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METHOCARBAMOL

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Methocarbamol.svg
ChemSpider 2D Image | methocarbamol | C11H15NO5

Methocarbamol

  • Molecular FormulaC11H15NO5
  • Average mass241.240 Da
  • метокарбамол , ميثوكاربامول , 美索巴莫

1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-, 1-carbamate
208-524-3[EINECS]
2-Hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propyl carbamate
532-03-6[RN]
MethocarbamolCAS Registry Number: 532-03-6
CAS Name: 3-(2-Methoxyphenoxy)-1,2-propanediol 1-carbamate
Additional Names: 3-(o-methoxyphenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl 1-carbamate; 2-hydroxy-3-(o-methoxyphenoxy)propyl 1-carbamate; guaiacol glyceryl ether carbamate
Manufacturers’ Codes: AHR-85Trademarks: Neuraxin; Miolaxene (Lepetit); Lumirelax; Etroflex; Delaxin (Ferndale); Robamol (Cenci); Traumacut (Brenner-Efeka); Tresortil; Relestrid; Robaxin (Robins)
Molecular Formula: C11H15NO5, Molecular Weight: 241.24Percent Composition: C 54.77%, H 6.27%, N 5.81%, O 33.16%
Literature References: Prepn from 3-(o-methoxyphenoxy)-2-hydroxypropyl chlorocarbonate: Murphey, US2770649 (1956 to A. H. Robins). Comprehensive description: S. Alessi-Severini et al.,Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. Excip.23, 371-399 (1994).
Properties: Crystals from benzene, mp 92-94°. uv max (water): 222, 274 nm (E1%1cm 298, 94). 1og P -0.06. Soly in water at 20°: 2.5 g/100 ml. Sol in alcohol, propylene glycol. Sparingly sol in chloroform. Practically insol in n-hexane.
Melting point: mp 92-94°
Absorption maximum: uv max (water): 222, 274 nm (E1%1cm 298, 94)
Therap-Cat: Muscle relaxant (skeletal).
Therap-Cat-Vet: Muscle relaxant (skeletal).
Keywords: Muscle Relaxant (Skeletal).

Methocarbamol, sold under the brand name Robaxin among others, is a medication used for short-term musculoskeletal pain.[3][4] It may be used together with rest, physical therapy, and pain medication.[3][5][6] It is less preferred in low back pain.[3] It has limited use for rheumatoid arthritis and cerebral palsy.[3][7] Effects generally begin within half an hour.[3] It is taken by mouth or injection into a vein.[3]

Methocarbamol is a CNS depressant indicated with rest, physical therapy and other treatments to control the discomfort associated with various acute musculoskeletal conditions.

Methocarbamol was developed in the early 1950s as a treatment for muscle spasticity and the associated pain.6,7 It is a guaiacol glyceryl ether.7

Methocarbamol tablets and intramuscular injections are prescription medicines indicated in the United States as an adjunct to rest, physical therapy, and other measures for the relief of discomforts associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions.Label,9 In Canada, methocarbamol can be sold as an over the counter oral medicine at a lower dose that may be combined with acetaminophen or ibuprofen.10 A combination product with acetylsalicylic acid and codeine is available in Canada by prescription.10

Methocarbamol was FDA approved on 16 July 1957.8

Common side effect include headaches, sleepiness, and dizziness.[3][8] Serious side effects may include anaphylaxis, liver problems, confusion, and seizures.[4] Use is not recommended in pregnancy and breastfeeding.[3][4] Because of risk of injury, skeletal muscle relaxants should generally be avoided in geriatric patients.[3] Methocarbamol is a centrally acting muscle relaxant.[3] How it works is unclear, but it does not appear to affect muscles directly.[3]

Methocarbamol was approved for medical use in the United States in 1957.[3] It is available as a generic medication.[3][4] It is relatively inexpensive as of 2016.[9] In 2019, it was the 136th most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than 4 million prescriptions.[10][11]

SYN

CN  109970606

SYN

File:Methocarbamol synthesis.png
Synthesis of methocarbamol from guaifenesin. (a) methocarbamol and (b) β-isomer of methocarbamol.

Synthesis of methocarbamol from guaifenesin. (a) methocarbamol and (b) β-isomer of methocarbamol.

SYN

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0957416607003801

The muscle relaxant methocarbamol 2 and tranquilizer mephenoxalone 3, as well as intermediate cyclic carbonate 4, have been prepared in enantiopure form by starting from enantiopure guaifenesin 1 easily available by an entrainment resolution procedure. Thermal investigations reveal that 2 is probably a conglomerate forming substance, 3 forms a stable racemic compound, and 4 occupies an intermediate position. The enantiomeric excess of a binary phase eutectic point for these substances comprises 0%, 85%, and 10%, respectively.

Graphical abstract

PATENT

 US 2770649

https://patents.google.com/patent/US2770649A/en

PAPER

Journal of pharmaceutical sciences (1970), 59(7), 1043-4

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Medical use

Methocarbamol is a muscle relaxant used to treat acute, painful musculoskeletal spasms in a variety of musculoskeletal conditions.[12] However, there is limited and inconsistent published research on the medication’s efficacy and safety in treating musculoskeletal conditions, primarily neck and back pain.[12]

Methocarbamol injection may have a beneficial effect in the control of the neuromuscular spasms of tetanus.[6] It does not, however, replace the current treatment regimen.[6]

It is not useful in chronic neurological disorders, such as cerebral palsy or other dyskinesias.[3]

Currently, there is some suggestion that muscle relaxants may improve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis; however, there is insufficient data to prove its effectiveness as well as answer concerns regarding optimal dosing, choice of muscle relaxant, adverse effects, and functional status.[7]

Comparison to similar agents

The clinical effectiveness of methocarbamol compared to other muscle relaxants is not well-known.[12] One trial of methocarbamol versus cyclobenzaprine, a well-studied muscle relaxant, in those with localized muscle spasm found there was no significant differences in their effects on improved muscle spasm, limitation of motion, or limitation of daily activities.[12]

Contraindications

There are few contraindications to methocarbamol. They include:

  • Hypersensitivity to methocarbamol or to any of the injection components.[6]
  • For the injectable form, suspected kidney failure or renal pathology, due to large content of polyethylene glycol 300 that can increase pre-existing acidosis and urea retention.[6]

Side effects

Methocarbamol is a centrally acting skeletal muscle relaxant that has significant adverse effects, especially on the central nervous system.[3]

Potential side effects of methocarbamol include:

  • Most commonly drowsiness, blurred vision, headache, nausea, and skin rash.[8]
  • Possible clumsiness (ataxia), upset stomach, flushing, mood changes, trouble urinating, itchiness, and fever.[13][14]
  • Both tachycardia (fast heart rate) and bradycardia (slow heart rate) have been reported.[14]
  • Hypersensitivity reactions and anaphylatic reactions are also reported.[5][6]
  • May cause respiratory depression when combined with benzodiazepinesbarbituratescodeine, or other muscle relaxants.[15]
  • May cause urine to turn black, blue or green.[13]

While the product label states that methocarbamol can cause jaundice, there is minimal evidence to suggest that methocarbamol causes liver damage.[8] During clinical trials of methocarbamol, there were no laboratory measurements of liver damage indicators, such as serum aminotransferase (AST/ALT) levels, to confirm hepatotoxicity.[8] Although unlikely, it is impossible to rule out that methocarbamol may cause mild liver injury with use.[8]

Elderly

Skeletal muscle relaxants are associated with an increased risk of injury among older adults.[16] Methocarbamol appeared to be less sedating than other muscle relaxants, most notably cyclobenzaprine, but had similar increased risk of injury.[15][16] Methocarbamol is cited along with “most muscle relaxants” in the 2012 Beers Criteria as being “poorly tolerated by older adults, because of anticholinergic adverse effects, sedation, increased risk of fractures,” noting that “effectiveness dosages tolerated by older adults is questionable.”[17]

Pregnancy

Methocarbamol is labeled by the FDA as a pregnancy category C medication.[6] The teratogenic effects of the medication are not known and should be given to pregnant women only when clearly indicated.[6]

Overdose

There is limited information available on the acute toxicity of methocarbamol.[5][6] Overdose is used frequently in conjunction with CNS depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines and will have symptoms of nausea, drowsiness, blurred vision, hypotension, seizures, and coma.[6] There are reported deaths with an overdose of methocarbamol alone or in the presence of other CNS depressants.[5][6]

Abuse

Unlike other carbamates such as meprobamate and its prodrug carisoprodol, methocarbamol has greatly reduced abuse potential.[18] Studies comparing it to the benzodiazepine lorazepam and the antihistamine diphenhydramine, along with placebo, find that methocarbamol produces increased “liking” responses and some sedative-like effects; however, at higher doses dysphoria is reported.[18] It is considered to have an abuse profile similar to, but weaker than, lorazepam.[18]

Interactions

Methocarbamol may inhibit the effects of pyridostigmine bromide.[5][6] Therefore, methocarbamol should be used with caution in those with myasthenia gravis taking anticholinesterase medications.[6]

Methocarbamol may disrupt certain screening tests as it can cause color interference in laboratory tests for 5-hydroxy-indoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and in urinary testing for vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) using the Gitlow method.[6]

Pharmacology

Mechanism of action

The mechanism of action of methocarbamol has not currently been established.[3] Its effect is thought to be localized to the central nervous system rather than a direct effect on skeletal muscles.[3] It has no effect on the motor end plate or the peripheral nerve fiber.[6] The efficacy of the medication is likely related to its sedative effect.[3] Alternatively, methocarbamol may act via inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, similarly to carbamate.[19]

Pharmacokinetics

In healthy individuals, the plasma clearance of methocarbamol ranges between 0.20 and 0.80 L/h/kg.[6] The mean plasma elimination half-life ranges between 1 and 2 hours, and the plasma protein binding ranges between 46% and 50%.[6] The elimination half-life was longer in the elderly, those with kidney problems, and those with liver problems.[6]

Metabolism

Methocarbamol is the carbamate derivative of guaifenesin, but does not produce guaifenesin as a metabolite, because the carbamate bond is not hydrolyzed metabolically;[8][6] its metabolism is by Phase I ring hydroxylation and O-demethylation, followed by Phase II conjugation.[6] All the major metabolites are unhydrolyzed carbamates.[20][21] Small amounts of unchanged methocarbamol are also excreted in the urine.[5][6]

Society and culture

Methocarbamol was approved as a muscle relaxant for acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions in the United States in 1957.[8] Muscle relaxants are widely used to treat low back pain, one of the most frequent health problems in industrialized countries. Currently, there are more than 3 million prescriptions filled yearly.[8] Methocarbamol and orphenadrine are each used in more than 250,000 U.S. emergency department visits for lower back pain each year.[22] In the United States, low back pain is the fifth most common reason for all physician visits and the second most common symptomatic reason.[23] In 80% of primary care visits for low back pain, at least one medication was prescribed at the initial office visit and more than one third were prescribed two or more medications.[24] The most commonly prescribed drugs for low back pain included skeletal muscle relaxants.[25] Cyclobenzaprine and methocarbamol are on the U.S. Medicare formulary, which may account for the higher use of these products.[16]

Economics

The generic formulation of the medication is relatively inexpensive, costing less than the alternative metaxalone in 2016.[26][9]

Marketing

Generic methocarbamol 750mg tablet.

Methocarbamol without other ingredients is sold under the brand name Robaxin in the U.K., U.S., Canada[27] and South Africa; it is marketed as Lumirelax in France, Ortoton in Germany and many other names worldwide.[28] In combination with other active ingredients it is sold under other names: with acetaminophen (paracetamol), under trade names Robaxacet and Tylenol Body Pain Night; with ibuprofen as Robax Platinum; with acetylsalicylic acid as Robaxisal in the U.S. and Canada.[29][30] However, in Spain the tradename Robaxisal is used for the paracetamol combination instead of Robaxacet.[citation needed] These combinations are also available from independent manufacturers under generic names.[citation needed]

Research

Although opioids are a typically first line in treatment of severe pain, several trials suggest that methocarbamol may improve recovery and decrease hospital length of stay in those with muscles spasms associated with rib fractures.[31][32][33] However, methocarbamol was less useful in the treatment of acute traumatic pain in general.[34]

Long-term studies evaluating the risk of development of cancer in using methocarbamol have not been performed.[5][6] There are currently no studies evaluating the effect of methocarbamol on mutagenesis or fertility.[5][6]

The safety and efficacy of methocarbamol has not been established in pediatric individuals below the age of 16 except in tetanus.[5][6]

References

  1. ^ “Robaxin-750 – Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC)”(emc). 8 August 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  2. ^ Sica DA, Comstock TJ, Davis J, Manning L, Powell R, Melikian A, Wright G (1990). “Pharmacokinetics and protein binding of methocarbamol in renal insufficiency and normals”. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology39 (2): 193–4. doi:10.1007/BF00280060PMID 2253675S2CID 626920.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r “Methocarbamol Monograph for Professionals”Drugs.com. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists.
  4. Jump up to:a b c d British national formulary : BNF 76 (76 ed.). Pharmaceutical Press. 2018. p. 1093. ISBN 9780857113382.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i “Robaxin- methocarbamol tablet, film coated”DailyMed. 18 July 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  6. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x “Robaxin- methocarbamol injection”DailyMed. 10 December 2018. Retrieved 19 April 2020.
  7. Jump up to:a b Richards, Bethan L.; Whittle, Samuel L.; Buchbinder, Rachelle (18 January 2012). “Muscle relaxants for pain management in rheumatoid arthritis”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews1: CD008922. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008922.pub2ISSN 1469-493XPMID 22258993.
  8. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “Methocarbamol”LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 30 January 2017. PMID 31643609.
  9. Jump up to:a b Fine, Perry G. (2016). The Hospice Companion: Best Practices for Interdisciplinary Care of Advanced Illness. Oxford University Press. p. PT146. ISBN 978-0-19-045692-4.
  10. ^ “The Top 300 of 2019”ClinCalc. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  11. ^ “Methocarbamol – Drug Usage Statistics”ClinCalc. Retrieved 16 October 2021.
  12. Jump up to:a b c d Chou, Roger; Peterson, Kim; Helfand, Mark (August 2004). “Comparative efficacy and safety of skeletal muscle relaxants for spasticity and musculoskeletal conditions: a systematic review”Journal of Pain and Symptom Management28 (2): 140–175. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2004.05.002ISSN 0885-3924PMID 15276195.
  13. Jump up to:a b “Methocarbamol”MedlinePlus. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  14. Jump up to:a b “Methocarbamol Side Effects: Common, Severe, Long Term”Drugs.com. Retrieved 18 April 2020.
  15. Jump up to:a b See, Sharon; Ginzburg, Regina (1 August 2008). “Choosing a skeletal muscle relaxant”. American Family Physician78 (3): 365–70. ISSN 0002-838XPMID 18711953.
  16. Jump up to:a b c Spence, Michele M.; Shin, Patrick J.; Lee, Eric A.; Gibbs, Nancy E. (July 2013). “Risk of injury associated with skeletal muscle relaxant use in older adults”. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy47 (7–8): 993–8. doi:10.1345/aph.1R735ISSN 1542-6270PMID 23821610S2CID 9037478.
  17. ^ “Beers Criteria Medication List”DCRI. Retrieved 18 October 2020.
  18. Jump up to:a b c Preston KL, Wolf B, Guarino JJ, Griffiths RR (1992). “Subjective and behavioral effects of diphenhydramine, lorazepam and methocarbamol: evaluation of abuse liability”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics262 (2): 707–20. PMID 1501118.
  19. ^ PubChem. “Methocarbamol”pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 6 July 2020.
  20. ^ Methocarbamol. In: DRUGDEX System [intranet database]. Greenwood Village, Colorado: Thomson Healthcare; c1974–2009 [cited 2009 Feb 10].
  21. ^ Bruce RB, Turnbull LB, Newman JH (January 1971). “Metabolism of methocarbamol in the rat, dog, and human”. J Pharm Sci60 (1): 104–6. doi:10.1002/jps.2600600120PMID 5548215.
  22. ^ Friedman BW, Cisewski D, Irizarry E, Davitt M, Solorzano C, Nassery A, et al. (March 2018). “A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Naproxen With or Without Orphenadrine or Methocarbamol for Acute Low Back Pain”Annals of Emergency Medicine71 (3): 348–356.e5. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2017.09.031ISSN 1097-6760PMC 5820149PMID 29089169.
  23. ^ Chou, Roger; Huffman, Laurie Hoyt (2 October 2007). “Medications for Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain: A Review of the Evidence for an American Pain Society/American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline”. Annals of Internal Medicine147 (7): 505–14. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-147-7-200710020-00008ISSN 0003-4819PMID 17909211S2CID 32719708.
  24. ^ Cherkin, D. C.; Wheeler, K. J.; Barlow, W.; Deyo, R. A. (1 March 1998). “Medication use for low back pain in primary care”. Spine23 (5): 607–14. doi:10.1097/00007632-199803010-00015ISSN 0362-2436PMID 9530793S2CID 23664539.
  25. ^ Luo, Xuemei; Pietrobon, Ricardo; Curtis, Lesley H.; Hey, Lloyd A. (1 December 2004). “Prescription of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and muscle relaxants for back pain in the United States”. Spine29 (23): E531–7. doi:10.1097/01.brs.0000146453.76528.7cISSN 1528-1159PMID 15564901S2CID 72742439.
  26. ^ Robbins, Lawrence D. (2013). Management of Headache and Headache Medications. Springer Science & Business Media. p. PT147. ISBN 978-1-4612-2124-1.
  27. ^ “ROBAXIN product appearance in Canada”ctchealth.ca. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  28. ^ “Methocarbamol”Drugs.com. Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  29. ^ “New Drugs and Indications Reviewed at the May 2003 DEC Meeting” (PDF). ESI Canada. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 July 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2008.
  30. ^ “Tylenol Body Pain Night Overview and Dosage”Tylenol Canada. Archived from the original (website) on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  31. ^ Patanwala, Asad E.; Aljuhani, Ohoud; Kopp, Brian J.; Erstad, Brian L. (October 2017). “Methocarbamol use is associated with decreased hospital length of stay in trauma patients with closed rib fractures”. The American Journal of Surgery214 (4): 738–42. doi:10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.01.003ISSN 0002-9610PMID 28088301.
  32. ^ Deloney, Lindsay; Smith, Melanie; Carter, Cassandra; Privette, Alicia; Leon, Stuart; Eriksson, Evert (January 2020). “946: Methocarbamol reduces opioid use and length of stay in young adults with traumatic rib fractures”Critical Care Medicine48 (1): 452. doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000633320.62811.06ISSN 0090-3493.
  33. ^ Smith, Melanie; Deloney, Lindsay; Carter, Cassandra; Leon, Stuart; Privette, Alicia; Eriksson, Evert (January 2020). “1759: Use of methocarbamol in geriatric patients with rib fractures is associated with improved outcomes”Critical Care Medicine48 (1): 854. doi:10.1097/01.ccm.0000649332.10326.98ISSN 0090-3493.
  34. ^ Aljuhani, Ohoud; Kopp, Brian J.; Patanwala, Asad E. (2017). “Effect of Methocarbamol on Acute Pain After Traumatic Injury”. American Journal of Therapeutics24 (2): e202–6. doi:10.1097/mjt.0000000000000364ISSN 1075-2765PMID 26469684S2CID 24284482.
Clinical data
Trade namesRobaxin, Marbaxin, others
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa682579
License dataUS DailyMedMethocarbamol
Pregnancy
category
AU: B2
Routes of
administration
By mouthintravenous
ATC codeM03BA03 (WHOM03BA53 (WHOM03BA73 (WHO)
Legal status
Legal statusCAOTCUK: POM (Prescription only) [1]US: ℞-only
Pharmacokinetic data
MetabolismLiver
Elimination half-life1.14–1.24 hours[2]
Identifiers
showIUPAC name
CAS Number532-03-6 
PubChem CID4107
IUPHAR/BPS6829
DrugBankDB00423 
ChemSpider3964 
UNII125OD7737X
KEGGD00402 
ChEBICHEBI:6832 
ChEMBLChEMBL1201117 
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)DTXSID6023286 
ECHA InfoCard100.007.751 
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC11H15NO5
Molar mass241.243 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)Interactive image
showSMILES
showInChI
  (what is this?)  (verify)
  1. Sica DA, Comstock TJ, Davis J, Manning L, Powell R, Melikian A, Wright G: Pharmacokinetics and protein binding of methocarbamol in renal insufficiency and normals. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;39(2):193-4. [Article]
  2. Bruce RB, Turnbull LB, Newman JH: Metabolism of methocarbamol in the rat, dog, and human. J Pharm Sci. 1971 Jan;60(1):104-6. [Article]
  3. Witenko C, Moorman-Li R, Motycka C, Duane K, Hincapie-Castillo J, Leonard P, Valaer C: Considerations for the appropriate use of skeletal muscle relaxants for the management of acute low back pain. P T. 2014 Jun;39(6):427-35. [Article]
  4. Crankshaw DP, Raper C: Mephenesin, methocarbamol, chlordiazepoxide and diazepam: actions on spinal reflexes and ventral root potentials. Br J Pharmacol. 1970 Jan;38(1):148-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.1970.tb10343.x. [Article]
  5. Muir WW 3rd, Sams RA, Ashcraft S: The pharmacology and pharmacokinetics of high-dose methocarbamol in horses. Equine Vet J Suppl. 1992 Feb;(11):41-4. [Article]
  6. Authors unspecified: Methocarbamol-A New Lissive Agent. Can Med Assoc J. 1958 Dec 15;79(12):1008-9. [Article]
  7. O’DOHERTY DS, SHIELDS CD: Methocarbamol; new agent in treatment of neurological and neuromuscular diseases. J Am Med Assoc. 1958 May 10;167(2):160-3. [Article]
  8. FDA Approved Drug Products: Robaxin [Link]
  9. FDA Approved Drug Products: Robaxin Intramuscular Injection [Link]
  10. Pfizer Canada: Robax [Link]

////////////////Methocarbamol, метокарбамол , ميثوكاربامول , 美索巴莫, AHS 85, Muscle Relaxant

COC1=C(OCC(O)COC(N)=O)C=CC=C1

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK LIFE SCIENCES LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 PLUS year tenure till date June 2021, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 90 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, 233 countries, 7 continents, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 33 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 233 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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