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Temozolomide 替莫唑胺

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Temozolomide 替莫唑胺

Temozolomide is a DNA damage inducer.

4-methyl-5-oxo-2,3,4,6,8-pentazabicyclo[4.3.0]nona-2,7,9-triene-9-carboxamide

3,4-dihydro-3-methyl-4-oxoimidazo(5,1-d)-1,2,3,5-tetrazine-8-carboxamide

Methazolastone, Temodar, Temodal

CAS NO 85622-93-1

Molecular Weight: 194.15

MF C6H6N6O2

Cancer Research UK (Originator), Schering-Plough (Licensee), National Cancer Institute (Codevelopment)

NMR..http://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/nmr/S123702-Methazolastone-NMR-Selleck.pdf

HPLC.http://file.selleckchem.com/downloads/hplc/S123702-Methazolastone-HPLC-Selleck.pdf

Temozolomide is an antitumor agent indicated for treating patients with malignant glioma such as cancer, breast cancer, refractory anaplastic astrocytoma, i.e., patients at first relapse who have experienced disease progression in malignant glioma, glioblastoma multiform and anaplastic astrocytoma, on a drug regimen containing a nitrosourea and procarbazine.

Temozolomide preparations are sold on the US market as hard capsules containing 5 mg, 20 mg, 100 mg or 250 mg Temozolomide (marketed as Temodar® by Schering Corporation, Kenilworth, N.J., USA). In other markets it is sold as Temodal®.

Temozolomide (brand names Temodar and Temodal and Temcad) is an oral chemotherapy drug. It is an alkylating agent used for the treatment of Grade IV astrocytoma — an aggressive brain tumor, also known as glioblastoma multiforme — as well as for treating melanoma, a form of skin cancer.

Temozolomide is also indicated for relapsed Grade III anaplastic astrocytoma and not indicated for, but as of 2011 used to treatoligodendroglioma brain tumors in some countries, replacing the older (and less well tolerated) PCV (ProcarbazineLomustineVincristine) regimen.

Temozolomide, 3-methyl-8-aminocarbonyl-imidazo[5,1-d]-1,2,3,5-tetrazin-4(3H)-one, is a known antitumor drug; see for example Stevens et al., J. Med. Chem. 1984, 27, 196-201, and Wang et al., J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun.,1994,1687-1688. Temozolomide, the compound of formula 1:

Figure US20020133006A1-20020919-C00001

is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,260,291 (Lunt et al.).

The synthesis of 1 by the process described in J. Med. Chem. 1984, 27, 196-201 is depicted in the scheme I below.

Figure US20020133006A1-20020919-C00002

In this process, 5-amino-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (A) is converted into 5-diazo-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (B), which is then cyclized with methylisocyanate in dichloromethane to provide a high yield of temozolomide. However, this process requires isolation of the unstable and potentially dangerous 5-diazo-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (B). Moreover, methylisocyanate is a difficult reagent to handle and ship, especially on the industrial scale, and indeed is better avoided in industrial manufacture. Furthermore, the cycloaddition of methylisocyanate requires a very long reaction time: Table I in J. Med Chem.1984, 27,196-201, suggests 20 days. Additionally, Stevens et al mention that the cycloaddition of the methylisocyanate to the compound of the formula (B) can proceed through two different intermediates:

The production of I by the two processes described in J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., 1994, 1687-1688 provides a low overall yield from 5-amino-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (A): less than 20% (unoptimized—about 17% through 5-diazo-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (B) and about 15% through 5-amino-N1-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-1H-imidazole-1,4-dicarboxamide (C)); Scheme II below

Figure US20020133006A1-20020919-C00003

The agent was developed by Malcolm Stevens[1] and his team at Aston University in Birmingham,[2][3] Temozolomide is a prodrug and animidazotetrazine derivative of the alkylating agent dacarbazine. It has been available in the US since August 1999, and in other countries since the early 2000s.

The therapeutic benefit of temozolomide depends on its ability to alkylate/methylate DNA, which most often occurs at the N-7 or O-6 positions ofguanine residues. This methylation damages the DNA and triggers the death of tumor cells. However, some tumor cells are able to repair this type of DNA damage, and therefore diminish the therapeutic efficacy of temozolomide, by expressing a protein O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) encoded in humans by the O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene.[4] In some tumors, epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene prevents the synthesis of this enzyme, and as a consequence such tumors are more sensitive to killing by temozolomide.[5] Conversely, the presence of AGT protein in brain tumors predicts poor response to temozolomide and these patients receive little benefit from chemotherapy with temozolomide.[6]

  • Nitrosourea- and procarbazine-refractory anaplastic astrocytoma
  • Newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme
  • Malignant prolactinoma

Temozolomide (sometimes referred to as TMZ) is an imidazotetrazine derivative of the alkylating agent dacarbazine. It undergoes rapid chemical conversion in the systemic circulation at physiological pH to the active compound, 3-methyl-(triazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC). Temozolomide exhibits schedule-dependent antineoplastic activity by interfering with DNA replication. Temozolomide has demonstrated activity against recurrent glioma. In a recent randomized trial, concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide chemotherapy with radiation significantly improves, from 12.1 months to 14.6 months, progression free survival and overall survival in glioblastoma multiforme patients.

Formulations

Temozolomide is available in the United States in 5 mg, 20 mg, 100 mg, 140 mg, 180 mg & 250 mg capsules. Now also available in an IV form for people who can not swallow capsules or who have insurance that does not cover oral cancer agents.

A generic version is available in the UK.

Further improvement of anticancer potency

Laboratory studies and clinical trials are investigating whether it might be possible to further increase the anticancer potency of temozolomide by combining it with other pharmacologic agents. For example, clinical trials have indicated that the addition of chloroquine might be beneficial for the treatment of glioma patients.[8] In laboratory studies, it was found that temozolomide killed brain tumor cells more efficiently when epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, was added; however, the efficacy of this effect has not yet been confirmed in brain tumor patients.[9]More recently, use of the novel oxygen diffusion-enhancing compound trans sodium crocetinate (TSC) when combined with temozolomide and radiation therapy has been investigated in preclinical studies [10] and a clinical trial is currently underway.[11]

Because tumor cells that express the MGMT gene are more resistant to killing by temozolomide, it was investigated[according to whom?] whether the inclusion of [[O6-benzylguanine]] (O6-BG), an AGT inhibitor, would be able to overcome this resistance and improve the drug’s therapeutic effectiveness. In the laboratory, this combination indeed showed increased temozolomide activity in tumor cell culture in vitro and in animal models in vivo.[12] However, a recently completed phase-II clinical trial with brain tumor patients yielded mixed outcomes; while there was some improved therapeutic activity when O6-BG and temozolomide were given to patients with temozolomide-resistant anaplastic glioma, there seemed to be no significant restoration of temozolomide sensitivity in patients with temozolomide-resistant glioblastoma multiforme.[13]

There are also efforts to engineer hematopoietic stem cells expressing the MGMT gene prior to transplanting them into brain tumor patients. This would allow for the patients to receive stronger doses of temozolomide, since the patient’s hematopoietic cells would be resistant to the drug.[14]

High doses of temozolomide in high grade gliomas have low toxicity, but the results are comparable to the standard doses.[15]

A case report suggests that temozolomide may be of use in relapsed primary CNS lymphoma.[16] Confirmation of this possible use seems indicated.

Temozolomide, 3-methyl-8-aminocarbonyl-imidazo[5,1-d]- 1 ,2,3,5-tetrazin- 4(3H)-one, is a known antitumor drug; see for example Stevens et al., J. Med. Chem. 1984, 27, 196-201 , and Wang et al., J. Chem. Soc, Chem. Commυn., 1994, 1687-1688. Temozolomide, the compound of formula 1 :

Figure imgf000002_0001

1 is described in U.S. Patent No. 5,260,291 (Lunt et al.).

The synthesis of 1 by the process described in J. Med. Chem. 1984, 27, 196- 201 is depicted in the scheme I below. Scheme I:

Figure imgf000003_0001

In this process, 5-amino-1 H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (A) is converted into 5- diazo-1 H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (B), which is then cyclized with methylisocyanate in dichloromethane to provide a high yield of temozolomide.

However, this process requires isolation of the unstable and potentially dangerous 5-diazo-1 H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (B). Moreover, methylisocyanate is a difficult reagent to handle and ship, especially on the industrial scale, and indeed is better avoided in industrial manufacture.

Furthermore, the cycloaddition of methylisocyanate requires a very long reaction time: Table I in J. Med Chem. 1984, 27,196-201 , suggests 20 days. Additionally, Stevens et al mention that the cycloaddition of the methylisocyanate to the compound of the formula (B) can proceed through two different intermediates:

The production of I by the two processes described in J. Chem. Soc, Chem.

Commun., 1994, 1687-1688 provides a low overall yield from 5-amino-1 H- imidazole-4-carboxamide (A): less than 20% (unoptimized – about 17% through 5- diazo-1 H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (B) and about 15% through 5-amino-N1– (ethoxycarbonylmethyl)- 1 H-imidazole- 1 ,4-dicarboxamide (C)); Scheme II below

Scheme II:

Figure imgf000004_0001

Moreover, the unstable 5-diazo-1 H-imidazole-4-carboxamide (B) still has to be isolated in the branch of this process that uses it as an intermediate. Clearly, therefore, there is a need for synthetic methods that: a) are more convenient and higher yielding, especially on commercial scale; b) approach the synthesis of the temozolomide nucleus in novel ways; or c) improve the preparation or use of intermediates for the processes.

Temozolomide of formula I, is an antitumor drag and is chemically known as 3-methyl-8- aminocarbonyl-imidazole[5,l-d]-l,2,3,5-tetrazin-4(3H)-one.

Figure imgf000002_0002

Formula I

It is indicated for treating patients with malignant glioma such as cancer, breast cancer, refractory anaplastic, astrocytoma, i.e. patient at first relapse who have experienced disease progression in malignant glioma, glioblastoma multiform and anaplastic astrocytoma, on a drug containing a nitrosourea and procarbazine. It is sold in the US market as hard capsules containing 5 mg, 20 mg, 100 mg or 250 mg as Temodar® by Schering corporation.

Temozolomide and compounds having similar activity (higher alkyl analogues at the 3 -position) were first disclosed in US patent 5,260,291. According to said patent, temozolomide is prepared by the reaction of 5-diazoimidazole-4-carboxamide with methyl isocyanate in the presence of N- methylpyrrolid-2-one in dichloromethane at room temperature for three to four weeks. Melting point of temozolomide reported in above patent is 200 0C (recrystallized from acetonitrile); 21O0C with effervescence (recrystallized from acetone and water), and 2150C with effervescence and darkening (recrystallized from hot water). Major drawback of process is the longer reaction duration of three to four weeks for completion of reaction.

Further, the process described in the patent involves use of low boiling and extremely toxic, methyl isocyanate, which is very difficult to handle, especially on industrial scale, as its use should be avoided in the industrial synthesis. Further, cycloaddition reaction requires a very long period of 21 to 28 days, which makes the process unattractive for industrial scale.

US patent 5,003,099 discloses a process for preparation of aminocyanoacetamide, a key intermediate for the synthesis of temozolomide. According to the patent, aminocyanoacetamide is synthesized in two steps by the reaction of cyanoacetic acid alkyl ester using sodium nitrite in the presence of glacial acetic acid to form a hydroxyimino intermediate, which is then reduced in the presence of platinum on carbon to yield aminocyanoacetic acid alkyl ester, which is unstable.

The alkyl ester intermediate is then in situ reacted with aqueous ammonia to give the desired product. The main drawback of the above mentioned process is the use of aqueous ammonia, since aminocyanoacetamide, generated in reaction, is soluble in aqueous solution and hence difficult to extract from the reaction mass which results in lower yields. The patent is silent about the purity of intermediate and process needs extraction of the above mentioned intermediate from filtrate.

US patent 6,844,434 describes synthesis of temozolomide by cyclization of 5-amino-l-(N-rnethyl- hydrazinocarbonyl)-lH-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid in the presence of tetrabutyl nickel and periodic acid to form a reaction mixture which is concentrated under reduce pressure and resulting residue was treated with acetonitrile and filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and chromatographed on a column of silica gel to give temozolomide.

Use of time consuming and cumbersome technique i.e. column chromatography for isolation of product makes the process not suitable to employ at industrial level. US patent 7,087,751 discloses a process for the preparation of temozolomide from protected imidazole intermediate.

The process involves reaction of l-methyl-3-carbamoyliminomethyl-urea with JV- protected aminocyanoacetamide in the presence of acetic acid in a suitable solvent to form an JV- protected imidazole intermediate which is then cyclized in the presence of lithium chloride to minimize undesired cyclisation product. After cyclisation, the protected group has to be removed which makes the process more laborious with more number of steps.

As exemplified in example 1 of the above patent, yield of the JV-protected imidazole intermediate obtained is very low, almost half of the product goes in the filtrate which further needs extraction from the filtrate. After extraction of inteπnediate from the filtrate, the combined yield is only 67 %. The intermediate obtained is only 93 to 94% pure and requires additional purifications, crystallization using ethyl acetate and slurry wash with mixture of methyl tertiary butyl ether and isopropanol. These additional purification further takes away around 20 % yield of the inteπnediate thus yield of the pure intermediate, which is suitable for the further reaction, remains around 53 % which is very low from commercial point of view.

The patent also describes condensation of l-methyl-3-carbamoyliminomethyl-urea with unprotected aminocyanoacetamide in presence of acetic acid to give an imidazole intermediate. This patent fails to disclose the process of conversion of above imidazole intermediate to temozolomide, but only up to hydrolysis to prepare 5-amino-lH-imidazole-4-carboxamide hydrochloride is reported.

Another US patent no. 6,844,434 of same applicant (Schering) discloses a process for the conversion of 5-amino- lH-imidazole-4-carboxamide hydrochloride, which is prepared by the hydrolysis of above imidazole intermediate, to temozolomide. By combining the above two processes, this adds further four additional steps to the synthesis of temozolomide. The process of preparation of temozolomide is described by the following scheme:

Figure imgf000004_0001

It has been observed that for the preparation of unprotected imidazole intermediate as exemplified in US 7,087,751, use of excess amount of the acetic acid (around 21 times with respect to aminocyanoacetamide) is reported. Thereafter acetic acid is removed by distillation.

The inventors of the present invention have repeated example 2 as described in US 7,087,751 for the preparation of unprotected imidazole intermediate. As per the process, after the completion of the reaction, acetic acid has to be removed from the reaction mixture. It is noticed that removal of acetic acid is a very tedious move so as on commercial scale and leads to decomposition.

In a publication namely, Journal of Organic Chemistry, volume 62, no. 21, 7288-7294, a process is disclosed for the preparation of temozolomide by the hydrolysis of 8-cyano-3-methyl-[3H]-imidazole~ [5,l-d]-tetrazin-4-one in the presence of hydrochloric acid to give hydrochloride salt of temozolomide, which has to be neutralized to obtain temozolomide. In the same Journal, another process for the preparation of temozolomide is also described. Temozolomide is prepared by the nitrosative cyclization of imidazole intermediate using aqueous solution of sodium nitrite and tartaric acid to give temozolomide in 45 % yield in solution.

US patent publication 2007/0225496 exemplified a process for preparation of temozolomide by pyrolising N’-methyl-N,N-diphenyl urea to form vapor of methyl isocyanate which is then reacted with 5-diazo-5H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid amide to form temozolomide.

The above described process involves use of methyl isocyanate, which is highly flammable and makes the process unsuitable for industrial synthesis, hi addition to this, isolation of temozolomide from the reaction mixture requires addition of large amount of ethyl acetate followed by addition of hexane and again ethyl acetate to isolate compound.

US patent publication 2009/0326028 describes a process for preparation of temozolomide by diazotization of imidazole intermediate in the presence of at least one metal halide, a source of nitrous acid and an acid to form acidic solution of temozolomide, wherein temozolomide forms a salt with acid. The desired product i.e. temozolomide is then isolated from the acidic solution by extraction with a solvent.

The process requires very strict reaction parameters including the addition of metal halide during diazotization as well as addition of pre-cooled reaction mixture to sodium nitrite solution to achieve desired level of selective cyclization. Patent application also describes two methods for the extraction of temozolomide.

US patent publication 2010/0036121 discloses a process for the preparation of temozolomide by reaction of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide with N-succinimidyl-N’-methylcarbamate to form carbamoyl 5~aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide which is then reacted with alkali or alkaline earth nitrile to give reaction mass containing temozolomide

  • Temozolomide, is a known antitumour drug, and is represented by formula I:

    Figure imgb0001

    3-methyl-8-aminocarbonyl-imidazo [5,1-d]-1,2,3,5-tetrazin-4(3H)-one

  • It is described in US 5,260,291 together with compounds of broadly similar activity such as higher alkyl analogs at the 3-position.
  • J.Med.Chem. 1984, 27, 196-201 describes a process wherein 5-amino-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide is converted into 5-diazo-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, which is then cyclised with methylisocyanate in dichloromethane to provide a high yield of temozolomide.
  • This process requires isolation of the unstable and potentially dangerous 5-diazo-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide, methyl isocyanate is a difficult reagent to handle and ship, especially on the industrial scale. Furthermore, the cycloaddition of methylisocyanate requires a long reaction time (Table I in J.Med.Chem. 1984, 27, 196-201, suggests 20 days).
  • The product obtained by this process contains, high residual dichloromethane. It is essential to limit dichloromethane content in the final API below 600 ppm as per ICH guideline. Dichloromethane content can be reduced if one follows technique of US 5,260,291 .
  • US 5,260,291 discloses acetone-water recrystallisation of temozolomide, which results in low yield (60% recovery) due to decomposition of temozolomide to impurities like 5-(3-methyltriazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide, compound of formula V

    Figure imgb0002

    and 5-amino-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide.

  • The production of compound of formula I by the two processes described in J.Chem.Soc., Chem.Commun., 1994, 1687-1688 provides a low overall yield from 5-amino-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide: less than 20% (about 17% through 5-diazo-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide and about 15% through 5-amino-N1-(ethoxy carbonylmethyl)-1H-imidazole-1,4-dicarboxamide).
  • The unstable 5-diazo-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide has to be isolated in the branch of this process that uses it as an intermediate.
  • US 2002/0133006 discloses a process for the preparation of compound of formula I using methyl hydrazine which is a toxic and flammable liquid, hence not feasible on industrial scale and the final isolation involves tedious workup including column chromatography.
  • J.Org.Chem. 1997, 62, 7288-7294 describes a process wherein the final step of diazotization provides equi-formation of aza-hypoxanthine and temozolomide, resulting in low yield. This literature does not provide the experimental procedure for work up.
  • US 2005/0131227 describes a process involving the use of a bulky protecting group on nitrogen of the primary amide for cyclisation in presence of LiCl to minimize the undesired cyclization product. After cyclization the protecting group has to be removed which makes the process more laborious with more number of steps (Scheme I).

    Figure imgb0003

    U.S. Pat. No. 6,844,434 describes the preparation of Temozolomide, alkyl analogs and intermediates thereof. The process, which is depicted in Scheme 3 below, comprises reacting 5-amino-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide hydrochloride (II) with 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate to afford compound (III), which is subsequently reacted with methyl hydrazine to obtain the corresponding compound (IV), which is cyclized to yield Temozolomide.

    Figure US20060183898A1-20060817-C00004

    Another process for preparing Temozolomide is described in U.S. patent application having the Publication No. 2002/0095036 (see Scheme 4 below). In this process, the imine (V) is converted to 2-cyano-N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-[(diphenyl-methylene)amino]-acetamide, which is converted to 2-amino-2-cyano-N-(1,1-dimethyl-ethyl)-acetamide hydrochloride.

    The latter is reacted with compound (VI) to obtain 5-amino-N4-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-N1-methyl-1H-imidazole-1,4-dicarboxamide, which is converted to 3,4-dihydro-N-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-methyl-imidazo-[5,1-d]-1,2,3,5-tetrazine-8-carboxamide (tert-butyl-Temozolomide), which yields Temozolomide under acidic treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid.

    Figure US20060183898A1-20060817-C00005

    Yet another synthesis of Temozolomide is described by Stevens et al. in J. Org. Chem., Vol. 62, No. 21, 7288-7294, 1997, wherein Temozolomide hydrochloride salt is obtained in 65% yield by the hydrolysis of 8-cyano-3-methyl-[3H]-imidazo-[5,1-d]-tetrazin-4-one with hydrochloric acid, as shown in Scheme 5.

    Figure US20060183898A1-20060817-C00006

    The main disadvantage of this process is the low yield in which Temozolomide hydrochloride is obtained (65%). It is assumed that the relatively elevated temperature of 60° C. used in the process increases the content of decomposition products.

…………………………

Synthesis

US Patent 8,232,392

Temozolomide (1) is a drug that was discovered more than 30 years ago. In the past 10 years, it has been used to treat aggressive brain tumors. S. Turchetta and co-inventors summarize several processes for preparing temozolomide, all of which use toxic reagents such as MeNCO or MeNHNH2or generate large amounts of chemical waste. They describe a safer route to 1.

The inventors’ method starts with the preparation of carbamoyl compound 4 from amide 2 by treating it with succinimidyl reagent 3 in the presence of a base. The product is isolated in 88% yield and 96.9% purity by HPLC. Reagent 3 is a nonexplosive, crystalline solid with comparatively low toxicity and is much safer than MeNCO for this reaction.

In the next stage, the amine group in 4 is converted to diazonium salt 5 via a diazotization reaction. The details of this reaction are not described, but reference is made to a method reported in 1997 (Wang, Y., et al. J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 7288–7294). Compound 5 is not isolated; when acid is added, it cyclizes by the reaction of the diazonium group with one of the two amide groups to give products 1 and 6 in approximately equal amounts. The desired product 1 is formed by the reaction of the secondary amide group; when the primary amide reacts, the product is its isomer, 6.

Products 1 and 6 are separated by passing the acidified reaction mixture from the diazotization reaction over a column of a polymeric adsorbent resin. The material used in the example is XAD 1600 from Rohm & Haas; other resins are covered in the claims. Compound 6 elutes from the column first; then 1 is eluted with acidified aq EtOH. After separation, 1 is recrystallized from acidified acetone and isolated in 30% yield with 99.9% purity.

The process provides an alternative, safer route to temozolomide, but half of intermediate 4 is lost as unwanted product 6. [Chemi S.p.A. [Cinisello Balsamo, Italy]. US Patent 8,232,392, July 31, 2012; )

………………..

SYNTHESIS

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2002057268A1?cl=en

EXAMPLE 1

Preparation of Temozolomide (1 ) Step A Preparation compound (3)

Figure imgf000013_0001

5-Amino-1 H-imidazole-4-carboxamide*HCI (4) (25 g, 0.154 mol) (Aldrich 16,496-8), CH2CI2 (0.6 L) and Et3N (45 mL) (Aldrich, 13,206-3) were placed into a dry 2-liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen at ambient temperature. The mixture was stirred, and a solution of 400 mL of 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate (34 g, 0.169 mol) (Aldrich, 16,021-0) in CH2CI2was added dropwise.

The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously for 4 hours and then left to stand for 18 hours at room temperature. The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and washed with H20 (1.5 L) to afford the product (3) as a pale yellow solid (42 g, 0.144 mol). 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 8.40 (d, 2H), 7.83 (s, 1 H), 7.74 (d, 2H), 7.08 (bs, 1 H), 6.95 (bs, 1 H), 6.52 (s, 2H). Step B Preparation of compound (2)

Figure imgf000014_0001

Compound (3) (42 g, 0.144 mol) and DMF (0.27 L) were placed into a dry

1 -liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C, and methylhydrazine (10 mL, 0.188 mol) (Aldrich, M5.000-1 ) was added dropwise.

The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously for 1 hour at 0°C and was then poured into EtOAc (2.1 L). The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and was dried under vacuum (20 mm Hg, room temperature, 18 hours) to afford (2) as a tan solid (27.1 g, 0.137 mol). 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 7.62 (s, 1 H), 6.85 (bs, 1 H), 6.75 (bs,1 H), 6.00 (s, 2H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 3.15, s, 3H).mp: 188°C (dec).

Analysis: Calcd for C6H10N6O2: C, 36.36; H, 5.09; N, 42.41.

Found: C, 36.46; H, 4.99; N, 42.12.

Step C Preparation of Temozolomide (1 )

Figure imgf000014_0002

2 1 (Temozolomide)

Compound (2) (500 mg, 2.5 mmol), Bu4NI (95 mg, 0.25 mmol), THF (250 mL) and CH3CN (250 mL) were placed into a dry 1 -liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen.

The reaction mixture was heated at 60°C for 20 mm and then cooled to room temperature. H56 (1.14 g, 5 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred vigorously at room temperature for 1 hour. The resulting solution was treated with saturated aqueous Na2S2O3 (5 mL) and was then concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. The residue was treated with CH3CN (200 mL) and was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and chromatographed on a column of silica gel (1.5% to 2% AcOH/EtOAc) to afford temozolomide (1 ) (280 mg). 1H NMR (400MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 8.80 (s, 1 H), 7.80 (bs, 1 H), 7.66 (bs, 1 H), 3.43 (s,3H).

………………

SYNTHESIS

…………………

SYNTHESIS

http://www.google.com/patents/WO2010140168A1?cl=en

Accordingly, the present invention provides an improved process for the preparation of temozolomide of formula I,

Figure imgf000007_0001

Formula I which proves to be efficient and industrially advantageous.

The process comprises the step of: a), condensing compound of formula II,

Figure imgf000007_0002

Formula II with compound of formula III,

CH3 H CH3 Formula III in the presence of an acid in an alcoholic solvent to form a compound of formula IV;

Figure imgf000007_0003

Formula IV b). isolating the compound of formula IV from the reaction mixture by filtration; c). diazotizing and cyclizing the compound of formula IV in the presence of source of nitrous acid and a suitable acid; d). isolating temozolomide therefrom; and e). optionally purifying temozolomide of formula I.

Accordingly, the present invention provides an improved process for the preparation of temozolomide of formula I, process comprises the steps of: a), diazotizing and cyclizing the compound of formula IV in the presence of a source of nitrous acid and a suitable acid; b). optionally, cooling the reaction mixture; c). isolating precipitate of temozolomide from the reaction mixture; and d). purifying temozolomide of formula I with a suitable solvent

REFERENCE EXAMPLE:

Preparation* of S-Aøiino-N’-methyl-lH-imidazole-ljΦdicarboxamide (US 7,087,751) 2-Amino-2-cyanoacetamide (10 g), l-methyl-3-methylcarbamoyliminomethyl urea (19 g) and acetic acid (120 ml) were stirred together at ambient temperature under the positive pressure of nitrogen for 2 hours. Excess acetic acid was removed under reduced pressure and methyl tertiary butyl ether (25 ml) was added to the concentrated reaction mass, cooled to obtained crude solid.

The mixture was stirred for 30 minutes and the precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration. The solid was dried under vacuum at 20-250C for 18 hours to obtain 13 g of title compound as grayish solid. The crude product was stirred with water (66 ml) for 1 hour at 20-250C, filtered, suck dried and dried under vacuum at2O0C for 18 hours to obtain 11.2 g of title compound as greyish solid.

EXAMPLES

Example 1: Preparation of hydroxylirainocyano acetic acid ethyl ester

To a suspension of ethyl cyanoacetate (1.0 Kg, 8.84 mol) and sodium nitrite (0.735 kg, 10.65 mol) in water (0.80 L), acetic acid (0.70 kg, 11.66 mol) was added at 0-50C over a period of one hour.

Temperature was slowly raised to 23-270C and the reaction mixture was stirred for one hour at that temperature. After the complete consumption of ethyl cyanoacetate (monitored by TLC/GC), the reaction mixture was extracted with ethyl acetate (5 x 1.5 L). The combined organic layer was successively washed with 10% sodium bicarbonate (2 x 1.25 L) and brine solution (1.25 L), dried over sodium sulfate and filtered through hyflow bed. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure at 40-

450C. The resulting solid was stirred with cyclohexane (3.0 L) for 30 minutes at 25-300C, filtered and dried at 40-450C under vacuum to afford 1.14 kg (91.2 %) of title compound having purity 99.82% by

HPLC.

Example 2: Preparation of aminocyanoacetic acid ethyl ester

To a solution hydroxyliminocyano acetic acid ethyl ester (1.14 Kg, 8.02 mol) in methanol (11.4 L) was added 5% platinum on carbon (91.2 g, 50 % wet) and the mixture was hydrogenated at hydrogen gas pressure of 6.2-6.4 kg/cm2 over a period of 12 hours and the completion of reaction was checked by

TLC. The reaction mixture was filtered under nitrogen atmosphere to recover the catalyst. The filtrate was used as such for the next stage.

Example 3: Preparation of amimøcyanoacetamide

The solution of aminocyanoacetic acid ethyl ester (as prepared above) in methanol was cooled to 0-5

0C and ammonia gas was purged into it approximately for 1 hour. After the completion of the reaction

(monitored by TLC), the reaction mass was concentrated to 2.5-3.0 L under reduced pressure at 40-

45°C, cooled to 0-50C and stirred for 1 hour. The precipitated solid was filtered, washed with chilled methanol (200 ml) and dried at 35-400C under vacuum for 6 hours to obtain 572 g of title compound.

The resulting product was added to methanol (4.57 L) and heated to reflux till the solution become clear. Activated charcoal (25g) was added to the reaction mixture and refluxed for 15 minutes. The solution was filtered through hyflow bed, the bed was washed with methanol (500 ml) and the filtrate was concentrated to half of its original volume (approx 2.0 L). The mixture was cooled to 0-50C and stirred for 45 minutes. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with chilled methanol (250 ml) and dried at 40-450C under vacuum to obtain 425g (53.6%) of pure title compound having purity 99.46% by HPLC. Example 4: Preparation of l-methyl-3-methylcarbamoyliminomethyl urea

A suspension of monomethyl urea (1.5 kg, 20.27 mol) in triethyl orthoformate (4.5 L, 30.40 mol) was heated to reflux at 150-1600C for 12 hours. The reaction mixture was cooled to 5-100C, and stirred for 1 hour to ensure complete precipitation, of the product. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with ethyl acetate (350ml) and dried under vacuum at 45-5O0C to yield 1.08 kg (67.9%) of title compound having purity 93.82% by HPLC.

Exainple-5: Preparation of S-amino-N^methyl-lH-imidazole-l^-dicarboxamide Acetic acid (200 ml, 3.53 mol) was added to a suspension of aminocyanoacetamide (40Og, 4.04 mol) and l-methyl-3-methylcarbamoyliminomethyl urea (76Og, 4.8 mol) in methanol (2.0 L) at 20-250C and the mixture was stirred at 20-250C for 18 hours till completion of the reaction (monitored by HPLC). The reaction mixture was cooled to 0-50C, stirred for 1 hour and the resulting solid was filtered, washed with chilled methanol (450 ml), suck dried and finally dried under vacuum at 30-350C to afford 648 g (88.04%) of title compound as an off white colored solid having purity 99.21 % by HPLC. Example 6: Preparation of temozolomide

Acetic acid (450 ml, 7.95 mol) was added to a suspension of S-amino-N^methyl-lH-imidazole-l^- dicarboxamide (500g, 2.73mol) and sodium nitrite (25Og, 3.62mol) in water (5.0 L) at -5 to 00C at such a rate so that temperature does not rise above 5°C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0 to 5°C for one hour and absence of starting material was checked by HPLC analysis. Ice bath was removed and powdered calcium chloride (1.25Kg) was added in small lots to the reaction mass and stirred at 25- 300C for 2 hours. The reaction mass was extracted with a 2.5% solution of dimethylsulfoxide in dichloromethane (5 X 50 L). Combined organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and filtered through a hyflow bed. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure below 4O0C and residual dimethylsulfoxide layer was degassed completely. The dimethylsulfoxide layer was cooled to 0 to – 100C and stirred for 1 hour. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with ethyl acetate (25OmL), and suck dried for 2 hours to afford 32Og of the title compound having purity 78.5% by HPLC. Example 7: Preparation of temozolomide

Acetic acid (9ml, 0.159mol) was added to a suspension of 5-ammo-N1 -methyl- lH-imidazole- 1,4- dicarboxamide (1Og, 0.054mol) and sodium nitrite (5g, 0.072mol) in water (100ml) at -5 to 00C at a rate so that temperature does not rise above 0-50C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0-50C for one and half hour. Brine (30g) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred at room temperature for two hours to saturate the reaction mixture. The reaction mass was extracted with a 2.5% solution of dimethylsulfoxide in dichloromethane (5 X 1 L). Combined organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and filtered through a hyflow bed. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure and residual dimethylsulfoxide layer was degassed completely. The dimethylsulfoxide layer was cooled to 0 to -5°C and stirred for 1 hour. The resulting solid was filtered, washed with ethyl acetate (2x 5 ml), and suck dried for 2 hours to afford 5.0 g of the title compound having purity 81.6% by HPLC. Example 8: Preparation of temozolomide

Acetic acid (450ml) was added to a suspension of 5 -amino-N1 -methyl- lH-imidazole- 1,4- dicarboxamide (500g) and sodium nitrite (25Og) in water (5.0 L) at -5 to O0C at a rate so that temperature does not rise above 0-50C. The reaction mixture was stirred at 0-50C for one and half hour and the absence of starting material was checked by HPLC analysis. Ice bath was removed and powdered calcium chloride (1.25 kg) was added to the reaction mixture and stirred at room temperature for two hours. The reaction mass was extracted with a 2.5% solution of dimethylsulfoxide in dichloromethane (5 X 50 L). Combined organic layer was dried over sodium sulfate and filtered through a hyflo bed. Solvent was removed under reduced pressure at below 400C and residue at 35- 400C was filtered through a candle filter to remove suspended particles and the filtrate was then degassed completely. The residual dimethylsulfoxide layer was cooled to 0±2°C and stirred for one hours. The resulting solid was filtered and sucked dried. The solid was then washed with ethyl acetate (2x 250 ml), and suck dried for 1 hours to afford 240 g of the title compound.

………………………………….

SYNTHESIS

http://www.google.com/patents/US20020133006

Example 1

Preparation of Temozolomide (1)

Figure US20020133006A1-20020919-C00019

5-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide.HCl (4) (25 g, 0.154 mol) (Aldrich 16,496-8), CH2Cl2(0.6 L) and Et3N (45 mL) (Aldrich, 13,206-3) were placed into a dry 2-liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen at ambient temperature. The mixture was stirred, and a solution of 400 mL of 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate (34 g, 0.169 mol) (Aldrich, 16,021-0) in CH2Clwas added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously for 4 hours and then left to stand for 18 hours at room temperature. The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and washed with H2O (1.5 L) to afford the product (3) as a pale yellow solid (42 g, 0.144 mol).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 8.40 (d, 2H), 7.83 (s, 1H), 7.74 (d, 2H), 7.08 (bs, 1H), 6.95 (bs, 1H), 6.52 (s, 2H).

Figure US20020133006A1-20020919-C00020

Compound (3) (42 g, 0.144 mol) and DMF (0.27 L) were placed into a dry 1-liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C., and methylhydrazine (10 mL, 0.188 mol) (Aldrich, M5,000-1) was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously for 1 hour at 0° C. and was then poured into EtOAc (2.1 L). The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and was dried under vacuum (20 mm Hg, room temperature, 18 hours) to afford (2) as a tan solid (27.1 g, 0.137 mol).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 7.62 (s, 1H), 6.85 (bs, 1H), 6.75 (bs,1H), 6.00 (s, 2H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 3.15, s, 3H).mp: 188° C. (dec.).

Analysis: Calcd for C6H10N6O2: C, 36.36; H, 5.09; N, 42.41.

Found: C, 36.46; H, 4.99; N, 42.12.

Figure US20020133006A1-20020919-C00021

Compound (2) (500 mg, 2.5 mmol), Bu4NI (95 mg, 0.25 mmol), THF (250 mL) and CH3CN (250 mL) were placed into a dry 1-liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen. The reaction mixture was heated at 60° C. for 20 mm and then cooled to room temperature. H5I0(1.14 g, 5 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred vigorously at room temperature for 1 hour. The resulting solution was treated with saturated aqueous Na2S2O(5 mL) and was then concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. The residue was treated with CH3CN (200 mL) and was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and chromatographed on a column of silica gel (1.5% to 2% AcOH/EtOAc) to afford temozolomide (1) (280 mg).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 8.80 (s, 1H), 7.80 (bs, 1H), 7.66 (bs, 1H), 3.43 (s, 3H).

…………………….

EXAMPLES

EP2374807A2

Example 1:

    Preparation of 3-Methyl-8-aminocarbonyl-imidazo[5,1-d]-1,2,3,5-tetrazin-4(3H)-one (Temozolomide).

  • Glacial acetic acid (25 ml), water (250 ml) and LiCl (225 g) were charged and the contents were stirred for 30 minutes and cooled to room temperature. 5-Amino-1-(N-methylcarbamoyl) imidazole-4-carboxamide (II) (25 g) was added and stirred the contents for further 30 minutes. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0°C and then added drop wise to NaNO2 solution (12.5 g in 50 ml water) at -10 to 5 °C. The reaction mass was stirred for 1 hr at 0-5 °C and then at room temperature for 5 hrs. To this reaction mixture, sodium thiosulphate solution (25 g in 250 ml of water) was added slowly and stirred for 20 minutes (solution A). This process yielded an acidic solution containing temozolomide.

……………………..

SYNTHESIS

US20060183898

EXAMPLES Example 1

A 250 ml reaction vessel equipped with a magnetic stirrer and a reflux condenser was charged with 8-cyano-3-methyl-[3H]-imidazo-[5,1-d]-tetrazin-4-one (10 grams, 0.0568 mol) and hydrochloric acid (36.5-38%, 50 ml). The reaction mixture was heated to 32-35° C. and stirring was maintained at this temperature for about 3 hours. A sample was withdrawn and analyzed by HPLC to verify that the high conversion was received. (If the content of the starting material 8-cyano-3-methyl-[3H]-imidazo-[5,1-d]-tetrazin-4-one is more than 2.5% by area according to HPLC, the stirring may be continued for additional one hour).

The reaction mixture was then cooled to 20° C. and 50 ml of acetone were added drop-wise while maintaining the temperature at 20° C. Stirring was continued for 15-30 minutes. The precipitated white crystals were washed with cold acetone (20 ml) and dried at 40° C. in vacuum to obtain 11.7 grams (0.0507 mol) of Temozolomide hydrochloride (89.3% yield). Purity (by HPLC): 99.6%.

…………………………

SYNTHESIS

US6844434

EXAMPLES

The following Examples illustrate but do not in any way limit the present invention. Chemicals obtained from Aldrich Chemical Company (Milwaukee, Wis.) are identified by their catalog number. It should be noted that nomenclature may differ slightly between this specification and the Aldrich catalog.

Example 1 Preparation of Temozolomide (1)

Step A Preparation Compound (3)

Figure US06844434-20050118-C00019

5-Amino-1H-imidazole-4-carboxamide.HCl (4) (25 g, 0.154 mol) (Aldrich 16,496-8), CH2Cl2(0.6 L) and Et3N (45 mL) (Aldrich, 13,206-3) were placed into a dry 2-liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen at ambient temperature. The mixture was stirred, and a solution of 400 mL of 4-nitrophenyl chloroformate (34 g, 0.169 mol) (Aldrich, 16,021-0) in CH2Cl2was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously for 4 hours and then left to stand for 18 hours at room temperature. The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and washed with H2O (1.5 L) to afford the product (3) as a pale yellow solid (42 g, 0.144 mol).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 8.40 (d, 2H), 7.83 (s, 1H), 7.74 (d, 2H), 7.08 (bs, 1H), 6.95 (bs, 1H), 6.52 (s, 2H).
Step B Preparation of Compound (2)

Figure US06844434-20050118-C00020

Compound (3) (42 g, 0.144 mol) and DMF (0.27 L) were placed into a dry 1-liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen. The reaction mixture was cooled to 0° C., and methylhydrazine (10 mL, 0.188 mol) (Aldrich, M5,000-1) was added dropwise. The reaction mixture was stirred vigorously for 1 hour at 0° C. and was then poured into EtOAc (2.1 L). The precipitate was collected by vacuum filtration and was dried under vacuum (20 mm Hg, room temperature, 18 hours) to afford (2) as a tan solid (27.1 g, 0.137 mol).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 7.62 (s, 1H), 6.85 (bs, 1H), 6.75 (bs,1H), 6.00 (s, 2H), 5.10 (s, 2H), 3.15, s, 3H).mp: 188° C. (dec.). Analysis: Calcd for C6H10N6O2: C, 36.36; H, 5.09; N, 42.41. Found: C, 36.46; H, 4.99; N, 42.12.
Step C Preparation of Temozolomide (1)

Figure US06844434-20050118-C00021

Compound (2) (500 mg, 2.5 mmol), Bu4NI (95 mg, 0.25 mmol), THF (250 mL) and CH3CN (250 mL) were placed into a dry 1-liter, three-necked flask equipped with dropping funnel, a gas inlet tube, a gas outlet tube, reflux condenser and mechanical stirrer, and maintained under a positive pressure of nitrogen. The reaction mixture was heated at 60° C. for 20 mm and then cooled to room temperature. H5IO(1.14 g, 5 mmol) was added and the reaction mixture was stirred vigorously at room temperature for 1 hour. The resulting solution was treated with saturated aqueous Na2S2O(5 mL) and was then concentrated under reduced pressure to dryness. The residue was treated with CH3CN (200 mL) and was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated and chromatographed on a column of silica gel (1.5% to 2% AcOH/EtOAc) to afford temozolomide (1) (280 mg).

1H NMR (400 MHz, DMSO-d6, δ): 8.80 (s, 1H), 7.80 (bs, 1H), 7.66 (bs, 1H), 3.43 (s, 3H).

TEMOZOLOMIDE

References

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  11.  “Safety and Efficacy Study of Trans Sodium Crocetinate (TSC) With Concomitant Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma (GBM)”ClinicalTrials.gov. November 2011.
  12.  Ueno T, Ko SH, Grubbs E et al. (March 2006). “Modulation of chemotherapy resistance in regional therapy: a novel therapeutic approach to advanced extremity melanoma using intra-arterial temozolomide in combination with systemic O6-benzylguanine”Mol. Cancer Ther. 5 (3): 732–8. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0098PMID 16546988.
  13.  Friedman, HS; Jiang, SX; Reardon, DA; Desjardins, A; Vredenburgh, JJ; Rich, JN; Gururangan, S; Friedman, AH et al. (March 2009). “Phase II trial of temozolomide plus o6-benzylguanine in adults with recurrent, temozolomide-resistant malignant glioma”J. Clin. Oncol. 27 (8): 1262–7. doi:10.1200/JCO.2008.18.8417PMC 2667825PMID 19204199.
  14.  http://labs.fhcrc.org/kiem/Hans-Peter_Kiem.html
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[2] Sun S, et al. J Neurooncol. 2012.

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US5260291 Oct 18, 1991 Nov 9, 1993 Cancer Research Campaign Technology Limited Tetrazine derivatives
US20020133006 Jan 16, 2002 Sep 19, 2002 Schering Corporation Synthesis of temozolomide and analogs
US20050131227 Jan 21, 2005 Jun 16, 2005 Schering Corporation Synthesis of temozolomide and analogs
US20060183898 * Feb 16, 2006 Aug 17, 2006 Olga Etlin Process for preparing temozolomide
CN1487941A * Jan 16, 2002 Apr 7, 2004 先灵公司              Synthesis of temozolomide and analogs
CN1706843A * Apr 8, 2005 Dec 14, 2005 江苏天士力帝益药业有限公司              Temozolomide refining process
US20060183898 * Feb 16, 2006 Aug 17, 2006 Olga Etlin              Process for preparing temozolomide
US20070225496 * Mar 23, 2007 Sep 27, 2007 Palle Raghavendracharyulu Venk              rocess for preparing temozolomide
US8258294 * Sep 28, 2007 Sep 4, 2012 Cipla Limited Process for the preparation of temozolomide and analogs
EP2151442A2 Jul 22, 2009 Feb 10, 2010 Chemi SPA Process for preparing temozolomide
EP2374807A2 * Sep 28, 2007 Oct 12, 2011 Cipla Limited An improved process for the isolation of temozolomide
WO2008038031A1 Sep 28, 2007 Apr 3, 2008 Cipla Ltd An improved process for the preparation of temozolomide and analogs
WO2010140168A1 * Jun 2, 2010 Dec 9, 2010 Ind-Swift Laboratories Limited Improved process for preparing temozolomide
WO2011036676A2 Sep 14, 2010 Mar 31, 2011 Ashwini Nangia Stable cocrystals of temozolomide

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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