl)-3-(cyanomethyl)-azetidine-l -carboxylate (5, 96.8 g, 97.7 g theoretical, 99%) as a pale yellow solid. For 5: XH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 8.89 (s, 1H), 8.68 (s, 1H), 8.44 (s, 1H), 7.60 (d, J= 3.5 Hz, 1H), 7.06 (d, J= 3.6 Hz, 1H), 4.62 – 4.41 (m, 2H), 4.31 – 4.12 (m, 2H), 3.67 (s, 2H), 1.39 (s, 9H) ppm; 13C NMR (101 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 155.40, 152.60, 150.63, 149.15, 139.76, 129.53, 127.65, 122.25, 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT

116.92, 113.21, 99.71, 79.45, 58.34 (br), 56.80, 27.99, 26.83 ppm; Ci9H21 702 (MW 379.4), LCMS (EI) mle 380 (M+ + H).

2- (3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-< |pyrimidin-4-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)azetidin-3- yl)acetonitrile dihydrochloride salt (6). To a 0.5-L flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a thermocouple, an additional funnel, and a mechanical stirrer were added tert- butyl 3 -(4-(7H-pyrrolo [2,3 -<i]pyrimidin-4-yl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)-3 – (cyanomethyl)azetidine-l-carboxylate (5, 15 g, 39.5 mmol), water (7.5 mL, 416 mmol) and dichloromethane (75 mL) at room temperature. The mixture was stirred at room temperature to generate a suspension. To the suspension was added a solution of 5 M hydrogen chloride (HQ) in isopropanol (55 mL, 275 mmol, 7.0 equiv) in 5 minutes. The resulting reaction mixture was then heated to gentle reflux and

maitained at reflux for 3-4 hours. After the reaction was completed as mornitored by HPLC, tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME, 45 mL) was added to the reaction suspension. The mixture was gradually cooled to room temperature, and stirred for an additional one hour. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME, 45 mL) and dried under vacuum at 50 °C with nitrogen sweeping to constant weight to afford 2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-i/]pyrimidin-4-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)azetidin-

3- yl)acetonitrile dihydrochloride salt (6, 13.6 g, 13.9 g theoretical, 98%) as an off- white to light yellow solid. For 6: XH NMR (400 MHz, D20) δ 8.96 (s, 1H), 8.81 (s, 1H), 8.49 (s, 1H), 7.78 (d, J= 3.8 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (d, J= 3.7 Hz, 1H), 4.93 (d, J= 12.8 Hz, 2H), 4.74 (d, J= 12.5 Hz, 2H), 3.74 (s, 2H) ppm; 13C NMR (101 MHz, D20) δ 151.35, 143.75, 143.33, 141.33, 132.03, 131.97, 115.90, 114.54, 113.85, 103.18, 59.72, 54.45 (2C), 27.02 ppm; Ci4H15Cl2N7 (Ci4H13N7 for free base, MW 279.30), LCMS (EI) mle 280 (M+ + H).

2-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-< |pyrimidin-4-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-l-(l-(3-fluoro-2- (trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile (8, Free Base). To a 0.5-L flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a thermocouple, an additional funnel, and a mechanical stirrer were added 2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-<i]pyrimidin-4- yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile dihydrochloride salt (6, 20 g, 56.78 mmol), dichloromethane (200 mL) and triethylamine (TEA, 16.62 mL, 119.2 mmol, 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT

2.1 equiv) at ambient temperature. The mixture was stired at ambient temperature for 30 minutes before l-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)-isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-one (7, 17.15 g, 57.91 mmol, 1.02 equiv) was added to the mixture. The mixture was then treated with sodium triacetoxyborohydride (25.34 g, 1 13.6 mmol, 2.0 equiv) in 5 minutes at ambient temperature (below 26 °C). The resulting reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours. After the reaction was complete as mornitored by HPLC, the reaction mixture was quenched with saturated aHC03 aqueous solution (200 mL). The two phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with methylene chloride (200 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with 4% brine (100 mL) followed by solvent switch of methylene chloride to acetone by distillation. The resulting solution of the desired crude product (8) in acetone was directly used for the subsequent adipate salt formation. A small portion of solution was purified by column chromatography (S1O2, 0 – 10% of MeOH in EtOAc gradient elution) to afford the analytically pure 2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3- i/]pyrimidin-4-yl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)- 1 -( 1 -(3 -fluoro-2-

(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile (8 free base) as an off-white solid. For 8: ¾ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 12.17 (d, J= 2.8 Hz, 1H), 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.70 (m, 2H), 8.45 (s, 1H), 7.93 (t, J= A J Hz, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J= 3.6, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (dd, J= 3.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 4.10 (m, 1H), 3.78 (d, J= 7.9 Hz, 2H), 3.61 (t, J= 7.9 Hz, 1H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 3.46 (m, 1H), 3.28 (t, J= 10.5 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (ddd, J = 13.2, 9.5, 3.1 Hz, 1H), 2.58 (m, 1H), 1.83 – 1.75 (m, 1H), 1.70 – 1.63 (m, 1H), 1.35 – 1.21 (m, 2H) ppm; 13C MR (101 MHz, DMSO-i/6) δ 160.28, (153.51, 150.86), 152.20, 150.94, 149.62, (146.30, 146.25), 139.48, (134.78, 134.61), (135.04, 134.92, 134.72, 134.60, 134.38, 134.26, 134.03, 133.92), 129.22, 127.62, 126.84, 121.99, 122.04, (124.77, 122.02, 1 19.19, 1 16.52), 117.39, 113.00, 99.99, 61.47, 60.49, 57.05, 44.23, 28.62, 27.88, 27.19 ppm;

(MW, 553.51), LCMS (EI) mle 554.1 (M+ + H).

2-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-< |pyrimidin-4-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-l-(l-(3-fluoro-2- (trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile Adipate (9). To a 0.5-L flask equipped with a mechanical stirrer, a thermocouple, an addition funnel, and a nitrogen inlet was added a solution of crude 2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3- 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT i/]pyrimidin-4-yl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)- 1 -( 1 -(3 -fluoro-2-

(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile (8 free base, 31.38 g, 56.7 mmol) in acetone (220 mL) and adipic acid (8.7 g, 59.53 mmol, 1.05 equiv) at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was then heated to reflux to give a solution. w-Heptane (220 mL) was gradually added to the reaction mixture at 40 – 50 °C in one hour. The resulting mixture was gradually cooled to ambient temperature in one hour and stirred at ambient temperature for an additional 16 hours. The solids were collected by filtration, washed with w-heptane (2 X 60 mL), and dried under vacuum at 50 °C with nitrogen sweeping to constant weight to afford 2-(3-(4-(7H- Pyrrolo[2,3 -i/]pyrimidin-4-yl)- lH-pyrazol- 1 -yl)- 1 -(1 -(3 -fluoro-2- (trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile adipate (9,34.0 g, 39.7 g theoretical, 85.6% for two steps) as a white to off-white solid. 9:

XH NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-i/6) δ 12.16 (s, 1H), 12.05 (brs, 2H), 8.85 (s, 1H), 8.72 (s, 1H), 8.69 (d, J= A J Hz, 1H), 8.45 (s, 1H), 7.93 (t, J= A J Hz, 1H), 7.63 (dd, J= 3.6, 2.3 Hz, 1H), 7.09 (dd, J= 3.6, 1.7 Hz, 1H), 5 4.1 1 (dt, J= 1 1.0, 4.4 Hz, 1H), 3.77 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.60 (t, J= 7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.58 (s, 2H), 3.44 (dt, J= 14.4, 4.6 Hz, 1H), 3.28 (t, J= 10.4 Hz, 1H), 3.09 (ddd, J= 13.2, 9.6, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.58 (tt, J= 8.6, 3.5 Hz, lH), 2.28 – 2.17 (m, 4H), 1.83 – 1.74 (m, 1H), 1.67 (d, J= 11.0 Hz, 1H), 1.59 – 1.46 (m, 4H), 1.37 – 1.21 (m, 2H) ppm;

 

13C MR (101 MHz, DMSO-i/6) δ 174.38, 160.29, (153.52, 150.87), 152.20, 150.94, 149.63, (146.30, 146.25), 139.48, (134.79, 134.62), (135.08, 134.97, 134.74, 134.62, 134.38, 134.28, 134.04, 133.93), 129.21, 127.62, 126.84, 122.05, (124.75, 122.02, 1 19.29, 1 16.54), 117.39, 113.01, 99.99, 61.47, 60.50, 57.06, 44.24, 33.42, 30.70, 28.63, 27.89, 27.20, 24.07 ppm;

C32H33F4N9O5 ( MW 699.66;Figure imgf000043_0001 for free base, MW, 553.51), LCMS (EI) mle 554.0 (M+ + H).

 

 

Example 2: Alternative Synthesis of 2-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)- lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-l-(l-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4- yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT

Scheme II

………………………………..COMPD11……………………………………………………………………………………………………..COMPD  8 BASE

C26H3i BF4N603 C26H23F4N9O Mol. Wt: 562.37 Mol. Wt: 553.51

2- (Azetidin-3-ylidene)acetonitrile hydrochloride (2a). To a 0.5-L flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a thermocouple, and a mechanical stirrer were added tert-butyl

3- (cyanomethylene)azetidine-l-carboxylate (2, 30 g, 154.46 mmol) and

methylenechloride (300 mL) at ambient temperature. The solution was then treated with a solution of 5 M hydrogen chloride (HQ) in isopropanol solution (294.2 mL, 1.54 mol, 10 equiv) at ambient temperature and the resulting reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 18 hours. After the reaction was complete as monitored by HPLC, the suspension was added tert-butyl methyl ether (TBME, 150 mL), and the mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours. The solids was collected by filtration, washed with w-heptane (2 X 100 mL), and dried on the filtration funnel at ambient temperature for 3 hours to afford 2-(azetidin-3- ylidene)acetonitrile hydrochloride (2a, 13.7 g, 20.2 g theoretical, 67.8 %) as a white solid. For 2a: XH NMR (500 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 9.99 (s, 2H), 5.94 (p, J= 2.5 Hz, 1H), 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT

4.85 – 4.80 (m, 2H), 4.77 – 4.71 (m, 2H) ppm; C NMR (126 MHz, DMSO-i¾) δ 155.65, 114.54, 94.78, 55.26, 54.63 ppm; C5H7C1N2 (MW 130.58; C5H6N2 for free base, MW 94.11), LCMS (EI) mle 95 (M+ + H).

2-(l-(l-(3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3- ylidene)acetonitrile (10). To a 0.25-L flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a thermocouple, and a magnetic stirrer were added 2-(azetidin-3-ylidene)acetonitrile hydrochloride (2a, 4.5 g, 34.46 mmol), l-(3-fluoro-2-

(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-one (7, 10 g, 34.46 mmol, 1.0 equiv), and methylenechloride (100 mL) at ambient temperqature and the resulting mixture was then treated with sodium triacetoxyborohydride (14.6 g, 68.93 mmol, 2.0 equiv) at ambient temperature. The reaction mixture was stirred at ambient temperature for 2 hours before being quenched with saturated sodium bicarbonate (NaHCOs) aqueous solution (50 mL). The two phases were separated and the aqueous phase was extracted with dichloromethane (200 mL). The combined organic phase was washed with water (50 mL) and brine (50 mL) and concentrated under reduced pressure to afford the crude desired product (10), which was purified by column chromatography (S1O2, 0 – 10 % of ethyl acetate in hexane gradient elution) to afford 2-(l-(l-(3- fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-ylidene)acetonitrile (10, 9.5 g, 12.7 g theoretical, 74.8 %) as a white solid. For 10: XH NMR (400 MHz, CDCI3) δ 8.57 (d, J= A J Hz, 1H), 7.54 (t, J= 4.6 Hz, 1H), 5.29 (p, J= 2.4 Hz, 1H), 4.18 – 4.08 (m, 1H), 4.08 – 4.03 (m, 2H), 3.98 – 3.94 (m, 2H), 3.57 – 3.39 (m, 2H), 3.17 – 3.04 (m, 1H), 2.56 (tt, J= 7.4, 3.5 Hz, 1H), 1.86 – 1.77 (m, 1H), 1.75 – 1.64 (m, 1H), 1.54 – 1.43 (m, 1H), 1.43 – 1.31 (m, lH) ppm; 13C MR (101 MHz, CDC13) δ 161.34, 160.73, 152.62 (d, J= 269.1 Hz), 145.75 (d, J= 6.1 Hz), 136.73 (qd, J = 36.1, 12.0 Hz), 134.56 (d, J= 16.9 Hz), 126.89, 120.58 (qd, J= 275.0, 4.9 Hz),

115.11, 92.04, 62.05, 60.57 (2C), 44.47, 39.42, 29.38, 28.47 ppm; Ci7H16F4N40 (MW 368.33), LCMS (EI) mle 369 (M++ H).

2-(l-(l-(3-Fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-(4,4,5,5- tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile (11). To a 25 mL flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a thermocouple, and a magnetic 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT stirrer were added 4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazole (1, 210 mg, 1.08 mmol, 1.08 equiv), 2-(l-(l-(3-fluoro-2-

(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3 -ylidene)acetonitrile (10, 370 mg, 1.0 mmol) and acetonitrile (3 mL) at ambient temperature. The solution was then treated with l,8-diazabicyclo[5,4,0]undec-ene (DBU, 173 mg, 0.17 mL, 1.12 mmol, 1.12 equiv) at ambient temperature and the resulting reaction mixture was warmed to 50 °C and stirred at 50 °C for overnight. When the reaction was complete as

monitored by HPLC, the reaction mixture was directly load on a solica gel (S1O2) column for chromatographic purification (0 – 2.5 % MeOH in ethyl acetate gradient elution) to afford 2-(l-(l-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)-3- (4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)azetidin-3- yl)acetonitrile

Figure imgf000010_0003COMPD 11

(11, 263 mg, 562.4 mg theoretical, 46.7 %) as a white solid.

For 11: ΧΗ NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-i/6) δ 8.64 (d, J= 4.7 Hz, 1H), 8.22 (d, J= 0.6 Hz, 1H), 7.88 (dd, J= A J Hz, 1H), 7.69 (s, 1H), 4.10 – 3.99 (m, 1H), 3.58 (d, J= 7.8 Hz, 2H), 3.52 – 3.42 (m, 2H), 3.44 (s, 2H), 3.41 – 3.33 (m, 1H), 3.28 – 3.15 (m, 1H), 3.03 (ddd, J= 12.9, 9.2, 3.2 Hz, 1H), 2.51 – 2.44 (m, 1H), 1.77 – 1.66 (m, 1H), 1.64 – 1.54 (m, 1H), 1.28 – 1.17 (m, 2H), 1.24 (s, 12H) ppm;

 

13C MR (101 MHz, DMSO-i/6) δ 160.22, 152.13 (d, J= 265.8 Hz), 146.23 (d, J= 5.7 Hz), 145.12, 135.41, 134.66 (d, J= 16.9 Hz), 134.43 (qd, J= 35.0, 1 1.7 Hz), 127.58, 120.61 (qd, J= 274.4, 4.6 Hz), 117.35, 106.59 (br), 83.10, 61.40, 60.53 (2C), 56.49, 44.17, 38.99, 28.55, 27.82, 27.02, 24.63 ppm; C26H3iBF4 603 (MW 562.37), LCMS (EI) mle 563 (M+ + H).

 

2-(3-(4-(7H-Pyrrolo[2,3-< |pyrimidin-4-yl)-lH-pyrazol-l-yl)-l-(l-(3-fluoro-2- (trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile (8). To a

25-mL flask equipped with a nitrogen inlet, a thermocouple, an additional funnel, and a magnetic stirrer were added 2-(l-(l-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)- isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)-3-(4-(4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-l,3,2-dioxaborolan-2-yl)-lH- pyrazol-l-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile (11, 307 mg, 0.546 mmol), 4-chloro-7H- pyrrolo[2,3-if|pyrimidine (4, 84.8 mg, 0.548 mmol, 1.0 equiv), sodium bicarbonate (NaHC03, 229 mg, 2.72 mmol, 5.0 equiv), water (1.6 mL), and 1,4-dioxane (1.6 mL) at ambient temperature. The mixture was then teated with

tetrakis(triphenylphosphine)palladium(0) (12.8 mg, 0.011 mmol, 0.02 equiv) at 20443-0253WO1 (INCY0124-WO1) PATENT ambient temperature and the resulting reaction mixture was de-gassed and refilled with nitrogen for 3 times before being heated to 85 °C. The reaction mixture was stired at 85 °C under nitrogen for overnight. When the reaction was complete as monitored by HPLC, the reaction mixture was concentrated to dryness under reduced pressure and the desired product, 2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-( Jpyrimidin-4-yl)-lH- pyrazol- 1 -yl)- 1 -( 1 -(3 -fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin- 3-yl)acetonitrile (8 free base, 135 mg, 302.2 mg theoretical, 44.6 %), was obtained as off- white solids by direct silica gel (S1O2) cloumn chromatography (0 – 10% of ethyl acetate in hexane gradient elution) purification of the dried reaction mixture. The compound obtained by this synthetic approach is identical in every comparable aspect to the compound 8 manufactured by the synthetic method as described above inExample 1.

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A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Exploring the Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of a 28 Day Course of INCB-039110 in Subjects With Active Rheumatoid Arthritis (NCT01626573)
ClinicalTrials.gov Web Site 2012, June 25

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study exploring the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of a 28-day course of escalating doses of an oral JAK 1 inhibitor (INCB039110) in subjects with stable, chronic plaque psoriasis
22nd Congr Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol (EADV) (October 3-6, Istanbul) 2013, Abst FC01.6

A randomized, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled, 84-day study of INCB039110, a selective janus kinase-1 inhibitor, in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis
77th Annu Sci Meet Am Coll Rheumatol (October 26-30, San Diego) 2013, Abst 1797

Safety Study of INCB-039110 in Combination With Gemcitabine and Nab-Paclitaxel in Subjects With Advanced Solid Tumors (NCT01858883)
ClinicalTrials.gov Web Site 2013, May

An Open-Label, Phase II Study Of The JAK1 Inhibitor INCB039110 In Patients With Myelofibrosis
55th Annu Meet Am Soc Hematol (December 7-10, New Orleans) 2013, Abst 663

WO2013036611A1 * Sep 6, 2012 Mar 14, 2013 Incyte Corporation Processes and intermediates for making a jak inhibitor
WO2013043962A1 * Sep 21, 2012 Mar 28, 2013 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Cyanomethylpyrazole carboxamides as janus kinase inhibitors
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