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Polymorphs and co-crystals of haloprogin: an antifungal agent

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Haloprogin.pngHaloprogin

 

Haloprogin is a topical antifungal agent. Its structure does not contain any of the functional groups typically exploited in hydrogen bond based co-crystal design. On the other hand, its 1-iodoalkyne moiety is nicely tailored to a crystal engineering strategy based on halogen bonding. Here we describe the formation of three polymorphs of haloprogin and of three co-crystals that this active pharmaceutical ingredient forms with both neutral and ionic co-crystal formers. The halogen bond plays a major role in all of the six structures and the interaction is thus confirmed to be a valuable tool which may complement the hydrogen bond when polymorphs and co-crystals of active pharmaceutical ingredients are pursued.

Graphical abstract: Polymorphs and co-crystals of haloprogin: an antifungal agent

Graphical abstract: Polymorphs and co-crystals of haloprogin: an antifungal agent

http://pubs.rsc.org/en/Content/ArticleLanding/2014/CE/C4CE00367E?utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=pub-CE-vol-16-issue-26&utm_source=toc-alert#!divAbstract
Polymorphs and co-crystals of haloprogin: an antifungal agent

 

Michele Baldrighi,a Davide Bartesaghi,a Gabriella Cavallo,a Michele R. Chierotti,b Roberto Gobetto,b Pierangelo Metrangolo,*a Tullio Pilati,a Giuseppe Resnati*a and Giancarlo Terraneo*a
*Corresponding authors
aNFMLab-Laboratory of Nanostructured Fluorinated Materials (NFMLab), Department of Chemistry, Materials, and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via L. Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milan, Italy
E-mail: pierangelo.metrangolo@polimi.it, giuseppe.resnati@polimi.it, giancarlo.terraneo@polimi.it
bDepartment of Chemistry, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino, Italy

CrystEngComm, 2014,16, 5897-5904

DOI: 10.1039/C4CE00367E

 

EXTRA INFO

Systematic (IUPAC) name
1,2,4-trichloro-5-[(3-iodoprop-2-yn-1-yl)oxy]benzene
Clinical data
Legal status Not available in U.S.
Routes Topical
Identifiers
CAS number 777-11-7 Yes
ATC code D01AE11
PubChem CID 3561
DrugBank DB00793
ChemSpider 3440 Yes
UNII AIU7053OWL Yes
KEGG D00339 Yes
ChEMBL CHEMBL1289 Yes
Chemical data
Formula C9H4Cl3IO 
Mol. mass 361.39 g/mol
Physical data
Melt. point 113.5 °C (236 °F)
Solubility in water insoluble mg/mL (20 °C)

Haloprogin is an antifungal drug used to treat athlete’s foot and other fungal infections. It is marketed in creams under the trade names Halotex, Mycanden, Mycilan, and Polik.

Action

Haloprogin was previously used in 1% topical creams as an antifungal agent. It was marketed over the counter primarily to treat tinea infections of the skin. The mechanism of action is unknown.[1]

Haloprogin had a high incidence of side effects including: irritation, burning, vesiculation (blisters), scaling, and itching. It has since been discontinued due to the emergence of more modern antifungals with fewer side effects.[2]

Haloprogin is used as a topical ointment or cream in the treatment of Tinea infections. Tinea infections are superficial fungal infections caused by three species of fungi collectively known as dermatophytes (Trichophyton, Microsporum and Epidermophyton). Commonly these infections are named for the body part affected, including tinea corporis (general skin), tinea cruris (groin), and tinea pedis (feet). Haloprogin is a halogenated phenolic ether administered topically for dermotaphytic infections. The mechanism of action is unknown, but it is thought to be via inhibition of oxygen uptake and disruption of yeast membrane structure and function. Haloprogin is no longer available in the United States and has been discontinued.

U.S. Patent 3,322,813.

 

References

  1. “Haloprogin”. Drugs@FDA. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
  2. “Haloprogin”. DrugBank. University of Alberta. Nov 6, 2006. Retrieved 2007-02-17.
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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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