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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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Novartis, Torrent drug for diabetes, NVP-LBX192, LBX-192


STR3

Figure US07750020-20100706-C00023

 

CHEMBL573983.png

(R)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

(3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide)

(R)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

cas 866772-52-3

Novartis Ag

NVP-LBX192

LBX-192

str1

R(−) 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

R(−)17c BELOW

Abstract Image
Inventors Gregory Raymond Bebernitz, Ramesh Chandra Gupta, Vikrant Vijaykumar Jagtap, Appaji Baburao Mandhare, Davinder Tuli,
Original Assignee Novartis Ag

 

Molecular Formula: C26H33N5O4S2
Molecular Weight: 543.70132 g/mol

str1

str1

LBX192, also known as NVP-LBX192, is a Liver Targeted Glucokinase Activator. LBX192 activated the GK enzyme in vitro at low nM concentrations and significantly reduced glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in normal as well as diabetic mice. A GK activator has the promise of potentially affecting both the beta-cell of the pancreas, by improving glucose sensitive insulin secretion, as well as the liver, by reducing uncontrolled glucose output and restoring post prandial glucose uptake and storage as glycogen.

SYNTHESIS BY WORLDDRUGTRACKER

STR1

 

 

STR1

54 Discovery and Evaluation of NVP-LBX192, a Liver Targeted Glucokinase Activator

Thursday, October 8, 2009: 10:30 AM
Nathan Hale North (Hilton Third Floor)
Gregory R. Bebernitz, PhD , Global Discovery Chemistry, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA
Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few reaching clinical evaluation.  A GK activator has the promise of potentially affecting both the beta-cell of the pancreas, by improving glucose sensitive insulin secretion, as well as the liver, by reducing uncontrolled glucose output and restoring post prandial glucose uptake and storage as glycogen.  We will describe our efforts to generate liver selective GK activators which culminated in the discovery of NVP-LBX192 (3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide).  This compound activated the GK enzyme in vitro at low nM concentrations and significantly reduced glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in normal as well as diabetic mice.

https://acs.confex.com/acs/nerm09/webprogram/Paper75087.html

Sulfonamide-Thiazolpyridine Derivatives,  Glucokinase Activators, Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

2009 52 (19) 6142 – 6152
Investigation of functionally liver selective glucokinase activators for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Bebernitz GR, Beaulieu V, Dale BA, Deacon R, Duttaroy A, Gao JP, Grondine MS, Gupta RC, Kakmak M, Kavana M, Kirman LC, Liang JS, Maniara WM, Munshi S, Nadkarni SS, Schuster HF, Stams T, Denny IS, Taslimi PM, Vash B, Caplan SL

2010 240th (August 22) Medi-198
Glucokinase activators with improved physicochemicalproperties and off target effects
American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition
Kirman LC, Schuster HF, Grondine MS et al

2010 240th (August 22) Medi-197
Investigation of functionally liver selective glucokinase activators
American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition
Schuster HF, Kirman LC, Bebernitz GC et al

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/US7750020

EXAMPLE 1 3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

A. Phenylacetic Acid Ethyl Ester

A solution of phenylacetic acid (50 g, 0.36 mol) in ethanol (150 mL) is treated with catalytic amount of sulfuric acid (4 mL). The reaction mixture is refluxed for 4 h. The reaction is then concentrated in vacuo. The residue is dissolved in diethyl ether (300 mL) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (2×50 mL) and water (1×100 mL). The organic layer dried over sodium sulfate filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give phenylacetic acid ethyl ester as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.2 (t, J=7.2, 3H), 3.6 (s, 2H), 4.1 (q, J=7.2, 2H), 7.3 (m, 5H); MS 165 [M+1]+.

B. (4-Chlorosulfonyl-phenyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester

To a cooled chlorosulfonic acid (83.83 g, 48 mL, 0.71 mol) under nitrogen is added the title A compound, phenylacetic acid ethyl ester (59 g, 0.35 mol) over a period of 1 h. Reaction temperature is brought to RT (28° C.), then heated to 70° C., maintaining it at this temperature for 1 h while stirring. Reaction is cooled to RT and poured over saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (200 mL) followed by extraction with DCM (2×200 mL). The organic layer is washed with water (5×100 mL), followed by saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (1×150 mL). The organic layer dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give crude (4-chlorosulfonyl-phenyl)acetic acid ethyl ester. Further column chromatography over silica gel (60-120 mesh), using 100% hexane afforded pure (4-chlorosulfonyl-phenyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester as a colorless oil.

C. [4-(4-Methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester

A solution of N-methylpiperazine (9.23 g, 10.21 ml, 0.092 mol), DIEA (13 g, 17.4 mL, 0.10 mol) and DCM 80 mL is cooled to 0° C., and to this is added a solution of the title B compound, (4-chlorosulfonyl-phenyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester (22 g, 0.083 mol) in 50 mL of DCM within 30 min. Reaction mixture stirred at 0° C. for 2 h, and the reaction mixture is washed with water (100 mL), followed by 0.1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (1×200 mL). The organic layer dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under vacuo to give crude [4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester. Column chromatography over silicagel (60-120 mesh), using ethyl acetate afforded pure [4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester as white crystalline solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.3 (t, J=7.4, 3H), 2.3 (s, 3H), 2.5 (m, 4H), 3.0 (br s, 4H), 3.7 (s, 2H), 4.2 (q, J=7.4, 2H), 7.4 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.7 (d, J=7.3, 2H); MS 327 [M+1]+.

D. 3-Cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid ethyl ester

A solution of the title C compound, [4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester (15 g, 0.046 mol) in a mixture of THF (60 mL) and DMTP (10 mL) is cooled to −78° C. under nitrogen. The resulting solution is stirred at −78° C. for 45 min and to this is added LDA (25.6 mL, 6.40 g, 0.059 mol, 25% solution in THF/Hexane). A solution of iodomethylcyclopentane (11.60 g, 0.055 mol) in a mixture of DMTP (12 mL) and THF (20 mL) is added over a period of 15 min at −78° C. and reaction mixture stirred at −78° C. for 3 h further, followed by stirring at 25° C. for 12 h. The reaction mixture is then quenched by the dropwise addition of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution (50 mL) and is concentrated in vacuo. The residue is diluted with water (50 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3×100 mL). The organic solution is washed with a saturated aqueous sodium chloride (2×150 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Column chromatography over silica gel (60-120 mesh), using 50% ethyl acetate in hexane as an eluent to afford 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid ethyl ester as a white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 0.9-2.1 (m, 11H), 1.2 (t, J=7.1, 3H), 2.3 (s, 3H), 2.5 (br s, 4H), 3.0 (br s, 4H), 3.6 (m, 1H), 4.1 (q, J=7.1, 2H), 7.5 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.7 (d, J=8.3, 2H); MS 409 [M+1]+.

E. 3-Cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid

A solution of the title D compound, 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid ethyl ester (14 g, 0.034 mol) in methanol:water (30 mL:10 mL) and sodium hydroxide (4.11 g, 0.10 mol) is stirred at 60° C. for 8 h in an oil bath. The methanol is then removed in vacuo at 45-50° C. The residue is diluted with water (25 mL) and extracted with ether (1×40 mL). The aqueous layer is acidified to pH 5 with 3 N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. The precipitated solid is collected by vacuum filtration, washed with water (20 mL), followed by isopropyl alcohol (20 mL). Finally, solid cake is washed with 100 mL of hexane and dried under vacuum at 40° C. for 6 h to give 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid as a white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.1-2.0 (m, 11H), 2.4 (s, 3H), 2.7 (br s, 4H), 3.1 (br s, 4H), 3.6 (m, 1H), 7.5 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.6 (d, J=8.3, 2H); MS 381 [M+l]+.

F. 5-Methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-ylamine

A solution of 6-methoxy-pyridin-3-ylamine (5.0 g, 0.0403 mol) in 10 mL of acetic acid is added slowly to a solution of potassium thiocyanate (20 g, 0.205 mol) in 100 mL of acetic acid at 0° C. followed by a solution of bromine (2.5 mL, 0.0488 mol) in 5 mL of acetic acid. The reaction is stirred for 2 h at 0° C. and then allowed to warm to RT. The resulting solid is collected by filtration and washed with acetic acid, then partitioned between ethyl acetate and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The insoluble material is removed by filtration and the organic layer is evaporated and dried to afford 5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-ylamine as a tan solid.

G. 3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

A solution of the title E compound, 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid (5 g, 0.013 mol) in DCM (250 mL) is cooled to 0° C. and then charged HOBt hydrate (2.66 g, 0.019 mol), followed by EDCI hydrochloride (6 g, 0.031 mol). The reaction mixture is stirred at 0° C. for 5 h. After that the solution of the title F compound, 5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-ylamine (2.36 g, 0.013 mol) and D1EA (8 mL, 0.046 mol) in a mixture of DCM (60 mL) and DMF (20 mL) is added dropwise over 30 min. Reaction temperature is maintained at 0° C. for 3 h, then at RT (28° C.) for 3 days. Reaction is diluted with (60 mL) of water and the organic layer is separated and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (2×50 mL) followed by water washing (2×50 mL) and saturated sodium chloride aqueous solution (1×150 mL). Finally the organic layer is dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and evaporated under vacuo. The crude product is purified using column chromatography over silica gel (60-120 mesh), using 40% ethyl acetate in hexane as an eluent to afford 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide as a white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 0.9-2.1 (m, 11H), 2.2 (s, 3H), 2.5 (br s, 4H), 3.1 (br s, 4H), 3.7 (m, 1H), 4.0 (s, 3H), 6.8 (d, J=8.8, 1H), 7.5 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.7 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.8 (d, J=8.8, 1H), 8.6 (s, 1H); MS 617 [M+1]+.

H. 3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide dihydrochloride

The title G compound, 3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-methyl piperazinyl sulfonyl)phenyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)propionamide (2.8 g, 0.0051 mol) is added to a cooled solution of 10% hydrochloric acid in isopropanol (3.75 mL). The reaction mixture is stirred at 0° C. for 1 h and then at RT for 2 h. The solid is separated, triturated with 10 mL of isopropanol and collected by vacuum filtration and washed with 50 mL of hexane. The solid is dried at 70° C. for 48 h to afford 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide dihydrochloride as an off white solid.

EXAMPLE 2 (R)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

The title compound is obtained analogously to Example 1 by employing the following additional resolution step:

The racemic title E compound of Example 1,3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid (10 g, 0.026 mol) in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) is treated in a three necked 1 liter flask, equipped with heating mantle, water condenser, calcium chloride guard tube and mechanical stirrer with 3.18 g (0.026 mol) of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine. This reaction mixture is then refluxed at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized salt is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 5 mL of hexane and dried under vacuum to afford salt A.

The salt A is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 50 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt B.

The salt B is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (290 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt C.

The salt C is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (100 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30 ml of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt D.

The salt D is treated with aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (20 mL, 1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid diluted with 100 mL of water) and stirred for 5 min. The white solid precipitates out and is collected by vacuum filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 5 mL of isopropanol and 20 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to yield the hydrochloride salt of (R)-(−)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid, salt E.

The salt E is neutralized by stirring with aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (10 mL, 1 g of sodium bicarbonate dissolved in 120 mL of water) for 5 min. The precipitated solid is collected by filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 100 mL of hexane, and dried to afford (R)-(−)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid: m.p. 202.2-203.4° C.

Alternatively, the title compound may be obtained by the resolution of the racemic title compound of Example 1 using the following preparative chiral HPLC method:

  • Column: Chiralcel OD-R (250×20 mm) Diacel make, Japan;
  • Solvent A: water:methanol:acetonitrile (10:80:10 v/v/v);
  • Solvent B: water:methanol:acetonitrile (05:90:05 v/v/v);
  • Using gradient elution: gradient program (time, min/% B): 0/0, 20/0, 50/100, 55/0, 70/0;
  • Flow rate: 6.0 mL/min; and
  • Detection: by UV at 305 nm.

EXAMPLE 3 (S)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

The title compound is prepared analogously to Example 2.

J MED CHEM 2009, 52, 6142-52

Investigation of Functionally Liver Selective Glucokinase Activators for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
Torrent Research Centre, Village Bhat, Gujarat, India
J. Med. Chem., 2009, 52 (19), pp 6142–6152
DOI: 10.1021/jm900839k

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm900839k

Abstract Image

Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disease which afflicts nearly 200 million people worldwide and is expected to increase to near epidemic levels over the next 10−15 years. Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few reaching early clinical evaluation. A GK activator has the promise of potentially affecting both the β-cells of the pancreas, by improving glucose sensitive insulin secretion, as well as the liver, by reducing uncontrolled glucose output and restoring post-prandial glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. Herein, we report our efforts on a sulfonamide chemotype with the aim to generate liver selective GK activators which culminated in the discovery of 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide (17c). This compound activated the GK enzyme (αKa = 39 nM) in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations and significantly reduced glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in normal mice.

STR3

STR3

PATENT

EP-1735322-B1

Example 2(R)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

Image loading...

The title compound is obtained analogously to Example 1 by employing the following additional resolution step:

The racemic title E compound of Example 1, 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid (10 g, 0.026 mol) in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) is treated in a three necked 1 liter flask, equipped with heating mantle, water condenser, calcium chloride guard tube and mechanical stirrer with 3.18 g (0.026 mol) of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine. This reaction mixture is then refluxed at 100°C for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27°C) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized salt is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 5 mL of hexane and dried under vacuum to afford salt A.

The salt A is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) and heated at 100°C for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27°C) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 50 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt B.

The salt B is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (290 mL) and heated at 100°C for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27°C) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt C.

The salt C is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (100 mL) and heated at 100°C for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27°C) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30ml of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt D.

The salt D is treated with aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (20 mL, 1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid diluted with 100 mL of water) and stirred for 5 min. The white solid precipitates out and is collected by vacuum filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 5 mL of isopropanol and 20 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to yield the hydrochloride salt of (R)-(-)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid, salt E.

The salt E is neutralized by stirring with aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (10 mL, 1 g of sodium bicarbonate dissolved in 120 mL of water) for 5 min. The precipitated solid is collected by filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 100 mL of hexane, and dried to afford (R)-(-)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid: m.p. 202.2-203.4°C.

Alternatively, the title compound may be obtained by the resolution of the racemic title compound of Example 1 using the following preparative chiral HPLC method:

  • Column: Chiralcel OD-R (250 x 20 mm) Diacel make, Japan;
  • Solvent A: water:methanol:acetonitrile (10:80:10 v/v/v);
  • Solvent B: water:methanol:acetonitrile (05:90:05 v/v/v);
  • Using gradient elution: gradient program (time, min / %B): 0/0, 20/0, 50/100, 55/0, 70/0;
  • Flow rate: 6.0 mL/min; and
  • Detection: by UV at 305 nm.

REFERENCES

US 7750020

WO-2005095418-A1

US-20080103167-A1

1 to 2 of 2
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015218151 2015-08-06 NOVEL PHENYLACETAMIDE COMPOUND AND PHARMACEUTICAL CONTAINING SAME
US7750020 2010-07-06 Sulfonamide-Thiazolpyridine Derivatives As Glucokinase Activators Useful The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

 

 PAPER

Investigation of Functionally Liver Selective Glucokinase Activators for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
Torrent Research Centre, Village Bhat, Gujarat, India
J. Med. Chem., 2009, 52 (19), pp 6142–6152
DOI: 10.1021/jm900839k
Publication Date (Web): September 11, 2009
Copyright © 2009 American Chemical Society
*To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: (617) 871 7302. Fax: (617) 871 7042. E-mail: greg.bebernitz@novartis.com.

Abstract Image

Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disease which afflicts nearly 200 million people worldwide and is expected to increase to near epidemic levels over the next 10−15 years. Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few reaching early clinical evaluation. A GK activator has the promise of potentially affecting both the β-cells of the pancreas, by improving glucose sensitive insulin secretion, as well as the liver, by reducing uncontrolled glucose output and restoring post-prandial glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. Herein, we report our efforts on a sulfonamide chemotype with the aim to generate liver selective GK activators which culminated in the discovery of 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide (17c). This compound activated the GK enzyme (αKa = 39 nM) in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations and significantly reduced glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in normal mice.

str1

https://www.google.com/patents/US7750020

EXAMPLE 2 (R)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

The title compound is obtained analogously to Example 1 by employing the following additional resolution step:

The racemic title E compound of Example 1,3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid (10 g, 0.026 mol) in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) is treated in a three necked 1 liter flask, equipped with heating mantle, water condenser, calcium chloride guard tube and mechanical stirrer with 3.18 g (0.026 mol) of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine. This reaction mixture is then refluxed at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized salt is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 5 mL of hexane and dried under vacuum to afford salt A.

The salt A is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 50 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt B.

The salt B is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (290 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt C.

The salt C is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (100 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30 ml of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt D.

The salt D is treated with aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (20 mL, 1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid diluted with 100 mL of water) and stirred for 5 min. The white solid precipitates out and is collected by vacuum filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 5 mL of isopropanol and 20 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to yield the hydrochloride salt of (R)-(−)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid, salt E.

The salt E is neutralized by stirring with aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (10 mL, 1 g of sodium bicarbonate dissolved in 120 mL of water) for 5 min. The precipitated solid is collected by filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 100 mL of hexane, and dried to afford (R)-(−)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid: m.p. 202.2-203.4° C.

Alternatively, the title compound may be obtained by the resolution of the racemic title compound of Example 1 using the following preparative chiral HPLC method:

  • Column: Chiralcel OD-R (250×20 mm) Diacel make, Japan;
  • Solvent A: water:methanol:acetonitrile (10:80:10 v/v/v);
  • Solvent B: water:methanol:acetonitrile (05:90:05 v/v/v);
  • Using gradient elution: gradient program (time, min/% B): 0/0, 20/0, 50/100, 55/0, 70/0;
  • Flow rate: 6.0 mL/min; and
  • Detection: by UV at 305 nm.
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015218151 2015-08-06 NOVEL PHENYLACETAMIDE COMPOUND AND PHARMACEUTICAL CONTAINING SAME
US7750020 2010-07-06 Sulfonamide-Thiazolpyridine Derivatives As Glucokinase Activators Useful The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

 

Torrent Research Centre, Village Bhat, Gujarat, India

Mr. Samir Mehta, 52, is the Vice Chairman of the USD 2.75 billion Torrent Group and Chairman of Torrent Pharma

Mr. Sudhir Mehta - Executive Chairman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shri Sudhir Mehta – Chairman Emeritus ::

Dr. Chaitanya Dutt – Director (Research & Development) ::
Dr. Chaitanya Dutt - Director (R&D)Born in the year 1950, Dr. Chaitanya Dutt holds an MD in Medicine. He practiced as a consulting physician before joining the company in 1982. Since then he has been associated with the Company. His rich experience spans in the areas of Pharma R&D, clinical research, manufacturing, quality assurance, etc. He is one of the key professionals in the top management team of the Company. He has been instrumental in setting up the Torrent Research Centre (TRC), the research wing of the Company. Under his prudent guidance and leadership, TRC has achieved tremendous progress in the areas of discovery research as well as development work on formulations. He does not hold any directorship in any other company.

 

 

 

///NOVARTIS, DIABETES, Sulfonamide-Thiazolpyridine Derivatives,  Glucokinase Activators, Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes, 866772-52-3, Novartis Molecule, functionally liver selective glucokinase activators, treatment of type 2 diabetes , NVP-LBX192, LBX-192

c1(sc2nc(ccc2n1)OC)NC(C(c3ccc(cc3)S(=O)(=O)N4CCN(CC4)C)CC5CCCC5)=O

Novartis Molecule for functionally liver selective glucokinase activators for the treatment of type 2 diabetes


STR3

Figure US07750020-20100706-C00023

(R)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

(3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide)

cas 866772-52-3

Novartis Ag

NVP-LBX192

LBX-192

54 Discovery and Evaluation of NVP-LBX192, a Liver Targeted Glucokinase Activator

Thursday, October 8, 2009: 10:30 AM
Nathan Hale North (Hilton Third Floor)
Gregory R. Bebernitz, PhD , Global Discovery Chemistry, Novartis Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA
Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few reaching clinical evaluation.  A GK activator has the promise of potentially affecting both the beta-cell of the pancreas, by improving glucose sensitive insulin secretion, as well as the liver, by reducing uncontrolled glucose output and restoring post prandial glucose uptake and storage as glycogen.  We will describe our efforts to generate liver selective GK activators which culminated in the discovery of NVP-LBX192 (3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide).  This compound activated the GK enzyme in vitro at low nM concentrations and significantly reduced glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in normal as well as diabetic mice.

https://acs.confex.com/acs/nerm09/webprogram/Paper75087.html

Molecular Formula: C26H33N5O4S2
Molecular Weight: 543.70132 g/mol

Sulfonamide-Thiazolpyridine Derivatives,  Glucokinase Activators, Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

2009 52 (19) 6142 – 6152
Investigation of functionally liver selective glucokinase activators for the treatment of type 2 diabetes
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Bebernitz GR, Beaulieu V, Dale BA, Deacon R, Duttaroy A, Gao JP, Grondine MS, Gupta RC, Kakmak M, Kavana M, Kirman LC, Liang JS, Maniara WM, Munshi S, Nadkarni SS, Schuster HF, Stams T, Denny IS, Taslimi PM, Vash B, Caplan SL

2010 240th (August 22) Medi-198
Glucokinase activators with improved physicochemicalproperties and off target effects
American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition
Kirman LC, Schuster HF, Grondine MS et al

2010 240th (August 22) Medi-197
Investigation of functionally liver selective glucokinase activators
American Chemical Society National Meeting and Exposition
Schuster HF, Kirman LC, Bebernitz GC et al

PATENT

http://www.google.com/patents/US7750020

EXAMPLE 1 3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

A. Phenylacetic Acid Ethyl Ester

A solution of phenylacetic acid (50 g, 0.36 mol) in ethanol (150 mL) is treated with catalytic amount of sulfuric acid (4 mL). The reaction mixture is refluxed for 4 h. The reaction is then concentrated in vacuo. The residue is dissolved in diethyl ether (300 mL) and washed with saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (2×50 mL) and water (1×100 mL). The organic layer dried over sodium sulfate filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give phenylacetic acid ethyl ester as a colorless oil: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.2 (t, J=7.2, 3H), 3.6 (s, 2H), 4.1 (q, J=7.2, 2H), 7.3 (m, 5H); MS 165 [M+1]+.

B. (4-Chlorosulfonyl-phenyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester

To a cooled chlorosulfonic acid (83.83 g, 48 mL, 0.71 mol) under nitrogen is added the title A compound, phenylacetic acid ethyl ester (59 g, 0.35 mol) over a period of 1 h. Reaction temperature is brought to RT (28° C.), then heated to 70° C., maintaining it at this temperature for 1 h while stirring. Reaction is cooled to RT and poured over saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (200 mL) followed by extraction with DCM (2×200 mL). The organic layer is washed with water (5×100 mL), followed by saturated aqueous sodium chloride solution (1×150 mL). The organic layer dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to give crude (4-chlorosulfonyl-phenyl)acetic acid ethyl ester. Further column chromatography over silica gel (60-120 mesh), using 100% hexane afforded pure (4-chlorosulfonyl-phenyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester as a colorless oil.

C. [4-(4-Methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester

A solution of N-methylpiperazine (9.23 g, 10.21 ml, 0.092 mol), DIEA (13 g, 17.4 mL, 0.10 mol) and DCM 80 mL is cooled to 0° C., and to this is added a solution of the title B compound, (4-chlorosulfonyl-phenyl)-acetic acid ethyl ester (22 g, 0.083 mol) in 50 mL of DCM within 30 min. Reaction mixture stirred at 0° C. for 2 h, and the reaction mixture is washed with water (100 mL), followed by 0.1 N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (1×200 mL). The organic layer dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated under vacuo to give crude [4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester. Column chromatography over silicagel (60-120 mesh), using ethyl acetate afforded pure [4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester as white crystalline solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.3 (t, J=7.4, 3H), 2.3 (s, 3H), 2.5 (m, 4H), 3.0 (br s, 4H), 3.7 (s, 2H), 4.2 (q, J=7.4, 2H), 7.4 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.7 (d, J=7.3, 2H); MS 327 [M+1]+.

D. 3-Cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid ethyl ester

A solution of the title C compound, [4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid ethyl ester (15 g, 0.046 mol) in a mixture of THF (60 mL) and DMTP (10 mL) is cooled to −78° C. under nitrogen. The resulting solution is stirred at −78° C. for 45 min and to this is added LDA (25.6 mL, 6.40 g, 0.059 mol, 25% solution in THF/Hexane). A solution of iodomethylcyclopentane (11.60 g, 0.055 mol) in a mixture of DMTP (12 mL) and THF (20 mL) is added over a period of 15 min at −78° C. and reaction mixture stirred at −78° C. for 3 h further, followed by stirring at 25° C. for 12 h. The reaction mixture is then quenched by the dropwise addition of saturated aqueous ammonium chloride solution (50 mL) and is concentrated in vacuo. The residue is diluted with water (50 mL) and extracted with ethyl acetate (3×100 mL). The organic solution is washed with a saturated aqueous sodium chloride (2×150 mL), dried over sodium sulfate, filtered and concentrated in vacuo. Column chromatography over silica gel (60-120 mesh), using 50% ethyl acetate in hexane as an eluent to afford 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid ethyl ester as a white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 0.9-2.1 (m, 11H), 1.2 (t, J=7.1, 3H), 2.3 (s, 3H), 2.5 (br s, 4H), 3.0 (br s, 4H), 3.6 (m, 1H), 4.1 (q, J=7.1, 2H), 7.5 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.7 (d, J=8.3, 2H); MS 409 [M+1]+.

E. 3-Cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid

A solution of the title D compound, 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid ethyl ester (14 g, 0.034 mol) in methanol:water (30 mL:10 mL) and sodium hydroxide (4.11 g, 0.10 mol) is stirred at 60° C. for 8 h in an oil bath. The methanol is then removed in vacuo at 45-50° C. The residue is diluted with water (25 mL) and extracted with ether (1×40 mL). The aqueous layer is acidified to pH 5 with 3 N aqueous hydrochloric acid solution. The precipitated solid is collected by vacuum filtration, washed with water (20 mL), followed by isopropyl alcohol (20 mL). Finally, solid cake is washed with 100 mL of hexane and dried under vacuum at 40° C. for 6 h to give 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid as a white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 1.1-2.0 (m, 11H), 2.4 (s, 3H), 2.7 (br s, 4H), 3.1 (br s, 4H), 3.6 (m, 1H), 7.5 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.6 (d, J=8.3, 2H); MS 381 [M+l]+.

F. 5-Methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-ylamine

A solution of 6-methoxy-pyridin-3-ylamine (5.0 g, 0.0403 mol) in 10 mL of acetic acid is added slowly to a solution of potassium thiocyanate (20 g, 0.205 mol) in 100 mL of acetic acid at 0° C. followed by a solution of bromine (2.5 mL, 0.0488 mol) in 5 mL of acetic acid. The reaction is stirred for 2 h at 0° C. and then allowed to warm to RT. The resulting solid is collected by filtration and washed with acetic acid, then partitioned between ethyl acetate and saturated aqueous sodium bicarbonate. The insoluble material is removed by filtration and the organic layer is evaporated and dried to afford 5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-ylamine as a tan solid.

G. 3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

A solution of the title E compound, 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid (5 g, 0.013 mol) in DCM (250 mL) is cooled to 0° C. and then charged HOBt hydrate (2.66 g, 0.019 mol), followed by EDCI hydrochloride (6 g, 0.031 mol). The reaction mixture is stirred at 0° C. for 5 h. After that the solution of the title F compound, 5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-ylamine (2.36 g, 0.013 mol) and D1EA (8 mL, 0.046 mol) in a mixture of DCM (60 mL) and DMF (20 mL) is added dropwise over 30 min. Reaction temperature is maintained at 0° C. for 3 h, then at RT (28° C.) for 3 days. Reaction is diluted with (60 mL) of water and the organic layer is separated and washed with saturated sodium bicarbonate solution (2×50 mL) followed by water washing (2×50 mL) and saturated sodium chloride aqueous solution (1×150 mL). Finally the organic layer is dried over sodium sulfate, filtered, and evaporated under vacuo. The crude product is purified using column chromatography over silica gel (60-120 mesh), using 40% ethyl acetate in hexane as an eluent to afford 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide as a white solid: 1H NMR (400 MHz, CDCl3) δ 0.9-2.1 (m, 11H), 2.2 (s, 3H), 2.5 (br s, 4H), 3.1 (br s, 4H), 3.7 (m, 1H), 4.0 (s, 3H), 6.8 (d, J=8.8, 1H), 7.5 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.7 (d, J=8.3, 2H), 7.8 (d, J=8.8, 1H), 8.6 (s, 1H); MS 617 [M+1]+.

H. 3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide dihydrochloride

The title G compound, 3-cyclopentyl-2-(4-methyl piperazinyl sulfonyl)phenyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)propionamide (2.8 g, 0.0051 mol) is added to a cooled solution of 10% hydrochloric acid in isopropanol (3.75 mL). The reaction mixture is stirred at 0° C. for 1 h and then at RT for 2 h. The solid is separated, triturated with 10 mL of isopropanol and collected by vacuum filtration and washed with 50 mL of hexane. The solid is dried at 70° C. for 48 h to afford 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide dihydrochloride as an off white solid.

EXAMPLE 2 (R)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

The title compound is obtained analogously to Example 1 by employing the following additional resolution step:

The racemic title E compound of Example 1,3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid (10 g, 0.026 mol) in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) is treated in a three necked 1 liter flask, equipped with heating mantle, water condenser, calcium chloride guard tube and mechanical stirrer with 3.18 g (0.026 mol) of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine. This reaction mixture is then refluxed at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized salt is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 5 mL of hexane and dried under vacuum to afford salt A.

The salt A is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 50 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt B.

The salt B is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (290 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt C.

The salt C is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (100 mL) and heated at 100° C. for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27° C.) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30 ml of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt D.

The salt D is treated with aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (20 mL, 1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid diluted with 100 mL of water) and stirred for 5 min. The white solid precipitates out and is collected by vacuum filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 5 mL of isopropanol and 20 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to yield the hydrochloride salt of (R)-(−)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid, salt E.

The salt E is neutralized by stirring with aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (10 mL, 1 g of sodium bicarbonate dissolved in 120 mL of water) for 5 min. The precipitated solid is collected by filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 100 mL of hexane, and dried to afford (R)-(−)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid: m.p. 202.2-203.4° C.

Alternatively, the title compound may be obtained by the resolution of the racemic title compound of Example 1 using the following preparative chiral HPLC method:

  • Column: Chiralcel OD-R (250×20 mm) Diacel make, Japan;
  • Solvent A: water:methanol:acetonitrile (10:80:10 v/v/v);
  • Solvent B: water:methanol:acetonitrile (05:90:05 v/v/v);
  • Using gradient elution: gradient program (time, min/% B): 0/0, 20/0, 50/100, 55/0, 70/0;
  • Flow rate: 6.0 mL/min; and
  • Detection: by UV at 305 nm.

EXAMPLE 3 (S)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

The title compound is prepared analogously to Example 2.

J MED CHEM 2009, 52, 6142-52

Investigation of Functionally Liver Selective Glucokinase Activators for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Inc., 100 Technology Square, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139
Torrent Research Centre, Village Bhat, Gujarat, India
J. Med. Chem., 2009, 52 (19), pp 6142–6152
DOI: 10.1021/jm900839k

http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/jm900839k

Abstract Image

Type 2 diabetes is a polygenic disease which afflicts nearly 200 million people worldwide and is expected to increase to near epidemic levels over the next 10−15 years. Glucokinase (GK) activators are currently under investigation by a number of pharmaceutical companies with only a few reaching early clinical evaluation. A GK activator has the promise of potentially affecting both the β-cells of the pancreas, by improving glucose sensitive insulin secretion, as well as the liver, by reducing uncontrolled glucose output and restoring post-prandial glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. Herein, we report our efforts on a sulfonamide chemotype with the aim to generate liver selective GK activators which culminated in the discovery of 3-cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide (17c). This compound activated the GK enzyme (αKa = 39 nM) in vitro at low nanomolar concentrations and significantly reduced glucose levels during an oral glucose tolerance test in normal mice.

STR3

STR3

PATENT

EP-1735322-B1

Example 2(R)-3-Cyclopentyl-N-(5-methoxy-thiazolo[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionamide

Image loading...

The title compound is obtained analogously to Example 1 by employing the following additional resolution step:

The racemic title E compound of Example 1, 3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid (10 g, 0.026 mol) in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) is treated in a three necked 1 liter flask, equipped with heating mantle, water condenser, calcium chloride guard tube and mechanical stirrer with 3.18 g (0.026 mol) of (R)-(+)-1-phenylethylamine. This reaction mixture is then refluxed at 100°C for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27°C) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized salt is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 5 mL of hexane and dried under vacuum to afford salt A.

The salt A is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (500 mL) and heated at 100°C for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27°C) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 50 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt B.

The salt B is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (290 mL) and heated at 100°C for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27°C) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt C.

The salt C is dissolved in 1,4-dioxane (100 mL) and heated at 100°C for 1 h. The clear reaction solution is cooled to RT (27°C) and stirred for 10 h. The crystallized product is collected by filtration under vacuum, washed with 30ml of hexane, and dried under vacuum to afford salt D.

The salt D is treated with aqueous hydrochloric acid solution (20 mL, 1 mL of concentrated hydrochloric acid diluted with 100 mL of water) and stirred for 5 min. The white solid precipitates out and is collected by vacuum filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 5 mL of isopropanol and 20 mL of hexane, and dried under vacuum to yield the hydrochloride salt of (R)-(-)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid, salt E.

The salt E is neutralized by stirring with aqueous sodium bicarbonate solution (10 mL, 1 g of sodium bicarbonate dissolved in 120 mL of water) for 5 min. The precipitated solid is collected by filtration, washed with 10 mL of cold water, 100 mL of hexane, and dried to afford (R)-(-)-3-cyclopentyl-2-[4-(4-methyl-piperazine-1-sulfonyl)-phenyl]-propionic acid: m.p. 202.2-203.4°C.

Alternatively, the title compound may be obtained by the resolution of the racemic title compound of Example 1 using the following preparative chiral HPLC method:

  • Column: Chiralcel OD-R (250 x 20 mm) Diacel make, Japan;
  • Solvent A: water:methanol:acetonitrile (10:80:10 v/v/v);
  • Solvent B: water:methanol:acetonitrile (05:90:05 v/v/v);
  • Using gradient elution: gradient program (time, min / %B): 0/0, 20/0, 50/100, 55/0, 70/0;
  • Flow rate: 6.0 mL/min; and
  • Detection: by UV at 305 nm.

REFERENCES

US 7750020

WO-2005095418-A1

US-20080103167-A1

1 to 2 of 2
Patent ID Date Patent Title
US2015218151 2015-08-06 NOVEL PHENYLACETAMIDE COMPOUND AND PHARMACEUTICAL CONTAINING SAME
US7750020 2010-07-06 Sulfonamide-Thiazolpyridine Derivatives As Glucokinase Activators Useful The Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes

///NOVARTIS, DIABETES, Sulfonamide-Thiazolpyridine Derivatives,  Glucokinase Activators, Treatment Of Type 2 Diabetes, 866772-52-3, Novartis Molecule, functionally liver selective glucokinase activators, treatment of type 2 diabetes , NVP-LBX192, LBX-192

c1(sc2nc(ccc2n1)OC)NC(C(c3ccc(cc3)S(=O)(=O)N4CCN(CC4)C)CC5CCCC5)=O

Pfizer’s PF 04937319 glucokinase activators for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes


 

Graphical abstract: Designing glucokinase activators with reduced hypoglycemia risk: discovery of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as a clinical candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

 

 

 

 

 

 

PF 04937319

N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide

MW 432.43

MF C22 H20 N6 O4
CAS 1245603-92-2
2-​Pyrimidinecarboxamid​e, N,​N-​dimethyl-​5-​[[2-​methyl-​6-​[[(5-​methyl-​2-​pyrazinyl)​amino]​carbonyl]​-​4-​benzofuranyl]​oxy]​-
N,N-Dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)-benzofuran-4- yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide
Pfizer Inc. clinical candidate currently in Phase 2 development.

CLINICAL TRIALS

A trial to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of single doses of PF-04937319 in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NCT01044537)

Multiple dose study of PF-04937319 in patients with type 2 diabetes (NCT01272804)
Phase 2 study to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational drug – PF04937319 in patients with type 2 diabetes (NCT01475461)

SYNTHESIS

PF 319 SYN

Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and small molecule activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Several glucokinase activators have advanced to clinical studies and demonstrated promising efficacy; however, many of these early candidates also revealed hypoglycemia as a key risk. In an effort to mitigate this hypoglycemia risk while maintaining the promising efficacy of this mechanism, we have investigated a series of substituted 2-methylbenzofurans as “partial activators” of the glucokinase enzyme leading to the identification of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as an early development candidate.

 

Diabetes is a major public health concern because of its increasing prevalence and associated health risks. The disease is characterized by metabolic defects in the production and utilization of carbohydrates which result in the failure to maintain appropriate blood glucose levels. Two major forms of diabetes are recognized. Type I diabetes, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is the result of an absolute deficiency of insulin. Type Il diabetes, or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), often occurs with normal, or even elevated levels of insulin and appears to be the result of the inability of tissues and cells to respond appropriately to insulin. Aggressive control of NIDDM with medication is essential; otherwise it can progress into IDDM. As blood glucose increases, it is transported into pancreatic beta cells via a glucose transporter. Intracellular mammalian glucokinase (GK) senses the rise in glucose and activates cellular glycolysis, i.e. the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate, and subsequent insulin release. Glucokinase is found principally in pancreatic β-cells and liver parenchymal cells. Because transfer of glucose from the blood into muscle and fatty tissue is insulin dependent, diabetics lack the ability to utilize glucose adequately which leads to undesired accumulation of blood glucose (hyperglycemia). Chronic hyperglycemia leads to decreases in insulin secretion and contributes to increased insulin resistance. Glucokinase also acts as a sensor in hepatic parenchymal cells which induces glycogen synthesis, thus preventing the release of glucose into the blood. The GK processes are thus critical for the maintenance of whole body glucose homeostasis.

It is expected that an agent that activates cellular GK will facilitate glucose-dependent secretion from pancreatic beta cells, correct postprandial hyperglycemia, increase hepatic glucose utilization and potentially inhibit hepatic glucose release. Consequently, a GK activator may provide therapeutic treatment for NIDDM and associated complications, inter alia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance syndrome, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and obesity. Several drugs in five major categories, each acting by different mechanisms, are available for treating hyperglycemia and subsequently, NIDDM (Moller, D. E., “New drug targets for Type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome” Nature 414; 821 -827, (2001 )): (A) Insulin secretogogues, including sulphonyl-ureas (e.g., glipizide, glimepiride, glyburide) and meglitinides (e.g., nateglidine and repaglinide) enhance secretion of insulin by acting on the pancreatic beta-cells. While this therapy can decrease blood glucose level, it has limited efficacy and tolerability, causes weight gain and often induces hypoglycemia. (B) Biguanides (e.g., metformin) are thought to act primarily by decreasing hepatic glucose production. Biguanides often cause gastrointestinal disturbances and lactic acidosis, further limiting their use. (C) Inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase (e.g., acarbose) decrease intestinal glucose absorption. These agents often cause gastrointestinal disturbances. (D) Thiazolidinediones (e.g., pioglitazone, rosiglitazone) act on a specific receptor (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma) in the liver, muscle and fat tissues. They regulate lipid metabolism subsequently enhancing the response of these tissues to the actions of insulin. Frequent use of these drugs may lead to weight gain and may induce edema and anemia. (E) Insulin is used in more severe cases, either alone or in combination with the above agents. Ideally, an effective new treatment for NIDDM would meet the following criteria: (a) it would not have significant side effects including induction of hypoglycemia; (b) it would not cause weight gain; (c) it would at least partially replace insulin by acting via mechanism(s) that are independent from the actions of insulin; (d) it would desirably be metabolically stable to allow less frequent usage; and (e) it would be usable in combination with tolerable amounts of any of the categories of drugs listed herein.

Substituted heteroaryls, particularly pyridones, have been implicated in mediating GK and may play a significant role in the treatment of NIDDM. For example, U.S. Patent publication No. 2006/0058353 and PCT publication No’s. WO2007/043638, WO2007/043638, and WO2007/117995 recite certain heterocyclic derivatives with utility for the treatment of diabetes. Although investigations are on-going, there still exists a need for a more effective and safe therapeutic treatment for diabetes, particularly NIDDM.

Designing glucokinase activators with reduced hypoglycemia risk: discovery of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as a clinical candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

*Corresponding authors
aPfizer Worldwide Research & Development, Eastern Point Road, Groton
E-mail: jeffrey.a.pfefferkorn@pfizer.com
Tel: +860 686 3421
Med. Chem. Commun., 2011,2, 828-839

DOI: 10.1039/C1MD00116G

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2011/md/c1md00116g/unauth#!divAbstract

http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/md/c1/c1md00116g/c1md00116g.pdf

Glucokinase is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and small molecule activators of this enzyme represent a promising opportunity for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Several glucokinase activators have advanced to clinical studies and demonstrated promising efficacy; however, many of these early candidates also revealed hypoglycemia as a key risk. In an effort to mitigate this hypoglycemia risk while maintaining the promising efficacy of this mechanism, we have investigated a series of substituted 2-methylbenzofurans as “partial activators” of the glucokinase enzyme leading to the identification of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as an early development candidate.

Graphical abstract: Designing glucokinase activators with reduced hypoglycemia risk: discovery of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)-carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide as a clinical candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus

N,N-Dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)-benzofuran-4- yloxy)pyrimidine-2-carboxamide (28). To a solution of the 5-methyl-2-aminopyrazine (38.9 g, 356 mmol) in dimethoxyethane (315 mL) in a 3-neck flask equipped with overhead stirring and a condenser at 0 o C was added Me2AlCl (1 M solution in hexanes) (715 mL). The mixture was warmed to room temperature and stirred for 1.5 h. In a separate flask, 26 (52.6 g, 142.5 mmol) was dissolved in dimethoxyethane (210 mL). This mixture was then added to the amine mixture. A gum precipitated and upon scratching the flask it dissipated into a solid. The reaction was refluxed for 3.5 h. Aq. Rochelle’s salt (5 L) and 2-MeTHF (2 L) was added to the mixture and this was allowed to stir with overhead stirring for 14 h, after which time, a yellow solid precipitated. The solid was collected by filtration, washing with 2-MeTHF. The resulting solid was dried in a vacuum oven overnight to afford the desired material (50.0g) in 81% yield.

1 H NMR (400MHz, CDCl3) δ 9.54 (d, J = 1.56 Hz, 1H), 8.50 (s, 2H), 8.37 (s, 1H), 8.14 (d, J = 0.78 Hz, 1H), 7.88 – 7.92 (m, 1H), 7.52 (d, J = 1.37 Hz, 1H), 6.28 (t, J = 0.98 Hz, 1H), 3.14 (s, 3H), 2.98 (s, 3H), 2.55 (s, 3H), 2.49 (d, J = 1.17 Hz, 3H);

MS(ES+ ): m/z 433.4 (M+1), MS(ES- ): m/z 431.3 (M-1).

PAPER

 

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/md/c2md20317k#!divAbstract

PAPER

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2013), 23(16), 4571-4578

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960894X13007452

Glucokinase activators 1 and 2.

Figure 1.

Glucokinase activators 1 and 2.

 

 

PATENT

Pfizer Inc.

WO 2010103437

https://www.google.co.in/patents/WO2010103437A1?cl=en

Scheme I outlines the general procedures one could use to provide compounds of the present invention having Formula (I).

Figure imgf000011_0001
PF 319 SYN

Preparations of Starting Materials and Key Intermediates

Preparation of Intermediate (E)-3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-4-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)but- 3-enoic acid (I- 1a):

Figure imgf000024_0001

(Ma) To a vigorously stirred solution of 5-methyl-2-furaldehyde (264 ml_, 2650 mmol) and diethyl succinate (840 ml_, 5050 mmol) in ethanol (1.820 L) at room temperature was added sodium ethoxide (0.93 L of a 21 weight % solution in ethanol) in one portion. The reaction mixture was then heated at reflux for 13 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was concentrated in vacuo (all batches were combined at this point). The resulting residue was partitioned between ethyl acetate (1 L) and hydrochloric acid (1 L of a 2M aqueous solution). After separation, the aqueous layer was extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 1 L). The combined organic extracts were then extracted with sodium hydrogen carbonate (2 x 1 L of a saturated aqueous solution). These aqueous extracts were combined and adjusted to pH 2 with hydrochloric acid (2M aqueous solution) then extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 1 L). These organic extracts were combined and concentrated in vacuo to give desired (E)-3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-4-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)but-3-enoic acid (J1 Ia: 34.34 g, 5%). The original organic extract was extracted with sodium hydroxide (2 L of a 2M aqueous solution). This aqueous extract was adjusted to pH 2 with hydrochloric acid (2M aqueous solution) then extracted with ethyl acetate (2 x 1 L). These organic extracts were combined and concentrated in vacuo to give additional desired materials (395.2 gram, 63%) as red liquid. 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz) δ ppm 7.48 (s, 1 H), 6.57 (d, 1 H), 6.09 (d, 1 H), 4.24 (q, 2H), 3.87 (s, 2H), 2.32 (s, 3H), 1.31 (t, 3H).

Preparation of Intermediate ethyl 4-acetoxy-2-methylbenzofuran-6- carboxylate (1-1 b):

Figure imgf000025_0001

(M b) To a vigorously stirred solution of (E)-3-(ethoxycarbonyl)-4-(5- methylfuran-2-yl)but-3-enoic acid (1-1 a: 326.6 g, 1 .371 mol) in acetic anhydride (1 .77 L, 18.72 mol) at room temperature was added sodium acetate (193 g, 2350 mmol) in one portion. The reaction mixture was then heated at reflux for 2.5 hours. After cooling to room temperature, the mixture was concentrated in vacuo (all batches were combined at this point). The resulting residue was suspended in dichloromethane (1 .5 L) and filtered, washing the solids with dichloromethane (3 x 500 ml_). The combined filtrate and washings were then washed with sodium hydrogencarbonate (2 x 1 L of a saturated aqueous solution) and brine (2 L), then concentrated in vacuo to give desired ethyl 4-acetoxy-2-methylbenzofuran-6-carboxylate (H b: 549.03 g, quantitative). 1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz) δ ppm 8.00-7.99 (m, 1 H), 7.64 (d, 1 H), 6.32-6.32 (m, 1 H), 4.38 (q, 2H), 2.47 (d, 3H), 2.37 (s, 3H), 1 .39 (t, 3H).

Preparation of Intermediate ethyl 4-hydroxy-2-methylbenzofuran-6- carboxylate (1- 1 c):

Figure imgf000026_0001

(He) To a stirred solution of ethyl 4-acetoxy-2-methylbenzofuran-6- carboxylate (Hb: 549.03 g, 1 .37 mol) in ethanol (4.00 L) at room temperature was added potassium carbonate (266 g, 1 .92 mol) in one portion. The reaction mixture was then heated at 600C for 3 hours. Potassium carbonate (100 g, 0.720 mol) was then added in one portion and the reaction mixture was heated at 600C for a further 3 hours. After cooling to room temperature the mixture was diluted with dichloromethane (2 L) and the suspension filtered, washing the solids with dichloromethane (2 x 1 L) (all batches were combined at this point). The combined filtrate and washings were then washed with citric acid (2.5 L of a 1 M aqueous solution), then concentrated in vacuo and the resulting residue purified by dry flash chromatography (hexane then 2:1 hexane:ethyl acetate). All fractions containing the desired product were combined and concentrated in vacuo. The resulting residue, which solidified on standing, was slurried with cold toluene and filtered. The solids were then stirred with hot toluene and decolourising charcoal for 1 hour, followed by filtration of the hot mixture through a pad of celite. The filtrate was allowed to cool and the resulting precipitate isolated by filtration to give desired ethyl 4-hydroxy-2- methylbenzofuran-6-carboxylate (1-1 c: 360 g, 90%) as orange powder.

1H NMR (CDCI3, 300 MHz) δ ppm 7.73-7.73 (m, 1 H), 7.45 (d, 1 H), 6.51 -6.50 (m, 1 H), 5.85 (s, 1 H), 4.39 (q, 2H), 2.48 (d, 3H), 1.40 (t, 3H). LCMS (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry): m/z 221.06 (96.39 % purity).

 

 

Preparation of SM-25-bromo-N,N-dimethylpyrimidine-2-carboxamide (SM-

£1:

Figure imgf000029_0001

(SM-2) Oxalyl chloride (47.4g, 369mmol) was added to a suspension of 5-

Bromo-pyrimidine-2-carboxylic acid (5Og, 250mmol) in dichloromethane (821 ml) at room temperature followed by 1 -2 drop of dimethylformamide. The reaction mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 2 hours LCMS in methanol indicated the presence of the methyl ester and some acid. Dimethylformamide (0.2ml) was added to the reaction mixture. The acid dissolved after 30 minutess. LCMS showed corresponding methyl ester and no starting material peak was observed. The solvent was removed and dried in vacuo to afford the crude 5-Bromo-pyrimidine-2-carbonyl chloride (55g, 100%). The 5-Bromo-pyrimidine-2-carbonyl chloride (55g, 250mmol) was dissolved in tetrahydrofuran (828ml) and dimethyl-amine (2M solution in tetrahydrofuran) (373ml, 745mmol) was added portionwise at room temperature. The reaction was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen for 16 hours, after which time, LCMS indicated completion. The mixture was diluted with ethyl acetate (500ml) and washed with H2O (500ml). The water layer was further extracted with CH2CI2 (5x500ml), all organics combined, and dried over magnesium sulfate. The filtrate was concentrated in vacuo and then suspended in methyl-/-butylether (650ml). The solution was then heated to reflux. The hot solution was allowed to cool overnight to afford pink crystals. The crystals were filtered and washed with cold methyl-t-butylether (100ml) the solid was dried in a vacuum oven at 550C for 12 hourrs to afford the title compound 5-bromo-N,N-dimethylpyhmidine-2-carboxamide (SM-2: 44g, 77%) as a pink solid.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ ppm 2.94 (s, 3 H) 3.13 (s, 3 H) 8.85 (s, 2 H) m/z (M+1 ) = 232.

Preparation of Intermediate Ethyl 4-(2-(dimethylcarbamoyl)Dyrimidin-5- yloxy)-2-methylbenzofuran-6-carboxylate (l-2a):

Figure imgf000030_0001

A mixture of Cs2CO3 (62.1 g, 191 mmol), 5-bromo-N,N- dimethylpyrimidine-2-carboxamide (SM-2: 24g, 104mmol) and ethyl 4- hydroxy-2-methylbenzofuran-6-carboxylate (1-1 c: 2Og, 91 mmol); 1 ,10- phenanthroline (1.64g, 9.07mmol) and copper iodide (864mg, 4.54mmol) in dimethylformamide (200ml) was purged with N2 gas and then heated to 90°C using a mechanical stirrer. The heterogeneous reaction mixture was stirred at this temperature for 18 hours. HPLC indicated near completion. The reaction mixture was cooled to 350C and diluted with ethyl acetate (300ml). The mixture was filtered to remove any cesium carbonate. The filtrate was then partitioned between water (500ml) and ethyl acetate (500ml); however, no separation was observed. Concentrated HCL (20ml) was added to the mixture. When the aqueous phase was about pH1 , the phases separated. The organics were separated and the aqueous layer reextracted with ethyl acetate (2x500ml). All organics were combined and back extracted with water (200ml) and brine (500ml). The organics were separated and treated with activated charcoal (10g) and magnesium sulfate. The mixture was allowed to stir for 10 minutes and then filtered through a plug of celite to afford a crude yellow solution. The filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate (100 ml_). The organics were concentrated in vacuo to afford a crude solid this was dried under high vacuum for 4 days. The dry crude solid was triturated using methanol (80 ml_). The solids were dispersed into a fine light orange crystalline powder with a red liquor. The solids were isolated by filtration and rinsed with methanol (20 ml_). The solid was dried in the vacuum oven at 550C for 12 hours to afford ethyl 4-(2- (dimethylcarbamoyl)pyrimidin-5-yloxy)-2-methylbenzofuran-6-carboxylate (J1 2a) as a yellow solid (18.2g, 54%)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ ppm 1.41 (t, J=7.12 Hz, 3 H) 2.50 (d, J=0.98 Hz, 3 H) 3.00 (s, 3 H) 3.17 (s, 3 H) 4.41 (d, J=7.22 Hz, 2 H) 6.29 (s, 1 H) 7.62 (d, J=1.17 Hz, 1 H) 8.06 (s, 1 H) 8.50 (s, 2 H). m/z (M+1 ) = 370.5

Preparation of Starting material 5-bromo-N-ethyl-N-methylpyrimidine-2- carboxamide (SM-3):

Figure imgf000031_0001

(SM-3) Oxalyl chloride (1 .45g, 1 1 .1 mmol) was added to a suspension of 5-

Bromo-pyrimidine-2-carboxylic acid (1 .5g, 7.4mmol) in dichloromethane (50ml) at room temperature followed by 1 -2 drop of dimethylformamide. The reaction mixture was stirred under nitrogen for 2 hours LCMS in methanol indicated the presence of the methyl ester and some acid. Dimethylformamide (0.2ml) was added to the reaction mixture and all of the acid dissolved after 30 minutes. LCMS showed corresponding methyl ester and no starting material peak was observed. The solvent was removed and dried in vacuo to afford the crude 5-Bromo-pyrimidine-2-carbonyl chloride (1 -6g). 5-Bromo-pyrinnidine-2-carbonyl chloride (1600mg, 7.225mnnol) was dissolved in dichloromethane (25ml) and triethylamine (4.03ml, 28.9mmol) was added followed by ethyl-methyl-amine (0.68 mL, 7.92 mmol). The reaction was stirred at room temperature under nitrogen for 16 ours, after which time, LCMS indicated completion. The mixture was diluted with dichloromethane (50ml) and washed with water (50ml) followed by 10% citric acid (50ml) and brine (50ml). The organic layer was separated and dried over MgSO4, the residue was filtered and the solvent was removed in vacuo to afford the title compound 5-bromo-N-ethyl-N-methylpyrimidine-2- carboxamide (SM-3): (1.4g, 79.4%) as a brown oil.

1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) δ ppm 1.08 – 1.31 (m, 3 H) 2.99 (d, J=79.05 Hz, 3 H) 3.19 (q, J=7.22 Hz, 1 H) 3.59 (q, J=7.22 Hz, 1 H) 8.84 (d, J=3.12 Hz, 2 H)

Example 2

Preparation of N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5-methylpyrazin-2- yl)carbamoyl)-benzofuran-4-yloxy)Dyrimidine-2-carboxamide (2):

Figure imgf000035_0001

(2)

To a solution of the 5-methyl-2-aminopyrazine (38.9 g, 356 mmol) in dimethylether (315 ml_) in a 3-neck flask equipped with overhead stirring and a condensor at O0C was added Me2AICI (1 M solution in hexanes) (715 ml_). The mixture was warmed at room temperature and stirred for 1.5 hours. In a separate flask, ethyl 4-(2-(dimethylcarbamoyl)pyrimidin-5-yloxy)-2- methylbenzofuran-6-carboxylate (l-2a: 52.6g, 142.5mmol) was dissolved in dimethylether (210 ml_). This mixture was then added to the complexed amine. A gum precipitated upon scratching the flask and dissipated into a solid. The resultant reaction was refluxed for 3.5 hours HPLC indicated 93% complete. Five liters of Rochelles salt made up in water and 2 liters of 2- methyltetrahydrofuran was added to the mixture. The reaction mixture was then poured into the biphasic system. The mixture was allowed to stir with overhead stirring for 14 hours, after which time, a yellow solid precipitated. The solid was collected through filteration. The solid retained was washed with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran. The resultant solid was dried in vacuo oven overnight to afford the title compound N,N-dimethyl-5-(2-methyl-6-((5- methylpyrazin-2-yl)carbamoyl)benzofuran-4-yloxy)pyhmidine-2-carboxamide (2): (49.98g, 81 %)

1H NMR (400 MHz, CHLOROFORM-d) d ppm 2.49 (d, J=1 .17 Hz, 3H) 2.55 (s, 3H) 2.98 (s, 3 H) 3.14 (s, 3 H) 6.28 (t, J=0.98 Hz, 1 H) 7.52 (d, J=1 .37 Hz, 1 H) 7.88 – 7.92 (m, 1 H) 8.14 (d, J=0.78 Hz, 1 H) 8.37 (s, 1 H) 8.50 (s, 2 H) 9.54 (d, J=1 .56 Hz, 1 H).

m/z (M+1 ) = 433.4, m/z (M-1 )= 431 .5

 

REFERENCES

Beebe, D.A.; Ross, T.T.; Rolph, T.P.; Pfefferkorn, J.A.; Esler, W.P.
The glucokinase activator PF-04937319 improves glycemic control in combination with exercise without causing hypoglycemia in diabetic rats
74th Annu Meet Sci Sess Am Diabetes Assoc (ADA) (June 13-17, San Francisco) 2014, Abst 1113-P

 

Amin, N.B.; Aggarwal, N.; Pall, D.; Paragh, G.; Denney, W.S.; Le, V.; Riggs, M.; Calle, R.A.
Two dose-ranging studies with PF-04937319, a systemic partial activator of glucokinase, as add-on therapy to metformin in adults with type 2 diabetes
Diabetes Obes Metab 2015, 17(8): 751

 

Study to compare single dose of three modified release formulations of PF-04937319 with immediate release material-sparing-tablet (IR MST) formulation previously studied in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (NCT02206607)

OTHERS

///////////Pfizer , PF 04937319,  glucokinase activators,  Type 2 diabetes

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