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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with AFRICURE PHARMA, ROW2TECH, NIPER-G, Department of Pharmaceuticals, Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers, Govt. of India as ADVISOR, earlier assignment was with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, as CONSUlTANT, Retired from GLENMARK in Jan2022 Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 32 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 32 PLUS year tenure till date Feb 2023, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 100 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 100 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 227 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 38 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 227 countries...... , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc He has total of 32 International and Indian awards

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ChemSpider 2D Image | Cefadroxil | C16H17N3O5S


  • Molecular FormulaC16H17N3O5S
  • Average mass363.388 Da

(6R,7R)-7-{[(2R)-2-Amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino}-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid
5-Thia-1-azabicyclo(4.2.0)oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-(((2R)-amino(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl)amino)-3-methyl-8-oxo-, (6R,7R)-
5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-, (6R,7R)-
цефадроксил [Russian] [INN]
سيفادروكسيل [Arabic] [INN]
头孢羟氨苄 [Chinese] [INN]

ChemSpider 2D Image | Cephos | C16H19N3O6S


  • Molecular FormulaC16H19N3O6S
  • Average mass381.404 Da

5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-[[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-, (6R,7R)-, monohydrate
(6R,7R)-7-{[(2R)-2-amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino}-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid hydrate
(6R,7R)-7-{[(2R)-2-Amino-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino}-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid hydrate (1:1)

Product Ingredients

Cefadroxil hemihydrateJ9CMF6461M119922-85-9AJAMDISMDZXITN-QXBGZBSVSA-N
Cefadroxil monohydrate280111G16066592-87-8NBFNMSULHIODTC-CYJZLJNKSA-N
Cefadroxil sodiumSSZ6380I0I42284-83-3GQOVFIUWRATNJC-CYJZLJNKSA-M

CefadroxilCAS Registry Number: 66592-87-8 
CAS Name: (6R,7R)-7-[[(2R)-Amino-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid monohydrate 
Additional Names: 7-[D-(-)-a-amino-a-(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetamido]-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate; p-hydroxycephalexine monohydrate 
Manufacturers’ Codes: BL-S578; MJF-11567-3 
Trademarks: Baxan (BMS); Bidocef (BMS); Cefa-Drops (Fort Dodge); Cefamox (BMS); Ceforal (Farmoffer); Cephos (CT); Duracef (BMS); Duricef (BMS); Kefroxil (Torre); Oracéfal (BMS); Sedral (BMS); Ultracef (BMS) 
Molecular Formula: C16H17N3O5S.H2O 
Molecular Weight: 381.40 
Percent Composition: C 50.39%, H 5.02%, N 11.02%, O 25.17%, S 8.41% 
Literature References: Semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic. Prepn: NL6812382; L. B. Crast, Jr., US3489752 (1969, 1970 both to Bristol-Myers); T. Takahashi et al.,DE2216113eidem,US3816253 (1972, 1974, both to Takeda). Prepn of crystalline monohydrate: D. Bouzard et al.,US4504657 (1985 to Bristol-Myers). Antimicrobial activity: R. E. Buck, K. E. Price, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.11, 324 (1977). Pharmacology: M. Pfeffer et al.,ibid. 331; A. I. Hartstein et al.,ibid.12, 93 (1977). Review:J. Antimicrob. Chemother.10, Suppl. B, 1-162 (1982). Series of articles on clinical trials in respiratory tract infections: Drugs32, Suppl. 3, 1-56 (1986).Properties: White crystals, mp 197° (dec). 
Melting point: mp 197° (dec) 
Therap-Cat: Antibacterial. 
Therap-Cat-Vet: Antibacterial. 
Keywords: Antibacterial (Antibiotics); ?Lactams; Cephalosporins.

Cefadroxil is a cephalosporin antibiotic used in the treatment of various bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections, skin and skin structure infections, and tonsillitis.

Cefadroxil (formerly trademarked as Duricef) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic of the cephalosporin type, effective in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial infections. It is a bactericidal antibiotic.

It was patented in 1967 and approved for medical use in 1978.[1]

DURICEF (cefadroxil) is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic intended for oral administration. It is a white to yellowish-white crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and it is acid- stable. It is chemically designated as 5-Thia-l-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-[[amino(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-, monohydrate[6R- [6α,7β(R*)]]-. It has the formula C16H17N3O5S•H20 and the molecular weight of 381.40. It has the following structural formula:

DURICEF (cefadroxil monohydrate) structural formula illustration

DURICEF (cefadroxil) film-coated tablets, 1 g, contain the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate 80, simethicone emulsion, and titanium dioxide.

DURICEF (cefadroxil) for Oral Suspension contains the following inactive ingredients: FD&C Yellow No. 6, flavors (natural and artificial), polysorbate 80, sodium benzoate, sucrose, and xanthan gum.

DURICEF (cefadroxil) capsules contain the following inactive ingredients: D&C Red No. 28, FD&C Blue No. 1, FD&C Red No. 40, gelatin, magnesium stearate, and titanium dioxide.


a) : IR spectrum of pure cefadroxil drug. 

IR spectrum of pure cefadroxil drug.

Synthesis Reference

Leonardo Marsili, “Substantially anhydrous crystalline cefadroxil and method for producing it.” U.S. Patent US5329001, issued April, 1978.




R.S. Vardanyan, V.J. Hruby, in Synthesis of Essential Drugs, 2006


Cefadroxil, [6R-[6α,7β(R)]]-3-methyl-8-oxo-7-[[amino(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetyl]amino]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-2-carboxylic acid (, is an analog of cephalexin and differs only in the presence of a hydroxyl group in the fourth position of the phenyl ring of phenylglycine, and is synthesized by a scheme analogous to the scheme of cephradin synthesis [90–96].

Cefadroxil has a broad spectrum of antimicrobial action; it is active with respect to Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. Like all of the other drugs described above, it acts as a bactericide by disrupting the process of restoring the membranes of bacteria. Synonyms of this drug are bidocef, cefadril, duracef, ultracef, and others.SYN


  • ATC:J01DA09
  • MW:363.39 g/mol
  • CAS-RN:50370-12-2
  • InChI:InChI=1S/C16H17N3O5S/c1-7-6-25-15-11(14(22)19(15)12(7)16(23)24)18-13(21)10(17)8-2-4-9(20)5-3-8/h2-5,10-11,15,20H,6,17H2,1H3,(H,18,21)(H,23,24)/t10-,11-,15-/m1/s1
  • EINECS:256-555-6
  • LD50:>1.5 g/kg (M, i.v.); >10 g/kg (M, p.o.);
    >1 g/kg (R, i.v.); >10 g/kg (R, p.o.);
    >2 g/kg (dog, p.o.)




CAS-RNFormulaChemical NameCAS Index Name
22252-43-3C8H10N2O3S7-amino-3-deacetoxycephalosporanic acid5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-amino-3-methyl-8-oxo-, (6R-trans)-
53487-89-1C13H15NO5d(–)-4-hydroxy-N-(2-methoxycarbonyl-1-methylethenyl)phenylglycineBenzeneacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-α-[(3-methoxy-1-methyl-3-oxo-1-propenyl)amino]-, (R)-


 Seo, Dae-Won; WO 2005042543 cephalosporin antibiotics, including cefprozil, cefatrizine, and cefadroxii, commonly have a 4-hydroxyphenylglycine group, as represented by the following formula:

Figure imgf000002_0001

The compound of the above formula is cefprozil when A is -C=CH-CH3, cefatrizine when A is 1 H-1 ,2,3-triazole-4-yl-thiomethyl, and cefadroxii when A is -CH3. Conventionally, there have been known various processes for preparing oral cephalosporin antibiotics, such as cefprozil, cefatrizine, and cefadroxii, by reacting reactive derivatives of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine with 3-cephem compounds. For example, U.S. Patent No. 3,985,741 discloses a process for preparing a cefadroxii, which includes reacting 4-hydroxyphenylglycine and ethylchloroformate inN-methylmorpholine to obtain an anhydride, followed by reaction with7-amino-deacetoxy-cephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA). However, the yield and quality of the product are poor. U.S. Patent Nos. 4,520,022, 4,591 ,641 , and 4,661 ,590 disclose a condensation reaction between 4-hydroxyphenylglycine with a protected amino group and a cephem compound in the presence of Λ/.Λ/’-dicyclohexylcarbodimide. However,Λ/,Λ/’-dicyclohexylurea produced after the condensation reaction is not easily removed, which restricts industrial applications. U.S. Patent No. 4,336,376 discloses a process for preparing a cefadroxii, which includes reacting a 4-hydroxyphenylglycine salt having a protected amino group with trimethylsilyl-2-oxazolidinone to protect a 4-hydroxyl group followed by reaction with acylchloride to obtain a 4-hydroxyphenylglycine anhydride and then reaction with 7-ADCA. However, silylation is prerequisite and these reactions are annoying, and thus, this process is not suitable for industrial application. U.S. Patent No. 4,708,825 discloses a technique of reacting4-hydroxyphenylglycine having a substituted amino group with thionyl chloride using a gaseous hydrogen chloride to obtain a 4-hydroxyphenylglycyl chloride hydrochloride followed by reaction with a cephem compound. However, handling property of the thionyl chloride and the gaseous hydrogen chloride is poor, and thus, this technique is not suitable for industrial application. U.S. Patent Nos. 3,925,418, 4,243,819, and 4,464,307 disclose a process for producing 4-hydroxyphenylglycine using excess phosgene. However, difficulty in handling of highly toxic phosgene, removal of excess residual phosgene, and control of reaction conditions renders mass production difficult. As a process for preparing a reactive anhydride of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine, there are reported a method for the preparation of acid chloride using phosphorus pentachloride, phosphorus oxychloride, or thionyl chloride, and a method for the preparation of active ester using imidazole, mercaptobenzothiazole, or hydroxybenzotriazole. However, an acid chloride of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine has poor reactivity due to a hydroxyl group and an active ester of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine has poor reactivity and involves a side reaction. In addition, Korean Patent Laid-Open Publication Nos. 2002-69431 , 2002-69432, 2002-69437, and 2002-69440 disclose a process for preparing a pivaloyl or succinimide derivative of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine and a process for preparing a cephem compound such as cefprozil using the pivaloyl or succinimide derivative of 4-hydroxyphenylglycine. Meanwhile, there have been known various preparation processes for 3-(Z)-propenyl cephem derivative which is a compound useful as an intermediate for preparation of cefprozil which is an oral cephalosporin antibiotic. WO93/16084 discloses a process of selectively separating a 3-(Z)-propenyl cephem compound by means of a hydrochloride, metal, or tertiary amine salt of7-amino-3-(1-propen-1-yl)-3-cephem-carboxylic acid or by adsorption chromatography. However, there is a disadvantage in that separation and purification are cost-ineffective. U.K. Patent No. 2,135,305 discloses a process for preparing cefprozil from a4-hydroxyphenylglycine compound with a t-butoxycarbonyl-protected amino group and a cephem compound with a benzhydryl-protected carboxyl group. However, incorporation of a 3-propenyl group after acylation lowers reaction efficiency and high-performance liquid chromatography is required for isomer separation, which render industrial application difficult. U.S. Patent No. 4,727,070 discloses a technique of removing an E-isomer cefprozil from a mixture of 27E cefprozil, which includes incorporating an active group such as sodium imidazolidinone into the mixture of 2VE cefprozil by reaction of the mixture of 27E cefprozil with acetone followed by deprotection. However, purification by chromatography incurs enormous costs. In view of the above problems, Korean Patent Laid-Open Publication No.2002-80838 discloses a process for preparing a 3-(Z)-propenyl cephem compound by reacting a phosphoranylidene cephem compound with acetaldehyde in a mixed solvent essentially consisting of ether in the presence of a base. According to a disclosure in this patent document, ether is essentially used. In this respect, in the case of using methylenechloride or tetrahydrofuran, even when other reaction conditions, for example, reaction temperature, reaction duration, base, catalyst, and the like are adjusted, it is very difficult to adjust the content of the Z-isomer to more than 83%.DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION Technical Goal of the Invention The present invention provides a process for simply preparing a cephalosporin antibiotic in high yield and purity using a novel reactive intermediate, i.e., a 4-hydroxyphenylglycine derivative. The present invention also provides a novel reactive intermediate, i.e., a 4-hydroxyphenylglycine derivative which is used in simply preparing a cephalosphorin antibiotic in high yield and purity, and a preparation process thereof. While searching for a process for stereospecifically preparing a novel3-(Z)-propenyl cephem derivative, the present inventors found that use of a mixed solvent including methylenechloride, isopropylalcohol, and water in a predetermined ratio can stereospecifically and efficiently produce the 3-(Z)-propenyl cephem derivative, which is in contrary to the disclosure in Korean Patent Laid-Open Publication No. 2002-80838. Therefore, the present invention also provides a process for stereospecifically preparing a 3-(Z)-propenyl cephem derivative using a mixed solvent including methylenechloride, isopropylalcohol, and water in a predetermined ratio.

Figure imgf000007_0002
Figure imgf000009_0003
Figure imgf000012_0002

 Example 9 Preparation of7-r2-amino-2-(4-hvdroxyphenyl)acetamido1-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid(cefadroxii) The reaction solution obtained in step A of Example 1 was cooled to -40 °C and a solution obtained by dissolving 6.21 g (0.029mol) of 7-amino-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid in 40 ml of methylenechloride, 10 ml of water, and 6.5 g of triethylamine was gradually dropwise added thereto for 1 hour. Then, the reaction mixture was incubated at the same temperature for 2 hours and cooled to 0°C to obtain an insoluble solid. The insoluble solid was filtered. A filtrate was sent to a reactor and then stirred for 1 hour after addition of 20 ml of 6N HCI. The reaction solution was adjusted to pH of 3.2 by addition of 10% NaOH, stirred at0°C for 2 hours, and filtered to give 9.1g (83%) of the titled compound as a white solid. H-NMR( δ , D20-d2) : 1.79(3H, d, 8.6Hz, -CH3), 3.22(1 H, d, 18Hz, 2-H),3.55(1 H. d. 18Hz, 2-H), 5.15(1 H, d, 4.6Hz, 6-H), 5.66(1 H, d, 4.6Hz, 7-H), 6.91 (2H, d,8.0Hz, phenyl-H), 7.38(2H, d, 8.0Hz, phenyl-H)


Deshmukh, J. H.; Asian Journal of Chemistry 2010, V22(3), P1760-1768 

Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society (Weinheim, Germany), 66(12), 1649-1657; 2019

Journal of the Indian Chemical Society, 93(6), 593-598; 2016

 Biotechnology Letters, 34(9), 1719-1724; 2012


WO 2011113486

By Gupta, Niranjan Lal et alFrom Indian, 184842, 30 Sep 2000


European Journal of Organic Chemistry, (10), 1817-1820; 2001


 Organic Letters, 2(18), 2829-2831; 2000

The cephalosporin antibiotic Cefadroxil can be epimerized at the α-carbon of its amino acid side chain using pyridoxal as the mediator. By clathration with 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene, the desired diastereomer can be selectively withdrawn from the equilibrating mixture of epimers. In this way, an asymmetric transformation of Cefadroxil can be accomplished. This opens the possibility of the production of Cefadroxil starting from racemic p-hydroxyphenylglycine, in contrast to the current industrial synthesis that employs the d-amino acid in enantiopure form.

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Medical use

Cefadroxil is a first-generation cephalosporin antibacterial drug that is the para-hydroxy derivative of cephalexin, and is used similarly in the treatment of mild to moderate susceptible infections such as the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes, causing the disease popularly called strep throat or streptococcal tonsillitisurinary tract infectionreproductive tract infection, and skin infections.

Cefadroxil is used as an antibiotic prophylaxis before dental procedures, for patients allergic to penicillins.

Spectrum of bacterial resistance and susceptibility

Cefadroxil has a broad spectrum of activity and has been effective in treating bacteria responsible for causing tonsillitis, and infections of the skin and urinary tract. The following represents MIC susceptibility data for a few medically significant microorganisms.[2]

  • Escherichia coli: 8 μg/ml
  • Staphylococcus aureus: 1 – 2 μg/ml
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae: ≤1 – >16 μg/ml

Side effects

The most common side effects of cefadroxil are diarrhea (which, less commonly, may be bloody), nauseaupset stomach, and vomiting. Other side effects include[3] rasheshives, and itching.


Cefadroxil is almost completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After doses of 500 mg and 1 g by mouth, peak plasma concentrations of about 16 and 30 micrograms/ml, respectively, are obtained after 1.5 to 2.0 hours. Although peak concentrations are similar to those of cefalexin, plasma concentrations are more sustained. Dosage with food does not appear to affect the absorption of cefadroxil. About 20% of cefadroxil is reported to be bound to plasma proteins. Its plasma half-life is about 1.5 hours and is prolonged in patients with renal impairment.

Cefadroxil is widely distributed to body tissues and fluids. It crosses the placenta and appears in breast milk. More than 90% of a dose of cefadroxil may be excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours by glomerular filtration and tubular secretion; peak urinary concentrations of 1.8 mg/ml have been reported after a dose of 500 mg. Cefadroxil is removed by haemodialysis.


Cefadroxil is given by mouth, and doses are expressed in terms of the anhydrous substance; 1.04 g of cefadroxil monohydrate is equivalent to about 1 g of anhydrous cefadroxil.

Veterinary use

It can be used for treating infected wounds on animals. Usually in powder form mixed with water, it has a color and smell similar to Tang. Given orally to animals, the amount is dependent on their weight and severity of infection.


  1. ^ Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 493. ISBN 9783527607495.
  2. ^ “Cefadroxil, Free Acid Susceptibility and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) Data” (PDF).
  3. ^ “Cefadroxil side effects”. Drugs.
Clinical data
Trade namesDuricef
Routes of
ATC codeJ01DB05 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusIn general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetic data
Protein bindingplasma protein
Elimination half-life1.5 hours
showIUPAC name
CAS Number66592-87-8 
PubChem CID47964
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID8022749 
ECHA InfoCard100.051.397 
Chemical and physical data
Molar mass363.39 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
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////////////CEFADROXIL, цефадроксил , سيفادروكسيل , 头孢羟氨苄 , BL-S578; MJF-11567-3, BL S578, MJF 11567-3






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