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Кальцитонин, Calcitonin

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Molecular formula of calcitonin is C145H241N43O49S2
• Molecular weight is 3434.8 g/mol

Calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha
Calcitonin.png
NMR solution structure of salmon calcitonin in SDS micelles.[1]
Calcitonin
CAS Registry Number: 9007-12-9
Additional Names: Thyrocalcitonin; TCA; TCT
Therap-Cat: Calcium regulator.

 

The structural formula

 

Calcitonin (also known as thyrocalcitonin) is a 32-amino acid linear polypeptide hormone that is produced in humansprimarily by the parafollicular cells (also known as C-cells) of the thyroid, and in many other animals in the ultimobranchial body.[2] It acts to reduce blood calcium (Ca2+), opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH).[3]

Calcitonin has been found in fishreptilesbirds, and mammals. Its importance in humans has not been as well established as its importance in other animals, as its function is usually not significant in the regulation of normal calcium homeostasis.[4] It belongs to the calcitonin-like protein family.

UV – range

Conditions : Concentration – 53 mg / 100 ml
Solvent designation schedule Methanol
Water
0.1М HCl
0.1M NaOH
The absorption maximum 278 nm 275 nm
4.9 4.4
with 1670 1500

 

 

 

IR – spectrum

Wavelength (μm)
Wavenumber (cm -1 )

 

Links

  • UV and IR Spectra. H.-W. Dibbern, R.M. Muller, E. Wirbitzki, 2002 ECV
  • NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library 2008
  • Handbook of Organic Compounds. NIR, IR, Raman, and UV-Vis Spectra Featuring Polymers and Surfactants, Jr., Jerry Workman. Academic Press, 2000.
  • Handbook of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of organic compounds, K. Hirayama. Plenum Press Data Division, 1967.
Calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha
Calcitonin.png
NMR solution structure of salmon calcitonin in SDS micelles.[1]
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBeRCSB
[show]List of PDB id codes
Identifiers
Symbols CALCA ; CALC1; CGRP; CGRP-I; CGRP1; CT; KC
External IDs OMIM114130 MGI2151253HomoloGene88401 ChEMBL5293GeneCardsCALCA Gene
[show]Gene ontology
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CALCA 210728 s at tn.png
PBB GE CALCA 210727 at tn.png
PBB GE CALCA 217495 x at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse  
Entrez 796 12310  
Ensembl ENSG00000110680 ENSMUSG00000030669  
UniProt P01258 P70160  
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001033952 NM_001033954  
RefSeq (protein) NP_001029124 NP_001029126  
Location (UCSC) Chr 11:
14.99 – 14.99 Mb
Chr 7:
114.63 – 114.64 Mb
 
PubMedsearch [1] [2]  
 
 

Biosynthesis and regulation

Calcitonin is formed by the proteolytic cleavage of a larger prepropeptide, which is the product of the CALC1 gene (CALCA). The CALC1 gene belongs to a superfamily of related protein hormone precursors including islet amyloid precursor proteincalcitonin gene-related peptide, and the precursor of adrenomedullin.

Secretion of calcitonin is stimulated by:

Effects

The hormone participates in calcium (Ca2+) and phosphorus metabolism. In many ways, calcitonin counteracts parathyroid hormone (PTH).

More specifically, calcitonin lowers blood Ca2+ levels in three ways:

However, effects of calcitonin that mirror those of PTH include the following:

  • Inhibits phosphate reabsorption by the kidney tubules[11]

In its skeleton-preserving actions, calcitonin protects against calcium loss from skeleton during periods of calcium mobilization, such as pregnancy and, especially, lactation.

Other effects are in preventing postprandial hypercalcemia resulting from absorption of Ca2+. Also, calcitonin inhibits food intake in rats and monkeys, and may have CNS action involving the regulation of feeding and appetite.

Receptor

The calcitonin receptor, found on osteoclasts,[12] and in kidney and regions of the brain, is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is coupled by Gs to adenylate cyclase and thereby to the generation of cAMP in target cells. It may also affect the ovaries in women and the testes in men.

Discovery

Calcitonin was purified in 1962 by Copp and Cheney.[13] While it was initially considered a secretion of the parathyroid glands, it was later identified as the secretion of the C-cellsof the thyroid gland.[14]

Pharmacology

Salmon calcitonin is used for the treatment of:

It has been investigated as a possible non-operative treatment for spinal stenosis.[16]

The following information is from the UK Electronic Medicines Compendium[17]

General characteristics of the active substance

Salmon calcitonin is rapidly absorbed and eliminated. Peak plasma concentrations are attained within the first hour of administration.

Animal studies have shown that calcitonin is primarily metabolised via proteolysis in the kidney following parenteral administration. The metabolites lack the specific biological activity of calcitonin. Bioavailability following subcutaneous and intramuscular injection in humans is high and similar for the two routes of administration (71% and 66%, respectively).

Calcitonin has short absorption and elimination half-lives of 10–15 minutes and 50–80 minutes, respectively. Salmon calcitonin is primarily and almost exclusively degraded in the kidneys, forming pharmacologically inactive fragments of the molecule. Therefore, the metabolic clearance is much lower in patients with end-stage renal failure than in healthy subjects. However, the clinical relevance of this finding is not known. Plasma protein binding is 30% to 40%.

Characteristics in patients

There is a relationship between the subcutaneous dose of calcitonin and peak plasma concentrations. Following parenteral administration of 100 IU calcitonin, peak plasma concentration lies between about 200 and 400 pg/ml. Higher blood levels may be associated with increased incidence of nausea, vomiting, and secretory diarrhea.

Preclinical safety data

Conventional long-term toxicity, reproduction, mutagenicity, and carcinogenicity studies have been performed in laboratory animals. Salmon calcitonin is devoid of embryotoxic, teratogenic, and mutagenic potential.

An increased incidence of pituitary adenomas has been reported in rats given synthetic salmon calcitonin for 1 year. This is considered a species-specific effect and of no clinical relevance. Salmon calcitonin does not cross the placental barrier.

In lactating animals given calcitonin, suppression of milk production has been observed. Calcitonin is secreted into the milk.

Pharmaceutical manufacture

Calcitonin was extracted from the ultimobranchial glands (thyroid-like glands) of fish, particularly salmon. Salmon calcitonin resembles human calcitonin, but is more active. At present, it is produced either by recombinant DNA technology or by chemical peptide synthesis. The pharmacological properties of the synthetic and recombinant peptides have been demonstrated to be qualitatively and quantitatively equivalent.[17]

Uses of calcitonin

Treatments

Calcitonin can be used therapeutically for the treatment of hypercalcemia or osteoporosis.

Oral calcitonin may have a chondroprotective role in osteoarthritis (OA), according to data in rats presented in December, 2005, at the 10th World Congress of the Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) in Boston, Massachusetts. Although calcitonin is a known antiresorptive agent, its disease-modifying effects on chondrocytes and cartilage metabolisms have not been well established until now.

This new study, however, may help to explain how calcitonin affects osteoarthritis. “Calcitonin acts both directly on osteoclasts, resulting in inhibition of bone resorption and following attenuation of subchondral bone turnover, and directly on chondrocytes, attenuating cartilage degradation and stimulating cartilage formation,” says researcher Morten Karsdal, MSC, PhD, of the department of pharmacology at Nordic Bioscience in Herlev, Denmark. “Therefore, calcitonin may be a future efficacious drug for OA.”[18]

Subcutaneous injections of calcitonin in patients suffering from mania resulted in significant decreases in irritability, euphoria and hyperactivity and hence calcitonin holds promise for treating bipolar disorder.[19] However no further work on this potential application of calcitonin has been reported.

Diagnostics

It may be used diagnostically as a tumor marker for medullary thyroid cancer, in which high calcitonin levels may be present and elevated levels after surgery may indicate recurrence. It may even be used on biopsy samples from suspicious lesions (e.g., lymph nodes that are swollen) to establish whether they are metastasis of the original cancer.

Cutoffs for calcitonin to distinguish cases with medullary thyroid cancer have been suggested to be as follows, with a higher value increasing the suspicion of medullary thyroid cancer:[20]

  • females: 5 ng/L or pg/mL
  • males: 12 ng/L or pg/mL
  • children under 6 months of age: 40 ng/L or pg/mL
  • children between 6 months and 3 years of age: 15 ng/L or pg/mL

When over 3 years of age, adult cutoffs may be used

Increased levels of calcitonin have also been reported for various other conditions. They include: C-cell hyperplasia, Nonthyroidal oat cell carcinoma, Nonthyroidal small cell carcinoma and other nonthyroidal malignancies, acute and chronic renal failure, hypercalcemia, hypergastrinemia and other gastrointestinal disorders, and pulmonary disease.[21]

Structure

Calcitonin is a polypeptide hormone of 32 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 3454.93 daltons. Its structure comprises a single alpha helix.[1] Alternative splicing of the gene coding for calcitonin produces a distantly related peptide of 37 amino acids, called calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), beta type.[22]

The following are the amino acid sequences of salmon and human calcitonin:[23]

  • salmon:
      Cys-Ser-Asn-Leu-Ser-Thr-Cys-Val-Leu-Gly-Lys-Leu-Ser-Gln-Glu-Leu-His-Lys-Leu-Gln-Thr-Tyr-Pro-Arg-Thr-Asn-Thr-Gly-Ser-Gly-Thr-Pro
  • human:
      Cys-Gly-Asn-Leu-Ser-Thr-Cys-Met-Leu-Gly-Thr-Tyr-Thr-Gln-Asp-Phe-Asn-Lys-Phe-His-Thr-Phe-Pro-Gln-Thr-Ala-Ile-Gly-Val-Gly-Ala-Pro

Compared to salmon calcitonin, human calcitonin differs at 16 residues.

Description: Cellular and molecular coordination of tissues which secrete chemical compounds to regulate growth, reproduction, metabolism, and ion homeostasis.

 

 

 

 

References

  1. Jump up to:a b PDB 2glhAndreotti G, Méndez BL, Amodeo P, Morelli MA, Nakamuta H, Motta A (August 2006). “Structural determinants of salmon calcitonin bioactivity: the role of the Leu-based amphipathic alpha-helix”. J. Biol. Chem. 281 (34): 24193–203.doi:10.1074/jbc.M603528200PMID 16766525.
  2. Jump up^ Costoff A. “Sect. 5, Ch. 6: Anatomy, Structure, and Synthesis of Calcitonin (CT)”.Endocrinology: hormonal control of calcium and phosphate. Medical College of Georgia. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  3.  Boron WF, Boulpaep EL (2004). “Endocrine system chapter”. Medical Physiology: A Cellular And Molecular Approach. Elsevier/Saunders. ISBN 1-4160-2328-3.
  4. Jump up^ Costoff A. “Sect. 5, Ch. 6: Biological Actions of CT”. Medical College of Georgia. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  5. Costanzo, Linda S. (2007). BRS Physiology. Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins. p. 263.ISBN 978-0-7817-7311-9.
  6. Jump up^ Erdogan MF, Gursoy A, Kulaksizoglu M (October 2006). “Long-term effects of elevated gastrin levels on calcitonin secretion”J Endocrinol Invest. 29 (9): 771–775.PMID 17114906.
  7.  Costoff A. “Sect. 5, Ch. 6: Effects of CT on the Small Intestine”. Medical College of Georgia. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  8.  Costoff A. “Sect. 5, Ch. 6: Effects of CT on Bone”. Medical College of Georgia. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  9. Jump up^ Potts, John; Jüppner, Harald (2008). “Chapter 353. Disorders of the Parathyroid Gland and Calcium Homeostasis”. In Dan L. Longo, Dennis L. Kasper, J. Larry Jameson, Anthony S. Fauci, Stephen L. Hauser, and Joseph Loscalzo. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (18 ed.). McGraw-Hill.
  10.  Rhoades, Rodney (2009). Medical Physiology: Principles for Clinical Medicine. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-7817-6852-8.
  11. Jump up^ Carney SL (1997). “Calcitonin and human renal calcium and electrolyte transport”.Miner Electrolyte Metab 23 (1): 43–7. PMID 9058369.
  12. Jump up^ Nicholson GC, Moseley JM, Sexton PM, et al (1986). “Abundant calcitonin receptors in isolated rat osteoclasts. Biochemical and autoradiographic characterization”J Clin Invest 78 (2): 355–60. doi:10.1172/JCI112584PMC 423551PMID 3016026.
  13. Jump up^ Copp DH, Cheney B (January 1962). “Calcitonin-a hormone from the parathyroid which lowers the calcium-level of the blood”. Nature 193 (4813): 381–2.doi:10.1038/193381a0PMID 13881213.
  14. Jump up^ Hirsch PF, Gauthier GF, Munson PL (August 1963). “Thyroid hypocalcemic principle and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury as factors affecting the response to parathyroidectomy in rats”. Endocrinology 73 (2): 244–252. doi:10.1210/endo-73-2-244.PMID 14076205.
  15. Jump up^ Wall GC, Heyneman CA (April 1999). “Calcitonin in phantom limb pain”. Ann Pharmacother 33 (4): 499–501. doi:10.1345/aph.18204PMID 10332543.
  16. Jump up^ Tran de QH, Duong S, Finlayson RJ (July 2010). “Lumbar spinal stenosis: a brief review of the nonsurgical management”. Can J Anaesth 57 (7): 694–703. doi:10.1007/s12630-010-9315-3PMID 20428988.
  17. Jump up to:a b “Electronic Medicines Compendium”. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  18. Jump up^ Kleinman DM (2006-01-04). “Oral Calcitonin May Delay Onset of Joint Disease and Relieve Pain of OA”Musculoskeletal Report. Musculoskeletal Report, LLC. Retrieved 2008-08-07.
  19. Jump up^ Vik A, Yatham LN (March 1998). “Calcitonin and bipolar disorder: a hypothesis revisited”J Psychiatry Neurosci 23 (2): 109–17. PMC 1188909PMID 9549251.
  20. Jump up^ Basuyau, J. -P.; Mallet, E.; Leroy, M.; Brunelle, P. (2004). “Reference Intervals for Serum Calcitonin in Men, Women, and Children”. Clinical Chemistry 50 (10): 1828–1830.doi:10.1373/clinchem.2003.026963PMID 15388660edit
  21. Jump up^ Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 5th edition. Elsevier Saunders. p. 1774. ISBN 978-1-4160-6164-9.
  22. Jump up^ “calcitonin domain annotation”SMART (a Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool). embl-heidelberg.de. Retrieved 2009-02-22.
  23. Jump up^ http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Calcitonin

Further reading

External links

 
 
 
 
 
Literature References: 
Calcium regulating hormone secreted from the mammalian thyroid gland and in non-mammalian species from the ultimobranchial gland. Postulation of a plasma-calcium lowering substance: Copp et al., Endocrinology 70, 638 (1962).
 
Recognition as a hormone: Hirsch et al., ibid. 73, 244 (1963); of thyroid origin: Foster et al., Nature 202, 1303 (1964).
 
Over-all action is to oppose the bone and renal effects of parathyroid hormone, q.v.; inhibits bone resorption of Ca2+, with accompanying hypocalcemia and hypophosphatemia and decreased urinary Ca2+ concentrations. Also abolishes the osteolytic effect of toxic doses of vitamins A and D. Calcitonin is highly active biologically, e.g. 50 mg/min infused into a 100 g rat leads to a significant (1 mg/100 ml) decrease in the concn of the plasma calcium within 60 min (together with a corresponding fall in plasma phosphate). Activity is destroyed by trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, polyphenol oxidase; also by hydrogen peroxide oxidation, photooxidation, and treatment with N-bromosuccinimide. Calcitonin structures are single polypeptide chains containing 32 amino acid residues. Structure of porcine: Neher et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 917 (1968); Potts et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 59, 1321 (1968); Bellet al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 2704 (1968); eidem, Biochemistry 9, 1665 (1970).
 
Synthesis of porcine: Rittel et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 924 (1968); Guttmann et al., ibid. 1155.
 
Isoln of human calcitonin from non-pathological thyroid glands: Haymovits, Rosen, Endocrinology 81, 993 (1967); from medullary carcinoma of the thyroid: Neher et al., Nature 220, 984 (1968); Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 1738 (1968); Neher, Riniker, DE 1929957 (1970 to Ciba), C.A. 73, 28902b (1970).
 
Structure of human: Neher et al., Helv. Chim. Acta 51, 1900 (1968). Synthesis of human: Sieber et al., ibid. 2057; J. Hirt et al., Rec. Trav. Chim. 98, 143 (1979).
 
Biosynthetic studies: J. W. Jacobs et al., J. Biol. Chem. 254, 10600 (1979); S. G. Amara et al., ibid. 255, 2645 (1980).
 
Amino acid sequence differs among mammalian species, salmon calcitonin showing a marked difference from that of the higher vertebrae as well as a more potent biological activity. Mechanism of action: E. M. Brown, G. D. Aurbach, Vitam. Horm. 38, 236 (1980). Anorectic activity in rats: W. J. Freed et al., Science 206, 850 (1979).
 
Growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells in vitro: Y. Iwasaki et al., Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 110, 235 (1983).
Review of early literature: Munson, Hirsch, Clin. Orthop. 49, 209 (1966).
 
Review of isoln, structure, synthesis: Behrens, Grinnan, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 38, 83 (1969); Potts et al., Vitam. Horm. 29,41 (1971).
 
Comprehensive review: Calcitonin, Proc. Symp. on Thyrocalcitonin and the C Cells, S. Taylor, Ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1968); Foster et al., ”Calcitonin” in Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism, I. MacIntyre, Ed. (W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1972) pp 93-124.
 
Review of pharmacology and therapeutic use: J. C. Stevenson, I. M. A. Evans, Drugs 21, 257-272 (1981).
 
 
 
Derivative Type: Calcitonin, porcine
CAS Registry Number: 12321-44-7
Trademarks: Calcitar(e) (RPR); Staporos (Cassenne)
 
Derivative Type: Calcitonin, human synthetic
CAS Registry Number: 21215-62-3
Trademarks: Cibacalcin (Novartis)
 
Derivative Type: Calcitonin, salmon synthetic
CAS Registry Number: 47931-85-1
Additional Names: Salcatonin
Trademarks: Calciben (Firma); Calcimar (RPR); Calsyn (RPR); Calsynar (RPR); Catonin (Magis); Karil (Novartis); Miacalcic (Novartis); Miacalcin (Novartis); Miadenil (Francia); Osteocalcin (Tosi); Prontocalcin (Domp?; Rulicalcin (HMR); Salmotonin (Yamanouchi); Stalcin (Locatelli); Tonocalcin (Searle)
Literature References: Clinical trial in postmenopausal osteoporosis: C. H. Chesnut et al., Am. J. Med. 109, 267 (2000). LC determn in biological fluids: M. Aguiar et al.J. Chromatogr. B 818, 301 (2005).
Properties: See also Elcatonin.
 
eel
cas   57014-02-5
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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 29 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 29 year tenure till date Aug 2016, Around 30 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 25 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 13 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 212 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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