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Apricoxib, A COX-2 inhibitor.

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APRICOXIB

A COX-2 inhibitor.

MF; C19H20N2O3S

Mol wt: 356.439

CAS: 197904-84-0

CS-701; TG01, R-109339, TG-01 ,TP-1001
TP-2001, Capoxigem, Kymena,  UNII-5X5HB3VZ3Z,

Benzenesulfonamide, 4-[2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]-;

4-[2-(4-Ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide

4-[2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]benzenesulfonamide .

PHASE 2 http://clinicaltrials.gov/search/intervention=Apricoxib

Daiichi Sankyo (innovator)Daiichi Sankyo Co Ltd,

Current developer:  Tragara Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Apricoxib is an orally bioavailable nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with potential antiangiogenic and antineoplastic activities. Apricoxib binds to and inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), thereby inhibiting the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Apricoxib-mediated inhibition of COX-2 may induce tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit tumor cell proliferation and tumor angiogenesis. COX-related metabolic pathways may represent crucial regulators of cellular proliferation and angiogenesis.

Chemical structure for apricoxib

R-109339 is a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor currently in phase II clinical development at Tragara Pharmaceuticals for the oral treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and for the treatment of inflammation. Additional phase II clinical trials are ongoing in combination with gemcitabine and erlotinib for the treatment of pancreas cancer. The company had been evaluating R-109339 for the treatment of colorectal cancer, but development for this indication was discontinued for undisclosed reasons. Daiichi Sankyo and Tragara Pharmaceuticals had been conducting phase II clinical trials with the drug candidate for the oral treatment of arthritis and for the treatment of breast cancer, respectively; however, no recent development for this indication has been reported.

COX catalyzes the formation of prostaglandins and thromboxane from arachidonic acid, which is derived from the cellular phospholipid bilayer by phospholipase A2. In addition to several other functions, prostaglandins act as messenger molecules in the process of inflammation. The compound is also designed to act against a well-defined cancer pathway that affects several routes of cancer pathogenesis. In preclinical cancer models, R-109339 demonstrated superiority to compounds with similar mechanisms of action and potential for use in combination with cisplatin. Furthermore, the compound demonstrated the ability to inhibit the cachexia and weight loss seen in mouse tumor models.

Apricoxib, (CS-706, 1) 2-(4-ethoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-pyrrole, a small-molecule, orally active, selective COX-2 inhibitor was discovered by investigators at Daiichi Sankyo in 1996. Clinical studies demonstrated potent analgesic activity and preclinical studies demonstrated good pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and gastrointestinal tolerability. As an anticancer agent, preclinical studies demonstrated efficacy in biliary tract cancer models and colorectal carcinoma, and Recamp et al.

The original synthetic route is outlined below. Though the initial two steps were accomplished with decent yields, the final step of pyrrolidine formation followed by dehydration and dehydrocyanation produced only 3% of 1 as a brown powder. The yield in the last step of the synthesis of the 2-(4-methoxyphenyl) analog, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-methyl-1-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)-pyrrole, was 6%, indicating that this synthesis route is problematic.

14   Kimura T, Noguchi Y, Nakao A, Suzuki K, Ushiyama S, Kawara A, Miyamoto M. 799823. EP. 1997:A1.

 

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……………………….

Synthesis

 

Published online Aug 19, 2011. doi:  10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.08.050

SEE AT

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310163/

An efficient synthesis of apricoxib (CS-706), a selective cyclooxygenase inhibitor, was developed using copper catalysed homoallylic ketone formation from methyl 4-ethoxybenzoate followed by ozonolysis to an aldehyde, and condensation with sulphanilamide. This method provided multi-gram access of aprocoxib in good yield. Apricoxib exhibited potency equal to celecoxib at inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis in two inflammatory breast cancer cell lines.

 

We envisioned that 7 could be prepared by ozonolysis of homoallylic ketone (8) (Route B). A recent development in the synthesis of homoallylic ketones by Dorr et al. via copper-catalyzed cascade addition of alkenylmagnesium bromide to an ester a24 was examined. Treatment of commercially available methyl 4-ethoxybenzoate with 1-propenylmagnesium bromide (4.0 equiv) in presence of CuCN (0.6 equiv) resulted in 95% yield of desired ketone8 after silica gel chromatography, along with a minor amount of unreacted ester).b25

Scheme 3
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Efficient synthesis of apricoxib (1):

The product was a mixture of cis/trans R/S stereoisomers, as detected in the 1H NMR spectrum, and was used directly in the next step without separation. Ozone was bubbled through a solution of 8 in MeOH/CH2Cl2 at −78°C, until all starting materials were consumed. The ozonide was then reduced to aldehyde 7 by treatment with Me2S overnight. Removal of volatiles and subsequent addition and evaporation of toluene gave the crude 1,4-dicarbonyl compound 7 which was sufficiently pure for the following condensation step. The 1H NMR signal at 9.78 ppm of the crude product confirmed the formation of the aldehyde. No attempt was made to characterize the enantiomeric ratio of 7 since the dehydration/aromatization reaction of the next step removes the chirality of the product. Treatment of 7 with sulfanilamide in 40% acetic acid-acetonitrile at 70°C for three hours resulted in a brown product. Purification by silica gel flash chromatography yielded 71% of pure 1 as a white solid.c26

a24. Dorr AA, Lubell WD. Can J Chem. 2007;85:1006.
b25. Synthesis of 1-(4-ethoxy-phenyl)-3-methyl-hex-4-en-1-one (8): To a stirred suspension of CuCN (1.8 g, 20.0 mmol) in 50 mL of dry THF at −78°C under argon, a solution of 1-propenylmagnesium bromide (133.2 mmol, 265 mL of 0.5 M solution in THF) was added dropwise. The slurry was stirred for an additional 30 min and then a solution of methyl 4-ethoxybenzoate (6.0 g, 33.3 mmol) in 60 mL of dry THF was added slowly. The stirred reaction mixture was allowed to warm to room temperature overnight. The reaction was quenched with ice cold saturated aqueous NaH2PO4 (100mL) and the mixture was extracted with ether (4 × 100 mL). The combined ether extracts were washed with brine (2 × 100mL), dried (MgSO4), filtered, and evaporated to dryness. The crude homoallylic ketone was purified by silica gel flash chromatography using a gradient of ethyl acetate in hexane as the eluent to give 8 (7.4 g, 95%) as a colorless oil. 1H NMR (CDCl3, 300.0 MHz) δ 1.04–1.07 (m, 3H), 1.44 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H), 1.6–1.64 (m, 3H), 2.8–2.96 (m, 2.5H), 3.2 (m, 0.5H), 4.1 (q, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H), 5.25 (m, 0.5 H), 5.34–5.46 (m, 1.5H), 6.92 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H), 7.92 (d, J = 9.0 Hz, 2H). 13C NMR (CDCl3, 75.0 MHz) δ 12.9, 14.6, 17.9, 20.4, 21.0, 28.4, 33.0, 45.4, 45.5, 63.7, 114.1, 123.1, 123.4, 130.2, 130.3, 135.5, 136.0, 141.9, 162.7, 198.1. M+H Calcd: 233.1542; Found, 233.2482.
c26. Synthesis of Apricoxib (1): Homoallylic ketone (8) (5.0 g, 21.53 mmol) in 180 mL of CH2Cl2/MeOH (1:5) was treated with ozone bubbles at −78°C until a blue coloration persisted. The solution was purged with argon, 8.0 mL of dimethylsulphide (21.5 mmol) was added, and the reaction mixture then warmed slowly to rt overnight. The solvent was evaporated under vacuum to give 7 which was then diluted with 100 mL of 40 % acetic acid in acetonitrile, (v/v) and sulphanilamide (4.0 g, 23.2 mmol) was added. The mixture was refluxed until complete consumption of 1,4-dicarbonyl compound was detected by TLC (ca 3 h). After cooling to room temperature, the product was concentrated under vacuum and diluted with 250 mL of ethyl acetate. The organic layer then washed with saturated Na2CO3 solution (3 × 50 mL) followed by brine (1 × 50 mL), dried (MgSO4), and evaporated to dryness. The crude brown material was purified by silica gel flash chromatography using a gradient of EtOAc in hexane to give apricoxib as white solid (5.5 g, 15.43 mmol, 71%).
m.p. 161–163°C (lit. 135–139°C14).
1H NMR (CDCl3, 300.0 MHz) δ 1.32 (t, J = 6.9 Hz, 3H), 2.1 (s, 3H), 3.92 (q, J = 6.9 Hz, 2H), 4.95 (s, 2H), 6.14 (m, 1H), 6.63 (m, 1H), 6.69 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 6.94 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 7.13 (d, J = 6.6 Hz, 2H), 7.74 (d, J= 6.6 Hz, 2H).
13C NMR (CDCl3, 75.0 MHz) δ 11.7, 14.8, 63.4, 82.4, 113.2, 114.4, 121.0, 121.1, 124.9, 125.2, 127.4, 129.7, 133.6, 138.7, 144.2, 158.0
M+H Calcd: 357.1273; Found, 357.1252.

 

01

Click here to view.(2.1M, pdf)   DOWNLOAD TO GET NMR , 13C, COSY
OR

Supplementary Material

1H, 13C, and COSY NMR spectra of compounds 1 and 8.

 

……………

SYNTHESIS

 

synthesis

In one strategy, bromination of 4-ethoxyacetophenone (I) with Br2 yields 2-bromo-1-(4-ethoxyphenyl)ethanone (II) along with the byproduct 2-bromo-1-(3-bromo-4-ethoxyphenyl)ethanone, which are separated using HPLC. Alkylation of propionaldehyde N,Ndiisobutylenamine (III) with bromo ketone (II) and subsequent ketalization with neopentyl glycol (IV) using p-TsOH·H2O and, optionally, H2SO4 in MeCN gives monoprotected ketoaldehyde (V) (1). Finally, cyclization of ketoaldehyde derivative (V) with 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide (VI) in the presence of AcOH in PrOH/H2O at 90-100 °C furnishes apricoxib

Intermediate (V) can also be prepared by reaction of 1-(4- ethoxyphenyl)-2-buten-1-one (VII) with CH3NO2 in the presence of DBU in THF to produce nitro ketone (VIII). Subsequent treatment of nitroderivative (VIII) with neopentyl glycol (IV) and NaOMe and MeOH gives acetal (V) (2).In an alternativestrategy, condensation of 4-ethoxyacetaldehyde (IX) with 4-sulfamoylaniline (VI) in refluxing EtOH furnishesN-(4-ethoxybenzylidene)-

4-sulfamoylaniline (X), which then condenses with trimethylsilyl cyanide (XI) in the presence of ZnCl2 in THF yielding α- amino nitrile (XII). Cyclization of this compound with methacrolein (XIII) using LiHMDS in THF affords apricoxib

reference for above

  • Drugs of the Future 2011, 36(7): 503-509
  • Kojima, S., Ooyama, J. (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.). Process for production of brominated acetophenone. WO 2008020617.
  • Fujimoto, K., Takebayashi, T., Noguchi, Y., Saitou, T. (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.). Production of 4-methyl-1,2-diarylpyrrole and intermediate for synthesizing the same. JP 2000080078
  • Kimura, T., Noguchi, Y., Nakao, A., Suzuki, K., Ushiyama, S., Kawara, A., Miyamoto, M. (Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd.). 1,2-Diphenylpyrrole derivatives,their preparation and their therapeutic uses. CA 2201812, EP 0799823, JP 1997823971, US 5908858.

 

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1 Comment

  1. larryhbern says:

    Reblogged this on Pharmaceutical Intelligence and commented:
    Quite an interesting compound.

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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