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DACLIZUMAB,

CAS 152923-56-3

 
Monoclonal antibody
Type Whole antibody
Source Humanized (from mouse)
Target CD25

Daclizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody indicated in the United States for prophylaxis of acute organ rejection in patients receiving renal transplants.

It was marketed as Zenepax, but discontinued by Roche in 2009 due to diminishing market demand for that indication. Biogen Idec is currently conducting phase III trials for daclizumab in MS. A phase III trial started in March 2010 is being conducted to determine efficacy of preventing MS relapse.

Study dosing of daclizumab is 150 mg subcutaneously once every 4 weeks versus interferon beta-1a (Avonex) 30 mg intramuscularly given once weekly for 96 to 144 weeks.

Daclizumab (Zenapax®) (molecular wt = 144 kd.) is a humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG1) produced by recombinant DNA technology. It gained FDA approval in Dec 1997. It is known by several other names including HAT (Humanized Anti-Tac), SMART anti-Tac, anti-CD25, and humanized anti-IL2-receptor. It was developed and patented by Protein Design Laboratories (Mountain View, CA) and it is marketed by Hoffman LaRoche (Nutley, NJ ).

Daclizumab is a composite of human (90%) and murine (10%) antibody sequences. In the model below, the murine portions are shown in red and dark blue; the rest of the molecule (gray color) represents the human sequence

The study is aiming for enrollment of 1500 patients and is expected to be complete in January 2014.

more info

Daclizumab (trade name Zenapax) is a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody. It is used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation, especially in kidney transplants. The drug is also under investigation for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

Daclizumab works by binding to CD25, the alpha subunit of the IL-2 receptor of T cells. The drug is marketed in the US, but not in Europe.

Uses

Prevention of organ transplants

Daclizumab is given in multiple doses, the first 1 hour before the transplant operation and 5 further doses given at two week intervals after the transplant. These saturate the receptors and prevent T cell activation and thus prevent formation of antibodiesagainst the transplant.

Like the similar drug basiliximab, daclizumab reduces the incidence and severity of acute rejection in kidney transplantation without increasing the incidence of opportunistic infections.

Daclizumab usage may also be indicated in place of a calcineurin-inhibitor (ciclosporin or tacrolimus) during the early phase after kidney transplantation, when the kidney is recovering and vulnerable to calcineurin-inhibitor toxicity. This has been shown to be beneficial in non-heart beating donor kidney transplantation.

In the United Kingdom, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recommended its use be considered for all kidney transplant recipients.[citation needed]

Multiple sclerosis

In 2006 it began a Phase II clinical trial that finished in 2007 as a possible multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment. Participants were nine patients with multiple sclerosis not controlled with interferon. Daclizumab was effective in reducing lesions and improving clinical scores.[1] As of June 2013, the drug is in Phase III trials for this indication.[2]

Autoimmune diseases

Daclizumab has also been used to slow the progression of autoimmune diseases, particularly that of birdshot chorioretinopathy.[3]

Common side effects with a frequency of at least 10% include sleeplessness, tremor, headache, arterial hypertensiondyspnoea, gastrointestinal side effects and oedema. In rare cases, the drug can cause severe anaphylaxis.[4]

Daclizumab must not be administered to lactating women.[4]

History

Daclizumab was developed by PDL Biopharma, building on research at the National Institutes of Health (NIH).[5] Since December 1997, it is marketed by Hoffmann-La Roche in the US.

In April 2008, Hoffmann-La Roche submitted an application to have its marketing authorisation withdrawn in the EU for commercial reasons. The drug faced diminishing market demand, according to the company. There were no safety concerns with its use. As of January 2009, its marketing authorisation has been withdrawn and the product discontinued completely.[6][7]

  1.  Rose JW, Burns JB, Bjorklund J, Klein J, Watt HE, Carlson NG (2007). “Daclizumab phase II trial in relapsing and remitting multiple sclerosis: MRI and clinical results”.Neurology 69 (8): 785–789. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000267662.41734.1f.PMID 17709711.
  2.  ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01462318 An Immunogenicity and Pharmacokinetics (PK) Study of DAC HYP Prefilled Syringe in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) (OBSERVE)
  3.  Sobrin L, Huang JJ, Christen W, Kafkala C, Choopong P, Foster CS (2008). “Daclizumab for treatment of birdshot chorioretinopathy”. Arch Ophthalmol. 126 (2): 186–191. doi:10.1001/archophthalmol.2007.49PMID 18268208.
  4.  “EPAR for Zenapax”. European Medicines Agency. 2007.
  5.  Tsurushita, N.; Hinton, P. R.; Kumar, S. (2005). “Design of humanized antibodies: From anti-Tac to Zenapax”. Methods 36 (1): 69–83.doi:10.1016/j.ymeth.2005.01.007PMID 15848076edit
  6.  British National Formulary, Edition 57
  7.  EMEA: Withdrawal of the marketing authorisation in the European Union
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4 Comments

  1. saminakhan2001 says:

    Reblogged this on MEDCHEMEGYPT.

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DR ANTHONY CRASTO

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DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO Ph.D

DR ANTHONY MELVIN CRASTO, Born in Mumbai in 1964 and graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991,Matunga, Mumbai, India, in Organic Chemistry, The thesis topic was Synthesis of Novel Pyrethroid Analogues, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as Principal Scientist, Process Research (bulk actives) at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India. Total Industry exp 30 plus yrs, Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri, Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did custom synthesis for major multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, etc., He has worked in Discovery, Natural products, Bulk drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, etc, he is now helping millions, has 9 million plus hits on Google on all Organic chemistry websites. His friends call him Open superstar worlddrugtracker. His New Drug Approvals, Green Chemistry International, All about drugs, Eurekamoments, Organic spectroscopy international, etc in organic chemistry are some most read blogs He has hands on experience in initiation and developing novel routes for drug molecules and implementation them on commercial scale over a 30 year tenure till date Dec 2017, Around 35 plus products in his career. He has good knowledge of IPM, GMP, Regulatory aspects, he has several International patents published worldwide . He has good proficiency in Technology transfer, Spectroscopy, Stereochemistry, Synthesis, Polymorphism etc., He suffered a paralytic stroke/ Acute Transverse mylitis in Dec 2007 and is 90 %Paralysed, He is bound to a wheelchair, this seems to have injected feul in him to help chemists all around the world, he is more active than before and is pushing boundaries, He has 9 million plus hits on Google, 2.5 lakh plus connections on all networking sites, 50 Lakh plus views on dozen plus blogs, He makes himself available to all, contact him on +91 9323115463, email amcrasto@gmail.com, Twitter, @amcrasto , He lives and will die for his family, 90% paralysis cannot kill his soul., Notably he has 19 lakh plus views on New Drug Approvals Blog in 216 countries......https://newdrugapprovals.wordpress.com/ , He appreciates the help he gets from one and all, Friends, Family, Glenmark, Readers, Wellwishers, Doctors, Drug authorities, His Contacts, Physiotherapist, etc

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