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Corbevax, BioE COVID-19, BECOV2D

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Corbevax

BioE COVID-19, BECOV2D

the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, United States,

Dynavax Technologies

Adjuvanted protein subunit vaccine

Corbevax is a “recombinant protein sub-unit” vaccine, which means it is made up of a specific part of SARS-CoV-2 — the spike protein on the virus’s surface.

The spike protein allows the virus to enter the cells in the body so that it can replicate and cause disease. However, when this protein alone is given to the body, it is not expected to be harmful as the rest of the virus is absent. The body is expected to develop an immune response against the injected spike protein. Therefore, when the real virus attempts to infect the body, it will already have an immune response ready that will make it unlikely for the person to fall severely ill.

Although this technology has been used for decades to make hepatitis B vaccines, Corbevax will be among the first Covid-19 vaccines to use this platform. Novavax has also developed a protein-based vaccine, which is still waiting for emergency use authorisation from various regulators.

How Corbevax was made

While it is indigenously produced, Corbevax’s beginnings can be traced to the Baylor College of Medicine’s National School of Tropical Medicine. The School had been working on recombinant protein vaccines for coronaviruses SARS and MERS for a decade.

“We knew all the techniques required to produce a recombinant protein (vaccine) for coronaviruses at high levels of efficiency and integrity,” said Dr Peter Hotez, Professor and Dean at the School.

When the genetic sequence for SARS-CoV-2 was made available in February 2020, researchers at the School pulled out the sequence for the gene for the spike protein, and worked on cloning and engineering it. The gene was then put into yeast, so that it could manufacture and release copies of the protein. “It’s actually similar to the production of beer. Instead of releasing alcohol, in this case, the yeast is releasing the recombinant protein,” Dr Hotez said.

After this, the protein was purified to remove any remnants of the yeast “to make it pristine”. Then, the vaccine was formulated using an adjuvant to better stimulate the immune response.

Most of these ingredients are cheap and easy to find.

In August, BCM transferred its production cell bank for this vaccine to Biological E, so that the Hyderabad-based company could take the candidate through trials. The vaccine has received approval for phase 3 trials, which the government expects will be over by July.

Biological E is also expected to scale up production for the world.

How Corbevax is different

Other Covid-19 vaccines approved so far are either mRNA vaccines (Pfizer and Moderna), viral vector vaccines (AstraZeneca-Oxford/Covishield, Johnson & Johnson and Sputnik V) or inactivated vaccines (Covaxin, Sinovac-CoronaVac and Sinopharm’s SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine–Vero Cell).

Inactivated vaccines, which include killed particles of the whole SARS-CoV-2 virus, attempt to target the entire structure of the virus. On the other hand, Corbevax, like the mRNA and viral vector Covid-19 vaccines, targets only the spike protein, but in a different way.

Viral vector and mRNA and vaccines use a code to induce our cells to make the spike proteins against which the body have to build immunity. “In this case (Corbevax), we’re actually giving the protein,” said Dr Hotez.

Like most other Covid-19 vaccines, Corbevax is administered in two doses. However, as it is made using a low-cost platform, it is also expected to be among the cheapest available in the country.

Why Corbevax matters

This is the first time the Indian government has placed an order for a vaccine that has not received emergency use authorisation, paying Rs 1,500 crore in advance to block an order that could vaccinate 15 crore Indian citizens. The Centre has provided major pre-clinical and clinical trial support towards the vaccine’s development, including a grant-in-aid of Rs 100 crore from the Department of Biotechnology.

A major reason for India placing such a big order is the difficulties it is facing in enhancing vaccine supplies. While the US, UK and the EU had made advance payments and at-risk investments into vaccines like Pfizer, AstraZeneca and Moderna, India waited until after its first two vaccines were approved before placing limited orders. Even after the government eased regulatory requirements for foreign vaccines, it did not receive a speedy response from companies like Pfizer and Moderna, their supplies already blocked through orders from other countries. India is currently in negotiations for a limited supply of Pfizer’s vaccine, and expecting to secure up to two billion doses of Covid vaccines by December this year. Given the ease with which it can be mass produced, Corbevax could make up a sizeable portion of this expected supply.

Biological E, the manufacturer of Corbevax

Biological E, headquartered in Hyderabad, was founded by Dr D V K Raju in 1953 as a biological products company that pioneered the production of heparin in India. By 1962, it forayed into the vaccines space, producing DPT vaccines on a large-scale. Today, it is among the major vaccine makers in India and, by its own claim, the “largest” tetanus vaccine producer in the world.

It has seven WHO-prequalified shots, including a five-in-one vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and haemophilus influenza type-b infections. Its vaccines are supplied to over 100 countries and it has supplied more than two billion doses in the last 10 years alone.

Since 2013, the company has been under the management of Mahima Datla — the third generation of the founding family. During her time as managing director, the company has received WHO prequalification of its Japanese encephalitis, DTwP and Td as well as measles and rubella vaccines and also commenced commercial operations in the US.

REF

https://indianexpress.com/article/explained/corbevax-vaccine-biological-e-india-7344928/

Corbevax[1] or BioE COVID-19, is a COVID-19 vaccine candidate developed by Indian biopharmacutical firm Biological E. Limited (BioE), the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, United States, and Dynavax Technologies. It is a protein subunit vaccine.[2][3][4][5]

Clinical research

Phase I and II trials

In phase I clinical trial was carried to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine candidate in about 360 participants.[5]The phase II concluded in April 2021.[6][7]

Phase III trials

In April 2021, the Drugs Controller General of India permitted the vaccine candidate to start phase III clinical trials. A total of 1,268 healthy participants between the age of 18 and 80 years to be selected from 15 sites across India for the trial and intended to be part of a larger global Phase III study.[8][7]

Manufacturing and Orders

In April 2021, the U.S. International Development Finance Corporation (DFC) announced that it would fund the expansion of BioE’s manufacturing capabilities, so that it could produce at least 1 billion doses by end of 2022.[9]

On 3 June, India’s Ministry of Health and Family Welfare pre-ordered 300 million doses of Corbevax.[10]

References

  1. ^ Bharadwaj, Swati (3 June 2021). “Telangana: Biological E starts at risk manufacturing of Corbevax”The Times of India. Retrieved 3 June 2021.
  2. ^ “A prospective open label randomised phase-I seamlessly followed by phase-II study to assess the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of Biological E’s novel Covid-19 vaccine containing Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 for protection against Covid-19 disease when administered intramuscularly in a two dose schedule (0, 28D) to healthy volunteers”ctri.nic.inClinical Trials Registry India. 13 January 2021. CTRI/2020/11/029032. Archived from the original on 12 November 2020.
  3. ^ “CEPI partners with Biological E Limited to advance development and manufacture of COVID-19 vaccine candidate”cepi.netCEPI. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
  4. ^ Chui M (16 November 2020). “Biological E. Limited and Baylor COVID-19 vaccine begins clinical trial in India”Baylor College of Medicine.
  5. Jump up to:a b Leo L (16 November 2020). “Biological E initiates human trials of vaccine”Mint.
  6. ^ “Coronavirus | Biological E gets nod to start Phase III trials of COVID-19 vaccine”The Hindu. 24 April 2021.
  7. Jump up to:a b Leo, Leroy (24 April 2021). “Biological E completes phase-2 covid vaccine trial, gets SEC nod for phase-3”mint.
  8. ^ “A Prospective, multicentre, Phase II Seamlessly Followed by Phase III Clinical Study to Evaluate the Immunogenicity and Safety of Biological E’s CORBEVAX Vaccine for Protection Against COVID-19 Disease When Administered to COVID-19-Negative Adult Subjects”ctri.nic.inClinical Trials Registry India. 5 June 2021. CTRI/2021/06/034014.
  9. ^ Basu, Nayanima (25 April 2021). “US assures export of raw materials to India for Covid vaccines as Doval speaks to Sullivan”ThePrint.
  10. ^ “Health ministry buys 300 mn doses of Biological-E’s Covid vaccine in advance”Hindustan Times. 3 June 2021. Retrieved 4 June 2021.

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///////////Biological E,  SARS-CoV-2, Baylor College, CORONA VIRUS, COVID 19, Corbevax, BioE COVID-19, BECOV2D, INDIA, Dynavax Technologies

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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